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CLIHC Tables of Contents: 03051315

Proceedings of the 2003 Latin American conference on Human-computer interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the Latin American Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Editors:Simone Barbosa; Cleotilde Gonzalez
Location:Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Dates:2003-Aug-17 to 2003-Aug-20
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CLIHC03
Papers:32
Pages:296
  1. Full papers
  2. Short papers

Full papers

The TAC paradigm: unified conceptual framework to represent Tangible User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 9-15
  Eduardo H. Calvillo-Gámez; Nancy Leland; Orit Shaer; Robert J. K. Jacob
This paper introduces a new paradigm for describing Tangible User Interfaces (TUI). The paradigm presented here encompasses existing TUI classifications and proposes a unified conceptual framework with which all TUIs can be understood. In order to show that the new paradigm holds and can be generalized we analyzed several existing TUIs using the proposed paradigm.
Keywords: Pyfo, TAC, Tangible User Interface (TUI)
A formal approach to the usability engineering BIBAFull-Text 17-28
  José Creissac Campos
The quality of an interactive system can be measured in terms of its usability. Empirical approaches to usability evaluation attempt to assess the system under real usage conditions. This type of approach can be very expensive. Analytical approaches have been proposed as a means of reasoning about usability issues from early in development. These approaches use models to focus the analysis in specific usability issues. In this context, the application of (mathematically) formal notations and tools has been proposed.
   This paper presents a formal approach to the analysis of interactive systems. The analysis can be carried out taking into account all possible behaviours of the device, or it can be guided by the tasks the device is supposed to support.
Approach for the development of systematic and productive verifying lists of usability BIBAFull-Text 29-40
  Walter de Abreu Cybis; André Fabiano Dyck; Renate de Oliveira; Priscilla B. B. Pagliuso; Claudia de Andrade Tambascia; André Luiz de Castro Villas-Boas; Mirian Freitas
This paper proposes an approach to the development of checklist-based software-usability inspection techniques. More precisely, it is shaped as a cyclic process of planning, construction, application and data analysis, which involves the application of evolutive checklist versions. The whole process is oriented to reach three checklist quality metrics: productivity, effectiveness and systematization of diagnosys. A case study presents the application of such approach to the developpment of a checklist-based usability inspection technique, whose questions are adapted from ISO9241 requirements. This technique is aimed at evaluating the usability of CPqD -- Rede Externa, módulo Operação, a telecommunication network management system, produced by CPqD Foundation.
Enabling physical collaboration in industrial settings by designing for embodied interaction BIBAKFull-Text 41-51
  Daniel Fallman
We describe the efforts of bridging a fieldwork study which used ethnographic techniques at two industrial assembly sites into a functional prototype for service and maintenance work. The primacy of the human body and the mobile nature of such activity are put forward as important design incentives, which guides the design of the mobile support system. The situatedness in the physical world is proposed to enable service technicians to continue to collaborate in a way which is in line with their current work practice, permeated by physical collaboration, having presence in the world, and human-to-human interactions.
Keywords: embodiment, mobility, physical collaboration
The standard of user-centered design and the standard definition of usability: analyzing ISO 13407 against ISO 9241-11 BIBAKFull-Text 53-60
  Timo Jokela; Netta Iivari; Juha Matero; Minna Karukka
ISO 9241-11 and ISO 13407 are two important standards related to usability: the former one provides the definition of usability and the latter one guidance for designing usability. We carried out an interpretative analysis of ISO 13407 from the viewpoint of the standard definition of usability from ISO 9241-11. The results show that ISO 13407 provides only partly guidance for designing usability as presumed by the definition. Guidance for describing users and environments are provided but very limited guidance is provided for the descriptions of user goals and usability measures, and generally for the process of producing the various outcomes.
Keywords: human-centered design, standards, usability, usability engineering, user-centered design
A visual programming environment for device independent generation of user interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 61-68
  Oscar Mayora-Ibarra; Oscar de la Paz-Arroyo; Edgar Cambranes-Martínez; Alejandro Fuentes-Penna
The promise of information anytime, anywhere has become a reality. Today, it is possible to access information through multiple kinds of devices. However, the design of user interfaces for such devices is restricted to the use of specific ad hoc programming languages that may vary from one device to the other. In this sense, the existence of generic programming languages for creating device-independent user interfaces is becoming a strong necessity. One emerging approach to device independent developments require the construction of generic vocabularies for transcoding into specific target codes for web browsers, PDAs, voice systems, mobile phones, etc. In this work, we present an authoring tool for designing generic user interfaces with automatic transcoding to multiple target languages. The tool is a visual programming environment with drag and drop generic widgets created in UIML and transcoded into VoiceXML, J2ME, HTML and WML languages. This tool takes advantage of the UIML language and visual programming paradigms for providing flexibility, consistency and decrease in development time.
Keywords: J2ME, UIML, VXML, WML, XSLT, generic vocabulary, visual programming
Design with children: a Semiotic approach BIBAKFull-Text 69-78
  Amanda Meincke Melo; M. Cecília C. Baranauskas
Human-Computer Interaction literature has shown the importance of bringing the user to the process of software design and several methodological proposals have been discussed. This type of user involvement in design is not emphasized in the same way in software design for children. In this paper we propose a method based on Semiotic theory for understanding the child's process of signification for design elements in the Internet media, and reflecting this understanding in the design of a portal for children. Our approach draw upon techniques from Participatory Design (PD) and concepts from Organizational Semiotics (OS). PD has shown usefulness in the investigation of children's conceptions for Internet spaces, and OS has shown a sound theoretical approach to represent in ontology charts children's signification to elements of design. The proposed methodology is illustrated with the design process of Caleidoscopio Jr: a Web portal for children designed with them.
Keywords: information systems, kids, participatory design, semiotics
The process of developments of systems with RV under the optic of IHC BIBAKFull-Text 79-89
  Milena Marquezin Olher; Júnia Coutinho Anacleto Silva
From its characteristics, software systems with user interfaces based on Virtual Reality technology possess bigger complexity in its process of development, which, in this way, must be supported by more specific methodologies. However, it is noticed that the development process of these systems is presented like a line of research to be studied, since it needs to be better analyzed.
   This work presents an including vision of the development process of software systems with user interfaces based on Virtual Reality technology from the viewpoint of the Human-Computer Interaction, analyzing some methodologies found in literature directed to the development of these systems.
Keywords: VR, human-computer interaction, human-computer interface, systems development methodology, systems development process, virtual reality
Probabilistic model for the interfaces personalized creation BIBAKFull-Text 91-96
  Alberto Pedrero; Pablo de la Fuente; Miguel A. Villarroel; Mercedes Martínez
User interfaces are designed taking in account different user needs (preferences, abilities, etc.) and various prototypes and usability tests are carried out during their development. However, when they are used by their final users, it can be seen that the interfaces do not meet the users requirements or, more usually, it is evident that the UI can be improved. This paper presents a system that helps to personalize a user interface for an art digital library. The system has different predefined interfaces according to end-user characteristics, but the users can tailor the final appearance of the information to be showed by the system. From these different adaptations, tailored by users, the system tries to find similarities that can result in a modification of the default interface that is presented to new users of the system. The new interface could be distinct from the one constructed by the original interface designer.
Keywords: adaptive interfaces, personalization, presentation, usability
Educational software evaluation centered on dialogue: interface, collaboration and scientific concepts BIBAKFull-Text 97-106
  Flávia Peres; Luciano Meira
This paper presents a model of software evaluation based on the analysis of dialogues among users as they explore a math software. Four pairs of 6th graders were videotaped while solving arithmetic puzzles and operations, and their talk and actions at the computer transcribed. Using technics borrowed from Conversation Analysis, we then looked for "breaks" in the emergent dialogue among the children as well as mismatches between the children's actions and the software feedback. The suggested model integrates a user-centered approach based on talk and action and more traditional views of software evaluation based on features of the interface design.
Keywords: conversation analysis, educational software, interface design, software evaluation
Study and analysis of the working space conscience in C debate: a groupware application for collaborative debates BIBAKFull-Text 107-115
  Manuel Romero-Salcedo; Cesar A. Osuna-Gómez; Leonid Sheremetov; Manuel Chi; Luis Villa
In this paper, we studied and analyzed the workspace awareness in a groupware application that allows the development of an information task through collaborative debates. The application, called CDebate, is based on the APRI (Action-Perception-Reflection-Intention) model, which establishes a cognitive and motor states formalization that happen in the human being when s/he interacts with others in a constructivist learning situation. In CDebate, the interactions among students occur through a graphical language that reflects the mental operations appropriated for a debate. As evaluation method, we used the analytical framework from Gutwin, Stark and Greenberg, which provides a set of elements that give information about the up-to-date knowledge about participants' location and actions. The results of our study allow us to confirm that group awareness information, only supported through a graphical language, and a window showing the participants' presence (informal awareness), were enough for the collaborative learning situation. We consider that our experience could be useful for interface designers of groupware applications, in particular, for collaborative debate interfaces.
Keywords: APRI, CSCL, collaborative debate, group awareness, groupware interface, workspace awareness
Ametista: a mini-toolkit for exploring new window management techniques BIBAKFull-Text 117-124
  Nicolas Roussel
Although the HCI research community has contributed a number of metaphors, interaction techniques and layout algorithms to improve window management tasks, most of these ended as prototypes and only a few were implemented in real window managers. In this paper, we present Ametista, a mini-toolkit designed to facilitate the exploration of new window management techniques using both low-fidelity prototyping and a high-fidelity approach based on X Window application redirection.
Keywords: OpenGL, VNC, X Window system, application redirection, graphical interaction, prototyping, window management
Development of a checklist for the evaluation of the web accessibility for the aged users BIBAKFull-Text 125-133
  Márcia Barros de Sales; Walter de Abreu Cybis
This paper presents an approach to create checklists, and to explain how it is used to develop a technique for assessing the Web interfaces accessibility focused on aged users. The observation of aged users interacting with a Web communication tool leaded to the research about recommendations to Web accessibility, especially those centered on aged users. Thus, the selected recommendations originated the first version of the checklist, which passed through three evolutionary cycles of improvement and tests until arrive to the final version. This paper also intends to sensitize the Web content creators about the questions related to these contents accessibility.
Keywords: accessibility, checklist, elderly users
What they want and what they get: a study of light-weight technologies for online communities BIBAKFull-Text 135-146
  Elton José da Silva; Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza; Raquel Oliveira Prates; Ana Maria Nicolaci-da-Costa
In this paper, we analyze some mismatches between what is offered by light-weight technologies that support online communities and the dreams and fears of a group of 20 potential users of such technologies. In our study, members of an academic community that does not have an online extension answered an open-ended questionnaire. The answers revealed some of their expectations about group applications. With these expectations in mind, we carried out a semiotic inspection of three popular applications. Within the specific range of topics covered in the study, our findings show three important factors that seem to determine the distance between what they expect and what they get: (a) technological resources are limited, but this can be substantially improved with broad band technologies; (b) some design decisions are questionable, and should be revised; and (c) online groups must all be structured and governed by some strict rules, regardless of how informal and loose they might be offline. Factor (c), in particular, seems to be tied to deeper scientific issues involved in the inherent social-technical gap of computer technologies for groups.
Keywords: Underlying Discourse Unveiling Method (UDUM), group applications, online communities, semiotic inspection, social-technical gaps in computer technologies
Visual exploration of large collections in digital libraries BIBAKFull-Text 147-157
  Nabani N. Silva; J. Alfredo Sánchez; Carlos Proal; Christian Rebollar
Though conceptually very powerful, Visual Information Seeking (VIS) has been demonstrated with only relatively small collections of a few thousand items, which makes it possible to keep entire collections in main memory and perform recalculations and rendering in real time as the user manipulates sliders and filters in an interactive fashion. For vast digital libraries, collections may include hundreds of thousands, millions or even more items. We describe EVA2D, a visualization environment that implements and extends the notion of Visual Information Seeking (VIS) to facilitate the exploration of large collections comprised by digital libraries. This is accomplished by introducing four main features into EVA2D: pre-computation of graphical data, simultaneous bi-dimensional selection (direct zooming), precision filtering mechanisms, and quasi-immediate feedback.
Keywords: digital libraries, large collections, starfield displays, visual information seeking, visualization
Evaluation of a visual interface for gesticulation recognition BIBAKFull-Text 159-165
  Víctor Hugo Zárate Silva; Héctor Hugo Avilés Arriaga
The automatic recognition of gestures is a well known area, but on the other hand, the usability of these type of human-machine interfaces has not been deeply taking into account. This paper shows the results of evaluation of a man-machine interface, from two points of view: i) automatic recognition and; ii) usability from the point of view of the end-users. We choose 5 gestures focus to control a mobile robot. With 8 end-user, the interface gives a 59.46% of good results when using Dynamic Bayesian Networks, a better result than using Hidden Markov Models that obtained an average of 43.03%. This result contrasts with the 84.01% with only one end-user, showing the difficulties to extend the number of end-users to the system. The usability of the interface was tested using 6 of the 8 end-users, divided into 3 categories: expert, semi-expert and non-expert end-users, the result shows a closer perceptions between expert and not-expert end-users.
Keywords: dynamic Bayesian networks, hidden Markov models, usability, visual recognition of gesture
A method of Semiotic engineering for the online help systems construction BIBAKFull-Text 167-177
  Milene Selbach Silveira; Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza; Simone D. J. Barbosa
Online help systems are typically used (if at all) as a last resource in interactive breakdown situations. In this paper, we present a semiotic engineering method for building online help that uses fairly known design models. We discuss the benefits of having designers explicitly communicate their design vision to users and the need or opportunity to foster new cultural attitudes towards online help. We show how, as a direct communication channel from designers to users, it opens new possibilities for interaction that can be skillfully used by designers. By exploring such possibilities, designers and users may bring about more positive attitudes towards online help and counter the feeling of technological exclusion which many users express.
Keywords: HCI design, design models, online help systems, semiotic engineering, technology adoption
About the requisites analysis to the interface project: a subjectivist approach for the information systems BIBAKFull-Text 179-190
  Carlos Alberto Cocozza Simoni; M. Cecília C. Baranauskas
The fields of Information Systems (IS) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) have both experienced a move from an exclusively objectivist perspective to the inclusion of interpretative and subjective aspects in system design. This paper aims at constructing a semiotic-based referential to model user requirements reflecting them in the interface design. The proposed approach is illustrated with a case study in which three teams of academics with practical knowledge in software development were exposed to the methodological referential to model a real problem using methods and techniques from Organizational Semiotics. From this modelling, interface prototypes were built and we could observe that they had reflected the language, rules, navigation and spaces represented in the models. The results achieved suggest that the theoretical referential seems to be an appropriate foundation for understanding a subjective view to information systems, and a guiding concept for joining HCI and IS projects.
Keywords: Interação Humano-Computador, Semiótica Organizacional, Sistemas de Informação
XICL: a language for the user's interfaces development and its components BIBAKFull-Text 191-200
  Lirisnei Gomes de Sousa; Jair C. Leite
More interactivity with better usability in Web Systems requires the development of user interface components with interaction techniques that are more powerful and popular among the users such as the WIMP style. This work presents the XICL, a markup language to describe the user interface and its components. This language defines a description format and a semantic model that standardizes components programming and increase reuse, extension and portability. We also present the XICL Studio, a development environment composed of an editor, a component library and a compiler. Our proposal is based only in recommended technologies and free software.
Keywords: user interface component, user interface design, user interface languages
A model for the conversation multimodal man-machine: integration of speech and action BIBAKFull-Text 201-207
  Luis Villaseñor; Manuel Montes; Jean Caelen
One major goal of human computer interfaces is to simplify the communication task. Traditionally, users have been restricted to the language of computers for this task. With the emerging of the graphical and multimodal interfaces -- where the interaction is day by day easier and simpler -- the effort required for working with a computer is decreasing. However, the problem of communication is still present, and users continue caring about the communication task when they deal with a computer. Our work focuses on improving the communication between the human and the computer. This paper presents the foundations of a multimodal dialog model based on a modal logic, which integrates the speech and the action under the same framework.
Keywords: cooperative dialogue, human-computer communication, multimodal interaction, speech acts
Older adults and the usability of speech interaction BIBAKFull-Text 209-215
  Mary Zajicek; Andrew Lee; Richard Wales
The main aim of this paper is to outline how a new technology, Voice XML can be used to provide Internet access for older adults who do not have a computer. The design of the Voice XML dialogues which enable the interaction is informed by the experience of workers on the Age Resource Desk at Age concern Oxfordshire and comments from their clients who experimented with a VoiceXML system. It is hoped that systems such as the ones described in this paper will to address the challenge of enabling older adults to participate in ICT. Older people often have little knowledge of computing and in addition age associated impairment particularly memory and sight loss make using standard desktop computers difficult. The new solution put forward here uses XML based technology to provide alternative forms of Web access through VoiceXML which offers Web access over the telephone and a grammar system from which to build dialogues. The design of the Voice XML dialogues is crucial to the success of the system. Although there is no need to learn how to use a computer, speech systems also pose some problems for older adults.
   This paper describes special features in the dialogue which help older adults to use the system and reports experiments carried out to see how successful the dialogue was for older adults. It is acknowledged that the special design put forward in this paper does not help older adults alone. Features which help users to remember how to use a dialogue are useful for everybody.
Keywords: VoiceXML, Web accessibility, learning ICT, older adults, speech interactions, voice dialogues

Short papers

A new era in human computer interaction: the challenges of technology as a social proxy BIBAKFull-Text 219-222
  Rogerio DePaula
As computer technologies become more pervasive new challengers will emerge, requiring approaches that reach out beyond a single mind interacting with an isolated technology in a social, cultural, and historical vacuum. This paper briefly presents new tendencies in HCI to studying the human interactions mediated by technologies in the context of their social practices, and a prominent framework, distributed cognition, as a new theoretical underpinning for HCI. To illustrate the challenges of this new context, findings from a three-year-long effort are discussed. Final remarks and considerations are then highlighted.
Keywords: distribute cognition, ethnography, field research, social networks, sociotechnical system
Processes of software reengineering planning supported by usability principles BIBAKFull-Text 223-226
  Sérgio Luisir Díscola Junior; Júnia Coutinho Anacleto Silva
The need for changes in a software is mainly motivated by the user's complain about usability features. Software reengineering can be used to modify these software and must be preceded by a well elaborated planning.
   Once Usability is a concept that studies users satisfaction in human-computer interaction, this paper studies the usefulness of Usability Engineering and usability evaluation methods and models in the software reengineering planning.
Keywords: reengineering planning, software reengineering, usability engineering, usability evaluation methods
A user's interface project for the Infralife system videoconference module BIBAKFull-Text 227-230
  Daniel C. S. Duarte; Tatiana Aires; Jair C. Leite; Guido Lemos
Doctors' meetings are very important to discuss patient examination, treatment and diagnosis of rare diseases. However, sometimes is hard to congregate people in the same workplace. The aim of videoconference systems is to propose an alternative for this problem. It helps people to analyze x-rays, laboratory results and other documents in a collaborative way. It also allows interaction by using an audio-visual component for sharing annotations in a common whiteboard. The success of groupware applications depends on user interface characteristics. This work presents the design of a videoconference groupware user interface prototype. We discuss the design decisions to allow user collaboration and propose a preliminary usability evaluation.
Keywords: collaborative user interface, cooperative work, telediagnosis, videoconference
Impact of numerical and graphical formats on dynamic decision making performance: an eye-tracking study BIBAKFull-Text 231-234
  Cleotilde Gonzalez; Janice Golenbock
This paper presents a study in which we manipulated the interface of a computer simulation into: graphical and numerical formats. We obtained both performance and eye-tracking learning curves from individuals assigned to one of these two conditions. Our findings indicate that although performance is not different between the two interfaces, the amount of attention as measured by the number of eye-tracking points was very different in the graphical and numerical conditions. Attention increased over time in the numerical condition, but was stable in the graphical condition. These results showed that the strategies used to make decisions in dynamic environments vary according to the form of information presentation.
Keywords: attention, eye-tracking, graphical and numerical interface
Man-computer interaction aspects in systems for the young people and non-alphabetized adults BIBAKFull-Text 235-238
  Isa Haro Martins; Luís Alfredo Vidal de Carvalho; Luiz Ferreira; Maria do Socorro Martins Calháu; Maria Luiza Tavares Benício
The INFormar project (Informatics for the Education of the Illiterate Young and Adult) unfolds in a country with a huge social exclusion by illiteracy. The project main target is to develop customized computational and methodological tools that multiply the processes of teaching illiterate adults and of training specialized teachers, at the same time helping the process of digital inclusion. The first of the tools assesses the individual illiteracy level and gives some insight for an analysis of the special aspects of human-computer interface in computer systems for illiterate users.
Keywords: EJA, alfabetização de adultos, engenharia semiótica, interfaces, produção de conhecimento
An architecture for interactive knowledge based systems BIBAKFull-Text 239-242
  Vládia Pinheiro; Vasco Furtado
Knowledge-based systems (KBS) have been developed to help people to execute knowledge-intensive tasks. Some shortcomings are identified in the use of KBS, since they don't take into account both the user's profile and the organization's constraints that limit his/her actions, and to the lack of integration of the aspects of human-computer interaction in KBS's development process. This work presents a proposal of architecture for KBSi which are systems that interact with users and that adapt to their characteristics and environment during its use. The main feature of the architecture is the derivation of dialog patterns that facilitates the development of adaptive KBSi, from the specification of the expert reasoning process represented by means of PSM (Problem-Solving Methods).
Keywords: Arquitetura de Software, Interação Humano-Computador, Sistemas Baseados em Conhecimento
A digital library usability evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 243-246
  André Luís Alice Raabe; Giovana Prebianca; Júlia Marques da Silva; Renate de Oliveira
Este artigo apresenta a avaliação e reconstrução da Biblioteca Digital de Trabalhos de Conclusão de Curso do Curso de Ciência da Computação. Buscou-se melhorar a usabilidade da versão anterior da Biblioteca Digital, para facilitar seu uso, aprendizagem e aumentar a satisfação do usuário. Foi aplicada a técnica de ensaio de interação, para diagnosticar a situação do sistema e com isso propor um conjunto de mudanças na interface da Biblioteca Digital. As mudanças propostas tornaram-se indicadores para a construção de um novo sistema, uma vez que a Biblioteca foi reconstruída. A nova Biblioteca foi avaliada através da mesma técnica e apresentou resultados satisfatórios que são explorados em detalhes no decorrer do texto.
Keywords: Avaliação de Usabilidade, Biblioteca Digital, Ensaios de Interação
XICL: a tool for the development based on web interfaces components BIBAKFull-Text 247-250
  Lirisnei Gomes de Sousa; Jair C. Leite
This work presents the XICL Studio 2, a prototype tool to component-based Web systems user interface development. The XICL Studio 2 allows user interface development from a library of reusable components. The designer develops the user interface in a direct and visual way by moving components to the editor area and changing their properties. The user interface components are described in the XICL language that was developed to the implementation, reuse and extension of web user interface components. The resulting UI are codified in DHTML languages, which provides portability and low-cost. DHTML is also a recommended Web technology. The XICL Studio 2 is a browser-based software and is also implemented in DHTML.
Keywords: interface builders, user interface for Web systems, user interface language, user interface tools
Visualization of ontologies through hypertrees BIBAKFull-Text 251-255
  Kleber X. S. de Souza; Adriana D. dos Santos; Silvio R. M. Evangelista
In this paper, we present the use of hypertree as a supporting tool for visualization of ontologies in agricultural domain. This kind of visualization technique was used in the Information Agency Project, in execution by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation -- Embrapa. The project's aim is to provide an information dissemination system structured in accordance to the productive chains of given products. That structure was chosen because it reflects the natural way technicians use to interact whenever they are transferring knowledge back and forth with farmers.
Keywords: hypertree visualization, ontology, productive chain
EAD interfaces: searching the shortest distances / shortcuts BIBAKFull-Text 257-260
  Maria Carolina Santos de Souza
Há algum tempo, vem crescendo a preocupação de adequar a interface dos recursos tecnológicos ao trabalho humano. Seguindo essa filosofia, os ambientes de aprendizagem virtuais apresentam-se mais próximos da realidade dos seus usuários. E essa aproximação está de alguma forma relacionada às metáforas escolhidas para a definição de interação humano-computador (IHC). Esse documento irá apresentar algumas questões sobre IHC aplicadas ao EAD e uma experiência construída baseada na metáfora dos espaços virtuais.
Keywords: EAD, Espaços Virtuais, IHC, Linguagem, TIC
A Visual-Textual Programming Environment for Comparative Studies of Programming Tasks BIBFull-Text 261-265
  Maria Beatriz Serrano Valdivia