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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI 98 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Summary)

Fullname:CHI 98 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Summary)
Note:Making the Impossible Possible
Editors:Clare-Marie Karat; Arnold Lund
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:1998-Apr-18 to 1998-Apr-23
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-028-7 ACM Order Number 608985; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI98-2
Pages:396
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 1998-04-18 Volume 2
    1. Demonstrations: HCI Lessons and Games
    2. Demonstrations: Avatars & Characters
    3. Demonstrations: Interaction via Play
    4. Demonstrations: Language and Object
    5. Demonstrations: Honoring our Elders
    6. Demonstrations: Dynamic Documents
    7. Demonstrations: 2D & 3D Graphics
    8. Demonstrations: Interactive Medicine
    9. Development Consortium
    10. Doctoral Consortium
    11. Panels
    12. Plenary Session: Opening
    13. Plenary Session: Health Case Application Domain
    14. Plenary Session: Entertainment Application Domain
    15. Plenary Session: Closing
    16. Tutorials
    17. Videos
    18. Workshops
    19. Late Breaking Results: Support for Design: Experiments and Cybertools
    20. Late Breaking Results: See How You Feel: New Input Techniques and Modalities
    21. Late Breaking Results: The Raw and the Cooked: Experiments and Applications of Speech Interaction
    22. Late Breaking Results: Ubiquitous Usability Engineering
    23. Late Breaking Results: Suite: The Real and the Virtual: Integrating Architectural and Information Spaces
    24. Late Breaking Results: So Far Yet So Close: Intimacy and Awareness in CSCW
    25. Late Breaking Results: Great E-Scapes: Electronic Landscapes and Soundscapes
    26. Late Breaking Results: Look and Learn: Visualization and Education Too
    27. Late Breaking Results: Humble and Terrific -- CHI-Lot's Web
    28. Late Breaking Results: 20 Ames Street, Cambridge, MA 02139
    29. Student Posters: Cognition and Perception
    30. Student Posters: Virtual Reality
    31. Student Posters: CSCW
    32. Student Posters: Interaction Techniques
    33. Student Posters: Design: Applications and Approaches
    34. Student Posters: Entertainment, Health Care and Education
    35. Special Interest Groups (SIGs)

CHI 1998-04-18 Volume 2

Demonstrations: HCI Lessons and Games

An Interpreted Demonstration of Computer Game Design BIBAKPDF 1-2
  Chuck Clanton
Perhaps you believe computer games have no relevance to HCI, or perhaps you are just reluctant to let your kid blast you out of warp space in seven seconds flat to find out why they spent $49.95 for a dumb game. This is your chance to find out whether game designers know something you do not, without embarrassing yourself in front of your kid.
Keywords: CD-ROM games, Entertainment software

Demonstrations: Avatars & Characters

Double Agent -- Presentation and Filtering Agents for a Digital Television Recording System BIBAKPDF 3-4
  Peter Meuleman; Anita Heister; Han Kohar; Douglas Tedd
Double Agent explores scenarios for automated selection of television programs and their presentation via anthropomorphic interfaces.
   By using two kinds of agent technology in combination with an advanced video recorder we explore solutions for both attractiveness and complexity problems that systems in this entertainment domain will be confronted with. Intelligent agents select television content in the way a user would have done if he had the overview and knowledge of the programs. Real-time controlled virtual actor agents hide the system's complexity and create the attractive and highly responsive user interface needed in this specific entertainment domain.
Keywords: Content filtering, User profiling, Television user interfaces, Anthropomorphism, Agents
Microcosm: Support for Virtual Communities via an On-Line Graphical Environment BIBAKPDF 5-6
  Ellen A. Isaacs
Microcosm is an example of a virtual world, providing long-term, primarily (but not exclusively) synchronous communication among large, distributed communities, whose members are represented by virtual identities known as avatars. It provides support for establishing an identity, social interaction, navigation, interacting with objects, customization and extensibility, and security.
Keywords: Virtual worlds, Virtual communities, Avatars

Demonstrations: Interaction via Play

Evolution of the Talking Dinosaur: The (Not So) Natural History of a New Interface for Children BIBAKPDF 7-8
  Kristin Alexander; Erik Strommen
The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate key features of the interface and content design of ActiMates Barney. ActiMates Barney operates in three different usage contexts: As a freestanding toy and, by means of a wireless radio link, with PC-based software and linear videotapes. The interface features of each mode (freestanding, with the computer, and with the television) are described, as well as how the interplay between design goals and usability research results shaped the product's final form.
Keywords: Children, Usability testing, Interaction design, Learning
Participatory Simulations: Using Computational Objects to Learn about Dynamic Systems BIBAKPDF 9-10
  Vanessa Colella; Richard Borovoy; Mitchel Resnick
New technology developed at the MIT Media Laboratory enables students to become active participants in life-sized, computational simulations of dynamic systems. These Participatory Simulations provide an individual, "first-person" perspective on the system, just as acting in Hamlet provides such a perspective on Shakespeare. Using our Thinking Tags, small, name-tag sized computers that communicate with each other via infrared, we add a thin layer of computation to participant's social interactions, transforming a group of people into participants in a dynamic simulation. Participants in these simulations get highly engaged in the activities and collaboratively study the underlying systemic model.
Keywords: Children, Education, CSCL, Augmented reality

Demonstrations: Language and Object

Grammex: Defining Grammars by Example BIBAPDF 11-12
  Henry Lieberman; Bonnie A. Nardi; David Wright
Parsers are powerful tools for computer understanding of text, whether the language is a natural language or a formal language. To make the computational power of these tools fully available to an end user, a parser should be user-extensible. Until now, a user who wished to control a parser was forced to write or edit a grammar, a text file containing rules. Editing grammars is often difficult and error-prone for end users since the effect of writing specific rules, and interaction between rules, can often be unclear.
   Grammex ["Grammars by Example"] is the first direct manipulation interface designed to allow ordinary users to define grammars interactively. Instead of writing a grammar in an abstract rule language, the user presents concrete examples of text that he or she would like the parser to recognize. The user describes the text by selecting substrings, and choosing possible interpretations of the text from popup menus of suggestions heuristically computed by Grammex. Grammex compiles grammar rules that can be used as the input to a traditional parser.
IBM RealThings BIBAK 13-14
  John Mullaly
In this demonstration we present IBM RealThings, experimental user interface objects modeled on familiar real-world objects. Traditional computer-based mechanisms are removed and replaced by controls that are theoretically more natural and intuitive, allowing users to focus more on their tasks and less on computer artifacts.[1]
   Presented are several objects designed within the theoretical framework of RealThings, demonstrating innovative aspects of design at many levels, such as: the underlying object model, the object-view structure, interaction design, and visualization issues such as stylization and use of metaphor. Also demonstrated is the robust applicability of these designs to various user environments, such as the desktop, web browser, webtop, or 3D environments.
Keywords: User interface design, Interaction design, Design theory, Industrial design, Human-computer interaction, Cognitive models, Metaphor

Demonstrations: Honoring our Elders

Augment, Bootstrap Communities, the Web: What Next? BIBAKPDF 15-16
  Douglas C. Engelbart
NLS/Augment beginning in the middle 1960s introduced many hardware and software firsts echoed in today's windowed computing and hypermedia systems such as the World Wide Web (WWW). We demonstrate key features via historic videos and a currently running implementation, discuss its philosophical underpinnings as a tool for supporting collaborative communities of knowledge workers, and point out essentials that we feel have yet to be sufficiently realized in widely available commercial systems.
Keywords: Collaborative work, Collaborative learning, Hypermedia, Virtual community, Knowledge management
Xerox Star Live Demonstration BIBAKPDF 17
  David Canfield Smith; Charles H. Irby
Seventeen years ago, in 1981, Xerox introduced the 8010 "Star" Information System [1,2] to the world. This was a personal computer designed for office professionals. While not an economic success, Star had a profound effect on the personal computer industry. Today every personal computer and many workstations incorporate elements of the Star human interface. Its technology is in daily use by over 100 million people worldwide. Indeed, it is not farfetched to state that Star was a motivating factor in the formation of the computer-human interaction discipline and the SigCHI organization.
   Yet few people have actually seen a Star computer. We will remedy that in this session. Two of the inventors of Star will give a live demonstration of a Star system and use it to illustrate some of the design principles that have become widely accepted. CHI attendees will be offered hands-on time with Star so that they can form their own opinions. The Star designers invented many of the elements of successful graphical user interfaces (GUI's), including icons, direct manipulation, the desktop metaphor, dialog boxes, universal commands, and pointing and clicking. They also popularized other GUI techniques, such as bitmapped displays, overlapping windows, the mouse, noun-verb commands, and object orientation. Star had the first true object-oriented computer interface.
   In many ways Star has been surpassed by today's graphical user interfaces, as one would hope. But in other ways, Star remains a more usable system than any other personal computer. The three most important are:
  • Icons
  • Consistency
  • Simplicity
    Keywords: User models, Interaction design, Metaphors, Design rationale
  • The Lisa User Interface BIBAKPDF 18-19
      Frank Ludolph; Roderick Perkins
    Apple's Lisa, introduced in January 1983, was the bridge between the first commercial graphical desktop system, the Xerox Star (April 1982), and the Apple Macintosh (January 1984), which popularized it. Although visually similar to current graphical user interfaces, its user model differs substantially. The live demonstration presents a broad view of the Lisa user interface and relates it to other systems. This extended abstract focuses on elements of Lisa's document-centric user model and context management that made it easier to learn and use than today's systems.
    Keywords: Desktop, Lisa, Graphical user interface, Document model

    Demonstrations: Dynamic Documents

    Classroom 2000: A System for Capturing and Accessing Multimedia Classroom Experiences BIBKPDF 20-21
      Gregory D. Abowd; Jason Brotherton; Janak Bhalodia
    Keywords: Ubiquitous computing, Educational application, Capture, Integration and access of multimedia
    XLibris: The Active Reading Machine BIBAKPDF 22-23
      Morgan N. Price; Bill N. Schilit; Gene Golovchinsky
    Active reading [1] is the combination of reading with critical thinking and learning, and involves not just reading per se, but also underlining, highlighting and commenting. We have built the XLibris "Active Reading Machine" to explore the premise that computation can enhance the active reading process. XLibris uses a high-resolution pen tablet display along with a paper-like user interface to emulate the physical experience of reading a document on paper: the reader can hold a scanned image of a page in his lap and mark on it with digital ink. XLibris monitors free-form ink annotations made while reading, and uses these to organize and to search for information. Readers can review, sort and filter clippings of their annotated text in a "Reader's Notebook." Finally, XLibris searches for material related to the annotated text, and displays links unobtrusively in the margin. XLibris demonstrates that computers can help active readers organize and find information while retaining many of the advantages of reading on paper.
    Keywords: Paper-like user interface, Reading online, Affordances of paper, Pen computing, Dynamic hypertext, Document metaphor, Information retrieval

    Demonstrations: 2D & 3D Graphics

    Pegasus: A Drawing System for Rapid Geometric Design BIBAKPDF 24-25
      Takeo Igarashi; Sachiko Kawachiya; Hidehiko Tanaka; Satoshi Matsuoka
    Pegasus is a prototype drawing system for rapid geometric design. Using Pegasus, a user can construct precise geometric diagrams easily without struggling with complicated editing commands. Two novel interaction techniques are introduced: interactive beautification and predictive drawing. Interactive beautification receives the user's free stroke input and beautifies it by considering possible geometric constraints among segments by generating multiple candidates to prevent recognition errors. Predictive drawing predicts the user's next drawing operation based on the spatial relationship among existing segments on the screen.
    Keywords: Geometric design, Pen-based input, Drawing editor, Predictive interface, Beautification
    Alice: Easy to Learn Interactive 3D Graphics BIBAKPDF 26-27
      Jeffrey S. Pierce; Kevin Christiansen; Dennis Cosgrove; Matt Conway; Dan Moskowitz; Brian Stearns; Chris Sturgill; Randy Pausch
    Alice is a rapid prototyping system used to create three dimensional graphics simulations like those seen in virtual reality applications. Alice uses an interpreted language called Python as its scripting language to implement user actions. This interactive development environment allows users to explore many more design options than is possible in a compiled language environment. The beta version of Alice for Windows 95 and NT 4.0 is available for free over the Internet from http://alice.cs.cmu.edu.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, 3D graphics, Rapid prototyping, Usability engineering

    Demonstrations: Interactive Medicine

    Visualizing Medical Records with LifeLines BIBAKPDF 28-29
      Catherine Plaisant; Daniel Heller; Jia Li; Ben Shneiderman; Rich Mushlin; John Karat
    Computerized medical records pose tremendous problems to system developers, yet all the efforts to solve those problems will succeed only if appropriate attention is also given to user interface and information design [1]. Long lists to scroll, clumsy searches, endless menus and lengthy dialogs lead to user frustration and rejection. We designed a general visualization technique for personal histories called LifeLines and are currently exploring its use for medical patient records.
    Keywords: Visualization, Healthcare, Medical record, History, Timeline, Overview
    Incremental Improvements in Physician-Computer Interaction in Response to Clinical Needs and User Feedback BIBAKPDF 30-31
      Edward P. Cutolo; Nicholas A. Coblio; Paul McCright; Michael T. McCormick; Willard S. Harris
    We trace the transformation in the behavior of our resident physicians from frequent hostility toward the computer (when first introduced to clinical computing by physician order entry) to their current facility and eagerness in using it, which were recently heightened even further by 1) Web page techniques for the easy and quick implementation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and 2) rapid online access to full-text articles from current key medical journals at the point of patient care. This striking transformation was fostered by our recurrent customization of the computer-human interface in response to clinical needs and to continuous feedback from the physician users.
    Keywords: Clinical computing, Physicians, Web page, Frames, Clinical guidelines, OVID, Bibliographic and full-text databases

    Development Consortium

    Impediments to the Integrated Use of Computers in the Classroom BIBAKPDF 32-33
      Dean Eichorn
    Despite the belief that computer technology can enhance teaching and learning in our schools, the adaptation of technology enhanced instruction practices into classroom routines has been slow. This paper explores the reasons for the impeded incorporation of technology and suggests some possible solutions.
    Keywords: Technology, Technology enhanced instruction, Professional development
    On Overcoming the Barriers to Computer Usage in High Schools BIBAKPDF 34-35
      Rocky Harris
    This paper discusses various ways that I have attempted to bring technology into the classroom. It includes some of the typical obstacles encountered and some specific experiments tried. Frustrated by a slow rate of change, I listed several suggestions that might accelerate the integration of computer technology into the high school classroom. These suggestions include the development of an integrated school information management tool, lessons to help teachers feel more in control of the technology, and specific curriculum plans that integrate the technology into lessons.
    Keywords: High schools, Technology in the schools, Technology in education, Technology in the curriculum
    Information Technology in the Czech Secondary Schools BIBAKPDF 36-37
      Bozena (Boba) Mannova
    This paper describes the situation in use of computers in the secondary schools in the Czech Republic. The overview of historical development is given and the current state is discussed. There are formulated some questions, which have to be answered. Strategies for teachers in service education are described.
    Keywords: Information technology, Teachers education, Computer use, CHI
    The Method of Teaching Expert Systems Used in the Manufacturing Process BIBAKPDF 38-39
      Cezary Orlowski
    The paper presents a new method of building, teaching and exploitation of expert systems on the basis of production processes.
    Keywords: Teaching expert systems, Computers in education, Knowledge base systems
    Activation Energy Required with Classroom Computers BIBAKPDF 40-41
      Charles Rencsok
    Change in applied instructional techniques requires extra initial effort to redirect the inertia of a pre-existent system. This effort must come both from without and within the classroom. Well concerted efforts have higher probability of success than fragmented approaches.
    Keywords: Instructional tools, Computer support, Initiating change, Risks versus benefits, Technology introduction, Instructional technology, Classroom computers
    Teaching Computers the Young and the Adults: Observations on Learning Style Differences BIBAKPDF 42-43
      Marcin Sikorski
    This paper describes differences in styles how young and adult learners familiarise themselves with computers. Presented observations resulted from the author's teaching experience and from a series of interviews with teachers of computing in public schools in Poland.
    Keywords: Learning styles, Computers in education, Poland
    What's in It for Kids? BIBAKPDF 44-45
      Cynthia Solomon
    In this paper, I raise some issues teachers are struggling with today about what are good computing activities for children.
    Keywords: K-12 education, Education applications, Learning environments, Programming, Logo, Children, WWW, Teachers
    What is Wrong with Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) -- An Educator's Point of View BIBAKPDF 46-47
      Peter Soreanu
    This position paper presents some human-computer interaction (HCI)-related issues in CMC. The expressed views are based on personal experience as an educator of K-12 classes. The following questions are raised: relevance of icons, metaphors as representations of known reality, adaptability of World Wide Web (WWW) user interface to individual needs. I propose the inclusion of inter- and cross-cultural parameters in the interface design. I also suggest that Educational Style Sheets (ESS) be developed, to enhance the efficiency of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) tools.
    Keywords: CMC, Icons, Metaphors, User interface, Adaptive systems, Adaptive interface, Virtual reality, CSCL, Course management

    Doctoral Consortium

    Graphical Style Sheets: Towards Reusable Representations of Biomedical Graphics BIBAKPDF 48-49
      Ramon M. Felciano; Russ Altman
    We propose that the design characteristics shared by a family of data graphics can be represented as declarative, knowledge-based graphical style sheets that a general-purpose visualization system can use to generate domain-specific data graphics automatically. Graphical style sheets (GSS) define the layout and drawing conventions shared by members of a particular family of data graphics. A GSS is a declarative mapping between Postscript-like graphical objects and data stored in object-oriented data structures. We describe the conceptual framework underlying our approach, and a prototype constraint-based visualization system (PALLADIO) and design representation language (P-SPEAK) we are building to evaluate this framework.
    Keywords: Visualization, Graphic design, Health-care applications, Intelligent interfaces, Constraint-based systems, User interface toolkits, UIMS, World Wide Web, Electronic publishing, Database access
    Note: Student Posters: Entertainment, Health Care and Education
    Intelligent Tutoring Systems have Forgotten the Tutor: Adding a Cognitive Model of Human Tutors BIBAKPDF 50-51
      Neil T. Heffernan
    I propose that a more effective intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for the domain of algebra symbolization can be made by building a cognitive model of human tutors and incorporating that model into an ITS. Specifically, I will collect protocols of humans engaged in tutoring and use these to build a model of Socratic dialogue for this domain. I will then test whether the ITS is more effective with such dialogue capabilities.
    Keywords: Intelligent tutoring systems, ACT-R, User model, Algebra, Tutoring, Learning, Education, Socratic dialogue
    Note: Student Posters: Entertainment, Health Care and Education
    The Low-Level Cognitive Processes Involved in the Visual Search of Pull-Down Menus and Computer Screens, as Revealed by Cognitive Modeling BIBAKPDF 52-53
      Anthony J. Hornof
    The field of human-computer interaction does not have an empirically validated model of the low-level perception, decision, and motor processes that people use when they look for an item on a computer screen. The goal of this dissertation is to provide such a model. The approach will be to (1) build computational cognitive models that simulate people accomplishing various specific visual search tasks, such as menu selection tasks, (2) validate the proposed visual search models by using the models to accurately predict how much time people require to accomplish the same visual search tasks, and (3) provide the field of human-computer interaction with some specific practical benefit from these models, such as explanations of how screen layout design guidelines affect the cognitive processes involved in visual search.
    Keywords: Cognitive models, Menu selection, Visual search
    Note: Student Posters: Cognition and Perception
    Toward Effective Algorithm Visualization Artifacts: Designing for Participation and Negotiation in an Undergraduate Algorithms Course BIBAKPDF 54-55
      Christopher D. Hundhausen
    Despite their intuitive appeal, computer-based algorithm visualization (AV) artifacts have failed to enter mainstream computer science education. I argue that past research into the design, evaluation, and pedagogical use of AV artifacts has been guided by an underlying theory of effectiveness that is fundamentally deficient. Inspired by an alternative pedagogy in which students construct their own AVs, and by recent research into the situated nature of communication and learning, my dissertation develops an alternative theory that stresses the value of AV artifacts both in facilitating students' participation in the Community of Algorithmaticians, and in providing students and instructors with resources for negotiating a shared understanding of algorithms.
    Keywords: Algorithm visualization, Situated action theory, Situated learning theory
    Note: Student Posters: Entertainment, Health Care and Education
    Computational Implications of Human Navigation in Multiscale Electronic Worlds BIBAKPDF 56-57
      Susanne Jul
    In this work I seek to formulate a theory of the computational implications of certain factors that affect human navigation in multiscale electronic worlds. Specifically, I seek to describe the properties a multiscale world must satisfy to furnish useful frames of reference. I draw factors from three areas. First, understanding of spatial cognition in general and frames of reference in spatial cognition in particular. Second, theoretical characteristics of multiscale information spaces. Third, general attributes of users' task contexts. The ultimate goal of the work is to provide a basis for a theory of design of navigational aids. This project also seeks to provide a case study of integrating existing psychological theories with emerging theories of computational environments.
    Keywords: Navigation, Frame of reference, Multiscale, Spatial cognition, Pad++
    Note: Student Posters: World Wide Web
    Improving Gestures and Interaction Techniques for Pen-Based User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 58-59
      Allan Christian, Jr. Long
    The goal of this research is the improvement of pen-based user interfaces (PUIs) in two areas: ease of operation for end users, and ease of creation for designers and programmers. A promising feature of PUIs that has not yet been fully exploited is gestures: marks that activate commands rather than enter data. Users of existing PUIs are burdened with unreliable gesture recognition and have difficulty learning and remembering gestures. These problems are compounded by the inappropriate application of graphical user interface interaction techniques to PUIs.
       We are developing a tool to aid PUI designers in creating and evaluating gesture sets that are easier for computers to recognize and easier for humans to learn and remember. This work will also develop and evaluate new interaction techniques that take advantage of the unique characteristics of PUIs.
    Keywords: Pen-based user interface, Gestures, Interface design tools
    Note: Student Posters: Interaction Techniques
    Robust, End-User Programmable, Multiple-Window Coordination BIBAKPDF 60-61
      Chris North
    In current windowing environments, individual windows are treated independently, making it difficult for users to coordinate information across multiple windows. While coordinated multi-window strategies are increasingly used in visualization and web user interfaces, designs are inflexible and haphazard. I propose a generalized, end-user programmable, robust, multiple-window coordination capability. This research involves generation of guidelines for robust coordination design, development of specification languages for end-user coordination, resolution of data structures, algorithms, and software architecture issues, and empirical evaluation.
    Keywords: User interface, Coordination, Multiple window strategies, Information visualization, Window management
    Note: Student Posters: Interaction Techniques
    Designing a Programming System for Children with a Focus on Usability BIBAKPDF 62-63
      John F. Pane
    This research proposes the design of a new programming language and environment for children. Emphasis throughout the design will be on usability. I will apply prior results from empirical studies of programmers and the psychology of programming, as well as new empirical studies that investigate areas that have not yet been studied completely. My thesis is that this focus on usability will produce a system that is easier for children to learn and use than existing systems. I will evaluate this thesis through user studies comparing the new system to other programming systems for beginners.
    Keywords: Children, End-user programming, Programming environments, Psychology of programming
    Note: Student Posters: Entertainment, Health Care and Education
    About 23 Million Documents Match your query... BIBAKPDF 64-65
      Kerry Rodden
    A simple search of a large information space, such as the World Wide Web, often leaves the user to scan millions of hits. Relevance feedback is an information retrieval technique that can be used to make a search query more specific, so that its results are more manageable and useful. However, users tend not to take advantage of relevance feedback when systems provide it. I believe that this is because the process is badly represented at the search interface, and my thesis work to date has been aimed at facilitating relevance feedback by providing a visual representation of the user's search context. An initial Java interface has been implemented, which will evolve in future to become a user-centred information workspace, supporting the search of a multimedia document collection.
    Keywords: Information access, Searching, Relevance feedback
    Note: Student Posters: World Wide Web
    Interpreting Eye Movements with Process Models BIBAKPDF 66-67
      Dario D. Salvucci
    Though eye movements provide a wealth of information about how humans interact with computers, the analysis of eye movement data can be extremely tedious and time-consuming. This paper outlines an automated approach to tracing eye movements, that is, interpreting eye movement protocols based on an underlying process model. The proposed tracing methods utilize techniques such as hidden Markov models to relate observed eye movement protocols to the predictions of the process model. These methods have been applied successfully in the domain of equation solving and will be extended to several other task domains.
    Keywords: Eye movements, Process models, Trace-based analysis, Hidden Markov models, ACT-R
    Note: Student Posters: Cognition and Perception
    Putting Power in the Hands of End Users: A Study of Programming by Demonstration, with an Application to Geographical Information Systems BIBAKPDF 68-69
      Carol Traynor
    Many software applications, especially ones that arise out of technical domains, are difficult for non-technical end users to comprehend and use. Such users are often dependent on experts who serve as intermediaries between them and the software. Geographical information systems (GIS), for example, frequently require such intermediaries. This project involves the design and evaluation of a new end-user programming environment, with an application to GISs. The project adopts a programming-by-demonstration (PBD) approach, in which the software builds a program representation based on the user's interaction with an application's user interface. The research plan includes evaluation of a prototype of the PBD environment, implementation of the environment, and evaluation of the PBD approach via empirical studies.
    Keywords: End-user programming, Programming by demonstration, Comic-strip metaphor, Visual language, Geographical information systems
    Note: Student Posters: Design: Applications and Approaches
    The Effect of Accompanying Media on Spatial Models Derived from Text BIBAKPDF 70-71
      David VanEsselstyn
    In a computer based experiment, groups were exposed to either a textual walking tour of the Saint John the Divine Cathedral, the same walking tour accompanied by black and white photos of the cathedral that coincided with the text, or a virtual reality experience accompanied by the same text. Participants were then tested on the factual, imagistic, and mental model knowledge they were able to obtain from the experience. In the test, participants in the text and photo groups were outperformed by the virtual group on the factual questions and the imagistic questions. The virtual group also took significantly more time inside the program than the other two groups. The text group outperformed the other groups on the mental model task. Issues around memory encoding and retrieval are discussed in relationship to the findings.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, Knowledge representation, Hypermedia, Education
    Note: Student Posters: Multimedia
    Schooling in the Digital Domain: Gendered Play and Work in the Classroom Context BIBAKPDF 72-73
      Karen Orr Vered
    This presentation demonstrates how the social setting of a co-educational elementary classroom elicits gender-specific performances with respect to free-time computer use, including game play and web-surfing. In light of recent industrial recognition of a "girls" market for electronic games, and the growing body of research about girls' preferences and habits about computing, this work presents participant observation and qualitative student interviews (ethnography) to inform these directions of game development and research.
    Keywords: Classroom ethnography, Computer games, Children, Girls, Gender, Play, Equity, Education
    Note: Student Posters: Entertainment, Health Care and Education
    Cultural Effects in Usability Assessment BIBAKPDF 74-75
      Alvin Yeo
    A study is being conducted to identify factors that may affect results of usability evaluation techniques. Preliminary results based on eight subjects are described and then implications of the findings are discussed.
    Keywords: Usability testing, Think aloud, Cultural issues, Malaysia
    Note: Student Posters: Design: Applications and Approaches
    Automated Visual Discourse Synthesis: Coherence, Versatility, and Interactivity BIBAKPDF 76-77
      Michelle X. Zhou
    We summarize the motivation, the approach, and the significance of a thesis that is concerned with automating the design of visual discourse. To synthesize effective visual discourse, three design criteria are used: coherence, versatility, and interactivity. The thesis focuses on finding comprehensive and systematic methodologies that meet these criteria, and on developing practical ways to implement visual discourse synthesis systems.
    Keywords: Automated visual presentation design, Knowledge engineering, Planning, Interaction handling
    Note: Student Posters: Design: Applications and Approaches

    Panels

    Public Information: Documents, Spectacles and the Politics of Public Participation BIBAKPDF 78-79
      Scott Minneman; S. Joy Mountford; Natalie Jeremijenko; Krzysztof Wodiczko; Anthony Turner; Mike Davis
    This proposed panel addresses the representation of the public in the information age. For the most part, new technologies delivered by corporate interests envision the 'public' as markets, separated into demographic age groups, income brackets and individual consumption behaviors. In the information age, public representation is synonymous with the market, voting and buying are conflated, and politics is a subbranch of marketing. This panel focuses on recent works that transcends categories of consumption and represents the public to itself outside of this arena. What are the possibilities for shared public experience rendered by new technologies? What interventions have been made in the political work of constructing public identity?
    Keywords: Shared viewing, Public art, Public documents, Public participation, Group work
    Human-Computer Interaction in Health Care: What Works? What Doesn't? BIBAPDF 80-81
      John Karat; Janette Coble; Pamela Jamar; John Mattison; Matthew J. Orland; Jo Carol Gordon Hiatt
    This panel will identify various ways Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) methods have been applied to health care. It will discuss successful and unsuccessful applications of HCI Techniques and discuss how HCI methods were modified to address the health care domain.
    Intelligent Interfaces in the Real World: Progress and Success Stories BIBAKPDF 82-83
      Kelly Braun; Tony Lovell; Jim Miller; Brad Weed
    It's time to hold work on intelligent interfaces to the same criterion as that used for other interface styles. That is, rather than judging them against their success at implementing the end-goal of a long-term research vector, we should judge them by their ability to meet the needs of real users in everyday, meaningful tasks. This panel will present four such systems, all of which are commercially-available products that, in their own ways, exploit the intelligent interface paradigm. Comparisons of the systems will bring out the technological progress that has been made, the interface design decisions that embody the current systems, and how these systems serve as starting points for further advances of the basic research vector.
    Keywords: Agents, Intelligent interfaces, Design, Technology transfer
    Constructing Community in Cyberspace BIBAKPDF 84-85
      Mary B. Williamson; Andrew Glassner; Margaret McLaughlin; Cheryl Chase; Marc Smith
    In this panel, a group of theorists and practitioners, each of whom has constructed tools for communicating and community building in cyberspace, present their own work and critically evaluate each others work. Our perspective explores the relationships between public events in real communities, public events involving art and politics, and the counterparts of these events in virtual communities. Each panelist presents a current project in a visual way, as a series of narrated images or as a demonstration of the project on a web site. The panelists comment on the ways in which the project might have been embedded in traditional community and on the ways in which the project might be embedded in a cyberspace community.
    Keywords: Virtual community, Social issues, World Wide Web (WWW), Telecommunications
    Distance Learning: Is It the End of Education as Most of Us Know It? BIBAKPDF 86-87
      Diana Laurillard; Jenny Preece; Ben Shneiderman; Lisa Neal; Yvonne Wærn
    The purpose of this panel is to present and discuss the key issues in distance learning from different perspectives and to envision future directions. The different views of the panelists include: professionals vs. students; large classes vs. small; distance learning university vs. introduced within regular university or as pan of a class; and different cultural perspectives.
    Keywords: Distance learning, Education, Internet, Web
    Interactive Narrative: Stepping into Our Own Stories BIBAKPDF 88-89
      Mary Flanagan; Francine Arble; Chuck Clanton; Harry Marks; Janet Murray
    In this panel, ideas about interactive narrative will be explored from four unique perspectives: interactive fiction from an academic research unit, story as seen in the gaming industry, story as created and recreated in the development of a girl's web adventure, and narrative as seen in an entertainment "role playing" game which appropriates mainstream media to create a new form of story.
    Keywords: Entertainment, Edutainment, Interactive narrative, Digital storytelling, Story
    Good Web Design: Essential Ingredient! BIBAKPDF 90-91
      Nahum Gershon; Mary Czerwinski; Wayne Neale; Jakob Nielsen; Nick Ragouzis; David Siegel
    Currently, many Web pages & applications are poorly designed even though they might visually appealing. Many people do not have a good knowledge or awareness of effective visual, textual, & information design. The panel & the audience will discuss & debate why a good design is essential to the success of the Web, and how to achieve it.
    Keywords: WWW, World Wide Web, Design, HCI, User interface, Visual media, Visualization
    Is the Web Really Different from Everything Else? BIBAKPDF 92-93
      Ben Shneiderman; Jakob Nielsen; Scott Butler; Michael Levi; Frederick Conrad
    What is so unique about using the World Wide Web? Or, is there anything unique about web use? This panel is designed to explore -- though not necessarily answer -- the question "is the web really different from everything else?"
    Keywords: World Wide Web, User experience, Design
    Famous CHI Educators Tell All BIBAKPDF 94-95
      Marian G. Williams; Andrew Sears; Alan Dix; Tom Hewett; Marilyn Mantei; Jenny Preece
    CHI educators (in academia and industry) find some CHI concepts hard to teach. This panel provides an opportunity for them to learn from the experiences of experts. We will collect questions to find out what CHI educators think it is hard to teach and what CHI students have found it hard to learn from their instructors' presentations. Then we will ask our panel of experts to talk about why the concepts are hard to teach and to describe the successful strategies and techniques they have found for teaching them.
    Keywords: HCI education, HCI professional education, Industry, Academia
    Baby Faces: User-Interface Design for Small Displays BIBAKPDF 96-97
      Aaron Marcus; Joseph V. Ferrante; Timo Kinnunen; Kari Kuutti; Erik Sparre
    User interface conferences and literature usually dwell upon projects in which large color palettes, high spatial resolution, and large-size displays are presumed to be available. Many consumer information appliances and hand-held devices are often more limited in their characteristics, yet are increasingly important to bring the power of the Web, productivity tools, databases, transactions, and entertainment to more and more people on the go, or at least not in front of higher-performance PCs, NCs, or workstations. Professionals with insight into the challenges and achievements of designing graphical user interfaces for small displays will debate the best way to design for products in which many characteristics are significantly limited, e.g., fonts, color resolution, spatial resolution, and graphics. These user interfaces, which might be called "baby faces" seem simpler in some ways, but also are actually quite complex as a design challenge when one designs to account for their limited characteristics.
    Keywords: Information appliances, Mobile phones, Personal digital assistants

    Plenary Session: Opening

    Codex, Memex, Genex: The Pursuit of Transformational Technologies BIBAKPDF 98-99
      Ben Shneiderman
    Handwritten codexes or printed books transformed society by allowing users to preserve and transmit information. Today, leather-bound volumes and illuminated manuscripts are giving way to animated image maps and hot links. Vannevar Bush's memex has inspired the World Wide Web, which provides users with vast information resources and convenient communications. In looking to the future, we might again transform society by building genexes -- generators of excellence -- to support creative exploration of ideas. Thesauri are to words, as genexes are to ideas. Such inspirational environments would empower personal and collaborative creativity by enabling users to:
  • collect information from an existing domain of knowledge,
  • create innovations using advanced tools,
  • consult with peers or mentors in the field, and then
  • disseminate the results widely. This paper describes how a framework for an integrated set of software tools might support this four-phase model of creativity in science, medicine, the arts, and beyond. Current initiatives are positive and encouraging, but they do not work in an integrated fashion, often miss vital components, and are frequently poorly designed. A well-conceived and clearly-stated framework could guide design efforts, coordinate planning, and speed development.
    Keywords: Genex, Memex, World-Wide Web, Advanced graphical user interfaces, Computer supported cooperative work, Information visualization
  • Plenary Session: Health Case Application Domain

    Keep No Secrets and Tell No Lies: Computer Interfaces in Clinical Care BIBAKPDF 100-101
      Michael G. Kahn; Janette Coble; Matthew Orland
    Physicians are accountable for the decisions they make on behalf of their patients. Likewise, computer interface designers must assume accountability for assumptions, limitations, and other unseen deficiencies that impact on the quantity, validity, integrity, and timeliness of data made accessible through their interfaces. During the development of a Web-based clinical workstation, extensive usability testing showed physicians exhibiting bewildering and conflicting simultaneous demands for both more and less information on their patients. A closer examination of these results highlighted the need for visual "accountability cues" -- visual indicators which allow physicians to assess the quantity and quality of data made available through the user interface. Interface designers must develop new methods for showing only needed information and must highlight where data integrity compromises have been made -- where there are secrets and maybe even lies.
    Keywords: Visual accountability, Clinical workstation, Health care user interfaces, Data integrity

    Plenary Session: Entertainment Application Domain

    Digital Production: Using Alien Technology BIBAKPDF 102-103
      Mark Swain
    The love and hatred of computers has been raised to new levels in the motion picture industry. Producers and Directors now demand the impossible. Film makers are addicted to the reality that computer animation and digital effects bring to their summer block busters, thus a relatively new industry -- Digital Production/Effects -- is flourishing. Box office revenues are on the increase as more movie patrons flock to the theaters than in years past. So, what's wrong? Movie budgets are sky rocketing with digital artists working around the clock to bring the directors vision to the big screen. The number of effects shots in feature films are increasing by the hundreds. The steady advancements in both computer hardware and software packages have allowed for some of this industry growth. The rest of the growth has come from artists shackled to their workstations for 10-18 hours a day, sometimes 6 to 7 days a week. This results in a burn out cycle that leaves artists tired, frustrated, and sometimes injured with repetitive stress injuries (RSI). The solution to the growing number of effects and massive budgets of feature films may not be heaping hundreds of artists on each film project, but in how the artist interacts with the computer.
    Keywords: Motion pictures, Digital production, Special effects, Computer animation, Graphical user interface (GUI), Repetitive stress injuries, Ergonomics, Alternative input devices

    Plenary Session: Closing

    Technological Humanism and Values-Driven Design BIBAKPDF 104
      Brenda Laurel
    While believing in the primacy of sensation and observation as how we know the world, humanists employ a methodology that submits these observations to reason, and, sometimes not so obviously, to ethical consideration. Humanistic work is values-driven work. It is work that one does because one thinks it is a good thing to do. It is also work that relies on empirical methods and clear-eyed observation. In this talk I will explore the application of humanistic values and methods to the design and development of interactive media, discussing specific examples from the application domain of play-oriented computer software for little girls. I will advocate an approach that is intended reconcile the seeming contradictions between empirical methods and values-driven work.
    Keywords: Humanism, Ethics, Values, Methodology, Research, Design

    Tutorials

    Human-Computer Interaction: Introduction and Overview BIBAKPDF 105-106
      Keith A. Butler; Robert J. K. Jacob; Bonnie E. John
    The objective of this special introductory seminar is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. The material will begin with a brief history of the field, followed by presentation and discussion of how good application development methods pull on the interdisciplinary technologies of HCI. The topics will include the psychology of human-computer interaction, psychologically-based design methods and tools, user interface media and tools, and introduction to user interface architecture.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Usability engineering, Human performance engineering, Cognitive modeling, Theory, Analysis methods, Interaction styles, Interaction hardware, User interface software, User interface management systems
    Introduction to Web Design BIBAKPDF 107-108
      Jakob Nielsen
    You are up against four million other websites: how do you get users to stay at your site? Only by providing valuable content and a highly usable interface. Cool is getting cold.
    Keywords: WWW, World Wide Web, Design, Hypertext, Usability
    Information Visualization Tutorial BIBAKPDF 109-110
      Nahum Gershon; Stuart Card; Stephen G. Eick
    Visual representation of information requires merging of data visualization methods, computer graphics, design, and imagination. This course describes the emerging field of information visualization including visualizing retrieved information from large document collections (e.g., digital libraries), the World Wide Web, and databases. The course highlights the process of producing effective visualizations, making sense of information, taking users' needs into account, and illustrating good practical visualization procedures in specific case studies.
    Keywords: Information visualization, Visualization, World Wide Web, WWW, Usability
    Planning and Implementing User-Centred Design BIBAKPDF 111-112
      Nigel Bevan; Ian Curson
    The tutorial presents a structured approach to user centred design, based on the principles of the forthcoming International Standard "Human centred design processes for interactive systems" (ISO DIS 13407) and other associated standards. A core set of practical methods which support the approach are described. These have been selected by the European Usability Support Centres on the basis of their applicability, maturity, availability, and cost-effectiveness. The tutorial gives an overview of each method, and describes criteria which can be used for selecting appropriate methods. The benefits of demonstrating conformance to ISO 13407 are explained.
    Keywords: User-centred design, Usability evaluation, Usability engineering, Standards
    Product Usability: Survival Techniques BIBAKPDF 113-114
      Jared M. Spool; Tara Scanlon; Carolyn Snyder
    Product developers are typically faced with small budgets, tight schedules, and over-committed resources. To deliver high-quality products under these constraints, developers need an understanding of basic design principles, techniques that allow them to work effectively with materials on hand, and a development process that is built around the use of such techniques.
       This workshop explains how low-fidelity prototyping and usability testing can be used in a process of iterative refinement in order to develop more usable products.
    Keywords: Design principles, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Prototyping, Low-fidelity prototyping, Paper prototypes, Mockup, Process management, Product development, Practical techniques
    Java Based User Interface Design and Development BIBAKPDF 115-116
      Manfred Tscheligi; Verena Giller
    The objective of this tutorial is to introduce Java from the user interface design viewpoint rather than from the programmers perspective. It provides an exploration of key issues of Java technology necessary to create novel web technology based application environments. Based on the experience of several Java based user interface projects the specific needs of usability engineers will be addressed. User interface potentials embedded in the Java platform will be uncovered.
    Keywords: Java, User interface tools, Class libraries, User interface guidelines, World Wide Web, Corporate guidelines, Metaphors
    Cognitive Factors in Design: Basic Phenomena in Human Memory and Problem Solving BIBAKPDF 117-118
      Thomas T. Hewett
    This tutorial provides a "hands-on" (actually, "minds-on") exploration of several basic processes and phenomena of human memory, and problem solving. The emphasis is on developing both intuitive and formal knowledge which can serve as background knowledge which will be useful in interpreting design guidelines and in making educated design judgments when design guidelines fail, conflict, or are nonexistent. The demonstrations used emphasize basic general phenomena with which any theory of memory or problem solving must deal. In addition, the tutorial suggests some of the implications of these phenomena for designing interactive computing systems.
    Keywords: Memory, Problem solving, Design, Models of the user
    CSCW, Groupware and Workflow: Experiences, State of Art, and Future Trends BIBAKPDF 119-120
      Steven Poltrock; Jonathan Grudin
    Technology to support groups is rapidly coming into use and is starting to have an impact on us, our organizations, and society. This course addresses recent experiences, current possibilities, and future trends and shocks. Lecture and video illustrations are accompanied by discussions in which participants organize and present their collective experiences with and interests in groupware and workflow technologies, and CSCW issues and methods. The instructors summarize the current composition of the CSCW community and the state of the art in technology, and organize discussion of fundamental challenges that face us as users (and developers) of these technologies.
    Keywords: Groupware, Workflow, Computer-supported cooperative work, Coordination theory, Organizational design, Computer-mediated communication
    Network Communities, Community Networks BIBAKPDF 121-122
      John M. Carroll; Mary Beth Rosson
    A network community is a group of people whose communication and collaboration over networks strengthens and facilitates their shared identity and goals. A community network is a special case of a network community in which a physical community coextends with the network community. This tutorial will survey and analyze network communities and community networks focusing on how they may impact human activities and institutions.
    Keywords: Network communities, Community networks
    Structured Observation: Practical Methods for Understanding Users and their Work Context BIBAKPDF 123-124
      Susan M. Dray
    This tutorial will focus on why and how to do observations of users in their own worksite. It will introduce practitioners how to use ethnographic tools, and how to apply what they find to design.
    Keywords: User-centered design, Observation, Ethnography, Contextual inquiry, Qualitative data, User profiles, User data collection, Usability, Tools and techniques
    Practical GUI Screen Design: Making It Usable BIBAKPDF 125-126
      Cliff Wilding
    There is much more to designing usable GUI screens than making them look good. The way a screen looks should tell the user how to interact with it, and what behavior to expect. Screen design is about visual communication, the bridge between the look and the feel of the user interface. In this full day tutorial you will examine the principles of good screen design, including a detailed examination of screen layout, templates and metaphors.
       The tutorial provides a clear understanding of how to take advantage of user knowledge when creating screen designs that work. Examine layout techniques, including colour, fonts and symbols, and learn the principles of creating easy-to-use software and interactive new media productions. The tutorial is very much hands-on with exercises -- you will put the skills you learn into practice.
       Learn valuable tips and techniques for the best ways to use icons, controls, text and graphics in user interfaces.
    Keywords: User interface design, Screen design, Graphic design, Visual design, Interaction design, User-centred design
    The Usability Engineering Lifecycle BIBAKPDF 127-128
      Deborah J. Mayhew
    The purpose of this tutorial is to provide a lifecycle of practical usability techniques for structuring the process of designing good user interfaces to either traditional software applications or Web pages and applets. The tutorial presents techniques which can be applied at different points in a typical product development lifecycle. Techniques presented include not only requirements analysis, design and testing techniques, but also organizational and managerial strategies.
    Keywords: User interface design, User profile, Task analysis, Usability goals, Style guide, Conceptual model, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Usability organization, Cost-benefit analysis
    Note: formerly Managing the Design of the User Interface
    Metaphor Design for User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 129-130
      Aaron Marcus
    User interface design requires designing metaphors, the essential terms, concepts, and images representing data, functions, tasks, roles, organizations, and people. Advanced user interfaces require consideration of new metaphors and repurposing of older ones. Awareness of semiotics principles, in particular the use of metaphors, can assist researchers and developers in achieving more efficient, effective ways to communicate to more diverse user communities.
    Keywords: Consumers, Culture, Diversity, Graphic design, Icons, Information design, Metaphors, Multi-media, Productivity tools, Rhetoric, Semantics, Semiotics, Symbols, User interfaces, Visible language, Web
    Designing Speech User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 131-132
      Nicole Yankelovich; Jennifer Lai
    This tutorial focuses on techniques for designing speech interfaces. Topics covered include an introduction to speech input and output, a discussion of speech user interface design issues, and an exploration of ways to involve users in the design process.
    Keywords: Speech user interface design, Speech recognition, Speech synthesis
    Website Design from the Trenches BIBAKPDF 133-134
      Tom Brinck; Darren Gergle; Scott Wood
    Most website design projects involve small to medium-sized sites consisting of between ten and fifty pages. Such projects require designers to operate on a tight schedule and a very limited budget. With tightly constrained resources, how can we maintain a high standard of design and create usable and useful products? This tutorial presents a practical approach to applying usability techniques in website design. Our design process includes techniques for project management, dealing with clients, sketching and comping techniques for quickly producing high-quality alternatives, and a set of website design guidelines.
    Keywords: World-Wide Web, WWW, Design process, User-interface guidelines, User testing, Rapid prototyping, Project management
    What Children Can Tell Us about Technology: The CHIkids Model of Technology Immersion BIBAKPDF 135-136
      Angela Boltman; Allison Druin; Adrian Miura
    This tutorial will introduce the CHIkids model of technology integration, research, and learning. This model illustrates an educational technology immersion experience for kids, a problem-centered approach to teaching for educators, and examples of contextual inquiry and participatory design methodologies for HCI professionals. This introductory-level tutorial will provide an opportunity for tutorial participants to gain hands-on experience with kids and technology as well as to understand the underlying principles behind the CHIkids model of technology immersion.
    Keywords: Education application, Children, Cooperative design, Participatory design, Ethnography, Usability testing, User models, Multimedia, Telecommunication, Social issues
    Getting Started on a Contextual Project BIBAKPDF 137-138
      Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
    Field data gathering techniques such as Contextual Inquiry enable a design team to collect the detailed customer data they need for their projects. But when a team wants to apply contextual techniques to their own situation, they are faced with a host of problems. What project should they start with? Is it better to introduce them early or late in the process? Given all the different possible techniques, which will work best for the specific project chosen? How should the customers be chosen and how should visits to them be set up? Who should be on the project? It's no wonder people find it hard to get started with these new techniques in their own organizations.
       This tutorial gets participants over the roadblocks in the way of using contextual techniques in their projects. We walk through the different aspects of a contextual project, describing the issues that need to be resolved, the different approaches that can work, and the principles which guide making a choice. We use exercises to give participants the chance to plan aspects of their own projects, so they can do the thinking process themselves and raise any questions raised by their own situations.
       This tutorial is appropriate to anyone wishing to use field methods to gather customer data for their projects. Some familiarity with these methods is assumed.
    Keywords: Analysis methods, Design techniques, Customer-centered design, Ethnography, Usability engineering, Methodology, Team design, Domain analysis, Work modeling, Software engineering, Task analysis, User models, User studies work analysis
    Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain BIBAPDF 139-140
      Betty Edwards
    Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain is one of the most effective teaching methods for drawing ever developed. In this tutorial, the participant will be introduced to the underlying theory behind the method. The bulk of the session will involve practical hands-on exercises, which demonstrate the participants' ability to learn to draw, and to learn to "see things more clearly."
       In this tutorial you will learn basic strategies for accessing the visual, perceptual mode of thinking. This type of thinking is learned through the acquisition of very basic drawing skills and the acquisition of an understanding of the nature of drawing.
    Developing Collaborative Applications On the World Wide Web BIBAKPDF 141-142
      Andreas Girgensohn; Alison Lee
    The World Wide Web is often viewed as the latest and most user friendly way of providing information over the Internet (i.e., server of documents). It is not customarily viewed as a platform for developing and deploying applications. In this tutorial, we introduce, demonstrate, and discuss how Web technologies like CGI scripts, Javascript, and Java can be used in combination with Web browsers to design, create, distribute and execute collaborative applications. We discuss constraints with the Web approach as well as recent extensions that support application development.
    Keywords: Collaborative applications, Interactive applications, Forms, HTML, MIME, CGI, HTTP, URL, Java, JavaScript, Web server, Web browsers, Cookies, Proxy servers, Software development, Chat, Desktop video conference, Voting application, Group calendar, Multi-user games
    The Psychology of Multimedia: Principles of Perception and Cognition BIBAKPDF 143-144
      Douglas J. Gillan
    This tutorial is designed to provide HCI professionals with (1) knowledge about the principles of perception and cognition underlying computer-based multimedia systems and (2) skill at applying those principles. The tutorial covers basic and applied visual perception and cognition, including reading (for text displays); color perception, object perception and recognition, depth perception in two-dimensional displays (for graphics), and the perception of motion (for animation and video). High level auditory perception is also covered, focusing on music and speech perception. The tutorial also addresses issues in the application of the perceptual and cognitive principles for the design of multimedia systems. The final part of the tutorial provides practice in applying the perceptual and cognitive principles to multimedia design.
    Keywords: Multimedia, Perception, Cognition
    Information Visualization Advanced Interface and Web Design BIBAPDF 145-146
      Ben Shneiderman; Catherine Plaisant
    The future of user interfaces is in the direction of larger, higher resolution screens, that present perceptually-rich and information-abundant displays. With such designs, the worrisome flood of information can be turned into a productive river of knowledge. Our experience during the past five years has been that visual query formulation and visual display of results can be combined with the successful strategies of direct manipulation. Human perceptual skills are quite remarkable and largely underutilized in current information and computing systems. Based on this insight, we developed dynamic queries, starfield displays, treemaps, treebrowsers, and a variety of widgets to present, search, browse, filter, and compare rich information spaces.
    Web Sites that Work: Designing with Your Eyes Open BIBAKPDF 147-148
      Jared M. Spool; Will Schroeder; Tara Scanlon; Carolyn Snyder
    Many web sites fail to fulfill their promise because designers are unaware of some of the most important factors that affect a site's success. This tutorial is based on our observations of users struggling with web sites and our consulting work with clients who face the many challenges of web site development. It includes as-yet-unpublished results from our ongoing research. We will show numerous examples of web sites to illustrate real-world successes and failures. Hands-on exercises with live web sites help participants understand and apply the course material. Instead of blindly repeating the mistakes made by others, participants will learn to approach web site design from a fresh perspective that leads to more usable designs.
    Keywords: Design principles, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Graphic design, Internet, Task analysis, User studies, Product development, Practical techniques, World Wide Web, Web site design, Web site usability
    Contextual Design: Using Customer Work Models to Drive Systems Design BIBAKPDF 149-150
      Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
    Field data gathering techniques such as Contextual Inquiry enable a design team to gather the detailed data they need. These techniques produce enormous amounts of information on how the customers of a system work. This creates a new problem -- how to represent all this detail in a coherent, comprehensible form, which can be a suitable basis for design. An affinity diagram effectively shows the scope of the customer problem, but is less effective at capturing and coherently representing the details of how people work. Design teams need a way to organize this detail so they can use it in their own development process.
       In this tutorial we present our latest methods for representing detailed information about work practice and using these representations to drive system design. These methods have been adopted over the last few years by major product development and information systems organizations. We show how to represent the work of individual users in models, how to generalize these to describe a whole market or department, and how to use these to drive innovative design. We present the process by which we build and use the models and practice key steps. We show how these methods fit into the overall design process, and summarize Contextual Design, which gathers field data and uses it to drive design through a well-defined series of steps.
       The tutorial is appropriate for those who have used field techniques, especially Contextual Inquiry, and would like to put more structure on the process of using field data.
       We use shopping as our example of work practice throughout this tutorial, since shopping is simple and understood by everyone. We encourage participants to go grocery shopping shortly before the tutorial, and bring any shopping list they may have used, their store receipt, and a drawing of the store layout and their movement through it.
    Keywords: Analysis methods, Design techniques, Customer-centered design, Ethnography, Usability engineering, Methodology, Team design, Domain analysis, Work modeling, Software engineering, Task analysis, User models, User studies work analysis
    The Art of the Interface: Visual Ideas, Principles and Inspiration for Interface Designers BIBAKPDF 151-152
      Suzanne Watzman
    Though the context is different, George Moore could have been describing our current "information environment". It is a world of non-stop messages and images. Countless decisions are made daily based on what we see and our perception and interpretation of these things. In addition, constant introduction of technology and tools are overwhelming, with seemingly unlimited choices of ways and media to present information, anywhere, anytime, anyhow.
       The problem is that no one has given us a greater ability to use and understand all this new information. The idea that more, better tools are the solution could not be further from the truth. In our rush to go faster, further, louder we have forgotten our goal. In our rush to use these enticing tools, we have forgotten that this is all about communication.
       We need to step back and evaluate this visual chaos. We must understand and re-learn what the basic principles are that create quality communications as well as understand the implications of our visual design choices. Our education has made us verbally literate; now we must educate ourselves to become visually literate.
    Keywords: Visual communication, Visual literacy, Graphic design, Information design, Visual interaction design, Visual hierarchy, Visual interface, Design process, Consistent visual language, Visual diagramming, Visual cues, Design guidelines, Readability, Legibility, Typography, Icons, Graphics, Illustration, Metaphor, Color
    Selling Usability to Organisations: Strategies for Convincing People of the Value of Usability BIBAKPDF 153-154
      Sarah Bloomer; Rachel Croft; Susan Wolfe
    Usability may now be practised by a large number of software developers, but has yet to gain wide acceptance. The value of usability must be communicated across multiple levels of an organisation, which requires speaking several "languages". This practical, hands-on tutorial will cover techniques for convincing management or potential clients of the value of usability and usability testing, in terms each group understands. It will address issues from how to develop a usability strategy for a whole organisation to how to find data to convince stakeholders of a single usability activity.
    Keywords: Strategic usability, Usability strategies, Cost-justification, Communicating usability data
    Avoiding Damned Lies: Understanding Statistical Ideas BIBAKPDF 155-156
      Alan Dix
    Many researchers and practitioners in HCI will at some time or another need to use or interpret experimental statistics. However, the correct use of statistics involves a combination of mathematics and practical know-how. Often those who have studied an introductory statistics course have learnt how to perform the requisite mathematical manipulation, but not the meaning of the resulting numbers. This tutorial aims to fill in the understanding gap experienced by many who are using statistics, but do not feel 'on top' of it. It will focus on the meaning of a few key concepts and some of the common mistakes and fallacies prevalent in the HCI literature.
    Keywords: Randomness, Statistics, Experiments, Significance test
    Designing Shared Virtual Environments BIBAKPDF 157-158
      Andrew McGrath; Amanda Oldroyd
    The purpose of this course is to inform the audience how to design and scope successful shared virtual environments. The emphasis will be on employing good visual design, strong realistic conceptual ideas and proven interaction styles. New application concepts have been emerging within the field of virtual environments that offer exciting application possibilities but suffer from a number of problems which, once known and understood, can be avoided. The course also includes a short workshop where the audience will participate in creating a storyboard for a virtual environment.
    Keywords: Interaction design, Visual design, Virtual environments, Shared spaces, VRML, Inhabited TV
    Distance Learning BIBAKPDF 159-160
      Lisa Neal
    This tutorial covers how to design and deliver a distance learning class. The motivation for distance learning programs is presented, along with the selection, deployment, and use of distance learning technologies. We examine how teaching a distance learning class is different from a face-to-face class and how to evaluate the effectiveness of a distance learning class. Case studies will be used to illustrate the use of distance learning technologies and the broad range of situations and institutions in which distance learning is employed.
    Keywords: Education, Training, Collaborative technologies, CSCW
    Applying CHI in Health Care: Domain Issues, Resources, and Requirements BIBAKPDF 161-162
      John W. Gosbee
    More and more organizations are interested in applying human factors (human-computer interaction -- HCI) to the development of health care information systems. This tutorial is designed to accelerate this movement towards usable and useful health care information systems, which will, in turn, benefit end-users in hospitals, clinics, and other medical settings. Tutorial participants will learn about: 1) macro and micro issues in health care that are important to proper HCI design; 2) disciplines similar to HCI in the health care field and associated interdisciplinary resources; 3) training needed to become a specialist in HCI and health care; and 4) barriers to accomplishing HCI activities in health care, and how to deal with these barriers.
       This tutorial will be useful to any student, practitioner, or academic who would like to find and cultivate opportunities in the area of health care information systems. The tutorial may also entice HCI professionals who do not yet realize how much fun you can have applying your knowledge and skills to the medical domain.
    Keywords: Health care, HCI, Medical software, New opportunities
    Conceptual Design: From User Requirements to User Interface BIBAKPDF 163-164
      Kathy Potosnak
    This half-day tutorial introduces a semi-structured conceptual design framework that helps product teams bridge the gulf between user requirements and detailed user interface design. It covers the background, benefits, process, and hands-on application of the framework to a simple example project.
    Keywords: Conceptual design, Cognitive models, Design methods, Design process, Design techniques, Measurable objectives, Product design, Software design, Task analysis, Task model, User requirements, Usability, User interface design, User-centered design
    Designing User Interfaces for Television BIBAKPDF 165-166
      Dale Herigstad; Anna Wichansky
    In this paper, we describe a tutorial to enable CHI participants to design more effective user interfaces (UIs) for interactive television (ITV) and World Wide Web (WWW) applications used on televisions (TVs).
    Keywords: Television, World Wide Web, Internet appliance, Kiosk, Remote control, UI design, Usability evaluation
    User Interface Specifications: Techniques for Conveying Design Information BIBAKPDF 167-168
      Paul McInerney
    After UI designers conceive of a UI design, they need to clearly communicate it to others who will evaluate or build the user interface. This tutorial presents techniques for better describing a UI design. The tutorial consists of the following segments: 1) Setting the Stage, 2) UI Design Diagramming Techniques, 3) Organizing UI Description Information, and 4) Succeeding with UI Description.
    Keywords: User interface design, Specification, Documentation, Software engineering
    Managing Color in Interactive Systems BIBAPDF 169-170
      Mary A. Mooney
    Color in the HCI community is often undervalued as to its relationship to the user and product. Aesthetics and cultural preferences are rarely considered adequately when product and interface colors are chosen. Since ninety percent of our knowledge of the world comes to us through sight, how we respond to light is intrinsic to the nature of human interaction. In this tutorial, I will explain the perceptual, physiological, and color management principles that underlie effective visual design with color. You will learn how to apply these principles to the design of graphical user interfaces, information displays, products and virtual environments.
       This tutorial is directed towards interface designers, human factors engineers, usability specialists, and developers of on-line information. This course is also valuable to virtual environment designers and product designers. You should have experience in developing user interfaces, in creating and manipulating digital imagery, or in designing products and virtual environments.
    Current Issues in Web Design BIBAKPDF 171-172
      Jakob Nielsen; Bruce "Tog" Tognazzini; Erika Kindlund
    The Web keeps changing on "Internet time." We discuss new issues in Web design that go beyond the standard page design and navigation support which we (at least in theory) know how to do.
    Keywords: WWW, World Wide Web, Usability, Web-Based Applications, Java, Applets

    Videos

    ambientROOM: Integrating Ambient Media with Architectural Space BIBAKPDF 173-174
      Hiroshi Ishii; Craig Wisneski; Scott Brave; Andrew Dahley; Matt Gorbet; Brygg Ullmer; Paul Yarin
    We envision that the physical architectural space we inhabit will be a new form of interface between humans and digital information [2]. This paper and video present the design of the ambientROOM, an interface to information for processing in the background of awareness. This information is displayed through various subtle displays of light, sound, and movement. Physical objects are also employed as controls for these "ambient media."
    Keywords: Awareness, Attention, Periphery, Ambient media, Graspable media, Physical interface, Tangible interface, Tangible Bits
    Digital Ink: A Familiar Idea with Technological Might! BIBAKPDF 175-176
      Chris Kasabach; Chris Pacione; John Stivoric; Francine Gemperle; Dan Siewiorek
    Digital Ink is a design research concept. Part design, part critique, it is the integration of current and future technologies into a mobile and socially familiar object. Digital ink is a sophisticated pen that allows people to take notes, sketch, and save the "physical" data they generate, digitally and automatically. It strives to turn mobile computing and interaction on it's head by turning the monitor into a piece of paper and the keyboard and mouse into the pen itself. It's designed so people can do things they normally do with any pen, but also fax, print, plan and correspond with others.
    Keywords: Design research, Digital, Pen, Information, Interaction, Hand-drawn interface, Mobile, Future, Concept, Technology
    BUILD-IT: A Planning Tool for Construction and Design BIBAKPDF 177-178
      Matthias Rauterberg; Morten Fjeld; Helmut Krueger; Martin Bichsel; Uwe Leonhardt; Markus Meier
    It is time to go beyond the established approaches in human-computer interaction. With the Augmented Reality (AR) design strategy humans are able to behave as much as possible in a natural way: behavior of humans in the real world with other humans and/or real world objects. Following the fundamental constraints of natural way of interacting we derive a set of recommendations for the next generation of user interfaces: the Natural User Interface (NUI). The concept of NUI is presented in form of a runnable demonstrator: a computer vision-based interaction technique for a planning tool for construction and design tasks.
    Keywords: Augmented reality, Digital desk, Natural user interface, Computer vision-based interaction
    The Information Periscope "I-steer" BIBAKPDF 179-180
      Junko Misawa; Junichi Osada
    This video demonstrates a prototype of the information periscope "I-steer", which is designed for browsing video information in public spaces. I-steer has an LCD panel which can be moved cylindrically around the user and displays information according to the position of the LCD panel. This system incorporates dynamic interaction technique which encourages users to move themselves according to physically corresponded information space. The cylindrical information space consists of segments of static frames with video clips instead of virtual 3-D space. Therefore, the preparation of content information and the operation by walk-up users are relatively easy.
    Keywords: Dynamic interaction, Spatial navigational system, Public space, Mechanical design, Interface design, Product design, Motion
    Digital Fukuwarai: New Game Concept Using Live Video BIBAKPDF 181-182
      Hiroshi Matoba
    We have developed a new game system called "Digital Fukuwarai" by using high performance video processing technology. It provides a very impressive experience and novel interactivity which has never been achieved by any existing games.
    Keywords: Video processing, Game, User interface
    OLGA -- A Multimodal Interactive Information Assistant BIBAKPDF 183-184
      Olle Sundblad; Yngve Sundblad
    This video is a description and use scenario of a functional prototype of an interactive information assistant with both speech and visual direct manipulation interface. The 3D-animated assistant, nicknamed OLGA, is intended to help in situations where people seek information. It is demonstrated with consumer advice about microwave ovens. The demonstrator is modular and distributed, with separate modules from different partners and computers communicating via a server. The OLGA project is highly interdisciplinary, involving researchers from linguistics, speech technology, graphic illustration and computing science. Possible extensions and other uses of the assistant are demonstrated.
    Keywords: Multimodal interaction, Discourse modeling, Speech/voice, Animation, Information assistant, Software architecture
    WebTOC: A Tool to Visualize and Quantify Web Sites using a Hierarchical Table of Contents Browser BIBAKPDF 185-186
      David A. Nation
    WebTOC is a method for visualizing the contents of a website with a hierarchical table of contents using a java program and applet. WebTOC automatically generates an expand/contract table of contents that provides graphical information indicating the number of elements on branches of the hierarchy as well as elements' individual and cumulative sizes. Colors can be used to represent other attributes such as file type and provide a rich overview of the site for users and managers of the site. Early results from user studies suggest that WebTOC is easily learned and can assist users in navigating websites.
    Keywords: Information visualization, Exploratory data analysis, Graphical representations, Hierarchical table of contents, Java applet, World Wide Web, Browsing
    Bringing Treasures to the Surface: Previews and Overviews in a Prototype for the Library of Congress National Digital Library BIBAKPDF 187-188
      Catherine Plaisant; Gary Marchionini; Anita Komlodi
    We worked with a team from the Library of Congress (LC) to develop interface design components for LC's American Memory collections of historical multimedia materials. Our prototype illustrates the benefits of previews (such as samples, collections of thumbnails, and video previews) and overviews (such as timelines and automatically generated tables of contents) to facilitate the browsing of search results, or of entire unprocessed collections.
    Keywords: Digital libraries, World Wide Web, Browsing, Overviews, Multimedia, Metadata, Previews
    Using Elastic Windows for World-Wide Web Browsing BIBAKPDF 189-190
      Eser Kandogan; Ben Shneiderman
    Current World-Wide Web browsers can be enhanced to support the navigation needs of users. In this video, a new browsing interface is demonstrated with hierarchical page organization and efficient multiple page operations. Users can quickly organize, filter and restructure pages as they reformulate their goals. Overviews can give the user a sense of location as well as provide fast access to a hierarchy of pages.
    Keywords: World-Wide Web, Window management, User interfaces, Elastic Windows
    Semantic Highlighting BIBAKPDF 191-192
      Ali Hussam; Brian Ford; Jack Hyde; Ali Merayyan; Bill Plummer; Terry Anderson
    One method for locating information on the World Wide Web is to use a search engine (SE). Given a set of terms, a SE will return a list of documents containing those terms. Often though, this list of documents is extremely large. Unfortunately, there are currently no tools to assist the information seeker in determining whether these documents contain desired information, or just submitted terms. Two types of SE errors are possible: false positive errors result from the many connotations which words may convey, and false negative errors result from different wordings that express similar meanings. To solve these difficulties, we focus on meaning rather than terms developing a technique called Semantic Highlighting.
    Keywords: Semantic, Highlighting, Information retrieval, Visualize
    Developing a Community Intranet: Social Practices and Technology Interventions BIBAKPDF 193-194
      Rachel Bellamy; Eileen Genevro; Stephanie Houde; Lori Leahy; Gary Young
    How can learning and communication within communities be improved through the use of new technologies and practices? To answer this question, we investigated how members of small communities learn from each other during the course of their normal activities. We discovered that we needed to facilitate casual communication of current information and events without causing a lot of work for community members. To this end, we developed and deployed a working prototype of a community intranet, and evolved associated social practices.
    Keywords: Intranet, Learning community, Communication

    Workshops

    CHI 98 Basic Research Symposium BIBAKPDF 195
      Joseph A. Konstan; Jane Siegel
    The CHI Basic Research Symposium is a long-running special event that presents an opportunity for researchers from different disciplines to exchange new developments and insights from their own fields and thereby expand their vision of human-computer interaction. This two-day event is a cross between a mini-conference and a workshop. Participants are selected by a program committee that reviews submitted position papers to bring together a diverse group of researchers with innovative research underway. The symposium itself includes interactive research presentations, group discussions around common themes, and small-group break-out activities.
    Keywords: Basic research, New developments and insights, Interdisciplinary interaction
    Innovation and Evaluation in Information Exploration Interfaces BIBAPDF 196-197
      Gene Golovchinsky; Nicholas J. Belkin
    Information retrieval research traditionally has concerned itself with improving the effectiveness of indexing and retrieval mechanisms. Over the last twenty years, the field has seen data-handling capacity increase by orders of magnitude, and today search engines are close to becoming a commodity. Although much research has been conducted surrounding the use of information retrieval systems, our understanding how people interact with such technology has lagged behind. This workshop addresses user interface aspects of information exploration, the interactive use of information retrieval tools. We take a three-pronged approach by examining innovative interfaces, methods of empirical evaluation, and theoretical accounts.
    Incorporating Work, Process and Task Analysis into Commercial and Industrial Object-Oriented Systems Development BIBAPDF 198
      John Artim; Mark van Harmelen
    Discussion at last year's workshop, "Object-Oriented Model in User Interface Design," examined the role of object modeling in user interface design. The workshop's majority view concluded that (1) The extraction of a domain model provides us with a description of the users' world that positively facilitates subsequent user interface design activities, (2) System capabilities and many aspects of interaction with a system can be successfully modeled using objects, and (3) Process and task analysis are natural partners and mutual informants for object modeling.
       The workshop participants, during the workshop and while remotely collaborating on a summary paper, created a framework describing user interface design in the software development lifecycle. This framework can be used to represent the various documents and models used throughout the development lifecycle with particular emphasis placed on those descriptions employed in user interface design. The framework also expresses the relationships among these descriptions and between these descriptions and the referents in the user's world. This framework is described in the workshop summary paper published in the October 1997 issue of SIGCHI Bulletin.
    Innovative Interface Metaphors for Visual Media BIBAKPDF 199
      Arnd Steinmetz; Frank Nack; Nahum Gershon
    The purpose of the workshop is to explore new ideas for representations of visual media and to clarify the nature, scope, limits, and dangers of new interface metaphors for visual media.
    Keywords: CHI-98 Workshop, Visual media, Video, User interface
    Designing User Interfaces for Safety Critical Systems BIBAKPDF 200
      Philippe Palanque; Fabio Paterno; Peter Wright
    In the workshop we aim to review the state of art in the field, to give a framework to evaluate current approaches, and to identify promising research lines and the possible results which can be foreseen in the next years.
       We will focus on some specific issues which we feel relevant in this application area:
  • what is usability in a safety critical context and how to evaluate it,
  • how to analyse and prevent human error through system specification and
       implementation; possible classifications of human errors improving their
       understanding;
  • how to guarantee the safety of the possible interactions;
  • how to design for robust co-operation among the users in technologically
       mediated work.
    Keywords: Safety critical systems, User interface design, Usability formal methods, Human-centered design
  • From Task to Dialogue: Task-Based User Interface Design BIBAKPDF 201
      Birgit Bomsdorf; Gerd Szwillus
    Developing user interfaces is no more a mere technical software development task; successful user interface design has to be interdisciplinary, taking into account other aspects, such as psychological, social, organisational, and cognitive aspects. It is generally accepted that the tasks, the user has to fulfill with a system to be developed should play an important role in its design. Knowing the user's tasks enables the designer to construct user interfaces reflecting the tasks' properties, including efficient usage patterns, easy-to-use interaction sequences, and powerful assistance features.
       As a consequence, task modelling becomes a central part of the user interface design process. To accomplish this a systematic transition has to exist from task identification to user interface construction. Hence, a task model of how the user performs his or her tasks with the future system has to be defined. This model contains the task structure, the division of labour between user and system, as well as information about the objects used within tasks, otherwise referred to as object model. From this a dialogue model is constructed, a constructive abstraction of the finally implemented user interface. The dialogue model contains such information as to which objects exist in the user interface, what are their different possible states, which events are triggering state changes, and information about object visibility and activation.
    Keywords: Task model, Object model, Dialogue model, User interface design, Model integration
    Hyped-Media to Hyper-Media: Toward Theoretical Foundations of Design, Use and Evaluation BIBAKPDF 202-203
      N. Hari Narayanan
    The theme of the workshop is emerging theoretical foundations of design, use and evaluation of interactive hypermedia systems. The term hypermedia is used to encompass visualization, multimedia and hypermedia systems.
    Keywords: Hypermedia, Multimedia, Visualizations, Design, Navigation, Evaluation, Theory, Models
    The Toughest Web User Interface Challenges BIBAKPDF 204
      Richard Miller; Keith Rettig
    The mission of the workshop is to provide a forum for experienced designers to solve problems in a collaborative environment, while learning about new methods for understanding the problems (user-centered design methodologies) and for solving the problems (web tools and technologies). The goals are focused on the individual user getting the most out of the workshop. Participants will spend some time reviewing methods for extracting requirements and solving design issues with paper prototyping. Emphasis will also be placed on exploring the bounds of design using various web technologies like JavaScript, Java, HTML, frames, and layers.
    Keywords: Web design, Interface design, Usability, HTML, JavaScript, Java, User-centered design, Team design, GUI objects
    Unpacking Strategic Usability: Corporate Strategy and Usability Research BIBAKPDF 205-206
      Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judee Humburg; Janice Rohn
    Some of the issues we'll explore include:
  • Impact of organizational profiles (including characteristics such as size,
       culture, organizational structure, products and services, product life
       cycles) on strategic usability
  • Human factors as a bridge between marketing and development; ties between
       market research and usability research
  • Use of consultants as missionaries for usability research, as well as
       usability planners and implementers
  • What customer research activities are central to corporate planning
  • Organizational and educational barriers to implementing strategic usability
  • Management commitments or positioning needed to support strategic usability
    Keywords: Best practices, Business direction, Corporate planning, Corporate strategy, Customer data collection, Customer needs, Market positioning, Strategic planning, Strategic usability, Usability, Usability research, User-centered design
  • Too Much of a Good Thing? Identifying and Resolving Bloat in the User Interface BIBAKPDF 207-208
      Leah Kaufman; Brad Weed
    Software magazines continually point out how interface bloat -- too many features, menus, toolbars, icons, and buttons -- plagues today's software. Yet even in the face of such strong criticism there are still people who prefer big software packages and love to discover an application's many features and tools. Is it time for software to trim down or can we design interfaces that comfortably accommodate a large number of features? Which is better for computer users, a small set of commonly used features or access to hundreds?
       Through examples, discussions, debate, and our shared experience with interface design and use, we will try to reach a clear understanding of bloat and finally, a set of recommendations for addressing it.
    Keywords: Bloat, Features, Interface design
    Web Navigation: Resolving Conflicts Between the Desktop and the Web BIBAKPDF 209
      Hal Shubin; Ron Perkins
    Navigation on the Web is different from navigation on "traditional" platforms like Macintosh and Windows. Users of the new platform find a model of navigation that conflicts with the conceptual model they developed on the older platforms. Rather than finding ways for users to cope on this new platform, how can we design Web applications so people can work more easily, with fewer transfer-learning problems?
       Workshop members will discuss their experiences and ways to overcome the problems. They will walk away with a concrete understanding of the special requirements of navigation on the Web.
    Keywords: World Wide Web, Navigation, User model, Conceptual model
    Beyond Internet Business-as-Usual BIBAKPDF 210
      Markus Stolze; Patrick Steiger; Michael Good
    During the workshop, participants discuss their research and experience to:
  • Identify today's central practical problems,
  • Evaluate prototypes, technologies, and frameworks that show ways to transcend
       the current state of the art in Internet commerce and to accommodate growing
       user needs, and
  • Understand the ways in which electronic commerce can co-evolve with new
       shopper needs and new types of products and services.
    Keywords: Internet commerce, Electronic shopping, World Wide Web
  • Learner-Centered Design: Addressing, Finally, the Unique Needs of Learners BIBAPDF 211-212
      Sherry Hsi; Elliot Soloway
    In transitioning from UCD to LCD -- Learner-Centered Design -- we need to deeply appreciate the fact that learners have unique needs that go beyond those of professional users:
  • Growth: Learners change, however, not our current crop of software: the
       interface to our spreadsheet, say, is by and large the same on day 100 as it
       was on day 1. To support growth, then, interfaces must adapt and be
       adaptable.
  • Diversity: By definition, individuals in a profession share a significant
       degree of homogeneity. Software for a professional leverages quite directly
       off this homogeneity. In contrast, heterogeneity is the hallmark of
       learners. For example, in a representative public school classroom there
       will invariably be enormous differences in cognitive and social development,
       cultural background, and learning style.
  • Engagement: By definition, professionals can be counted on to attend and
       persevere; from batch processing to clunky teletypes, from screens upon
       screens of forms to arcane and arbitrary command sequences, professionals
       have repeatedly demonstrated that they will adjust to whatever it takes to
       get the job done. Children, on the other hand, are not so accommodating;
       while we are not advocating gratuitously sweet interfaces, designers must
       realize that helping to focus and engage learners is part of their
       responsibility.
  • Trust and Accountability: Preserving Human Values in Interactional Experience BIBAKPDF 213
      Batya Friedman; Jonathan Grudin
    Workshop Goals:
  • To explore with colleagues the societal value of trust and accountability,
       and the particular nature of trust and accountability in interactional
       experience.
  • To provide a forum (opportunity) for colleagues to discuss issues of trust
       and accountability in computer systems that have arisen from their own
       design experiences.
  • To work with colleagues to identify (1) positive designs and abuses of trust
       and accountability in computer systems, and (2) the elements of interface
       and system design that affect users' perceptions of trust and
       accountability.
  • To work with colleagues to generate design principles for preserving the
       values of trust and accountability in the design of future systems.
    Keywords: Accountability, Computer system design, Design methods, Ethics, Information systems, Social computing, Social impact, Trust, Value-sensitive design
  • User Interfaces for Computer-Based Patient Records BIBAKPDF 214
      Tom Brinck; Gary York
    This one-day workshop is meant to bring together designers, developers, users, and researchers developing or evaluating computer-based patient record (CPR) systems. The participants will discuss a variety of approaches including user interface guidelines, metaphors for design, evaluation of paper-based and CPR systems, design reviews, case studies, and workflow analysis.
    Keywords: Computer-based patient record, Medical record, Healthcare information systems, User interface design

    Late Breaking Results: Support for Design: Experiments and Cybertools

    Humor in Task-Oriented Computer-Mediated Communication and Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 215-216
      John Morkes; Hadyn K. Kernal; Clifford Nass
    Two experiments examined the effects of humor in task-oriented computer-mediated communication (CMC) and human-computer interaction (HCI). Compared to control-group participants, participants who had received jokes: rated the "person" or computer they worked with as more likable and competent; reported greater cooperation; joked back more often; responded in a more sociable (i.e., polite and friendly) manner; and smiled and laughed more. Compared to CMC participants, however, HCI participants were less sociable and smiled and laughed less. Theoretical and design implications are discussed.
    Keywords: HCI, CMC, Human-computer interaction, Computer-mediated communication, Humor, Interaction design, Social responses to communication technologies
    Evaluating the Use of Pictographical Representations for TV Menus BIBAKPDF 217-218
      J. H. D. M. Westerink; M. van der Korst; G. Roberts
    We address the use of pictographic representations in an entertainment-type, domestic situation of use. In a small-scale experiment 20 subjects worked with two versions of a TV-guide simulation: one mainly pictographically-based, one mainly text-based. They were asked for their impressions as well as requested to fulfil a series of tasks covering the entire functionality of the TV-guide. Conclusions underline the necessity of some form of personalization in the user interface, and the importance of efficiency and effectiveness despite the enhanced attractiveness through enhanced graphics.
    Keywords: Entertainment, Graphics, User interface, Pictures, Visual indices, User evaluations
    To Click or Not To Click: A Comparison of Two Target-Selection Methods for HCI BIBAKPDF 219-220
      Michael Bohan; Alex Chaparro
    This paper reports a preliminary investigation of different methods for target selection on a computer screen using a mouse. Specifically, an experiment compared the standard point-and-click method to a mouse-over method, whereby the target was automatically selected after the cursor and target were superpositioned for 200 ms. Results indicated that the mouse-over method resulted in a significant reduction in target-acquisition time across a range of target widths. The implication of these findings to task optimization are then considered.
    Keywords: Computer mouse, Target selection, Mouse-over
    PatchWork: A Software Tool for Early Design BIBAKPDF 221-222
      Maarten van de Kant; Stephanie Wilson; Mathilde Bekker; Hilary Johnson; Peter Johnson
    In this paper we describe the design and motivation for a novel prototyping tool to support the exploration of early design ideas. This software tool, PatchWork, allows the designer to rapidly create rough looking, runnable prototypes using simple building blocks which we call patches. Patches are arbitrary-shaped digital images, typically of low-tech design materials or domain objects. Prototypes are constructed through the specification of storyboards.
    Keywords: Prototyping, Design representations, Interface construction tools, User involvement, Early design exploration
    Linking Between Multiple Points in Design Documents BIBAKPDF 223-224
      Steven Clarke; Gilbert Cockton
    Several software engineering (SE) tools provide hypertext style navigation and cross referencing between design and implementation descriptions. Such tools may increase developers' understanding of a design by making explicit the dependencies between its components. Currently however, no such tool support exists which covers contextual information. In this paper we report on an investigation into the benefits that explicit relationships between descriptions of context and descriptions of designs may bring. We built a prototype development system and used it to uncover some of the issues involved in creating and maintaining a set of explicit relationships. One of the issues to emerge concerned the ability to link between several aspects of context and/or design in a single link. Our experiences with multi-point links in our LD tool are briefly summarised.
    Keywords: Context, Hypertext, Case tools
    A Study of Commenting Agents as Design Support BIBAKPDF 225-226
      Mikael Ericsson; Magnus Bauren; Jonas Lowgren; Yvonne Wærn
    Sixteen subjects were observed using a simulated (Wizard-of-Oz) commenting agent in a design support system. Different commenting behavior was tested, and the overall usefulness evaluated. The interaction was logged and recorded on video, and the subjects rated the agent with respect to usefulness, understandability, system competence, disturbance and perceived stress. Perceived mental workload was measured using RTLX. The results show that a commenting tool is seen as disturbing but useful, that the comments from an active tool risk being overlooked, and that comments pointing out ways of overcoming identified design problems are the easiest to understand.
    Keywords: Design support, Commenting system, Wizard-of-Oz

    Late Breaking Results: See How You Feel: New Input Techniques and Modalities

    Frustrating the User On Purpose: Using Biosignals in a Pilot Study to Detect the User's Emotional State BIBAKPDF 227-228
      Jocelyn Riseberg; Jonathan Klein; Raul Fernandez; Rosalind W. Picard
    Our goal was to develop a computer system trained to sense a user's emotional state via the recognition of physiological signals. In the course of developing an exploratory pilot study toward this end, we encountered and addressed unique and context-dependent interface design and synchronization challenges. We used social science methods to induce a state of frustration in users, collected the physiological data, and developed an effective strategy for coupling these data with real-world events.
    Keywords: Affect, Affective computing, User interface, Human-computer interaction, Biosensing, Emotion physiology
    Touchpad-Based Remote Control Devices BIBAKPDF 229-230
      Neil R. N. Enns; I. Scott MacKenzie
    A new style of remote control device (RCD) that incorporates a touchpad for input is described. Unistrokes created through touch are used to issue commands and select menu items presented on a television screen. The design addresses the drawbacks of traditional RCDs, such as an over-abundance of buttons and the lack of alphanumeric input. We have assembled a prototype using a Windows95-based computer, an infrared card, and a touchpad. Future developments and research plans for the touchpad-based RCD are also discussed.
    Keywords: Remote control devices, Touchpads, Television, Unistroke recognition, Input devices, Convergent technologies
    Tracking Hands Above Large Interactive Surfaces with a Low-Cost Scanning Laser Rangefinder BIBAKPDF 231-232
      Joshua Strickon; Joseph Paradiso
    We have developed an inexpensive scanning laser rangefinder to measure the real-time position of bare hands in a 2-D plane up to distances of several meters. We have used this device to build a precise, multipoint "touchscreen" interface for large video projection systems. In this paper, we describe the concepts and hardware, plus outline an application for an interactive multimedia environment.
    Keywords: Laser rangefinder, Hand tracker, Touchscreen, Music interface
    Comparing Single- and Two-Handed 3D Input for a 3D Object Assembly Task BIBAKPDF 233-234
      Maarten W. Gribnau; James M. Hennessey
    In this paper, we describe the design and evaluation of an interface for 3D object assembly that can be operated with either one or two hands. The justification for applying two-handed input is evaluated by studying the results of an experiment in which the performance of single- and two-handed operation are compared. Performance is established using the time needed to complete a 3D object assembly task. Experimental data show that the two-handed interface takes more time to learn but eventually leads to faster completion times within a one hour period. It is therefore concluded that the choice for two-handed input is appropriate.
    Keywords: 3-D interfaces, Input devices, Two-handed input
    Real Handles, Virtual Images BIBAKPDF 235-236
      Colin Ware; Jeff Rose
    There is a large difference between the times reported for rotating virtual objects and the time it takes to rotate real objects. This is a preliminary report of three experiments designed to establish the reasons for this different and to help design interfaces for object positioning.
    Keywords: Input devices, Virtual reality, Two handed input
    A Kinetic and 3D Image Input Device BIBAKPDF 237-238
      Shunichi Numazaki; Akira Morishita; Naoko Umeki; Minoru Ishikawa; Miwako Doi
    Gesture recognition in real time can bridge a gap between humans and computers. Object segmentation from the background is a critical problem in the conventional gesture recognition technology. We have developed a new input device which can detect a kinetic and 3D image of a hand in real time. We call it "Motion Processor".
       The Motion Processor with infrared light sources and an area sensor can detect the refleeted light image of a hand at 30 frames per second. The image resolution is 64 pixels by 64 pixels. It is easy to recognize gestures and motions in real time based on the detected hand images. This gesture recognition bridges a gap between humans and computers.
    Keywords: Input device, Gesture, Motion, 3D-shape, Image input device

    Late Breaking Results: The Raw and the Cooked: Experiments and Applications of Speech Interaction

    The Sound of Your Stuff: Designing a Complex Auditory Display for an Interactive Museum Exhibit BIBAKPDF 239-240
      Maribeth Back; Jonathan Cohen
    We describe the design and implementation of a complex sonic environment for Portable Effects, a museum exhibit consisting of several interactive stations. The installation employs different types of auditory display in combination, as navigational aids or as auditory representations of actions and processes. Three aspects of the work are discussed: determining appropriate types of sounds and their mappings to particular actions and processes; adjusting sonic content, placement, and balance for maximum effect; and most importantly, integrating the individual stations into a cohesive aural experience.
    Keywords: Audio, Auditory icons, Auditory display, Audible interface, Sound design, Exhibit, Museum, Interactive audio, Interactive exhibit, Exploratorium
    Synchronization of Speech and Hand Gestures during Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 241-242
      Marie-Luce Bourguet; Akio Ando
    In this paper, we describe an experiment that studies temporal synchronization between speech (Japanese) and hand pointing gestures. Gesture (G) is shown to be synchronized with either the nominal or deictic ("this", "that", "here", etc.) expression of a phrase. It is also shown that G is predictable in the [-200 ms, 400 ms] interval around the beginning of its related expression. The use of such a quantitative model of natural speech and gesture integration (in the multimodal interface and the speech recognition system), is also discussed.
    Keywords: Multimodal interaction, Speech recognition, Hand gestures, Synchrony, Predictive model
    "Just Speak Naturally": Designing for Naturalness in Automated Spoken Dialogues BIBAKPDF 243-244
      David Williams; Christine Cheepen
    This paper describes an experiment carried out in the domain of telephone banking, and investigates the notion of naturalness in human-machine spoken dialogues. The experiment showed that 'denatured' prompts which were stripped of human-like constructs were preferable to callers, and achieved transaction times similar to those resulting from a typical telebanking dialogue.
    Keywords: Spoken dialogues, Naturalness, Usability
    Speech Recognition, Children, and Reading BIBAKPDF 245-246
      Don Nix; Peter Fairweather; Bill Adams
    In this paper we describe a speech recognition system for teaching reading skills to young children, and various research issues and activities necessary to make the system work. A full-scale application is described, which embodies the research. The application interacts with a child to help him or her read, and provides opportunities for the child to show off what he or she has read, and to annotate the reading with audio and video comments. Special focus is given to creating an acoustic model specifically for children, and to designing an interface to deal with complexities of a speech recognition application.
    Keywords: Speech recognition, Reading instruction, Children, Education
    Play It Again: A Study of the Factors Underlying Speech Browsing Behavior BIBAKPDF 247-248
      Steve Whittaker; Julia Hirschberg; Christine H. Nakatani
    Several recent UIs support access to recorded speech archives, but these have not yet been systematically evaluated. We describe a laboratory study of speech archive browsing using a GUI. We evaluate the effects of four factors: task type, familiarity, structure, and play operation duration. We found that while users learnt the overall layout of topics in the archive, they experienced major problems in learning the internal structure of archival topics. Contrary to our expectations, we also discovered that structural information and fixed duration play operations were less useful for browsing than anticipated. We discuss the impact of our results for speech archive UI design, and describe a new UI which supports navigation within topic.
    Keywords: Speech archives, Browsing, Search, Retrieval
    All Talk and All Action: Strategies for Managing Voicemail Messages BIBAKPDF 249-250
      Steve Whittaker; Julia Hirschberg; Christine H. Nakatani
    Voicemail is a pervasive technology, but we know little about how users manage voice messages in executing everyday work. We analyze server logs, user surveys and interviews to identify three problems users experience in managing their voicemail: scanning, information extraction and search. We also isolate three distinct voicemail processing strategies, and discuss the relative merits of each strategy. We make recommendations about how voicemail might be redesigned to better address these problems and support these strategies.
    Keywords: Voicemail, Speech archives, Workplace communication

    Late Breaking Results: Ubiquitous Usability Engineering

    Focus Troupe: Using Drama to Create Common Context for New Product Concept End-User Evaluations BIBAPDF 251-252
      Tony Salvador; Karen Howells
    We offer a new technique for eliciting contextually relevant, personally experiential user feedback for products that do not yet exist. Too often customers and users are required to provide input on radically new product concepts with which, by definition, they have no direct experience. While traditional marketing techniques, e.g., focus groups and surveys, appear adequate for evaluating existing products with which customers have direct experience, these existing techniques offer only limited satisfaction for evaluating new product concepts where there is no customer experience. Based on our experiences, we note that one primary reason for this limited utility is the variable use-contexts prevalent among the individual customers due to a product presentation format that cannot offer a common context, e.g., a foil set. Focus Troupe is a technique whereby dramatic vignettes are presented to an audience of potential customers in which the new product concept is featured merely as a prop or even as a dramatic element, but not as an existing piece of technology. The vignette casts familiar or common situations where the particulars differ based on the new invention, thereby contextually highlighting the new concept against a familiar and common background. In our experience, the actual production of a Focus Troupe event is efficient and speedier than that of a more traditional focus group. The engaging presentation, the common background and no need for actual product concepts offers a unique methodology for eliciting relevant comments from otherwise naive customers about products that do not exist.
    Remote Usability Evaluation: Can Users Report Their Own Critical Incidents? BIBAKPDF 253-254
      Jose C. Castillo; H. Rex Hartson; Deborah Hix
    In this paper, we briefly introduce the user-reported critical incident method (originally called semi-instrumented critical incident gathering [3]) for remote usability evaluation, and describe results and lessons learned in its development and use. Our findings indicate that users can, in fact, identify and report their own critical incidents.
    Keywords: Remote usability evaluation, Remote evaluation, Usability evaluation, Critical incidents, User-initiated, Usability data
    The Evaluator Effect in Usability Tests BIBAKPDF 255-256
      Niels Ebbe Jacobsen; Morten Hertzum; Bonnie E. John
    Usability tests are applied in industry to evaluate systems and in research as a yardstick for other usability evaluation methods. However, one potential threat to the reliability of usability tests has been left unaddressed: the evaluator effect. In this study, four evaluators analyzed four videotaped usability test sessions. Only 20% of the 93 unique problems were detected by all four evaluators and 46% were detected by only a single evaluator. Severe problems were detected more often by all four evaluators (41%) and less often by only one evaluator (22%) but a substantial evaluator effect remained.
    Keywords: Usability, User testing, Usability test, Evaluator effect
    Analytical versus Empirical Evaluation of Spatial Displays BIBAKPDF 257-258
      Mountaz Hascoet
    In this paper, we propose a methodology for evaluating spatial display techniques. Our approach is based on two different types of evaluation: analytical experiments and user studies. This approach is important because it uncovers aspects not detected when either technique is used alone. We apply this approach to the comparison of two different layout techniques.
    Keywords: Spatial layout algorithms, Analytic versus empirical evaluation, Visualization, Browsing
    The Effect of Task Description Detail on Evaluator Performance with Cognitive Walkthroughs BIBAKPDF 259-260
      Andrew Sears; David J. Hess
    Inspection-based evaluation techniques are popular because they can be fast, require limited formal training, and can find numerous usability problems. To speed the evaluation process and reduce the need for formal training in cognitive psychology, the cognitive walkthrough process was revised to incorporate detailed step-by-step task descriptions. This paper reports on a study that investigated the influence of this change. The results indicate that providing detailed step-by-step task descriptions significantly changes the types of problems found. These results should influence both future research and how practitioners apply this technique.
    Keywords: Cognitive walkthrough, User interface evaluation
    Comparison of GOMS Analysis Methods BIBAKPDF 261-262
      Joel D. Baskin; Bonnie E. John
    Although members of the same family of techniques, the Keystroke Level Model and CPM-GOMS often predict different execution times for the same task [4]. Our data suggest that KLM describes error-free performance of a skilled user with little practice on a particular task whereas CPM-GOMS describes error-free performance after extensive practice. A participant completed a task 500 times using two different methods. Observed times for the first error-free trial were close to the times predicted by KLM and quickly decreased with practice to more closely match those predicted by CPM-GOMS. The biggest contributor to the change were mental operators, which decreased markedly in both duration and frequency, although the duration of pointing also decreased.
    Keywords: GOMS, Cognitive models, User models

    Late Breaking Results: Suite: The Real and the Virtual: Integrating Architectural and Information Spaces

    Integrated Design of Real Architectural Spaces and Virtual Information Spaces BIBAKPDF 263-264
      Norbert A. Streitz
    This paper presents an introduction to the Suite "Integrated design of real architectural spaces and virtual information spaces". It discusses the affordances of architectural spaces serving as information spaces and vice versa. As a consequence, it argues for a two-way augmentation of these two worlds were are living in. It concludes with an overview of the papers of this Suite.
    Keywords: Augmented reality, Physical space, Architecture, Virtual space, Ambient information, Workspace design
    Shuffle, Throw or Take It! Working Efficiently with an Interactive Wall BIBAKPDF 265-266
      Jorg Geissler
    In this paper, we report on interaction techniques for very large displays such as interactive walls. Since display space is a crucial aspect for most visually-oriented tasks, we developed an interactive wall with an active area of 4.5 meters width, 1.1 meters height, and with 3072x768 pixels. At this wall, three users are able to work simultaneously on separate areas using pen, finger, and hand gestures. They can shuffle display objects around, throw them to other users standing at the opposite side of the wall, they can take objects from the wall and put them back at another location without explicit mode changes.
    Keywords: Computer-augmented reality, Roomware, Gestures, Pen-based computing, Group interfaces, Interaction techniques
    Communication Chairs Examples of Mobile Roomware BIBAKPDF 267-268
      Christian Muller-Tomfelde; Wolfgang Reischl
    This paper describes the current state of our work on computer-augmented chairs, designed to be part of team work spaces. These chairs have either a pen-based computer display or a laptop docking facility integrated into their armrest. Equipped with accumulators and an antenna device, the chairs are entirely wireless and easy to move and to rearrange for the needs of different work situations.
    Keywords: Computer-augmented reality, Roomware, Pen-based computing, Wireless networking, Mobile computing, Position detection, Computer-supported cooperative work
    Water Lamp and Pinwheels: Ambient Projection of Digital Information into Architectural Space BIBAKPDF 269-270
      Andrew Dahley; Craig Wisneski; Hiroshi Ishii
    We envision that the architectural spaces we inhabit will be an interface between humans and online digital information. This paper introduces ambient fixtures called Water Lamp and Pinwheels: a new approach to interfacing people with online digital information. The Water Lamp projects water ripple shadow created by a "rain of bits." The Pinwheels spin in a "bit wind." These ambient fixtures present information within an architectural space through subtle changes in light, sound, and movement, which can be processed in the background of awareness. We describe the design and implementation of the Water Lamp and the Pinwheels, and discuss their potential applications as well as design issues.
    Keywords: Ambient media, Tangible bits, Tangible user interface, ambientROOM, Ambient fixtures, Architectural space, Lights
    Adding Another Communication Channel to Reality: An Experience with a Chat-Augmented Conference BIBAKPDF 271-272
      Jun Rekimoto; Yuji Ayatsuka; Hirotaka Uoi; Toshifumi Arai
    This paper reports our recent experience with a 3-day technical conference, which was fully augmented by a chat system and a telepresence camera. In this trial, the chat acted as a sub-channel to reality; participants both in local and remote conference rooms can freely interchange their thoughts or opinions inspired by presentations through the chat. We observed several interactions between virtual (chat) and real discussions during the conference -- namely, (1) Chat discussions often activated discussions in the real world, while treating tiny questions, (2) Co-authors could provide supplemental information through the chat while the first author was presenting, and (3) Participants who were not familiar with the research topic could get more understanding from the chat. We also observed the effect of anthropomorphic representation by switching the chat system between text- and comic-based.
    Keywords: Chat, Computer-supported conferences
    Basics of Integrated Information and Physical Spaces: The State of the Art BIBAKPDF 273-274
      Norbert A. Streitz; Daniel M. Russell
    This paper presents an overview of selected work relevant to the problem domain of the suite "Integrated design of real architectural spaces and virtual information spaces".
    Keywords: Augmented reality, Ubiquitous computing, Tangible bits, Ambient media, Collaborative work spaces, Roomware
    The Future of Integrated Design of Ubiquitous Computing in Combined Real & Virtual Worlds BIBAKPDF 275-276
      Daniel M. Russell; Mark Weiser
    Building real/virtual information environments relies on a kind of ubiquity. And ubiquitous computing means placing computers everywhere in the user environment, providing ways for them to interconnect, talk and work together. In designing integrated real & virtual worlds, building ubiquity into information services and devices will be a prerequisite goal. Much work has gone into the particulars of display devices and input-output devices, while relatively little has focused on the invisible problem of actually getting all these devices and resources to work together.
       Three important directions for future work in real & virtual ubiquitous computing seem clear: (1) devices work will continue (creating novel kinds of output and input devices in places where people can use them), (2) transparent communication (between devices, information and people must become more functional and standard), and (3) the user experience design (so people can use the constellation of devices and information resources available to them).
    Keywords: Ubiquitous computing, Real worlds, Virtual worlds

    Late Breaking Results: So Far Yet So Close: Intimacy and Awareness in CSCW

    Computer Support for Distance Art Therapy BIBAKPDF 277-278
      Davor Cubranic; Kellogg S. Booth; Kate Collie
    We present the results of user testing of a system we developed to support distance art therapy and discuss problems that were identified with refinements to the system to prevent or ameliorate them.
    Keywords: Health care applications, Shared workspaces, Art, Therapy
    A Room of Your Own: What Would it Take to Help Remote Groups Work as Well as Collocated Groups? BIBAKPDF 279-280
      Judith S. Olson; Lisa Covi; Elena Rocco; William J. Miller; Paul Allie
    Remotely located teams have difficulty and today's groupware is not totally successful in helping them. To inform our design of future groupware, we investigated the work habits of teams that have nearly the ideal: they work in dedicated project rooms. We conducted field work that included interviews and observations of teams in 9 U.S. companies who had dedicated project rooms and a 6 week study of one site. We found that the team members reported clear advantages of being collocated: increased learning, motivation, and coordination. Future groupware for remote groups must at least support large, persistent, shared visual displays, awareness of team members' activities, and various signals to others about the importance of the work.
    Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work, Groupware, Teamwork, Space
    Tickertape: Awareness in a Single Line BIBAKPDF 281-282
      Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Sara Parsowith; Bill Segall; Simon Kaplan
    This paper describes an awareness tool called Tickertape. Tickertape is a lightweight, highly tailorable tool that provides an interface to a world of transient information via a single-line scrolling message window. We overview Tickertape, describing both its unidirectional and bidirectional message groups and its time-out feature. We then illustrate how it is being used within one organisation.
    Keywords: Awareness, CSCW, Groupware, Event notification
    People Presence or Room Activity: Supporting Peripheral Awareness over Distance BIBAKPDF 283-284
      Elin Ronby Pedersen
    Peripheral awareness is a powerful human resource that has only recently been addressed in media space design. The challenge is to figure out what would be important to convey remotely and to strike a balance between too much and too little. Symbolic representation of remote activity is a powerful way to go, but as it turns out also easy to do wrong. This paper presents some early findings on problems and promises of using symbolic representation: it reports from informal studies of people using the AROMA prototype in regular office and home settings, and it conveys some lessons on designing appropriate and effective symbolic representations.
    Keywords: Awareness, Activity, Presence, Symbolic representation
    Peripheral Participants in Mediated Communication BIBAKPDF 285-286
      Andrew F. Monk; Leon A. Watts
    When more than two people take part in a conversation or work task their involvement may be either as 'primary' or 'peripheral' participants depending on whether or not they are actively involved in the current shared task. This distinction was operationalised in an experiment. An interested peripheral participant listened in to the conversation of two others, one of whom was in the same room and one of whom was remote. Whether one was a primary or peripheral participant had a large effect on ratings of social presence, larger than the effect of whether one was remote or copresent.
    Keywords: Video-mediated communication, Overhearing, Participation, Awareness, Presence
    When Two Hands Are Better Than One: Enhancing Collaboration Using Single Display Groupware BIBAKPDF 287-288
      Jason Stewart; Elaine M. Raybourn; Ben Bederson; Allison Druin
    In this paper, we describe Single Display Groupware, a software model that enables multiple users to work simultaneously at a single computer display. We discuss the collaborative benefits observed during a pilot study of the SDG application, KidPad.
    Keywords: CSCW, Children, Single display groupware, Educational application, Input devices, Pad++, KidPad

    Late Breaking Results: Great E-Scapes: Electronic Landscapes and Soundscapes

    Experiments in Inhabited TV BIBAPDF 289-290
      Steve Benford; Chris Greenhalgh; Chris Brown; Graham Walker; Tim Regan; Paul Rea; Jason Morphett; John Wyver
    Inhabited TV involves the public deployment of collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) so that on-line audiences can participate in TV shows within shared virtual worlds. This extends traditional broadcast TV and more recent interactive TV by enabling social interaction among participants and by offering them new forms of control over narrative structure (e.g., navigation within a virtual world) and greater interaction with content (e.g., direct manipulation of props and sets). Inhabited TV also builds on recent research into CVEs as social environments, including experiments with Internet-based virtual worlds [2] and the development of more scaleable research platforms. This involves more explicitly focusing on issues of production, management, format and participation arising from the staging of events within virtual worlds. The potential size of Inhabited TV audiences also challenges the scaleability of CVEs.
    The Lightwork Performance: Algorithmically Mediated Interaction for Virtual Environments BIBAPDF 291-292
      John Bowers; Sten-Olof Hellstrom; Kai-Mikael Jaa-Aro
    In this paper, we describe the human-computer interaction concepts we have built into an improvisatory performance art work called Lightwork. This -- a 15 minute long piece combining electroacoustic music with the real-time construction and navigation of back-projected virtual environments (VEs) -- has combined artistic, social and computer science skills, building on our experience and studies of [1,2]. Multi-disciplinary design of this sort is typical of work at the Centre for User-Oriented IT-Design (CID) at the Royal Institute of Technology.
    Look Who's Talking: The GAZE Groupware System BIBAKPDF 293-294
      Roel Vertegaal; Harro Vons; Robert Slagter
    The GAZE Groupware System is a multiparty mediated system which provides support for gaze awareness in communication and collaboration. The system uses an advanced, desk-mounted eyetracker to metaphorically convey gaze awareness in a 3D virtual meeting room and within shared documents.
    Keywords: CSCW, Awareness, Eyetracking, VRML2
    Looking for Sound? Selling Perceptual Space in Hierarchically Nested Boxes BIBAKPDF 295-296
      Roel Vertegaal; Barry Eaglestone
    ISEE3D is a 3D musical sound browser which uses nested boxes to allow browsing through a hierarchy of perceptually organized sound spaces.
    Keywords: Multimedia, Database, Musical sound, 3D, Dataglove
    Using Earcons to Improve the Usability of Tool Palettes BIBAPDF 297-298
      Stephen A. Brewster
    This paper describes an experiment to investigate the effectiveness of adding sound to tool palettes. Palettes have usability problems because users need to see the information they present but they are often outside the area of visual focus. Non-speech sounds called earcons were used to indicate the current tool and tool changes so that users could tell what tool was in use, wherever they were looking. Experimental results showed a significant reduction in the number of tasks performed with the wrong tool. Users knew what the current tool was and did not try to perform tasks with the wrong one.
    Multi-Parameter Controllers for Audio Mixing BIBAKPDF 299-300
      Craig Wisneski; Ed Hammond
    This paper describes the design of multi-parameter controllers for sound engineering applications. These devices accept multi-dimensional input to allow simultaneous control of many parameters. We describe two gestural input devices and their application to sound spatialization tasks.
    Keywords: Multi-parameter control, Sound mixing, Sound spatialization, Recording consoles, Tangible user interface

    Late Breaking Results: Look and Learn: Visualization and Education Too

    The Usability of Transparent Overview Layers BIBAKPDF 301-302
      Donald A. Cox; Jasdeep S. Chugh; Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg
    Viewports into large visual workspaces are sometimes supplemented by a separate window that displays a miniaturized overview of the entire workspace. Instead of this separate window, we have layered a transparent version of the overview atop the viewport. Because the overview fills the display, it becomes the largest size possible. An exploratory study indicates that people can use this unusual system, where they switch between layers when performing a construction task.
    Keywords: Transparent interfaces, Overviews, Groupware
    MetricViews: Design of Multiple Spreadsheets into a Single Dynamic View BIBAKPDF 303-304
      David Small; Yin Yin Wong; Sergio Canetti
    In this paper, we describe MetricViews, a Java applet in which multiple spreadsheet views are presented in a singular dynamic context. Instead of publishing a large number of discrete spreadsheets and graphs, each of which would show a particular subset of information, we designed an interactive display with which users can construct a wide variety of views into the information space. A structured information tool enables users to construct meaningful views and shift between them without losing context. Our approach is to constrain the choices to a set of interrelated views derived from careful analysis of the information. By carefully designing a hierarchy of information and by displaying continuous transitions between views we intend to provide users with a simple yet very effective way of finding and understanding complex data.
    Keywords: Spreadsheet, Visualization, Interactive graphics, Information design
    Goal-Directed Zoom BIBAKPDF 305-306
      Allison Woodruff; James Landay; Michael Stonebraker
    We introduce a novel zoom method, goal-directed zoom. In a goal-directed zoom system, users specify which representation of an object they wish to see. The system automatically zooms to the elevation at which that representation appears at appropriate detail. We have extended a database visualization environment to support end-user construction of visualizations that have goal-directed zoom. We present a sample visualization we have constructed using this environment.
    Keywords: Clutter, Information density, Semantic zoom, Visualization
    Integrated Multi Scale Text Retrieval Visualization BIBAKPDF 307-308
      Karlis Kaugars
    We present a viewer for text retrieval presentation which implements a novel approach to detail + context views of information. The viewer presents multiple documents at any of four different levels of detail without distortion and allows the user to easily compare retrieved documents.
    Keywords: Text display, Information presentation, Detail + Context technique
    Designing Visualization Tools for Learning BIBAKPDF 309-310
      Brian J. Foley
    Computer visualizations can be a powerful tool for teaching students about science. But educational visualizations need to be designed with students in mind so that the interface is not only easy to use, but also helps students understand the science that is being visualized. This study looks at the design of visualization tools for middle school students learning thermodynamics. Educational research suggested that a dot-density representation of temperature would help students understanding. Assessments of the visualizations show a significant effect on students' understanding.
    Keywords: Visualization, Education, Science, Representation
    Symphony: Exploring User Interface Representations for Learner-Centered Process Scaffolding BIBAKPDF 311-312
      Chris Quintana; Elliot Soloway; Joseph Krajcik; Andrew Carra; Matt Houser; Mike McDonald; Mike Mouradian; Aaron Saarela; Naresh Vyas; Michele Wisnudel
    We introduce Symphony, a supportive integrated environment for high-school science students. The process of science inquiry is a complex one that is difficult for novice learners to perform. With Symphony, we are exploring how to provide effective process support for the learner by conceptualizing complex processes in the user interface. We have begun by using flow diagrams and timelines in the interface. As we continue, we will evaluate and characterize these and other representations to see how to best support novice learners in the "doing" of a complex process.
    Keywords: Learner-centered tools, Process scaffolding, Supportive integrated environments, Process visualization

    Late Breaking Results: Humble and Terrific -- CHI-Lot's Web

    The Rise of Personal Web Pages at Work BIBAPDF 313-314
      Sara Bly; Linda Cook; Tim Bickmore; Elizabeth Churchill; Joseph W. Sullivan
    A series of 20 interviews in four organizations explores the ways in which employees take advantage of personal web pages to support their work and to reflect who they are. Both interviewee comments and web page examples suggest the importance of individual personalization of information management and dissemination, presentation and perception of personality, and usage from the reader's perspective. These results can inform the development of future web technologies for use in organizations. Furthermore, this self representation on web pages is a way of making individual knowledge more available in the workplace.
    Does Every Link Have the Same Usability? An Exploratory Study of the Link Structure of Cyber Malls BIBAKPDF 315-316
      Jinwoo Kim; Byunggon Yoo
    Designing an effective link structure is critical for effective navigation in cyber shopping malls. In this study, the usability of three types of add-on links are evaluated through measures of frequency of use, rate of recall, and perceived convenience of navigation. The results indicate that the usage rate is interrelated with both the recall rate and the convenience of navigation, and that not all add-on links increase the convenience of navigation.
    Keywords: Link structure, Add-on links, Cyber shopping mall
    Polynesian Navigation: Locomotion and Previewing Aspects BIBAKPDF 317-318
      Kent Wittenburg; Wissam Ali-Ahmad; Daniel LaLiberte; Tom Lanning
    In investigations of navigation for information spaces we have been inspired by the navigational methods of seagoing peoples of Polynesia and Micronesia (Hutchins 1983). From them we borrow a notion of locomotion in which the traveller remains stationary and the terrain moves relative to the traveller. We discuss two prototypes for navigation tools in Web information spaces in which images are used the primary means for presenting Meta-information about locale (web pages), movement is modelled as a flowstream of information coming to the user, and orientation is visualised through positions in ordered sequences. The goal is to increase navigability by allowing the user to quickly preview many possible moves before the next step is taken.
    Keywords: Navigation, Information spaces, Web
    A Java-Based Approach to Active Collaborative Filtering BIBAKPDF 319-320
      Christopher Lueg; Christoph Landolt
    In this paper, we present a collaborative filtering approach to webpage filtering. The system supports users in exchanging recommendations and exploits the social relation between recommenders and recipients of recommendations instead of computing a degree of interest. In order to help users estimate the potential interestingness of a recommended webpage, the system augments the recommendation object with additional data indicating how previous recipients of the recommendation have dealt with the corresponding webpage. The system has been implemented as a collection of personal user agents exchanging recommendations with a central recommendation server. The user agents are implemented as Java applets and the recommendation server is a Java remote object realized as object factory.
    Keywords: Situatedness, Collaborative filtering, WWW, Java
    Applying Writing Guidelines to Web Pages BIBAKPDF 321-322
      John Morkes; Jakob Nielsen
    Web users generally prefer writing that is concise, easy to scan, and objective (rather than promotional) in style, research has shown. We incorporated these and other attributes into a redesign of Web content. Doing so required trade-offs and some hard decisions, but the results were positive. The rewritten website scored 159% higher than the original in measured usability. Compared with original-site users, users of the rewritten site reported higher subjective satisfaction and performed better in terms of task time, task errors, and memory. Implications for website writing and design are discussed.
    Keywords: WWW, World Wide Web, Writing, Reading, Page design
    A Method for Evaluating Web Page Design Concepts BIBAKPDF 323-324
      Thomas S. Tullis
    In redesigning the Intranet at Fidelity Investments, we used a paper-based technique for getting user feedback on initial design concepts for the web pages. The technique involved color printouts of "Greeked" versions of five different candidate web page designs. Users had to try to identify nine standard elements that appeared on each page (e.g., owner, last updated). They also rated each on three subjective rating scales (format, attractiveness, color). The technique was successful in helping us to derive a new design.
    Keywords: Web design, Intranet, User feedback, Evaluation

    Late Breaking Results: 20 Ames Street, Cambridge, MA 02139

    The Baby Sense Environment: Enriching and Monitoring Infants' Experiences and Communication BIBAKPDF 325-326
      Gili Weinberg; Rich Fletcher; Seum-Lim Gan
    The BabySense Environment is an integrated system designed to enhance an infant's sensory-motor experience, to allow parents and relatives to remotely monitor infant's development, and to enable new types of interactions with other infants. The system also demonstrates alternate peripheral means of displaying information such as lights, sound and a kinetic sculpture.
    Keywords: Infants, Sensory-motor, Background monitoring, Foreground monitoring, Interaction, Communication
    PingPongPlus: Augmentation and Transformation of Athletic Interpersonal Interaction BIBAKPDF 327-328
      Craig Wisneski; Julian Orbanes; Hiroshi Ishii
    PingPongPlus (PP+) is a digitally enhanced version of the classic ping-pong game. We have designed a digital layer of audio/visual augmentation on top of a conventional ping-pong table using a newly developed ball tracking system and video projection. The "reactive table" displays patterns of light and shadow as a game is played, and the rhythm and style of play drives accompanying sound. In the process, this project explores new ways to couple athletic recreation and social interaction with engaging digital enhancements. This paper describes the basic idea, research agenda, several applications, technical implementation, and initial experiences.
    Keywords: Augmented reality, Reactive surface, Athletic / kinesthetic interaction, Computer-supported collaborative play, Interactive media art
    GroupWear: Nametags that Tell about Relationships BIBAKPDF 329-330
      Richard Borovoy; Fred Martin; Mitchel Resnick; Brian Silverman
    We have built a set of computationally-augmented nametags capable of providing information about the relationship between two people engaged in a face-to-face conversation. This paper puts forward criteria useful for the design of such interpersonal augmentation, experiences that inform the principles, and initial evidence of their success.
    Keywords: Wearable computing, Augmented reality, Groupware, Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW)
    Fabric Computing Interfaces BIBAKPDF 331-332
      Maggie Orth; Rehmi Post; Emily Cooper
    This paper presents a series of physical computer interfaces and computational devices that are constructed from electronic fabrics and conducting threads. We introduce two types of textile keyboards, a piecework switch matrix and a capacitive embroidered keypad. We discuss these fabric sensors in a variety of applications. We give examples of computational clothing using this technology. This clothing shows how digital technology can be imbedded into the world around us. We argue that creating computational devices with new and unexpected materials gives designers the creative freedom to radically change the appearance and "feeling" of such devices.
    Keywords: Physical interface, Smart materials, Wearable computing, Industrial design
    It/I: An Experiment Towards Interactive Theatrical Performances BIBAKPDF 333-334
      Claudio S. Pinhanez; Aaron F. Bobick
    "It/I" is a theater play produced at the MIT Media Laboratory where one of the characters is performed autonomously by a computer system. Computerized actors and stages enable performances to be repeated with members of the audience re-enacting the leading roles, having their own, personal view of the universe of the play. In this paper we report the experience, and discuss some of its possible developments.
    Keywords: Interactive entertainment, Story-based interaction, Immersive environments
    An Interactive Poetic Garden BIBAKPDF 335-336
      Tom White; David Small
    The garden is the symbol of man's control over nature. This project attempts to bring the computer into the garden in harmony with stone, water, and plant materials. The computer is used to drive a video projector, creating the illusion of text floating on the surface of the water as it flows through the garden. This relaxing computational environment lends itself well to several open ended active and passive modes of interaction.
    Keywords: Garden, Water, Interaction design, Interactive installation, Industrial design

    Student Posters: Cognition and Perception

    Visual Video Browsing Interfaces Using Key Frames BIBAKPDF 337-338
      Anita Komlodi; Laura Slaughter
    The development of automatic key frame extraction techniques makes it possible to efficiently create compressed visual representations of digital motion picture documents. In order to support browsing motion picture document surrogates in retrieved sets or collections two studies have been conducted to explore static and animated slide show key frame presentation techniques. The two studies presented here explore: 1) number of multiple animated slide show displays; and 2) a comparison of animated slide show and static displays of key frames.
    Keywords: Video browsing, Multimedia, Interface design, Key frames

    Student Posters: Virtual Reality

    A Desktop Virtual Environment Trainer Provides Superior Retention of a Spatial Assembly Skill BIBAKPDF 339-340
      David Waller; Jon Miller
    We compared the efficacy of a simple virtual environment (VE) training system with two media more commonly used to train people: paper and video tutorials. Participants learned how to solve a spatial puzzle in one of the three training media. People who trained with the VE spent more time training, however they performed significantly better than people in the other groups a week later.
    Keywords: Virtual environments, Virtual reality, Training, Spatial skills
    Bamse-Land: A Virtual Theatre with Entertaining Agents Based on Well-Known Characters BIBAKPDF 341-342
      Peter Bohlin; Victoria Nilsson; Magdalena Siverbo
    The virtual theatre Bamse-land is an entertaining virtual world, where characters taken from the Swedish comic book Bamse are implemented as autonomous agents. The agents interact with each other according to their different personalities, which were derived from the comic. Our main concern has been to make an entertaining and believable application, and by keeping the algorithms non-complicated show that there can be easy solutions to the problem of designing believable agent applications. Experiences with users show that entertaining agents based on well-known characters bring many advantages, including a simplified design process and higher user involvement.
    Keywords: Believable agents, Entertainment
    Interface Design for Inducing and Assessing Immersion in Virtual Reality BIBAKPDF 343-344
      Michael S. Miller; Deborah M. Clawson; Marc M. Sebrechts; Benjamin A. Knott
    The prospect of individual virtual reality workstations pose new challenges for design of an interface that can provide an immersive experience in a relatively confined space. CyberSeat II is one strategy that provides a compelling virtual environment (VE) under these circumstances. This approach, as well as the tools for assessing spatial location in and out of a VE, are described.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, Navigation, Immersion, Kinesthetic cues, Direction estimation

    Student Posters: CSCW

    The Effects of Gaze Awareness on Dialogue in a Video-Based Collaborative Manipulative Task BIBAKPDF 345-346
      Caroline Gale
    An experiment was constructed to compare a video configuration that made it possible for an "expert" to judge a "repairer's" focus of visual attention (full gaze awareness condition) and two control conditions. Conversational Games Analysis was then used to examine the effects of gaze awareness on the efficiency with which the conversations were conducted.
    Keywords: Computer-mediated communication, Video, Gaze awareness, Conversational games analysis
    Personal Space in a Virtual Community BIBAKPDF 347-348
      Phillip Jeffrey
    This paper explores whether the societal norm of personal space influences behaviour during interaction and communication in a virtual environment. An online virtual world was explored using an ethnomethodological approach over a period of 3 months. The results parallel personal space and physical distance literature: personal space exists; influences behaviour; produces discomfort and possible flight when violated. Future research should explore whether these results indicate identification with one's avatar or if another interpretation is possible.
    Keywords: Virtual community, Avatars, Personal space

    Student Posters: Interaction Techniques

    An Empirical Study of Speech and Gesture Interaction: Toward the Definition of Ergonomic Design Guidelines BIBAKPDF 349-350
      Sandrine Robbe
    We present two related empirical studies of the use of speech and gestures in simulated HCI environments. This research aims at providing designers of future multimodal interfaces for the general public with useful information on users' expectations and requirements. Results demonstrate the usability of tractable artificial command languages composed of utterances from a restricted subset of natural language, a few pointing gestures, and multimodal combinations of both types of units.
    Keywords: Multimodal user interface, Usability evaluation, User acceptance
    Wind and Wave Auditory Icons for Monitoring Continuous Processes BIBAKPDF 351-352
      Stephane Conversy
    This article presents the design and the use of two new auditory icons: the sounds of waves and wind. A synthesis algorithm is described to compute and control these sounds with high-level parameters in real-time. These auditory icons can be used effectively to monitor background activities, in particular when there is a need for continuous monitoring or when there is a need to prevent problems rather than to address them. They are a first step in the realization of controllable cohesive sound ecologies.
    Keywords: Non-speech audio, Auditory icons, Background activities, Continuous monitoring
    Interactive Error Repair for an Online Handwriting Interface BIBAKPDF 353-354
      Wolfgang Huerst; Jie Yang; Alex Waibel
    Current online handwriting recognition systems have very limited error recovery mechanisms. In this paper, we discuss the problem of error repair in an online handwriting interface. Based on user study of common repair patterns found in human handwriting, we propose an approach that allows users to recover from recognition errors. The basic idea is to handle the error repair at the interface level by interacting with users. The method requires few modifications on original recognition engine and imposes few restrictions on users. We have developed a prototype system to demonstrate the proposed concept and perform user study when the system provides error recovery mechanisms.
    Keywords: Online handwriting recognition, Error repair in human handwriting, Error recovery, Interactive user interface

    Student Posters: Design: Applications and Approaches

    Electronic Engineering Notebooks: A Study in Structuring Design Meeting Notes BIBAKPDF 355-356
      Jacek Gwizdka; Mark Fox; Mark Chignell
    The electronic engineering notebook (EEN) is a pen-based computer tool designed to capture engineering notes and to assist in structuring them. Structuring of design meeting notes was studied using three different notebook interfaces. The system is described briefly, along with the initial results obtained. The discussion focuses on issues in structuring design information and on user strategies in information retrieval.
    Keywords: Personal electronic notebook, Note-taking, Structuring notes, Semantic indexing, Design meeting
    A Specification Paradigm for Design and Implementation of Non-WIMP User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 357-358
      Stephen A. Morrison; Robert J. K. Jacob
    The SHADOW System is a user interface management system designed to address the specific needs of non-WIMP interfaces such as virtual environments, gesture recognizers and other interactions that involve highly parallel, continuous interaction. The proposed UIMS consists of a graphical specification language based on augmented transition networks and data flow graphs, a code translation system which supports dynamic constraint binding, modular design and code reuse, and a run time engine designed to optimize the use of processing resources within a time sensitive environment while preserving a layer of platform independence for the application.
    Keywords: Constraint programming, Interface specification, Non-WIMP, SHADOW, Software engineering, State transition diagram, User interface description language (UIDL), User interface management system (UIMS), Virtual reality (VR), Visual programming
    History-Rich Tools for Social Navigation BIBAKPDF 359-360
      Alan Wexelblat
    I describe an ongoing research effort in capturing, analyzing, and redisplaying interaction history information. The goal of the research program is to understand how to translate real-world ease and fluidity of use to digital information, with a specific focus on the use of interaction history for social navigation. We begin by characterizing the important dimensions of interaction history, then describe the current prototype.
    Keywords: Navigation, Interaction history, Paths, World Wide Web
    Diaries as Family Communication Tools BIBAKPDF 361-362
      Constance Fleuriot; A John F.Meech; Peter Thomas
    The modern lifestyle is characterised by its complexity and speed. There is an extra layer of complexity for families where both parents are trying to balance conflicting demands of work and family.
       This paper describes one approach to address this problem -- a Personal Equilibrium Tool or PET, a tool to help coordinate activity and balance work and family schedules, that would be especially useful for dual-career families.
    Keywords: Personal information management, Work/home schedules, Product design
    Hit Squads & Bug Meisters: Discovering New Artifacts for the Design of Software Supporting Collaborative Work BIBAKPDF 363-364
      Shilpa V. Shukla; Bonnie A. Nardi; David F. Redmiles
    We argue that it is critical to re-evaluate the way we think about artifacts while designing software systems. The notion of artifacts should include aspects of social practice and personal reflection. This new approach to design is especially needed in the design of collaborative systems such as workflow process systems, such as a software bug management system.
    Keywords: Artifacts, Workflow processes, Infrastructure, Activity theory, Bug tracking, Ethnography
    Integrating Culture into Interface Design BIBAKPDF 365-366
      Julie Khaslavsky
    In this paper, I describe how culture impacts usability and design, present a package of variables for identifying cultural differences, and give localization suggestions. I also present ideas for research leading to specific guidelines for integrating culture into design.
    Keywords: International interfaces, Localization, Mental models, User models, Conceptual design

    Student Posters: Entertainment, Health Care and Education

    Tigrito: A High-Affect Virtual Toy BIBAKPDF 367-368
      Heidy Maldonado; Antoine Picard; Barbara Hayes-Roth
    This paper presents a short overview of Tigrito, a high-affect virtual toy where children observe and interact with emotive improvisational characters, which we built to study the sense of engagement and suspension of disbelief across different modes of interaction, and the affective relationship between children and a virtual toy.
    Keywords: Interactive, Avatar, Believability, Autonomous, Agent
    PACCESS: Enabling Easy Access to Radiology Images at a Hospital BIBAKPDF 369-370
      Henrik Gater
    This paper deals with the problem of making radiology images and expert opinions, so called imaging studies, easily available to health care professionals. We report briefly from a research project and describe PACCESS, a web based system to access imaging studies available on networked PCs. PACCESS is currently in use, connected to a radiology image database at Sahlgenska University Hospital in Sweden.
    Keywords: Medical informatics, Radiology images, Web-technology

    Special Interest Groups (SIGs)

    Competitive Testing: Issues and Methodology BIBAKPDF 371
      Kristyn Greenwood; Kelly Braun; Suzy Czarkowski
    The purpose of this Special Interest Group is to provide a forum for Usability professionals with an interest in performing Competitive Tests to discuss issues and exchange advice. There is very little information regarding appropriate methodology or guidelines for performing Competitive Tests published on this topic. This Special Interest Group will provide an opportunity for individuals whose work involves the performance or review of competitive tests to share tips and techniques and will serve as an avenue for those interested in competitive testing to gain insight on the differences between competitive and diagnostic usability tests. In addition, it will allow the members of CHI to discuss the option of adopting standardized methodologies and metrics for performing competitive usability tests.
    Keywords: Competitive tests, Usability testing, Methodology
    HCI Solutions for Managing the Information Technology Infrastructure BIBAKPDF 372
      Thomas M. Graefe; Dennis Wixon
    All too often the people responsible for the care and feeding of the information technology infrastructure are poorly supported by the very technology they must manage, even as the popularity and use of networks (such as for the World Wide Web) grows. Corporate MIS staffs spend billions of dollars just on managing their computing infrastructures, and still they must continually cope with ineffectual products that do not support them in their work. Partly as a result, a single user may cost a corporation as much as 5 or 10 thousand dollars a year to support. Outages in America OnLine service are another example of how failures in network management can affect thousands of end users. This Special Interest Group (SIG) is a follow up to one run at CHI '97. It will provide an opportunity for HCI practitioners and researchers in the domain of network and system management to discuss new techniques in user interface design that help solve some of the problems described in the prior SIG.
    Keywords: HCI design, Network management, Agents, Expert systems, Visualization, Knowledge capture
    Making Technology Accessible for Older Users BIBAKPDF 373
      Beth Meyer; Sherry E. Mead; Wendy A. Rogers; Matthias Schneider-Hufschmidt
    The major questions to be discussed at this SIG are:
       Challenges: What challenges have participants faced in designing for older users? What product features have proven particularly difficult for older users? How do these experiences relate to problems reported in previous research on aging and performance? What are some usability issues that, in our experience, have caused significant problems in the daily lives of older adults?
       Solutions: What are some ways to address the needs of older users? Are there reasonable solutions to the challenges reported by participants? What design interventions have been successful for participants?
       Methods: How does one go about ensuring that a product will be usable across the life-span? What are the unique challenges of usability testing with older users? How does one justify considering older users in the design process?
    Keywords: Usability, Aging, Training, Consumer products, Health care products, Older users
    The SIGCHI International Issues Committee: Taking Action BIBAKPDF 374
      David G. Novick
    The SIG will address the issues raised in the recommendations that serve as the IIC's principal charge:
  • To establish and maintain a constructive relationship with IFIP TC 13,
  • To develop means of encouraging respect for and understanding of differences
       of language and culture,
  • To develop a program for SIGCHI-sponsored international scientific projects,
  • To develop a program that fosters international relationships in HCI
       education,
  • To develop a program to support HCI in developing countries that accounts for
       economic disparities,
  • To develop network mechanisms that foster cooperation and mobility of
       researchers and practitioners, and
  • To participate in the construction of the new CHI society by providing
       international requirements.
    Keywords: SIGCHI, International issues, Community
  • Virtual Reality Applications in Health Care BIBAKPDF 375
      Suzanne Weghorst
    Health Care is emerging as one of the more promising application areas for the immersive interface technologies of virtual environments and augmented reality.
       Among the factors contributing to this promise are:
  • the development of the "electronic patient record";
  • the ubiquitous nature of many clinical information needs;
  • a general atmosphere of acceptance of technological advances;
  • considerable "seed" funding by Federal agencies, in particular the Department
       of Defense, NASA and the National Library of Medicine; and
  • a match between VR/AR affordances and certain key health care tasks. Despite widespread interest within the health care industry, the clinical acceptability of these applications is by no means a given. As with other health care technologies, acceptance of VR/AR applications will be subject to stringent measures of utility, usability and performance.
       Issues of interest to this SIG include, but are not limited to, the following general topic areas:
  • design and evaluation of medical simulation training systems;
  • telemedicine interface requirements;
  • diagnostic uses of VR/AR technologies;
  • clinical data presentation and representation methods;
  • direct therapeutic applications of VR/AR technology;
  • real-time AR performance enhancement;
  • clinical usability of VR/AR technologies; and
  • medical dangers of immersive technologies. Additional related topics will be solicited from the SIG participants and will evolve from SIG discussions.
    Keywords: Medical interfaces, Simulation, Virtual reality, Augmented reality, Immersive environments, Telemedicine
  • The CHI Conference Review Process: Writing and Interpreting Paper Reviews BIBAKPDF 376
      Wendy E. Mackay
    The CHI technical program has a very thorough and somewhat complex review process. Every year, a pool of over 1000 reviewers provide an average of eight reviews for 350 or more technical papers. A group of 30-40 associate chairs read and interpret these reviews and write a metareview for each paper. The associate chairs then discuss each paper at the technical program committee meeting, weighing the quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the reviewers, and make the final selection for the conference.
       The purpose of this special interest group is to explain the details of this process to both reviewers and potential authors. Reviewers can learn how to write reviews that have an impact and authors can learn how to interpret their reviews and, we hope, improve their chances of being accepted.
    Keywords: Review process, CHI technical program
    10 Ways to Destroy a Perfectly Good Game Idea BIBAKPDF 377
      Paul Mithra
    Good game design involves a variety of interactive, game play, theory, and interface design components. Game designers must always face the challenge of getting a good idea developed into a useable game. Great game concepts can have difficulty coming to fruition when the production demands of a business environment intervene. The solution for game designers is to recognize the pitfalls and be able to handle them of come up with alternatives that don't jeopardize the outcome of the game-design.
       This SIG will discuss 10 fundamental pitfalls all game designers face.
    Keywords: Game design, Game production, Interactive entertainment
    HCI / SIGCHI Issues for Policy '98 BIBAKPDF 378
      Austin Henderson
    Policy'98 will discuss a broad range of policy issues. These will include:
       Universal Service: What can be done to promote widespread access to the benefits of the Internet? What is the role of government and the role of the private sector in wiring schools, libraries, and medical facilities?
       Electronic Commerce: How much public policy does EComm need? What problems would inadequate, excessive, or misguided policies cause? Can compromises in areas like fair trade practices, fraud prevention, security, privacy, and taxation advance the interests of all stakeholders?
       Intellectual Property in Cyberspace: What will be the impact of the WIPO agreements on copyright in cyberspace? How should intellectual property be protected and what safeguards are necessary to protect libraries and academic institutions?
       Education Online: The Internet offers unparalleled opportunities for learning and teaching. What public policy and technical challenges must be met to realize these prospects?
    Keywords: Public policy issues, Policy'98
    SIG on Contextual Techniques: Real Life Experience with Contextual Techniques BIBAKPDF 379
      Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh R. Beyer
    Contextual techniques are used to collect in-depth information on how people work. Through these techniques engineering teams collect the knowledge they need to design products that fit their users well. But the pioneers introducing the new approaches have to figure out how to apply them to the problem and organization to make sure that their teams can do the work successfully.
       This SIG presents the experience of practitioners who have been introducing contextual techniques into their organizations on their own. They describe the projects they have worked on and the ways they have adjusted contextual approaches meet their needs and fit the constraints of their organizations. Participants will have the opportunity to ask questions about how the presenters made trade-offs and overcame hurdles, and to discuss problems they have faced from their own experience.
       The session gives participants the opportunity to learn from those who have tried introducing contextual techniques into their organizations. It will be of interest to those who wish to introduce such techniques themselves and to those who have had difficulty doing so in the past. Participants should expect a lot of discussion about how to make contextual field research work in the real world, and how to handle teammates and organizations to make it acceptable.
    Keywords: Analysis methods, Design techniques, Customer-centered design, Ethnography, Usability engineering, Team design, Domain analysis, Work modeling, Software engineering, Task analysis, User models, User studies, Work analysis
    Bootstrap Alliance SIG: Toward Open Hyperdocument Systems BIBAKPDF 380
      Douglas C. Engelbart
    We will hold a Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting concerning the Bootstrap Alliance, a group working toward the implementation and evolution of Open Hyperdocument Systems based on lessons learned and design principles developed in products beginning with our NLS/Augment system and continuing through environments like the World Wide Web. We hope to involve participation in this Alliance by members of the greater CHI community.
    Keywords: Collaborative work, Collaborative learning, Hypermedia, Virtual community, Knowledge management, Bootstrap Alliance
    Special Interest Group on Social Navigation BIBAKPDF 381
      Alan Wexelblat
    Social navigation is the process of using information from other people to find things. These things may be locations, recommendations, or contacts with people. Several research projects in this area have been undertaken in recent years, but these efforts have been dispersed and uncoordinated. The goal of this SIG is to open a dialog among researchers in this area and begin a process of research sharing which has so far been absent.
    Keywords: Navigation, Information filtering, Recommendation
    SIG on Unpacking Strategic Usability: Corporate Strategy and Usability Research BIBAKPDF 382
      Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judee Humburg; Janice Rohn
    Some of the issues the workshop explored are:
  • Impact of organizational profiles (including characteristics such as size,
       culture, organizational structure, products and services, product life
       cycles) on strategic usability
  • Human factors as a bridge between marketing and development; ties between
       market research and usability research
  • Use of consultants as missionaries for usability research, as well as
       usability planners and implementers
  • What customer research activities are central to corporate planning
  • Organizational and educational barriers to implementing strategic usability
  • Management commitments or positioning needed to support strategic usability
    Keywords: Best practices, Business direction, Corporate planning, Corporate strategy, Customer data collection, Customer needs, Market positioning, Strategic planning, Strategic usability, Usability, Usability research, User-centered design
  • Students at CHI 98 BIBAKPDF 383
      Brian D. Ehret; Marilyn C. Salzman
    CHI conferences provide a unique opportunity for HCI students to interact: trading war stories, sharing lessons learned, and describing attributes of their particular schools or academic programs. This peer interaction not only fosters the development of a broadened view of HCI but also may serve more pragmatic ends such as assisting in the selection of a graduate program or the development of a thesis topic. Much of this interaction takes place informally as a part of the student volunteer program, the doctoral consortium, or in the hallways between sessions. The purpose of the Students at CHI 98 SIG, like the SIGs of previous years [1, 2], is to bolster this interaction by providing it a dedicated, semi-structured forum in which to take place.
    Keywords: Students, Graduate programs in HCI, Thesis issues
    HCI in South America: Current Status and Future Directions BIBAKPDF 384
      Felipe Afonso de Almeida; Andre Gradvohl; Luciano Meneghetti
    HCI research in South America is still in its infancy. Most of professionals and researchers in the region do not have a good understanding of what are theirs peers research agenda and how to cooperate in projects. Considering this very loose cooperation and awareness, this SIG will bring HCI people together (from the region or not) to develop a better understanding of the current status, problems and experiences and to discuss future directions of HCI in South America. The aim is to obtain an overview of HCI presence in the region. Of special interest will be the characterization of weak and strong points of this presence. This overview will act as the start point towards an identification of the reasons underlying the current status in each country. For this, it will be discussed problems, successful experiences involving funding, administrative issues, software development, awareness of HCI for software developers and courses.
    Keywords: HCI, South America, Current status, Future directions
    Captology: The Study of Computers as Persuasive Technologies BIBAKPDF 385
      BJ Fogg
    As computers become increasingly ubiquitous, distributed, and specialized, the CHI community has a greater need to understand the effects of -- and the potentials for -- interactive technologies that change attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. An understanding of captology not only enriches HCI theory about how humans interact with computers, but it can also lead to better design of interactive technologies, especially those that have the difficult task of persuading users to change attitudes and behaviors in beneficial ways.
    Keywords: Captology, Psychology of HCI, Persuasion, Influence, Agents, Interaction design
    SIG: Children and the Internet BIBAKPDF 386
      Debra A. Lieberman
    This special interest group meeting will focus on children's special needs and interests as Internet users. All CHI98 attendees interested in the topic are welcome to attend. In addition to discussing pertinent issues, SIG participants will be invited to introduce themselves to the group so that people who share common interests will have an opportunity to meet.
    Keywords: Children, Adolescents, Internet, Web, Education, Learning, Instructional design, School, Family, Entertainment
    Culture and International Software Design BIBAKPDF 387
      Julie Khaslavsky
    Many issues emerge when we discuss culture and design. These include:
  • What exactly is culture? What do you look for when learning about another
       culture?
  • How do you obtain relevant cultural information about a specific country?
       How do you determine the relevant cultural variables for each country?
  • How do you interpret cultural data? How do you generate concrete design
       ideas for your product based on cultural information?
  • What are good examples of culturally related issues that have come up in past
       design projects?
  • What are the most important problem spots to pay attention to in
       international design?
  • How important is culture amongst all of the other design considerations that
       go into a project?
  • Are cultural considerations relevant for all countries or just those that are
       vastly different from the home base? How significant are cultural
       differences between western nations as opposed to the obvious differences
       between western and eastern cultures?
  • Are the financial benefits of improving localization enough to outweigh the
       potential increased costs of entry into foreign markets? How do you cut
       corners and still succeed?
    Keywords: International interfaces, Localization, Internationalisation, Translation, Usability, Design approaches, Design strategies
  • So You Want to be a User Interface Consultant BIBAKPDF 388
      Austin Henderson; Jeff Johnson
    The proposed SIG will provide CHI professionals with insight into the challenges and rewards of being a CHI consultant. The expected audience would be CHI professionals who are interested in the tradeoffs between doing research and/or development as an employee and working as a consultant. This would include those who are considering leaving jobs in product companies, government agencies, or academia to become consultants. It would also include those who want to better understand the range of skills that CHI consultants have.
    Keywords: User interface consultancy, Design consultancy
    Current Issues in Assessing and Improving Documentation Usability BIBAKPDF 389
      Laurie Kantner; Stephanie Rosenbaum
    User documentation is vital to successful computer products. Managers and developers recognize the role of documentation in overall product usability, but they often miss opportunities to improve documentation usability as part of the product-development effort.
       The challenges of documentation usability have grown with the proliferation of available media:
  • Traditional print-based documentation
  • Online tutorials and documentation delivered with the product
  • Online help systems
  • Documentation delivered over the WWW
  • Interactive performance support elements of the user interface: wizards,
       error messages, screen dialogue Therefore, this SIG -- now in its ninth annual session -- is a forum on human factors in computer documentation. This meeting provides CHI 98 attendees a specific opportunity to discuss recent developments in documentation usability.
       Topics include:
  • Integrating documentation and rest-of-product usability testing
  • Pitfalls in documentation usability testing
  • Usability issues with single-source documentation
  • Usability testing of electronic performance support systems
  • Documentation on the Web (quality issues, update schedules, work processes)
  • How to make documentation usable for users who don't read
  • Structuring document libraries: online help, online manuals, printed
       documentation
  • Techniques for collecting documentation usability data early in the product
       development cycle
  • Usability metrics for online help -- what have we learned?
  • Changing role of the documenter in software development (as information
       designers, as UI designers)
  • Cost-justifying documentation usability programs
    Keywords: Documentation, Documentation usability, Information design, Information development, Documentation standards, Usability testing, Product development
  • Measuring Website Usability BIBAKPDF 390
      Jared M. Spool; Tara Scanlon; Carolyn Snyder; Will Schroeder
    Web design is still primarily an artistic endeavor. However, we are beginning to see empirical research results that tell us what pitfalls to avoid in order to create successful websites.
       In this SIG, we will discuss the latest research results available. Individuals designing websites will find out what is known about successful design, as well as what questions are still unanswered.
       This SIG will also be a forum for researchers to discuss methods and share objectives. Researchers will have an opportunity to interact with website designers to understand the research still required to identify the key to successful design.
    Keywords: Web design, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Searching