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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI 97 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Extended Abstracts of CHI 97 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Looking to the Future
Editors:Steven Pemberton
Location:Atlanta, Georgia
Dates:1997-Mar-22 to 1997-Mar-27
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-926-2 ACM Order Number 608975; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI97-2
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. CHI 1997-03-22 Volume 2
    1. DEMONSTRATIONS: Intelligent Systems
    2. DEMONSTRATIONS: In Search of the Right Visualization Techniques
    3. DEMONSTRATIONS: Virtual Worlds and Reality
    4. DEMONSTRATIONS: Visualization for Exploration
    5. DEMONSTRATIONS: Computers for Young Adults
    6. DEMONSTRATIONS: Programming with Less Programming
    7. DEMONSTRATIONS: Wearable Computers
    8. DEMONSTRATIONS: Auditory Output
    9. DEMONSTRATIONS: Visual Techniques for Image Retrieval
    10. DEMONSTRATIONS: Future Home Studies
    14. PANELS
    17. Special Interest Groups (SIGs)
    18. Tutorials
    19. Formal Video Program
    20. Workshops
    22. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Collaborative Work
    23. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Information Retrieval
    24. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Interaction Design Strategies
    26. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Usability
    27. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: User Studies
    28. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Visualization
    29. SHORT DEMONSTRATIONS: Design, Techniques and Applications
    30. SHORT TALKS: Usability
    31. SHORT TALKS: Browsing and Navigation
    32. SHORT TALKS: Input Devices
    33. SHORT TALKS: Virtual Communities and Virtual Reality
    34. SHORT TALKS: A Melange
    35. SHORT TALKS: The Web and 3D
    36. SHORT TALKS: Interaction Design
    37. SHORT TALKS: Devices

CHI 1997-03-22 Volume 2

DEMONSTRATIONS: Intelligent Systems

Artificial Intelligence Techniques in the Interface to a Digital Video Library BIBAKHTML 2-3
  Alexander G. Hauptmann; Michael J. Witbrock; Michael G. Christel
For the huge amounts of audio and video material that could usefully be included in digital libraries, the cost of producing human-generated annotations and meta-data is prohibitive. In the Informedia Digital Video Library, the production of meta-data supporting the library interface is automated using techniques from Artificial Intelligence (AI). By applying speech recognition, natural language processing and image analysis, the interface helps users locate the information they want and navigate or browse the digital video library more effectively. Specific AI-based interface components include automatic titles, filmstrips, video skims, word location marking and representative frames for shots.
Keywords: Video browsing, Information retrieval interfaces, Speech recognition, News-On-Demand, Multimedia indexing and search, Informedia, Artificial intelligence, Automatic text summarization, Video summarization, Digital library
MOBI-D: A Model-Based Development Environment for User-Centered Design BIBAKHTML 4-5
  Angel R. Puerta; David Maulsby
MOBI-D (Model-Based Interface Designer) is a software environment the design and development of user interfaces from declarative interface models. End-users informally describe tasks and data, from end-users, from which developers construct formal models of user tasks and domain objects. The system supports development of presentation and dialog specifications from such models, and allows visualization of interface designs as units encompassing all relations and dependencies among the elements of task, data and user-interface specifications. MOBI-D is the first development environment to define an interface model as a comprehensive conceptual object, to identify an interface design as a declarative component of an interface model, and to establish a development cycle based on such a model. The sharable nature of the interface modeling language of MOBI-D, along with the open architecture of its system opens the door for many research areas in HCI to explore the benefits and potential of using interface models.
Keywords: Model-based interface development, User interface development environments, Interface design, Interface models, User-centered design, Task-based design

DEMONSTRATIONS: In Search of the Right Visualization Techniques

Conversational Awareness in Multiparty VMC BIBAKHTML 6-7
  Roel Vertegaal
In this demonstration, we present a number of videoconferencing systems which differ in support for conversational awareness. We argue that such systems should convey speech, relative position, gaze direction and gaze of the participants, but not necessarily full-motion video.
Keywords: CSCW, Groupware, Videoconferencing, Awareness, Attention
An Environment that Integrates Flying and Fish Tank Metaphors BIBAHTMLWeb Page 8-9
  Dan Fleet; Colin Ware
Fledermaus VR is a system that combines the flying and Fish Tank metaphors for viewpoint control. A key component of the system is the continuous scaling of the scene so that it always appears just behind the screen. This scaling is done even when flying over a virtual landscape. Because the scene is scaled, it is always in the right position for Fish Tank VR viewing. In addition, the scaling removes some of the problems that commonly occur with stereoscopic displays, it puts objects in the appropriate place for manipulation, and it can be used to modulate the flight velocity. The system is demonstrated with a cable laying application.

DEMONSTRATIONS: Virtual Worlds and Reality

Demonstrations and Guided Tours of Virtual Worlds on the Internet BIBAKHTML 10-11
  Bruce Damer
Multi-user virtual worlds are proliferating on the Internet. These are two and three dimensional graphical environments inhabited by users represented as digital actors called "avatars". Through this medium, a wide variety of Internet users are participating in a large scale social experiment and collaborating on a variety of projects. The inhabited virtual world is an exciting new medium for HCI professionals including interaction and graphic designers, and educators and researchers focused on distance learning and teleworking. It also appeals to children and ordinary users of the Internet as a vast new digital playground and a venue for personal expression. This demonstration will introduce participants to a variety of inhabited virtual worlds and give them hands-on experience in collaboratively building and interacting with other users in the worlds.
Keywords: Virtual worlds, Social computing, Avatars, Collaborative workspaces, VRML, Three dimensional interfaces
Alice Sat Here BIBAKHTML 12-13
  Emily Hartzell; Nina Sobell
In this paper, we describe Alice Sat Here, a telerobotic installation in which participants in physical space and cyberspace are afforded extended means of interaction. Using live video served to the World Wide Web, telerobotic camera control (pan and tilt controlled remotely over the Web), and a wheeled electric throne driven by gallery visitors, Alice Sat Here becomes an interface at the intersection of physical space and cyberspace. By designing an installation as a physical metaphor for the Web, we hope to sensitize the public to the dynamics at work on the Web (surveillance, control), and to challenge the collective imagination of the kinds of experiences the Web can offer.
Keywords: Collaboration, Interaction, Control, Surveillance

DEMONSTRATIONS: Visualization for Exploration

Exploring Search Results with Envision BIBAKHTML 14-15
  Lucy Terry Nowell; Robert K. France; Deborah Hix
Envision is a multimedia digital library of computer science literature, with full-text searching and full-content retrieval capabilities. The Envision system is noteworthy for two characteristics: 1) the high quality of the search results returned by our free text search system and 2) a highly usable user interface that provides powerful information visualization facilities, enabling users explore patterns in the literature, changing the display as their interests change.
Keywords: Information visualization, Interface metaphors, Interface metaphors, User interface design, Digital library
Knowledge-Based Support for Visual Exploration of Spatial Data BIBAKHTML 16-17
  Gennady L. Andrienko; Nathalia V. Andrienko
The knowledge-based system IRIS is designed to help users in analysis of spatially referenced statistical data. For this purpose the system provides the user with automatically built thematic maps presenting the data visually. The process of map design is governed by the domain-independent visualisation knowledge base. The user receives the opportunity to concentrate on data exploration instead of the process of planning and building data presentations. Implementation of the interface part of the system in Java language allows to run the system in the World Wide Web (WWW).
Keywords: Data visualisation, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Knowledge-based systems, World Wide Web

DEMONSTRATIONS: Computers for Young Adults

Interactive Ethnography: Digital Photography at Lincoln High School BIBAKHTML 18-19
  Bonnie A. Nardi; Brian Reilly
We demonstrate our CD-ROM, "Digital Photography at Lincoln High School: An Interactive Ethnography," as well as a web-based example of interactive ethnography. The goal of the work is to demonstrate a new medium for presenting the results of ethnographic studies to a wide audience. The richness of the ethnographic experience is easily lost in a text-only format. The CD-ROM uses audio, video, text, QuickTime VR, scanned images and digital photos to bring alive the experiences of the students and staff in the digital photography class.
Keywords: Multimedia, Ethnography, CD-ROM, Digital photography
Soft Toys with Computer Hearts: Building Personal Storytelling Environments BIBAKHTML 20-21
  Marina Umaschi
SAGE is an authoring tool that allows children to design their own wise storytellers to interact with. It explicitly aims to enable them to explore their inner world, as well as to learn about storytelling and technology. In order to foster emotional engagement and explore the integration of physical and computer interfaces, the sage storyteller was embodied in a interactive stuffed animal.
Keywords: Personal storytelling, Authoring environments, Physical interfaces, Metaphorical objects, Learning
Merging the Benefits of Paper Notebooks with the Power of Computers in Dynomite BIBAKHTML 22-23
  Bill N. Schilit; Lynn D. Wilcox; Nitin "Nick" Sawhney
Dynomite is a portable electronic notebook for the capture and retrieval of handwritten and audio notes. The goal of Dynomite is to merge the organization, search, and data acquisition capabilities of a computer with the benefits of a paper-based notebook. Dynomite provides novel solutions in four key problem areas. First, Dynomite uses a casual, low cognitive overhead interface. Second, for content indexing of notes, Dynomite uses ink properties and keywords. Third, to assist organization, Dynomite's properties and keywords define views, presenting a subset of the notebook content that dynamically changes as users add new information. Finally, to augment handwritten notes with audio on devices with limited storage, Dynomite continuously records audio, but only permanently stores those parts highlighted by the user.
Keywords: Electronic notebook, Note-taking, Audio interfaces, Handwriting, Keyword indexing, Ink properties, Retrieval, Paper-like interfaces, PDA, Pen computing
Note: Presented as a paper at this session

DEMONSTRATIONS: Programming with Less Programming

Supporting Student-Built Algorithm Animation as a Pedagogical Tool BIBAKHTML 24-25
  John T. Stasko
This demonstration describes a new approach to algorithm animation, one in which the students construct the animations. We introduce the Samba system that facilitates this process and describe how it has been used an undergraduate algorithms courses as a teaching aid. Having students build the animations, that is, construct the mapping from concepts to images, appears to enable true understanding of the algorithm under study.
Keywords: Algorithm animation, Education, Design, Programming, Software visualization
The Agentsheets Behavior Exchange: Supporting Social Behavior Processing BIBAKHTML 26-27
  Alexander Repenning; James Ambach
In end-user programming it is still hard to overcome the tension between usability and expressiveness. Some end-user programming approaches focus on simple use but they make it hard or even impossible to write programs expressing useful functionality. Other programming approaches can be very expressive by allowing the construction of arbitrary complex programs but this expressiveness comes at the price of usability. End user programming approaches that are at least reasonably usable and expressive at the same time require not merely a syntactic improvement of programming languages but a new way to conceptualize the programming process in a social context. Social behavior processing describes the idea of elevating programming components to the level of easily composable and decomposable entities that can be shared through the World Wide Web with a community of end-users. The Agentsheets Behavior Exchange is outlined here as a forum for end-user programmers, including middle school kids and professionals, to (a) compose behaviors in order to create interactive SimCityTM-like simulations and games, to (b) comprehend behaviors created by other users or by themselves, and to (c) share these behaviors with other users. In end-user programming it is still hard to overcome the tension between usability and expressiveness. Some end-user programming approaches focus on simple use but they make it hard or even impossible to write programs expressing useful functionality. Other programming approaches can be very expressive by allowing the construction of arbitrary complex programs but this expressiveness comes at the price of usability. End user programming approaches that are at least reasonably usable and expressive at the same time require not merely a syntactic improvement of programming languages but a new way to conceptualize the programming process in a social context. Social behavior processing describes the idea of elevating programming components to the level of easily composable and decomposable entities that can be shared through the World Wide Web with a community of end-users. The Agentsheets Behavior Exchange is outlined here as a forum for end-user programmers, including middle school kids and professionals, to (a) compose behaviors in order to create interactive SimCity-like simulations and games, to (b) comprehend behaviors created by other users or by themselves, and to (c) share these behaviors with other users.
Keywords: Agents, World Wide Web, End-user programming, Interactive simulation, Drag and drop, Programming by example, Domain-specific applications, Education, Collaborative learning

DEMONSTRATIONS: Wearable Computers

"Eudaemonic Eye;" "Personal Imaging" and Wearable Computing as a Result of Deconstructing HCI; towards Greater Creativity and Self-Determination BIBAKHTML 28-29
  Steve Mann
The apparatus for 'personal imaging' consists of a combination of the author's 'existential computer' invention (hardware portion also referred to as the "wearable computer") with an electronic camera as the primary input device. Personal imaging, a conceptual framework around this simple apparatus, is first presented as a new research area, and then applications to the visual arts, and to personal documentary, are presented.
Keywords: Existential computing, Wearable computing, Personal imaging, Lightpainting, Electronic flash, Mobile multimedia, Video orbits, VideoClips, Pencigraphic imaging, Personal documentary, Augmented reality, Mediated reality


Using Music as a Communication Medium BIBAKHTML 30-31
  James Alty; Paul Vickers; Dimitros Rigas
Music is a rich communication medium, and there are some similarities between the job of a music composer and that of an HCI designer (although their objectives may be different). Whilst sound has been used in interfaces, its use has mainly been at a primitive level, often involving real-world sound. Since music offers a highly structured set of mechanisms for communicating, it is surprising that there have been so few attempts at exploring its possibilities. Our current activity involves investigations into the use of music in algorithmic audiolisation and program debugging.
Keywords: Music, Interface design, Debugging, Multi-media, Audiolisation

DEMONSTRATIONS: Visual Techniques for Image Retrieval

IFQ: A Visual Query Interface for Object-Based Image Retrieval BIBKHTML 32-33
  Wen-Syan Li; K. Selcuk Candan; Kyoji Hirata; Yoshinori Hara
Keywords: Image retrieval, Visual query interface
Depictive Interaction with Visual Information Using Sketches -- DIVIUS BIBAKHTML 34-35
  Andree Woodcock; Stephen A. R. Scrivener; M. W. Lansdale
Querying of visual databases has relied predominantly on text based systems. Words do not provide an appropriate or adequate means of describing visual artifacts. A system (DIVIUS) has been developed which allows users to describe and query objects in a pictorial database, using a visual language derived from the database objects. Users can also indicate their level of uncertainty regarding certain attributes of the query.
Keywords: Visual interface, Pictorial database, Uncertainty, Database evaluation, User models

DEMONSTRATIONS: Future Home Studies

Access for All: HEPHAISTOS -- A Personal Home Assistant BIBAKHTML 36-37
  Michael Burmester; Joachim Machate; Jochen Klein
In this paper, we describe a demonstrator which was developed in the course of the European project TIDE 1004: HEPHAISTOS (Home Environment Private Help AssISTant fOr elderly and diSabled). The demonstrator constitutes a hand held personal home assistant capable to control a selected range of electronic home devices. Its multimodal user interface is based on a coloured high resolution touch screen extended with speech input/output. The development process focused on taking into account requirements of elderly people and people with special needs. The usability of the personal assistant was evaluated in a series of user tests with subjects from this particular demographic groups.
Keywords: Personal home assistant, Customer electronics, Touch sensitive control, Speech recognition, User interface design, Dialogue elements, PSN-elderly, Design for all
Mediators: Guides through Online TV Services BIBAKHTML 38-39
  Han Kohar; Ian Ginn
The Mediator prototype which is demonstrated is the result of exploratory research into domestic online entertainment services. Mediators are anthropomorphic guides who aid users in selection and navigation to content in interactive television services. The project goals include developing prototype services and navigation tools and carrying out extensive user tests. The main focus of the work is to develop models of interaction, functionality and system behaviour.
Keywords: Interactive television, Service creation, Consumer systems, Anthropomorphism, Social interaction, Navigation, Interface agents, Adaptivity


Research Issues in Intelligent Data Visualisation for Exploration and Communication BIBAKHTML 40-41
  Gennady L. Andrienko; Nathalia V. Andrienko
Efficiency and quality of solving problems by people are greatly affected by the way in that relevant information is arranged and presented. There is a need for intelligent software assisting humans by automatic generation of adequate presentations. We focus on graphical and especially cartographic data presentations and distinguish two problem classes where these presentations have high potential: data exploration and communication. It is argued that graphics design principles should be different for these two classes. Data communication is treated in a wider sense than merely report making: it is proposed to consider a "visual message" being built with respect to author's pragmatic goals, beliefs, attitudes, etc., as well as the image of the addressee. We outline the necessary research directions and reason about the role that could be played in such a research by the prototype knowledge-based system IRIS we have developed earlier.
Keywords: Visual data exploration, Visual data communication, Intelligent support, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Knowledge-based systems
An Approach to Evaluation of Software Visualization BIBAKHTML 42
  Vladimir L. Averbukh; Alexandr V. Konovalov; Vladislav V. Vorzopov
In connection with semiotic aspects of visual languages we define and generalize the content of such conception as visual metaphor, visual language dictionary, visual expressiveness, adequacy in visualization. The experimental system ParaVision should help to search the techniques for evaluating of such characteristics as adequacy in visualization that is as far as a given visual system may satisfy the needs of a given user for solving of a given problem.
Keywords: Visual metaphors, Visual expressiveness, Adequacy in visualization
Multiagents Based Modelling in Graphical User Interfaces BIBAKHTML 43-44
  Dorian Gorgan
A graphical environment that implements visual programming techniques based on autonomous agents is presented. The model consists of active entities called agents, and passive entities such as behaviours, trajectories, actions, and conditions. The agents have a rule based behaviour defined as a spatial and temporal evolution. A consistent set of agent structures, actions and rule types is highlighted to support a general oriented visual programming. The model concerns on the notion of trajectory and topological information used in a cooperative evolution to control applications which are based on real time processes synchronization, data flow diagrams, graphical animation, metaphorical user interface, visual programming, multimedia and artificial intelligence techniques.
Keywords: User interfaces, Multiagents, Visual programming, Direct manipulation, Rule based behaviour
Transferring Usability Engineering to Software Houses: Some Practical Experiences BIBAKHTML 45-46
  Marcin Sikorski
This paper describes market-related and social background of existing limitations in transferring usability engineering methods to software companies in Poland. Typical approaches of software vendors, developers, managers and users are shortly presented as possible reasons of low usability of many local software products. Providing information, guidelines and usability services are discussed as means for developing usability consciousness among all stakeholders involved in developing software for management support.
Keywords: Software usability, Management, Central-Eastern Europe, Poland
HCI in the Czech Republic BIBAKHTML 47-48
  Pavel Slavik
The paper describes the current situation and historical development in the HCI field in the Czech Republic. An outline of the most important features in this area is given. The reader can get ideas about the current state of art especially in research and education. A description of the situation in some specific applications is also given. In summary, the reader can find a short evaluation given together with some proposals on how to improve the current situation in the HCI field in this particular country.
Keywords: HCI, Interaction, GUI, Interface, Multimedia, Virtual reality
Hypermedia Extension Based on Recursive Abstractions BIBAKHTML 49-50
  Vladislav Valkovsky; Dmitry Krechman; Igor Nikiforov; Dmitry Chenosov
There are many well documented problems facing the ordinary user, as opposed to the enthusiast, of Hypermedia (HM) technology which can lead these users to be frustrated by, or give-up using hypermedia technology altogether. Among these classic HM problems are: the Framing Problem, Framing And Intercomparision Combined, Link Types, Versioning And Historical Backtrack, Closed Context and Open Media, Adding These Aspects Later, Disorientation [3], Information Structuring Systems [2], Visualizing [4]. This paper focuses on one of these key problems, "the Framing Problem" -- as the number of hypermedia objects grows the problem of restricting our attention to only the relevant connections becomes harder [3]. How can we structure the source hypermedia to show semantically related clusters? By solving this problem it is possible to offer new ways for people to search and browse hypermedia.
Keywords: Hypermedia, Navigation, Structural analysis, Abstraction


Displayless Interface Access to Spatial Data: Effects on Speaker Prosodics BIBAKHTML 51-52
  Julie Baca
Displayless interface technology must address challenges similar to those presented by the problem of providing GUI access to visually impaired users. Both must address the issue of providing nonvisual access to spatial data. This research examines the hypothesis that such access places a cognitive burden on the user, which in turn will impact the prosodics, i.e. nonverbal aspects, of the user's speech.
Keywords: GUI access, Displayless interfaces, Prosodics
Enhancement of Communicative Presence in Desktop Video Conferencing Systems BIBAKHTML 53-54
  Alessandro Barabesi
Communicative presence (CP) has been defined as "... the capacity of a system to transfer mutual communicative signals of interlocutors." [2]. The main objective of my research is to define communicative presence more precisely and improve it in Desktop Video Conferencing Systems (DVCSs). An initial experiment has suggested that the modality of all available channels should be consistent.
Keywords: Video conferencing, Communicative presence, Communication tools
Representation Without Taxation: What Makes GUI Good BIBAKHTML 55-56
  Brian D. Ehret
In the proposed work, research in cognitive science and display-based HCI is synthesized and brought to bear on the question of "what makes GUI good?". A two-phase approach is outlined. The empirical phase will build upon a foundation laid by display-based HCI research. The computational modeling phase will be informed by the empirical phase and previous modeling efforts. The primary goal is to be able to explicate conditions under which a user will rely on external display components vs. internal knowledge structures to control task performance.
Keywords: Display-based HCI, Cognitive modeling, ACT-R, Expertise, GUI
Accounting for Individual Differences Through GAMES: Guided Adaptive Multimedia Editing System BIBAKHTML 57-58
  Bernd Gutkauf
Multimedia communication is influenced by increasing complexity and reach of information and by a rapidly growing user population. Due to these developments average authors of electronically published media have little expert knowledge in multimedia presentations. They are also confronted with considerable individual differences of recipients in culture, social life, education, psychology and physiology. In order to compensate for these shortcomings it is necessary to integrate interpretation and interaction abilities of individual users into future presentation and editing systems. We are developing a chart editing system which generates critics by user request. These critics are based on a user model, on expert knowledge in chart editing and on the currently edited chart. The system helps the author to avoid commonly made mistakes. It empowers recipients to adjust certain parameters (e.g.: colors) to their individual abilities and needs.
Keywords: Individual differences, Perception, User model, Visualization, Multimedia, Adaptive systems, Intelligent systems, Electronic publishing, Cognitive psychology, Computer
Learning for Usability: An Explorative Study of Qualities in Use BIBAKHTML 59-60
  Stefan Holmlid
Efforts for creating usable systems which fulfill the purpose of being efficient and effective tools in an enterprise have been focused on the software itself. The study proposed here turns to the user, and to what the user contributes with for that use. The study explores the concepts of usability and qualities of software in use, and their relationship to end-users learning to use the software, in a case study approach. The understanding developed during this study will be used in an intervention study, which aims at proposing a way for formal training to contribute to usability and quality in use.
Keywords: Usability, End-user training, Quality in use
Computer Aided Creativity and Multicriteria Optimization in Design BIBAKHTML 61-62
  Denis Lalanne
Establishing that machines cannot automate creative design and that it is a difficult task for humans, I propose a computational model based on the human and machine complementarity and collaboration.
Keywords: Human-machine asynchronous collaboration, Interactive intelligence, Creative design
The Multimodal GUI: Developing Auditory Cues as Tools for Performance and Usability BIBAKHTML 63-64
  La Tondra A. Murray
Designers who use sound in the computer interface must do so judiciously. The inclusion of auditory cues within an interface should be a mechanism for the improvement of task performance and the facilitation of usability. Gaver [6] and Blattner [1] have demonstrated the utility of auditory cues in communicating information to users. The usage of "spatially-enhanced" speech and nonspeech elements could provide an additional source of data that might help or hurt performance. The usefulness of an auditory cue could be linked to acoustical parameters, spatialization, and task type. The proposed study will assess the improvement of user performance for various types of auditory cues as applied to spatial and verbal computer tasks. These results will be important to multimedia developers who want to create software that facilitates user acceptance or the quality of user performance.
Keywords: Auditory I/O, Human performance, Multimedia, User acceptance, User interface design
Graphical Encoding in Information Visualization BIBAKHTML 65-66
  Lucy Terry Nowell
In producing a design to visualize search results for a digital library called Envision [5, 7], we found that choosing graphical devices and document attributes to be encoded with each graphical device is a surprisingly difficult task. By graphical devices we mean those visual display elements (e.g., color, shape, size, position, etc.) used to convey encoded information. Research in several areas provides scientific guidance for design and evaluation of graphical encodings which might otherwise be reduced to opinion and personal taste. However, literature offers inconclusive and often conflicting viewpoints, leading us to further empirical research.
Keywords: Information visualization, Iconic display, User interface design, Graphical encoding
Groupware Adoption & Adaptation BIBAKHTML 67-68
  Leysia Ann Palen
This paper describes my research on the adoption of groupware technologies in business organizations, and their subsequent integration with individual and organizational work practices as a result of wide, sustained use. An initial study of two organizations successfully using a particular groupware technology -- electronic calendars and meeting schedulers -- revealed several technical, behavioral, and organizational factors that enabled initial adoption. Additional findings from this study suggested that groupware technology was integrated into work practices quite differently at each site, despite similarities in adoption patterns and other organizational features. My dissertation research will continue to elaborate the conditions that enable adoption of groupware technologies. My investigations will also explore the way electronic calendars are subsequently integrated into local work practices, and the organizational ramifications of these particular adaptations.
Keywords: Groupware, Calendars, Meeting schedulers, Adoption, Adaptation, Artifacts, Information resource, Collaboration, Organizational memory, CSCW
The Use of Declarative and Procedural Knowledge in Intelligent Navigation Displays BIBAKHTML 69-70
  Brian H. Philips
One theory of environmental cognition suggests that both declarative landmark knowledge and procedural route knowledge are essential in structuring internal representations of the environment; such representations facilitate effective navigation in that environment [5, 7]. The proposed study will provide data to test this theory. The application that will be studied is an Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS), which provides route guidance information to automobile drivers. Current route guidance systems incorporate only procedural route information in their route guidance displays (i.e., they give directions for getting to your destination without supplying landmarks to identify the route [e.g., 3]). This study will evaluate how the inclusion of landmark icons in ATIS displays affects users' navigation performance. The results will be important to ATIS developers, who need to know what informational elements to include in ATIS route guidance displays to most effectively support navigation tasks. The results will also be important in a theoretical sense, by testing a theory of environmental cognition with real-world navigation tasks.
Keywords: ATIS, Declarative knowledge, Intelligent systems, ITS, Landmarks, Navigation, Procedural knowledge
Single Display Groupware BIBAKHTML 71-72
  Jason E. Stewart
Face-to-face collaboration of small groups is one of the most common forms of group work, yet group-aware computer support for this type of collaboration is limited. My research examines the effectiveness of Single Display Groupware (SDG), computer systems that support face-to-face collaboration around a single computer display. Together with the help of a group of elementary school children, I will design and build a prototype SDG system called Sushi that is an authoring tool for interactive multimedia stories.
Keywords: CSCW, Children, Authoring tools, CHIKids, Desktop-based collaboration, Direct manipulation, Education, Exploratory learning, Groupware, HCI, Input devices, Interactive learning, Iterative design, User centered design
Evaluating Real-Time Multimedia Audio and Video Quality BIBAKHTML 73-74
  Anna Watson
The aim of this research is to assess and establish quality thresholds for real-time Internet audio and video. Real-time multimedia conferencing over the Internet has huge potential, but there are limitations to the quality of audio and video that can be achieved, due to bandwidth limitations and the processing power of individual workstations. Assessing the effects of these limitations on the conference participant is not straightforward. The novel types of degradation found over the Internet means that existing speech and video quality assessment methods may not be applicable to multimedia conferencing experiences. This PhD will assess existing tests for measuring perceived quality from the psychology and telecommunications literature with respect to multimedia conferencing. The long term aim is to produce guidelines as to required bandwidth and quality for different multimedia conferencing tasks and applications.
Keywords: Multimedia conferencing, MBone, Speech intelligibility, Speech quality, Video use, Task


HCI at the University of Michigan's School of Information BIBAKHTML 75-76
  Gary M. Olson; Judith S. Olson; George Furnas; Elliot Soloway; Daniel E. Atkins
The School of Information at the University of Michigan is a new graduate school that offers highly interdisciplinary opportunities in education and research. We have a program in HCI as well as Library and Information Sciences, Archives and Record Management, and are discussing offerings in Future Systems Architecture, Organizational Information Systems.
Keywords: Graduate programs, HCI, CSCW, Information sciences
Introducing Usability at London Life Insurance Company BIBAKHTML 77-78
  Brenda Kerton
This presentation describes how and why Usability Engineering is being introduced at London Life. It describes the unique set of circumstances that were present allowing us to integrate usability engineering from day one in a project. It will cover our approach to learning about and institutionalizing the usability process into a well established internal systems development area. Our future plans will also be discussed.
Keywords: User profile, Work and task analysis, Usability goal setting, Usability walkthroughs, Application development process, Organizational context, Sponsorship, Skills transfer
Multimodal Human Computer Interaction Research at Toshiba Research and Development Center BIBAKHTML 79-80
  Yoichi Takebayashi; Miwako Doi
Toshiba's Human Interface Research Group is pursuing media understanding and intelligent interaction technologies to achieve natural multimodal HCI (human-computer interaction). In collaboration with Toshiba's other corporate laboratories, engineering laboratories and business divisions, we have been developing practical interactive systems and products related to information services, consumer electronics, document filing and industrial equipment.
Keywords: Organizations, Multimodal, HCI, Information filtering, Knowledge sharing, Media understanding
HCI at Trilogy: Bringing the Design Stance to a Startup BIBAKHTML 81-82
  J. Epstein; E. Loh; J. Marks; J. Lilly
A successful startup in the arena of enterprise software, Trilogy Development Group began experimenting with HCI as a means for improving user reactions to their products. Two years have passed since the first experiments; in that time an entire HCI group was created and has subsequently become a respected and critical component of Trilogy's development process, as well as taking some responsibility for providing a vision for Trilogy's future. This paper chronicles our experiences in bringing the "design stance" to Trilogy.
Keywords: Organizations, HCI, User interface, Design, Interaction design, Enterprise software, Startups
The NCR Human Interface Technology Center BIBAKHTML 83-84
  Thomas J. MacTavish; Richard L. Henneman
The NCR Human Interface Technology Center (HITC) exists to meet its customers' business needs through the application of new human-interface technologies. The HITC designs and develops these user-interface solutions through a user-centered design (UCD) process, in which user needs and expectations guide all design and development decisions. The HITC consists of about 90 engineers and scientists with expertise in such areas as cognitive engineering, graphic design, image understanding, artificial intelligence, intelligent tutoring, database mining, and new I/O technologies. Established in 1988, the HITC is funded by work performed for its customers.
Keywords: User interface, User-centered design, Cognitive engineering, Human-interface technology
0 to 50 in 4 Years: CUIS at Boeing BIBAKHTML 85-86
  Kevin Neher; Randy Worsech
The Common User Interface Services (CUIS) group at Boeing is a full-featured support organization for Boeing user interface developers. The group has achieved key successes and has increased the visibility of the importance of usability engineering to the point where it has been established as a key corporate initiative in 1996.
Keywords: Organization overview, Usability engineering, Usability measurement, Reusable components, User interface standards
The Founding of the Netscape User Experience Group BIBAKHTML 87-88
  Tony Fernandes
Netscape Communications is a company that has grown faster than any other software company in history. Although the design effort at Netscape has evolved greatly, the initial experience of bringing design into an organization in hypergrowth provided some valuable lessons in the creation of a successful design organization.
Keywords: Organizations, Usability testing, Human factors, Visual design
HCI Education & Research at the University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez BIBAKHTML 89-90
  Jose A. Borges; Manuel A. Perez-Quinones; Nestor J. Rodriguez
HCI at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) of the University of Puerto Rico -- Mayaguez (UPRM) has taken center stage in the Computer Engineering program in just three years. This growth has been reflected in the academic programs, research, facilities, faculty, and students. Our research and academic emphasis is on usability engineering and programming of user interfaces.
Keywords: HCI education, HCI research, Usability engineering
Human Interface Design at Fidelity Investments BIBAKHTML 91-92
  Thomas S. Tullis
This presentation describes the Human Interface Design department at Fidelity Investments. Although not in the computer hardware or software business, Fidelity develops an amazingly wide variety of systems in support of our business. The Human Interface Design department, which is composed of people from a variety of backgrounds, provides several key services to systems development projects throughout the company, including user interface design and prototyping, usability testing, and online help development. We are also responsible for the corporate Graphical User Interface Style Guide and Web Design Guide. Examples of the development projects we assist with are described, as well as strategic projects that address more general human interface issues.
Keywords: Financial services, Usability testing, Online help, User interface design, Style guides, Prototyping
The User-Centered Globalization Group at AT&T BIBAKHTML 93-94
  Maria Gabriela Alvarez; Nuray Aykin; Diane Z. Lehder
This paper describes the User-Centered Globalization Group at AT&T, which provides internationalization and localization consulting services within AT&T and to outside customers. It reviews the group's history and areas of expertise, and discusses sample projects and future strategy.
Keywords: Globalization, Internationalization, Localization, User interface
Usability Services at Compuware-Madison: Bringing Usability to Data Processing BIBAKHTML 95-96
  Julie Nowicki; Shawn Lawton Henry
This presentation describes the Usability Services group at Compuware-Madison. Compuware-Madison is part of the national Compuware Professional Services Division, which provides consulting services for the computing industry, primarily data processing divisions of corporations. The Usability Services group was developed to help clients who are moving from traditional mainframe environments to newer technologies that use graphical user interfaces (GUIs). A group organized specifically to address usability issues is atypical in the data processing area, both from the client corporation and the consulting provider's perspective. This presentation describes how the group came to be, its projects, the challenges it faces, and its successes.
Keywords: Usability engineering, HCI education, HCI in organizations
Hypermedia Research at C&C Research Labs, NEC USA BIBAKHTML 97-98
  Yoshinori Hara; Kojiro Watanabe
This presentation describes the Usability Services group at Compuware-Madison. Compuware-Madison is part of the national Compuware Professional Services Division, which provides consulting services for the computing industry, primarily data processing divisions of corporations. The Usability Services group was developed to help clients who are moving from traditional mainframe environments to newer technologies that use graphical user interfaces (GUIs). A group organized specifically to address usability issues is atypical in the data processing area, both from the client corporation and the consulting provider's perspective. This presentation describes how the group came to be, its projects, the challenges it faces, and its successes.
Keywords: Usability engineering, HCI education, HCI in organizations


Design v. Computing: Debating the Future of Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKHTML 99-100
  Tony Salvador; Dan Boyarski; Paul Dourish; Jim Faris; Wendy Kellogg; Terry Winograd
This debate questions the presumption that the future of human-computer interaction resides in the computing sciences. We propose the following resolution: It is resolved that the CHI community should disassociate from professional computing societies and realign closely with professional design societies. The four panelists will form two teams with Terry Winograd & Jim Faris arguing for the resolution and Paul Dourish & Wendy Kellogg arguing against it. It is our intention to evoke the widest possible range of viewpoints and discussion in the community on this very important topic for the future of human computer interaction.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Design, Computer science
Transferring a Designed User Experience to Product BIBAKHTML 101-102
  Gitta Salomon; Chris Edwards; Hector Moll-Carrillo; Kevin Mullet; Laura Teodosio
How can interaction designers ensure that their work makes its way into the final implementation of a product? The language, tools and techniques for communicating design ideas within the interactive product development domain are currently emerging. This panel provides insight into promising approaches by examining the ways in which several practitioners have succeeded, and failed, at transferring their design ideas to current products.
Keywords: Technology transfer, Design, Interaction design, Product development, User interface, Software development
Web Interfaces Live: What's Hot, What's Not? BIBAKHTML 103-104
  Keith Instone; Mary Czerwinski; S. Joy Mountford; Jakob Nielsen; Bruce "Tog" Tognazzini
You are up against a million other Web sites: how do you get users to come to your site? This panel will visit live sites on the WWW and debate what works and doesn't work in Web user interfaces.
Keywords: WWW, Web, Internet, Design, Evaluation, Reviewing
Intelligent Software Agents vs. User-Controlled Direct Manipulation: A Debate BIBAKHTML 105-106
  Jim Miller; Pattie Maes; Ben Shneiderman
Critical issues in human-computer interaction -- in particular, the advantages and disadvantages of intelligent agents and direct manipulation -- will be discussed, debated, and hotly contested. The intent of the participants is to strike an appropriate balance between a serious discussion of the issues and an entertaining debate.
Keywords: Agents, Direct manipulation, Intelligent interfaces, Graphical representation
Telework: When Your Job is on the Line BIBAKHTML 107-108
  Jean C. Scholtz; Victoria Bellotti; Jenny DeGroot; Tom Erickson; Arnold Lund; Leslie Schirra
This panel will discuss teleworking experiences. Our panel consists of several types of teleworkers, a manager of a teleworker and a researcher who studied teleworking. The panel will address questions concerning the value of telework, the factors that affect success of telework, and the way in which telework changed their job.
Keywords: Telework, Telecommuting, Remote work
None of the Above: What's Really Essential in HCI Education? BIBAKHTML 109-110
  Andrew Sears; Marian Williams; Jean B. Gasen; Tom Hewett; John Karat; Gail McLaughlin
As we look to the future of HCI education, it is clear that, despite major HCI curriculum initiatives [1, 2], there is little consensus in the CHI community about what the content of HCI education should include or about how and by whom that content should be delivered. This panel gives voice to both prevailing and minority opinions on the subject.
Keywords: HCI Education, Industry, Academia
Computers, Kids, and Creativity: What Does the Future Hold? BIBAKHTML 111-112
  Allison Druin; David Smith; Jordana Huchital; Michael Chanover; Amy Bruckman
Our children are fast becoming one of the largest new user groups taking advantage of emerging technologies. How our children learn, play, and communicate are quickly changing. This panel will not ask the question whether technology will be a part of our children's lives. The panel participants believe this is a given. Instead, the panelists, professionals in developing new technologies for children, will consider the impact and possible changes that may be in store for our children and their future technologies. Once the panelists have offered brief statements on their visions of the future, children from the CHIkids program will be discussants and ask questions that concern them about the future of new technologies for children.
Keywords: Children, The future, Social issues, Home, Multimedia Internet, Educational applications, Entertainment
"On Your Marks, Get Set, Browse!" (The Great CHI 97 Browse Off!) BIBAKHTML 113-114
  Kevin Mullett; Christopher Fry; Diane Schiano
This session brings together several leading structure visualization and browsing technologies for an entertaining yet informative "live" comparison. Users of each system will compete "head-to-head" in a series of races designed to simulate the stressful conditions under which real world browsing often takes place. Expert and novice operators will use four different visualization and browsing tools to complete a set of generic retrieval tasks as quickly and accurately as possible within the same information space. Attendees will be able to see for themselves which techniques work well or poorly as each system demonstrates its potential for a range of users.
Keywords: Visualization, Browsing, Navigation, Interaction design, Information retrieval, Evaluation
Corporate Strategy and Usability Research: A New Partnership BIBAKHTML 115-116
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Janice Rohn; John Thomas; Judee Humburg; Sarah Bloomer; Mary Czerwinski
This panel explores approaches to making usability research more strategic within organizations -- not just with respect to the product development life cycle, but pervasive throughout the organization. Six panelists discuss different ways in which usability can be strategic, depending on their organizational environments or "profiles."
Keywords: Strategic planning, Usability research, Corporate strategy, Organizational environments, Organizational profiles


Utopia Appropriated: The Future as It Was BIBAKHTML 117
  Rick Prelinger
This program takes a critical look at mid-20th-century utopian promises and persuasions as dramatized in industrial and advertising films released between 1936 and 1965. In these films and related advertising campaigns, major American corporations appropriated old utopian ideas as their own, promising a bright, affluent future enabled by cybernetics, household technology, and new means of transportation and communication. Despite the amusing anachronisms in these films, many of the ideas they promote are still very much part of corporate discourse today, and have had a tremendous effect on shaping public expectations and attitudes towards information technology.
Keywords: Motion pictures, Industrial films, Ephemeral films, Commercial speech, Business history, Utopianism, Utopias, Futurism, Material culture, Communications, Technology, Consumerism, Social history, Cultural history


Universal Access to the Net: Requirements and Social Impact BIBAHTML 118
  Jeff Johnson
This article addresses the following questions: Where do we stand today with respect to achieving universal access to the Internet? What is required (particularly in the HCI realm) to achieve it? What are some of the consequences and side-effects -- positive and negative -- for society?
A Typology for Educational Interfaces BIBAKHTML 119-120
  Tim O'Shea
Interfaces intended to support learning should be considered with respect to a typology based on student audience, constructive functionality, navigation support, cognitive cost and added learning value. Analysed like this, the quality of interfaces used by students has noticeably improved over the past 10 years, in dramatic contrast to the much slower change in pedagogic value of educational software. The potential for the use of computers in support of interaction between learners, their peers and remote information sources has revealed important weaknesses inherent in current approaches to navigation support. Key problems include scaleability, accessing peer learners and the shape and size of information spaces.
Keywords: Educational interface, Navigational support, Memory prosthesis, Scaleability
The Design Interaction BIBHTML --
  Terry Winograd

Special Interest Groups (SIGs)

Evaluation -- Methodology for Telematic Application Systems: Quality for Users and Context BIBKHTML 121
  J. H. Erik Andriessen; Bert Arnold
Keywords: Telematics applications, Evaluation, Design methodology, User requirements, Context of use, Psychological impact, Social impact, Organizational impact
Corporate Pioneers Part II -- Lessons Learned: Introducing and Promoting Usability Testing in a Corporate Environment BIBKHTML 122
  James Geyerman
Keywords: Usability, Tools, Corporate environment, Testing, Quality
The HCI Educator's Open House: Exchanging Resources, Delivery Formats, Learning Strategies and Future Concerns BIBKHTML 123
  Laurie P. Dringus; Maxine S. Cohen
Keywords: HCI education, Professional networking, HCI resources
Visual Interaction Design: Designing the Quality Experience BIBKHTML 124
  Shannon Ford; Dan Boyarski
Keywords: Visual interaction design, Experience, Design criteria, Case studies
Measuring Website Usability BIBKHTML 125
  Jared M. Spool; Tara Scanlon
Keywords: Web design, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Searching
ACM SIGCHI Information Infrastructure BIBAHTML 126
  Gary Perlman; Keith Instone
We describe recent improvements to the ACM SIGCHI information infrastructure, mainly in the SIGCHI Web site and SIGCHI use of the ACM LISTSERV for mailing lists and aliases, and how they have been applied to provide general information, support committees, publications and conferences, and technical discussions. We then describe some key areas where volunteers are needed to improve SIGCHI information services, particularly in the area of databases.
Managing the Information Technology Infrastructure: HCI Design for Network and System Management Applications BIBKHTML 127
  Thomas M. Graefe; Dennis Wixon
Keywords: HCI design, Network management, Agents, Expert systems, Visualization, Electronic performance support
Visual Interaction Design BIBKHTML 128
  Loretta Staples
Keywords: Design, Graphic design, Visual design, Interaction design, Product design, Industrial design, Information design, Special interest group, Special interest area
Captology: The Study of Computers as Persuasive Technologies BIBKHTML 129
  BJ Fogg
Keywords: Psychology of HCI, Persuasion, Influence, Agents, Interaction design
Students at CHI BIBKHTML 130
  Michael Byrne; Stacie Hibino
Keywords: CHI students, Graduate students, Thesis issues
Improving International Communication and Cooperation in SIGCHI BIBKHTML 131
  David G. Novick; John Karat; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon
Keywords: SIGCHI, International cooperation, Community
End-User Computing BIBKHTML 132
  Howie Goodell
Keywords: End-user computing, User programming, Machine control, Application-specific languages, Programming by Demonstration
Usability and Requirements: What Role can Usability Professionals Play in Requirements Definition? BIBKHTML 133
  Elizabeth Muncher
Keywords: Requirements, Methodologies, Product development
The Amulet User Interface Development Environment (SIG) BIBKHTML 134
  Brad A. Myers
Keywords: User interface management systems, Toolkits, User interface development environments, Interface builders, C++
Art and Design Student Demos BIBKHTML 135
  Gillian Crampton Smith; Dan Boyarski
Keywords: Education, Design, Interaction design, Artists/designers, Master's programs, Student work
Contextual Techniques: Seeing Design Implications in Data BIBKHTML 136
  Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
Keywords: Analysis methods, Design techniques, Customer-centered design, Ethnography, Usability engineering, Team design, Domain analysis, Work modeling, Software engineering, Task analysis, User models, User studies, Work analysis
Current Issues in Assessing and Improving Documentation Usability BIBKHTML 137
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Laurie Kantner
Keywords: Documentation, Documentation usability, Information design, Information development, Documentation standards, Usability testing, Product development


Human-Computer Interaction: Introduction and Overview BIBAKHTML 138-139
  Keith A. Butler; Robert J. K. Jacob
The objective of this special introductory seminar is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. The material will begin with a brief history of the field, followed by presentation and discussion of how good application development methods pull on the interdisciplinary technologies of HCI. The topics will include the psychology of human-computer interaction, psychologically-based design methods and tools, user interface media and tools, and introduction to user interface architecture.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Usability engineering, Human performance engineering, Cognitive modeling, Theory, Analysis methods, Interaction styles, Interaction hardware, User interface software, User interface management systems
User Interface Design for the WWW BIBAKHTML 140-141
  Jakob Nielsen
You are up against a million other Web sites: how do you get users to stay at your site? Only by providing valuable content and a highly usable interface. Cool is getting cold.
Keywords: WWW, World Wide Web, Web, Hypertext, Usability
Cognitive Factors in Design: Basic Phenomena in Human Memory and Problem Solving BIBAKHTML 142-143
  Thomas T. Hewett
This tutorial provides a "hands-on" (actually, "minds-on") exploration of several basic processes and phenomena of human memory, and problem solving. The emphasis is on developing both intuitive and formal knowledge which can serve as background knowledge which will be useful in interpreting design guidelines and in making educated design judgments when design guidelines fail, conflict, or are nonexistent. The demonstrations used emphasize basic general phenomena with which any theory of memory or problem solving must deal. In addition, the tutorial suggests some of the implications of these phenomena for designing interactive computing systems.
Keywords: Memory, Problem solving, Design, Models of the user
Developing Collaborative Applications Using the World Wide Web "Shell" BIBAKHTML 144-145
  Alison Lee; Andreas Girgensohn
The World Wide Web is often viewed as the latest and most user friendly way of providing information over the Internet (i.e., server of documents). It is not customarily viewed as a platform for developing and deploying applications. In this tutorial, we introduce and demonstrate how Web technologies can be used in combination with Web browsers to design, create, distribute and execute collaborative applications. We discuss how HTML in combination with CGI scripts, JavaScript, and Java can be used to develop interactive and collaborative applications. We discuss recent extensions and additions that support sophisticated application development as well as the constraints with the WWW 'Shell' approach. The term World Wide Web 'Shell' is used in a manner analogous to the use of the term Expert System Shell. Specifically, the components of the WWW provide basic functionality and services for developing application in much the same way as an expert system shell provides components for developing expert system applications.
Keywords: Collaborative applications, Interactive applications, Forms, HTML, MIME, CGI, HTTP, URL, Java, JavaScript, Web server, Web browsers, Software development
Designing Icons and Visual Symbols BIBAHTML 146-147
  William Horton
Problems with icons are common-especially on Web pages and GUIs designed by amateurs. Most of these problems can be solved with more attention to detail, more input from various viewpoints, and more testing. This checklist will help you with those tasks.
Digital Storytelling and Computer Game Design BIBAKHTML 148-149
  Thom Gillespie
This workshop uses a combination of short lecture and hands on practice to introduce digital storytelling and computer game design and the multitude of skills needed to successfully design digital stories and computer games. Working examples are taken from two current projects at Indiana University: Lost Highways and Rock-Paper-Scissors in Lizard Land.
Keywords: Digital storytelling, Computer game design, Fun, Human-media interaction, HMI
Spoken Dialogue Interfaces BIBAKHTML 150-151
  Susann LuperFoy
This introductory tutorial overviews recent advancements and current efforts in the integration of speech processing with other components of spoken-dialogue systems. It examines important results in designing, constructing, and evaluating complete conversational systems that integrate speech recognition and synthesis with other enabling technologies. Among the disciplines contributing material for the course are, therefore, speech recognition and synthesis, but also natural language processing, user-interface design, machine translation, planning and plan recognition, gesture analysis, computational discourse, and usability evaluation. The full-day course is comprised of four sessions including an introduction to the state of the art, review of existing spoken interface systems, the integration of speech processing with other interaction modalities, and a closing session on evaluation methods, tools for developing spoken dialogue systems, and other issues affecting the spoken interface community.
Keywords: Speech, Dialogue, Conversational interfaces, Natural language
Wizards, Coaches, Advisors, and More: A Performance Support Primer BIBAKHTML 152-153
  Karen L. McGraw; Bruce A. McGraw
Today's business environment is complicated. Downsizing means fewer people doing more. The staff has less time to learn new systems. And while there are more mission-critical systems in the workplace, there are fewer training dollars available to ensure proper operation. The result is a 'performance gap' -- users may not have the skills they need to take full advantage of the systems they must use. In this tutorial we present a definition and objectives of performance support and illustrate how performance support can yield ROI. Next, we review each component and discuss development methodology and design issues. Finally, we address hurdles to successful projects.
Keywords: Performance support, Task-based interface, Coaches, Wizards, Advisors, Help, Documentation, Knowledge base support
Product Usability: Survival Techniques BIBAKHTML 154-155
  Jared M. Spool; Tara Scanlon; Carolyn Snyder
Product developers are typically faced with small budgets, tight schedules, and over-committed resources. To deliver high-quality products under these constraints, developers need an understanding of basic design principles, techniques that allow them to work effectively with materials on hand, and a development process that is built around the use of such techniques. This workshop explains how low-fidelity prototyping and usability testing can be used in a process of iterative refinement in order to develop more usable products.
Keywords: Design principles, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Prototyping, Low-fidelity prototyping, Process management, Product development, Practical techniques
Strategic Usability: Introducing Usability into Organisations BIBAKHTML 156-157
  Sarah Bloomer; Rachel Croft; Helen Kieboom
Usability may now be practised by a large number of software developers, but has yet to gain wide acceptance. Communicating the value of usability must happen across multiple levels of an organisation, and requires speaking several "languages". This practical, hands-on tutorial will cover techniques for convincing management or potential clients of the value of usability, in terms each group understands. It will examine what is required to develop a usability strategy for a whole organisation to finding data to convince stakeholders of a single usability activity.
Keywords: Strategic usability, Usability strategies, Cost-justification, Communicating usability data
Activity Theory: Basic Concepts and Applications BIBAKHTML 158-159
  Victor Kaptelinin; Bonnie A. Nardi
This tutorial introduces participants to Activity Theory, a conceptual approach that provides a broad framework for describing the structure, development, and context of computer-supported activities. The tutorial will consist of lectures, discussion and small group exercises. A Web community will be established so attendees will be able to continue to learn about and use activity theory.
Keywords: Activity Theory, Foundations of HCI, Contextual studies
Designing User Interfaces from Analyses of Users' Tasks BIBAKHTML 160-161
  Peter Johnson; Stephanie Wilson; Hilary Johnson
This tutorial provides a detailed introduction to task analysis and task-based design. The focus of task analysis is the description of work tasks, while the focus of task-based design is designing interactive systems from the perspective of users' work. Techniques from psychology, ethnomethodology and sociology are used to analyse and describe users' current work tasks. A framework for modelling work tasks (Task Knowledge Structures) is used to represent relevant task information. Guidelines are provided to help the design team envision and reason about how current tasks might be changed and improved through the design of interactive systems. The envisioned task descriptions provide the focus for the design and development of interactive systems that will support the users' work.
Keywords: Task analysis, Task-based design, Work analysis, Model-based design, Design guidelines, Envisioning design, User interface design
Color and Type in Information Design BIBAHTML 162-163
  Charles A. Poynton; Mary Mooney
Work with color and type in the CHI community is often undertaken with a base of experience and a sense of craftsmanship, but without a firm foundation in the principles of perception, science, and engineering. In this tutorial, you will learn the perceptual, color science, and engineering principles that underlie effective information presentation. You will learn to apply these principles to the design of graphical user interfaces and information displays.
   This tutorial is directed to graphic designers, interface designers, and developers of on-line information. You should have experience in developing user interfaces, experience in creating and manipulating digital imagery, or experience in writing or illustration.
Getting Started on a Contextual Project BIBAKHTML 164-165
  Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
Field data gathering techniques such as Contextual Inquiry enable a design team to collect the detailed customer data they need for their projects. But when a team wants to apply contextual techniques to their own situation, they are faced with a host of problems. What project should they start with? Is it better to introduce them early or late in the process? Given all the different possible techniques, which will work best for the specific project chosen? How should the customers be chosen and how should visits to them be set up? Who should be on the project? It's no wonder people find it hard to get started with these new techniques in their own organizations.
   This tutorial gets participants over the roadblocks in the way of using contextual techniques in their projects. We walk through the different aspects of a contextual project, describing the issues that need to be resolved, the different approaches that can work, and the principles which guide making a choice. We use exercises to give participants the chance to plan aspects of their own projects, so they can do the thinking process themselves and raise any questions raised by their own situations.
   This tutorial is appropriate to anyone wishing to use field methods to gather customer data for their projects. Some familiarity with these methods is assumed.
Keywords: Analysis methods, Design techniques, Customer-centered design, Ethnography, Usability engineering, Methodology, Team design, Domain analysis, Work modeling, Software engineering, Task analysis, User models, User studies work analysis
Introduction to Design Ethnography BIBAKHTML 166-167
  Tony Salvador; Michael Mateas
Design Ethnography is a set of data collection and analysis perspectives, assumptions and skills that can be used effectively and efficiently to understand a particular environment, or domain, of people for the express purposes of designing new technology products. Working from the data one forms models of the environment explicitly considering the peoples' relationship to other people, space, time, artifacts, activities and nature. The models, graphically represented, are used explicitly to derive and test product concepts.
Keywords: Ethnography, Consumer market, Home, Teenagers, Business communication
Practical Usability Evaluation BIBAKHTML 168-169
  Gary Perlman
Practical Usability Evaluation is an introduction to cost-effective, low-skill, low-investment methods of usability assessment. The methods include
  • 1. Inspection Methods (e.g., heuristic evaluation),
  • 2. Observational Skills and Video (including user testing with think-aloud
  • 3. Program Instrumentation, and
  • 4. Questionnaires. The tutorial features many step-by-step procedures to aid in evaluation plan design.
    Keywords: [H.5.2] User interface, Evaluation/methodology, [D.2.2] Software engineering, Tools and techniques, User interfaces, [H.1.2] Information systems, User/machine systems, Human factors
  • Designing Usable and Visually Appealing Web Sites BIBHTML 170-171
      Wayne Neale; Cindy McCombe
    Metaphor Design in User Interfaces: How to Manage Expectation, Surprise, Comprehension, and Delight Effectively BIBAKHTML 172-173
      Aaron Marcus
    User interface design requires designing metaphors, the essential terms, concepts, and images representing data, functions, tasks, roles, organizations, and people. Advanced user interfaces require consideration of new metaphors and repurposing of older ones. Awareness of semiotic principles, in particular the use of metaphors, can assist researchers and developers in achieving more efficient, effective ways to communicate to more diverse user communities.
    Keywords: Consumers, Culture, Diversity, Graphic design, Icons, Information design, Metaphors, Multi-media, Productivity tools, Rhetoric, Semantics, Semiotics, Symbols, User interfaces, Visible language, Web
    Interacting and Designing in Virtual Worlds on the Internet BIBAKHTML 174-175
      Bruce Damer
    Multi-user virtual worlds are proliferating on the Internet. These are two and three dimensional graphical environments inhabited by users represented as digital actors called "avatars". Through this medium, a wide variety of Internet users are participating in a large scale social experiment and collaborating on a variety of projects. The inhabited virtual world is an exciting new medium for HCI professionals including interaction and graphic designers, and educators and researchers focused on distance learning and teleworking. It also appeals to children and ordinary users of the Internet as a vast new digital playground and a venue for personal expression. This tutorial will introduce participants to a variety of inhabited virtual worlds and give them hands-on experience in collaboratively building and interacting with other users in the worlds.
    Keywords: Virtual worlds, Social computing, Avatars, Collaborative workspaces, VRML, Three dimensional interfaces
    Practical User Interface Design: Developing within Real-World Constraints BIBAKHTML 176-177
      Debra Herschmann
    User interface designers are trained to strive for the ultimate interface, one that is usable, effective and engaging. However, in a commercial production environment, there are rarely sufficient resources to achieve the ultimate interface. Tight deadlines, limited budget and staff, shifting priorities and conflicting agendas all affect the final product design. In such a setting, designers must revise their vision of the ultimate interface to provide the best implementable and affordable user interface, one that can be realized with the given resource constraints.
    Keywords: Constraints, Production environment, Cost estimation, Reducing implementation cost
    Managing the Design of the User Interface BIBAKHTML 178-179
      Deborah J. Mayhew
    The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of practical methods and techniques for managing the process of designing good user interfaces. The tutorial is organized around a typical, modern project life cycle, and presents usability methods which can be applied at different points in the development process. Methods and techniques presented include not only information gathering, design and evaluation techniques, but also organizational and managerial strategies.
    Keywords: User interface design, User profile, Task analysis, Usability goals, Style guide, Conceptual model, Walkthroughs, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Usability organization, Cost-benefit analysis
    Interviewing Customers: Discovering What They Can't Tell You BIBAKHTML 180-181
      Ellen A. Isaacs
    Product designers typically talk to customers in an effort to better understand their needs. However, without interviewing skills and an understanding of the types of information people can provide about themselves, interviewers may collect little useful information or even misleading information. This tutorial provides a practical approach to interviewing customers. It focuses on three areas: (a) the types of information you should (and should not) expect to learn from interviews, (b) good interviewing techniques, and (c) methods for analyzing the large volumes of information collected in interviews. The tutorial makes heavy use of demonstrations and exercises to give the participants hands-on experience with preparing and conducting interviews as well as analyzing information collected.
    Keywords: Interviewing, Requirements gathering
    Structured Observation: Practical Methods for Understanding Users and Their Work Context BIBAKHTML 182-183
      Susan M. Dray
    This tutorial will focus why and how to do observations of users in their own worksite.
    Keywords: User-centered design, Observation, Ethnography, Contextual Inquiry, Qualitative data, User profiles, User data collection, Usability, Tools and techniques
    Contextual Design: Using Customer Work Models to Drive Systems Design BIBAKHTML 184-185
      Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
    Field data gathering techniques such as Contextual Inquiry enable a design team to gather the detailed data they need. These techniques produce enormous amounts of information on how the customers of a system work. This creates a new problem-how to represent all this detail in a coherent, comprehensible form, which can be a suitable basis for design. An affinity diagram effectively shows the scope of the customer problem, but is less effective at capturing and coherently representing the details of how people work. Design teams need a way to organize this detail so they can use it in their own development process.
       In this tutorial we present our latest methods for representing detailed information about work practice and using these representations to drive system design. These methods have been adopted over the last few years by major product development and information systems organizations. We show how to represent the work of individual users in models, how to generalize these to describe a whole market or department, and how to use these to drive innovative design. We present the process by which we build and use the models and practice key steps. We show how these methods fit into the overall design process, and summarize Contextual Design, which gathers field data and uses it to drive design through a well-defined series of steps.
       The tutorial is appropriate for those who have used field techniques, especially Contextual Inquiry, and would like to put more structure on the process of using field data.
       We use shopping as our example of work practice throughout this tutorial, since shopping is simple and understood by everyone. We encourage participants to go grocery shopping shortly before the tutorial, and bring any shopping list they may have used, their store receipt, and a drawing of the store layout and their movement through it.
    Keywords: Analysis methods, Design techniques, Customer-centered design, Ethnography, Usability engineering, Methodology, Team design, Domain analysis, Work modeling, Software engineering, Task analysis, User models, User studies work analysis
    OVID: Object View and Interaction Design BIBAKHTML 186-187
      Richard Berry; Scott Isensee; Dave Roberts
    Several methods are already available for object oriented program design. These methods do not deal with user interface design. The tutorial teaches OVID, a systematic method for designing Object User Interfaces for use by product design teams. OVID is a major step in changing user interface design from art to science. It emphasizes the production of a complete, accurate model that can be used as input to program design methodologies.
    Keywords: User interface design, Object oriented, Task analysis
    Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain BIBAHTML 188-189
      Betty Edwards
    Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain is one of the most effective teaching methods for drawing ever developed. In this tutorial, the participant will be introduced to the underlying theory behind the method. The bulk of the session will involve practical hands-on exercises, which demonstrate the participants ability to learn to draw, and to learn to "see things more clearly.
       In this tutorial you will learn basic strategies for accessing the visual, perceptual mode of thinking. This type of thinking is learned through the acquisition of very basic drawing skills and the acquisition of an understanding of the nature of drawing.
    Multimedia Visual Interface Design BIBAKHTML 190-191
      Susan E. Metros; John G. Hedberg
    Over the past few years, as graphics and imagery have come to dominate our popular modes of communication, interactive multimedia and WWW developers and users have become keenly aware of the interplay between these visual elements and the cognitive functioning of the interface. This tutorial explores the various facets of this relationship. As a result, participants of this tutorial will gain a better understanding and a working knowledge of how the components of visual interface design work in concert with the cognitive demands of an interface. They will be able to design or direct the design of functional and visually appropriate interfaces for multimedia, websites, courseware and/or training modules.
    Keywords: Cognitive models, Graphic design, Interaction design, Interface design, Multimedia, User models, Visual design, Visualization, World Wide Web
    Social and Natural Interfaces: Theory and Design BIBAKHTML 192-193
      Clifford Nass; Byron Reeves
    This tutorial will cover issues related to the theory and design of social interfaces. The presentation is based on a long-term research project at Stanford University called Social Responses to Communication Technology (SRCT). This research shows that all people expect computers to obey a wide range of social and natural rules. The tutorial will cover 24 different concepts taken from the social science literature (e.g., personality, politeness, emotions), discussing both experimental results and the implications of results for the design of interfaces. The presentation will include an evaluation of current interfaces. The tutorial is for designers, usability specialists, and anyone interested in creating or assessing interfaces that conform with social and natural rules. No knowledge of programming is necessary.
    Keywords: Social responses to communication technology, SRCT, Interface design, Social science methods, Personality
    Software Agents BIBAKHTML 194-195
      Marc Millier
    "Agents" and "Agent technology" have become the new buzzwords in computer software. Much of this 'buzz' is pure hype similar to the AI hype of the 80's. The software agents tutorial is intended to provide the attendee an overview of the software and user interface technologies being applied to autonomous software modules known as "Agents". This overview should allow the student to separate the "wheat from the chaff" and provide pointers for the student's further research into the technology.
    Keywords: Software agents, Distributed artificial intelligence, Tutorial
    Information Visualization BIBAKHTML 196-197
      Nahum Gershon; Stuart Card; Stephen G. Eick
    Visual representation of information requires merging of data visualization methods, computer graphics, design, and imagination. This course describes the emerging field of information visualization including visualizing retrieved information from large document collections (e.g., digital libraries), the World Wide Web, and databases. The course highlights the process of producing effective visualizations, making sense of information, taking users' needs into account, and illustrating good practical visualization procedures in specific case studies.
    Keywords: Information visualization, Visualization, World Wide Web, WWW, Usability
    Creating Conversational Interfaces for Interactive Software Agents BIBAKHTML 198-199
      Tandy Trower
    While much research and design has been presented on designing interactive agents and on speech interfaces, little has been said about combining these areas. This tutorial presents recommended guidelines for creating conversational interfaces with agents presented as interactive characters.
    Keywords: Software agents, Interactive characters, Conversational interfaces, Social user interface, Speech interfaces
    Java-Based User Interface Development BIBAKHTML 200-201
      Ian Smith
    This tutorial provide attendees with an understanding of the possibilities provided by the World Wide Web for application development and a more detailed understanding of the issues involved in developing user interfaces for the Web in Java.
    Keywords: Java, Applets, World Wide Web, User interfaces, Development tools

    Formal Video Program

    Query Previews in Networked Information Systems: the Case of EOSDIS BIBKHTML 202-203
      Catherine Plaisant; Tom Bruns; Ben Shneiderman; Khoa Doan
    Keywords: Dynamic query, Query preview, Network information system, Visualization, Direct manipulation, Earth science
    Distributed Applets BIBAKHTML 204-205
      Marc H. Brown; Marc A. Najork
    This video shows several examples of distributed active web content, that is, applets that can communicate with other applets running on different machines.
    Keywords: Active objects, Applets, Distributed applications, Groupware
    WebCard = Email + News + WWW BIBAHTML 206-207
      Marc H. Brown
    This video shows WebCard, a system that provides integrated and uniform access to email, news, and the Web. WebCard's user interface is based on folders, which can contain mail messages, news articles, and also Web pages. The obvious use of folders is for organizing material, as is done in conventional mail and news readers using folders, and in Web browsers using bookmarks or hotlists. In WebCard, however, folders can contain an arbitrary mix of mail messages, news articles, and Web pages. WebCard also uses folders to present the mail messages, news articles, and Web pages returned by commands such as "search" and "auto surf."
    A Tour of Teamrooms BIBAKHTML 208-209
      Mark Roseman; Saul Greenberg
    TeamRooms is a groupware environment based on the metaphor of shared virtual rooms. The system contains user-defined rooms, each with a shared whiteboard, chat tool and customizable groupware applets. The system also supports a number of features to help maintain awareness, as well as a rich persistence mechanism that can act as a group memory.
    Keywords: Groupware, CSCW, Shared electronic spaces
    The Collaboratory: a Virtual, Collaborative Learning Environment BIBAKHTML 210-211
      Andy Cargile
    The Collaboratory is the result of a future-oriented project in learning, in which the process of human-centered design was applied to the observed problems and opportunities in learning in high schools [1]. It is a shared virtual space which teaches and facilitates collaboration and project work. This video describes the Collaboratory project and demonstrates the environment and interface as a product of the users and design process which helped develop it.
    Keywords: Collaboration, Project management, Learning, Human-centered design, User interface design, Virtual spaces, Interactive TV, Multimedia, Teleproxy, User observation
    A GUI Paradigm Using Tablets, Two-hands and Transparency BIBAKHTML 212-213
      George Fitzmaurice; Thomas Baudel; Gordon Kurtenbach; Bill Buxton
    An experimental GUI paradigm is presented which is based on the design goals of maximizing the amount of screen used for application data, reducing the amount that the UI diverts visual attentions from the application data, and increasing the quality of input. In pursuit of these goals, we integrated the non-standard UI technologies of multi-sensor tablets, toolglass [1], transparent UI components [4], and marking menus [6]. While our prototypes and efforts focus within the domain of creating digital art, we believe the concepts and lessons learned are generalizable to other domains. The video shows three main segments: (1) motivation by showing an artist using traditional paper-based interactions, (2) a prototype system called T3 and (3) integration of the concepts into StudioPaint, a high end commercial paint application.
    Keywords: Two-handed input, Toolglass, Tablets, Transparency, Marking menus, Task integration, Divided attention
    The Amulet User Interface Development Environment (Video) BIBKHTML 214-215
      Brad A. Myers; Richard G. McDaniel; Robert C. Miller; Alan Ferrency; Ellen Borison; Andrew Faulring; Andy Mickish; Patrick Doane; Alex Klimovitski
    Keywords: Toolkit, User interface development environment, User interface management system, Application framework
    Technology at Home: A Digital Personal Scale BIBAKHTML 216-217
      Sigi Moeslinger
    This project is a conceptual study for the design of a digital personal scale that allows for user personalization and weight data tracking. The study is a demonstration of an integrated hardware/software development process, of an approach to ubiquitous computing and of the inclusion of socio-cultural study into the product development process. It is designed for the home market and special emphasis is given to providing a rich user experience.
    Keywords: Design, Hardware/software integration, Socio-Cultural relevance, Ubiquitous computing, Physical interaction, User experience
    An Animated Direct-Manipulation Interface to Digital Library Services BIBAKHTML 218-219
      Steve B. Cousins; Ken Pier
    The Digital Library Integrated Task Environment (DLITE) is a novel user interface concept for distributed document collections and services. It is an interaction prototype, not a polished graphical user interface, and is a front end to an evolving variety of distributed document services. DLITE is part of the Stanford University Digital Libraries research project. This videotape explains the principles of the DLITE design and shows the current implementation in action.
    Keywords: Digital library, User interface, Direct-manipulation, World Wide Web, Holophrasting


    Basic Research Symposium BIBAHTML 220
      Susanne Jul; Leon Watts
    The Basic Research Symposium is a special event with a five-year history at CHI. It is a hybrid between a mini-conference and a workshop that presents an opportunity for researchers from different disciplines to share their visions through exchanging new developments and insights from their own fields. The goal of the Symposium is to provide an interactive forum to promote and enhance scientific discussions of developing research issues. It is designed to advance understanding and dialogue among fellow researchers as well as to encourage asking of questions and reflection on methods and results. It is a unique opportunity to learn about the variety of perspectives present in the international HCI research community and to apply the often radically different criteria associated with those perspectives to one's own work.
       The goal of the workshop is to draw implications for the design of navigable worlds and navigational aids from a common understanding of navigation, including its relationship to other activities, and its requirements. The workshop provides an opportunity for individuals who are currently separated by discipline and domain to meet and create a shared understanding.
    Ubiquitous Computing: The Impact on Future Interaction Paradigms and HCI Research BIBKHTML 221-222
      Gregory D. Abowd; Bill N. Schilit
    Keywords: Ubiquitous computing, Future computing environments, Applications research
    Research Issues in Wearable Computers BIBKHTML 223
      Len Bass; Dan Siewiorek; Steve Mann; Chris Thompson
    Keywords: Wearable computers, Body worn computers, Eyes free operation of computers, Hands free operation of computers, User interface paradigms
    Design Strategies & Methods in Interaction Design: The Past, Present, and Future BIBAKHTML 224-225
      Richard Branham; Alp Tiritoglu
    The complexity of user interface design demands well-chosen strategies and methods to optimize the design process. This two day workshop is designed to provide the understanding and application of design strategies and methods [DS&M] for the development of user interfaces. Participants will identify the past, present and the future of the principles of design thinking, design processes and DS&M. This workshop will try to find answers to what strategies and methods could be effective in the development of interaction design in the future.
    Keywords: Design thinking, Design strategies, Design methods, Design process, User interface design, Design research, Design principles, Interaction, User-centered design, Enabling interfaces, Design representation techniques, Creative methods, Rational methods
    Putting It All Together: Pattern Languages for Interaction Design BIBAHTML 226
      Thomas Erickson; John Thomas
    Interaction design is becoming an increasingly complex and diverse activity. It is becoming more complex because existing technologies are becoming smaller and cheaper and thus more ubiquitous, even as new sensing and effector technologies are entering the scene. This complexity is exacerbated by the task of integrating technologies into workplaces which we are recognizing as complex sociotechnical systems filled with customs and practices which we disrupt at our peril. Simultaneously, interaction design is becoming more diverse, drawing on disciplines ranging from anthropology to visual design, making the domain experts (i.e. end users) a more integral part of the process. The diversification of interaction design is also being driven by customization: as systems become increasingly customizable more design is being done in the workplace by MIS departments, outside consultants, and the end users themselves.
    Usability Testing of World Wide Web Sites BIBKHTMLWeb Page 227
      Michael D. Levi; Frederick G. Conrad
    Keywords: Usability testing, Evaluation, Usability engineering, World Wide Web
    Augmented Conceptual Analysis of the Web BIBKHTML 228
      Wendy A. Kellogg; Jakob Nielsen
    Keywords: World Wide Web, WWW, Evolution of the web, Conceptual analysis of the web
    Cognitive and Software Solutions for Computer-related Anxiety BIBAKHTML 229
      Judith Ramsay; Richard Jacques
    The goal of this workshop is to focus discussion on how to design inexpensive but effective techniques for the management of computer-related anxiety. These techniques may be geared either towards the design of software, or towards the design of training or stress-management techniques.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Computer-related anxiety, Minority groups, Coping techniques
    Navigation in Electronic Worlds BIBAKHTML 230
      George Furnas; Susanne Jul
    The goal of the workshop is to draw implications for the design of navigable worlds and navigational aids from a broader, shared understanding of navigation, including its relationship to other activities, and its requirements. The workshop provides an opportunity for individuals who are currently separated by discipline and domain to meet and create a common understanding.
    Keywords: Navigation, Information access, Electronic worlds
    Entertainment is a Human Factor: Game Design and HCI BIBKHTML 231
      Chuck Clanton; Lynn Cherny; Erik Ostrom
    Keywords: Game design, User interface design, Iterative design, Problem solving
    Object-Oriented Model in User Interface Design BIBAHTML 232
      Mark van Harmelen; Bernard Horan
    Objects have been used as the informal basis for the conceptual design of interactive systems for at least a decade. Given recent advances in the development of object-oriented modeling languages and methodologies, it is now timely to re-evaluate the role of object-modeling during the process of user interface design.
    Interactive Systems for Supporting the Emergence of Concepts and Ideas BIBAKHTML 233
      Ernest A. Edmonds; Thomas P. Moran
    The research question is how interactive systems can aid users in quickly creating and manipulating visual representations and whether they can support the discovery of new relationships, structures, and meanings in the materials. This is clearly an important new direction for the development of computer system design.
    Keywords: Emergence, Discovery, Sketching, Interaction
    HCI Research and Practice Agenda Based on Human Needs and Social Responsibility BIBAHTML 234
      Michael J. Muller; Cathleen Wharton
    The purpose of this workshop is to bring together HCI researchers and practitioners from diverse backgrounds, to explore and define new opportunities in HCI research and practice. We adopt the strategy of motivating our discussion of research and practice goals through a consideration of human needs and social responsibility. The rich diversity of human needs, and the intricate dialogues of socially responsible work, provide dramatic challenges to advance the state of research and practice in our field. The outcome will be new issues and projects of both theoretical and applied value. These issues and challenges will provide opportunities for developments and innovations of primary importance to our field.
    Testing for Power Usability BIBKHTML 235
      Keith S. Karn; Thomas J. Perry; Marc J. Krolczyk
    Keywords: Power user, Usability, Testing, Evaluation, Production systems
    Speech User Interface Design Challenges BIBKHTML 236
      Susan Boyce; Amir Mane; Demetrios Karis; Nicole Yankelovich
    Keywords: Automatic speech recognition, Natural language processing
    Awareness in Collaborative Systems BIBKHTML 237
      Susan E. McDaniel; Tom Brinck
    Keywords: Awareness, Distributed work, CSCW, Telework


    CollageMachine: Temporality and Indeterminacy in Media Browsing via Interface Ecology BIBAKHTML 238-239
      Andruid Kerne
    CollageMachine synthesizes artistic and computational practices in order to represent media from the World Wide Web (WWW). It functions as a process-based art work, and as a special browser which can be useful for searching. Media elements are pulled from Web pages and composed into a collage which evolves over time. The evolving art work / browsing session can be shaped by the user. The temporal composition of the collage develops with relation to its visual composition and semantic content. The CollageMachine engine combines structured randomness and the user's expression of preferences and interests with design rules and semantic rules to make decisions about the collage's layout, and about which media to retrieve. My approach in blending music composition strategies, visual art aesthetics, and computer science techniques into this interactive environment arises through application of the theory of Interface Ecology.
    Keywords: World Wide Web, Temporality, Indeterminacy, Visual design, Entertainment, Interface ecology, Interaction design, Interaction paradigms, Design techniques, Web browsers

    INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Collaborative Work

    The Influences of Communication Media and Decision-Making Technique on Team Decision Outcomes: A Critical Assessment of the Stepladder Approach BIBAKHTML 240-241
      Lori L. Foster; Michael D. Coovert
    The stepladder technique is a method for improving face-to-face (FTF) team problem solving. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the stepladder technique benefits computer-mediated (CM) teams of individuals. Hypotheses addressed the effects of communication media and decision making technique on team decision quality, decision variability, time to make a decision, and team member satisfaction. Eighty 4-person teams worked on a decision making task using one of the following group structures: FTF conventional, FTF stepladder, CM conventional, or CM stepladder. The results revealed fundamental differences between FTF and CM teams of decision makers.
    Keywords: Team decision making, Computer-mediated decision making, Computer-mediated communication
    Criteria for Effective Groupware 2 BIBAKHTML 242-243
      Mioko Ambe; Andrew Monk
    The audience of a panel at CHI'96 in Vancouver submitted 61 forms suggesting criteria for the design of effective groupware. The suggestions made were analysed for common themes that are summarised here. The poster also presents an opportunity for participants at CHI'97 to contribute to this discussion.
    Keywords: Groupware, Criteria, Design
    Integrating Tools into the Classroom BIBAKHTML 244-245
      Roland Hubscher; Sadhana Puntambekar; Mark Guzdial; Janet L. Kolodner
    SMILE, a learning environment for collaboration and design, is based on our experience with synchronous and asynchronous collaboration tools in the classroom and sound principles of software and interface design. SMILE provides a more holistic approach to supporting student reasoning and activities rather than the more reductionist tool-based approach we had started with. This more holistic approach focuses on the cognitive processes involved in doing design and learning from that experience, rather than focusing on activities that students are carrying out. This new emphasis has also allowed us to identify ways of integrating scaffolding for metacognitive and reflective reasoning that were not naturally integratable into the previous framework.
    Keywords: Science education, Educational technology, Collaborative learning environments, Process-based scaffolding
    A Prototype Design Tool for Participants in Graphical Multiuser Environments BIBAK 246-247
      Carol Strohecker; Barbara Barros
    Users of this software construction kits can design layouts for virtual spaces. The elements of the software kit are based on Kevin Lynch's elements of the city image: districts, paths, edges, nodes, and landmarks (Lynch, 1960; Banerjee & Southworth, 1990).
    Keywords: Design tools, Urban planning, Multi-user domains, Constructionist environments, Visual programming

    INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Information Retrieval

    Synchronized Retrieval of Recorded Multimedia Data BIBAKHTML 248-249
      Yukihiro Kawamata; Kimiya Yamaashi; Masayasu Futakawa
    This paper describes techniques for the retrieval of recorded multimedia data for supervisory control systems. Currently these systems operators can only retrieve recorded data individually. We developed new techniques to access all recorded data is synchronization. The techniques enable users to retrieve multimedia data such as sensor data and videos simultaneously, and also enable users to obtain the desired related data, including objects in videos, by "Drag and Drop" operation. All these techniques allow operators to exactly and quickly analyze phenomena in the systems based on the recorded multimedia data.
    Keywords: Data retrieval, Multimedia, Video, Drag and drop

    INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Interaction Design Strategies

    Beyond Fitts' Law: Models for Trajectory-Based HCI Tasks BIBAKHTML 250
      Johnny Accot; Shumin Zhai
    Trajectory-based interactions, such as navigating through nested-menus, drawing curves, and moving in 3D worlds, are becoming common tasks in modern computer interfaces. Users' performances in these tasks cannot be successfully modeled with Fitts' law as it has been applied to pointing tasks. Therefore we explore the possible existence of robust regularities in trajectory-based tasks. We used "steering through tunnels" as our experimental paradigm to represent such tasks, and found that a simple "steering law" indeed exists. The paper presents the motivation, analysis, a series of four experiments, and the applications of the steering law.
    Keywords: Fitts' law, Human performance, Modeling, Movements, Path steering, Task difficulty, Motor control, Input techniques and devices, Trajectory-based interaction


    AnchoredDisplays: The Web on Walls BIBAKHTML 251-252
      Manish Tuteja
    With the World Wide Web, mountains of information are suddenly within easy reach. Unfortunately, accessing this information still requires a computer screen, a keyboard and a mouse. This paper describes AnchoredDisplays, a new metaphor for exploiting physical location to help display and organize dynamically changing information. AnchoredDisplays are inexpensive battery operated display screens that can be affixed on walls, doors and desks. The displays can be configured to present information such as weather, traffic, stock quotes and sports scores extracted from the web. Once configured, users can place these displays wherever they feel relevant. Suddenly, dynamic information becomes much easier to find and assimilate; a user might place tomorrow's weather near the light switch and sports scores near the phone. Hardware and software implementations of a prototype AnchoredDisplay system are described.
    Keywords: Information organization, Displays, World Wide Web
    Magazines and Electronic Information Web Channels -- The Reader's Point of View BIBAKHTML 253-254
      Fredrik Carleson; Torbjorn Lundberg; Hans Nassla
    One magazine and one electronic information web channel are compared with respect to the reader's attitude. Integrity, personal touch, character and ease of access are found to be the important factors in forming a strong relationship between the reader and the magazine, whether paper-based or electronic.
    Keywords: Electronic publishing, Empirical studies, Organizational aspects, Social issues, E-zine, Magazine, Periodical, WWW


    Usability Testing of System Status Displays for Army Missile Defense BIBAKHTML 255-256
      Michael Perrin; Bobby Ford; Dick Steinberg
    Modernizing workstations for Military applications is a challenge: designers must increase performance without affecting safety in any way. Furthermore, interaction efficiency is required to avoid fatigue and minimize error rates which could cost lives. Soldiers are understandably reluctant to use a new interface design on systems where life critical decisions are made. It is paramount to obtain user assessment of Interface Designs early and continually throughout the software development cycle to insure user acceptance and optimize user performance. Statistical based usability tests were performed with soldiers to determine display designs for the U.S. Army's Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) Radar Soldier User Interface.
    Keywords: Usability testing, Icon testing, Perception


    Comparison of Display Methods in Online Help BIBAKHTML 257-258
      Lori A. Caldwell; Thomas S. Tullis; Ana Pons
    This poster describes a study conducted by the Human Interface Design department at Fidelity Investments Systems Company. The purpose of this study was to obtain performance and preference data about various methods of displaying data definitions in online help. The four methods studied were an alphabetical list of data elements with pop-up definitions, a window-ordered list with pop-up definitions, a screen shot of the window with pop-up definitions, and a table listing all data elements and their definitions. Performance and preference data indicated that the alphabetical list was the best.
    Keywords: Online help, Information design, Reference topic
    Designating Required vs. Optional Input Fields BIBAKHTML 259-260
      Thomas S. Tullis; Ana Pons
    This paper describes a study comparing different techniques for visually distinguishing required from optional input fields in a form-filling application. Seven techniques were studied: no indication, bold field labels, chevrons in front of the labels, check marks to the right of the input fields, a different background color, grouping them separately, and a status bar indication. Performance and preference data were collected. In general, we found that the two worst methods were no indication and the status bar. The best method was separate groups.
    Keywords: Required fields, Optional fields, Visual design, Data input
    Participatory Adaptation BIBAKHTML 261-262
      Elizabeth Sklar Rozier; Richard Alterman
    Expert users of programs that handle complicated data management problems develop methods for coping with data overload, multi-user cooperation, and real-time situations. These expert methods incorporate domain and/or user interface knowledge. If such methods were inherent in a system, then novice users could benefit from the expert's experience, the learning curve would be shortened and a more effective system would result. Defining and implementing a complete set of expert methods at design time is a daunting task. Collecting such information from a system's usage, after it has been deployed, should provide a more accurate database of expert methodologies. Current adaptive systems attempt to capture and automate such features during run-time. However, these systems can never evolve very far beyond their original design, since the adaptations occur within the scope of that design. Our method is to offer the expert's usage database as input to the designer, re-introducing the designer in the development cycle after a system has been deployed initially, so that a more effective system can be produced in the next generation.
    Keywords: Usage, Expert, Adaptive system, Design

    INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Visualization

    Focus+Context Visualization with Flip Zooming and the Zoom Browser BIBAKHTML 263-264
      Lars Erik Holmquist
    Flip zooming is a novel focus+context technique for visualizing large data sets. It offers an overview of the data, and gives users instant access to any part. Originally developed for visualizing large documents, the method might be adapted for different types of information, including web pages, image collections and as a general windowing interface. A first practical demonstration of flip zooming is the Zoom Browser, a World Wide Web-browser that uses flip zooming to present web-pages.
    Keywords: Focus+context views, Information visualization, Graphical user interfaces, World Wide Web
    Mind Maps and Causal Models: Using Graphical Representations of Field Research Data BIBAKHTML 265-266
      David R. Millen; Audrey Schriefer; Diane Z. Lehder; Susan M. Dray
    We recently completed a series of field visits to understand how workers use the Internet in their daily work activities. At each site, the team used traditional field research methods such as work observations, artifact walk-throughs, and contextual inquiry. An innovative debrief process was developed to understand, summarize and document each visit. In addition to a structured debrief questionnaire, the team created graphical summary notes using "mind maps." These mind maps efficiently captured a nonlinear, graphical clustering of key ideas. A "causal loop diagram" was also developed to document the team's understanding of the internal and external driving forces for each organization. Taken together, the debrief questionnaire, the mind maps, and the causal loop diagrams provided a rich multimedia representation of the field data.
    Keywords: Research methods, Ethnography, Qualitative data analysis

    SHORT DEMONSTRATIONS: Design, Techniques and Applications

    Learning about User-Centered Design: A Multimedia Case Study Tutorial BIBAKHTML 267-268
      T. T. Carey; D. S. Peerenboom; M. N. Lytwyn
    This multimedia tutorial provides a learning support system for continuing education in HCI. The system includes an authentic case study of a design project, a guide to user-centred design concepts, active role-playing activities and links to the larger professional community.
    Keywords: HCI education, Interactive multimedia, User-centred design
    Kinetic Typography: Issues in Time-Based Presentation of Text BIBAK 269-270
      Shannon Ford; Jodi Forlizzi; Suguru Ishizaki
    This paper introduces research in kinetic typography, a new method of displaying text that take advantage of the dynamic nature of digital media. We suggest a preliminary set of design issues by which kinetic typography may be understood and used.
    Keywords: Kinetic typography, Text display, Communication, Tone of voice, Emotion, Personality
    Computer Assisted Foundations -- Interactive Design Problems BIBAK 271-272
      Patricia Nelson; Barbara Giorgio Booher; Loren Mork
    Two art professors and a software designer have written computer assisted foundations design curriculum using interactive problems written in Macromedia Director. The problems are designed to produce many solutions, some of which are further developed using traditional artist's materials such as collage and paint. We would like to demonstrate four of these problems.
    Keywords: Computer aided design, Art, Foundation design, Design education
    CollageMachine: Temporality and Indeterminacy in Media Browsing via Interface Ecology BIBAKHTML 273-274
      Andruid Kerne
    CollageMachine synthesizes artistic and computational practices in order to represent media from the World Wide Web (WWW). It functions as a process-based art work, and as a special browser which can be useful for searching. Media elements are pulled from Web pages and composed into a collage which evolves over time. The evolving art work / browsing session can be shaped by the user. The temporal composition of the collage develops with relation to its visual composition and semantic content. The CollageMachine engine combines structured randomness and the user's expression of preferences and interests with design rules and semantic rules to make decisions about the collage's layout, and about which media to retrieve. My approach in blending music composition strategies, visual art aesthetics, and computer science techniques into this interactive environment arises through application of the theory of Interface Ecology.
    Keywords: World Wide Web, Temporality, Indeterminacy, Visual design, Entertainment, Interface ecology, Interaction design, Interaction paradigms, Design techniques, Web browsers
    The RISE Platform: Supporting Social Interaction for On-Line Education BIBAKHTML 275-276
      Phil Smythe; Michael Gardner
    We present RISE (Real-time Interactive Social Environment), a platform supporting data sharing and high quality audio conferencing under control of a Word-Wide Web (WWW) user interface and making extensive use of a database to track and support users. We report the results of our initial educational trial and discuss some more generic uses for the platform.
    Keywords: Audio conferencing, Computer telephony integration, On-line education, Databases, Graphical user interfaces
    The Magic Carpet: Physical Sensing for Immersive Environments BIBAKHTML 277-278
      Joseph Paradiso; Craig Abler; Kai-yuh Hsiao; Matthew Reynolds
    An interactive environment has been developed that uses a pair of Doppler radars to measure upper-body kinematics (velocity, direction of motion, amount of motion) and a grid of piezoelectric wires hidden under a 6 x 10 foot carpet to monitor dynamic foot position and pressure. This system has been used in an audio installation, where users launch and modify complex musical sounds and sequences as they wander about the carpet. This paper describes the floor and radar systems, quantifies their performance, and outlines the musical application.
    Keywords: Doppler radar, PVDF, Piezoelectrics, Immersive environment, Musical interfaces, Foot sensing

    SHORT TALKS: Usability

    Window Navigation With and Without Animation: A Comparison of Scroll Bars, Zoom, and Fisheye View BIBAKHTML 279-280
      Misha Donskoy; Victor Kaptelinin
    Each of three window navigation techniques -- scroll bars, zoom, and fisheye view -- were implemented in two versions: with animation (a gradual transition from one state to another was provided) and without animation. A highly significant effect of navigation technique, but not of animation, was found in the experiment reported in the paper.
    Keywords: Animation, Window navigation, Scroll bars, Zoom, Fisheye view
    From the Flashing 12:00 to a Usable Machine: Applying UbiComp to the VCR BIBAKHTML 281-282
      Jeremy R. Cooperstock
    The hype of intelligent appliances and "smart homes" has so far failed to produce consumer electronics technology of mass appeal. It is our contention that common frustration with overly complex user interfaces has been the foremost obstacle preventing society from reaping the benefits promised by such technology. In order to replace the remote controls and command consoles that litter both our work and home environments, we suggest that existing technologies can be combined to enable more appropriate human-computer interaction, and thus, produce truly usable machines.
    Keywords: Ubiquitous computing, VCR, Interface design
    Emotional Usability of Customer Interfaces -- Focusing on Cyber Banking System Interfaces BIBAKHTML 283-284
      Jinwoo Kim; Jae Yun Moon
    Emotions play a major role in the social interaction process with electronic commerce systems. This paper describes our attempts to design customer interfaces for cyber banking systems that can induce target emotions for cyber banking systems. Four experiments were conducted to identify the important emotive factors and design factors, and to establish and verify causal relations between the factors. Results indicate that it is possible to design customer interfaces that will elicit target emotions for the systems (e.g., trustworthiness).
    Keywords: Emotional usability, Customer interface, Trustworthiness
    World Wide Web as Usability Tester, Collector, Recruiter BIBAKHTML 285-286
      Christopher (Blade) Kotelly
    The usability team at Wildfire Communications Inc. conducted a usability test using the World Wide Web (WWW) as a method to advertise the test, recruit participants and gather data -- all automatically.
       The test was conducted over the course of only 2 days during which we collected useful information from 96 people.
       The usability test was for a speech system using participants recruited by Internet Newsgroups, e-mail lists and the WWW. Using these resources helped us to get a large population to test the system in a short period of time.
    Keywords: Usability, World Wide Web (WWW), Testing, Speech, VUI
    Creating Organization-Specific Usability Guidelines BIBAKHTML 287-288
      Scott Henninger
    Working with a large information technology organization in industry, we have been investigating how a repository of organization-specific usability guidelines can be created and used to produce high quality end-user applications. Our approach is to create tools and methods in which software development organizations can develop and evolve usability guidelines based on the kinds of applications they develop. This information can then be used to match customer requirements to specific interface techniques that have proven effective for similar users and application domains. This is supported through a case-based system that attaches experience cases to guidelines to help find, explain, specialize, and extend usability guidelines.
    Keywords: Usability guidelines, Organizational memory, Style guides, Design
    Notes on a Pattern Language for Interactive Usability BIBAKHTML 289-290
      George Casaday
    This paper explores a way of applying the emerging idea of pattern based design to creation of usable interactive systems. It defines patterns based on traditional usability attributes. It describes examples of three pattern types: simple (one attribute), intrinsic (attribute combinations), and circumstantial (external constraints involved).
    Keywords: Interaction, Usability, Pattern, User interface

    SHORT TALKS: Browsing and Navigation

    Effective Product Selection in Electronic Catalogs BIBAKHTML 291-292
      Patrick Steiger; Markus Stolze
    Product catalogs are crucial for electronic commerce on the Internet, but it is still a challenging task for casual users to perform effective product selection. Recently, a promising technique for product selection has been proposed: Incremental restriction on interactive tables. It allows customers to build complex queries with a few mouse clicks, but still to browse the available products at any stage. This paper describes effective and ineffective strategies of users working with this technique. These strategies were identified in a study with casual users.
    Keywords: Electronic catalogs, Product selection, User studies
    Integration of Browsing, Searching, and Filtering in an Applet for Web Information Access BIBAKHTML 293-294
      Kent Wittenburg; Eric Sigman
    Improvements to information access on the World Wide Web has to be considered one of today's strategic challenges. In this paper we present a Java applet called AMIT (Animated Multiscale Interactive TreeViewer) that integrates fisheye tree browsing with search and filtering techniques. Used in combination with a web walker, a search server, and a tree server, it shows promise as a scalable solution to information access in configurable web spaces.
    Keywords: Information access, Information visualization, Search, Browsing, Filtering, Animation, Fisheye, World Wide Web
    Age Group Differences in World Wide Web Navigation BIBAKHTML 295-296
      Beth Meyer; Richard A. Sit; Victoria A. Spaulding; Sherry E. Mead; Neff Walker
    In this study, we examined the effects of age and training on efficiency and preferences in a World Wide Web search activity. Older participants were able to complete most of the tasks, but took more steps to find the information than did younger adults. Factors in this inefficiency were patterns of returning to the home page and revisiting pages that had been seen before during a search. Interactive training improved efficiency and altered preferences. We discuss implications for training and design.
    Keywords: World Wide Web, Information navigation, Usability, Aging, Training, Older users
    CollageMachine: Temporality and Indeterminacy in Media Browsing via Interface Ecology BIBAKHTML 297-298
      Andruid Kerne
    CollageMachine synthesizes artistic and computational practices in order to represent media from the World Wide Web (WWW). It functions as a process-based art work, and as a special browser which can be useful for searching. Media elements are pulled from Web pages and composed into a collage which evolves over time. The evolving art work / browsing session can be shaped by the user. The temporal composition of the collage develops with relation to its visual composition and semantic content. The CollageMachine engine combines structured randomness and the user's expression of preferences and interests with design rules and semantic rules to make decisions about the collage's layout, and about which media to retrieve. My approach in blending music composition strategies, visual art aesthetics, and computer science techniques into this interactive environment arises through application of the theory of Interface Ecology.
    Keywords: World Wide Web, Temporality, Indeterminacy, Visual design, Entertainment, Interface ecology, Interaction design, Interaction paradigms, Design techniques, Web browsers
    The Neighborhood Viewer: A Paradigm for Exploring Image Databases BIBAKHTML 299-300
      John V. Carlis; Alex Safonov; Douglas Perrin; Joseph A. Konstan
    The Brain Neighborhood Viewer is a tool developed to help neuroscientists explore massive databases of brain images. The viewer implements an interface paradigm based on stacks of 2D images that are "yoked together" to provide a common coordinate system. When a user navigates in an image stack, all yoked stacks are updated to display the same location, which we call a brain neighborhood. Experience with the neighborhood suggests that this interface is useful for neuroscience research.
    Keywords: Image databases, Browsing, Brain neighborhood viewer, Scientific visualization, Multi-resolution images
    Searching and Browsing Text Collections with Large Category Hierarchies BIBAKHTML 301-302
      Marti A. Hearst; Chandu Karandi
    A new user interface has been developed that allows users to make use of large category hierarchies for search and browsing of retrieval results for information access. The key insight is the separation of the representation of category labels from documents, which allows the display of multiple categories per document.
    Keywords: Information access, Information visualization, Text, Search, Categories

    SHORT TALKS: Input Devices

    A Two-Ball Mouse Affords Three Degrees of Freedom BIBAKHTML 303-304
      I. Scott MacKenzie; R. William Soukoreff; Chris Pal
    We describe a prototype two-ball mouse containing the electronics and mechanics of two mice in a single chassis. Unlike a conventional mouse, which senses x-axis and y-axis displacement only, our mouse also senses z-axis angular motion. This is accomplished through simple calculations on the two sets of x-y displacement data. Our mouse looks and feels like a standard mouse, however certain primitive operations are performed with much greater ease. The rotate tool -- common in most drawing programs -- becomes redundant as objects are easily moved with three degrees of freedom. Mechanisms to engage the added degree of freedom and different interaction techniques are discussed.
    Keywords: Pointing devices, Multi-degree-of-freedom input, Rotation
    Dual Stream Input for Pointing and Scrolling BIBAKHTML 305-306
      Shumin Zhai; Barton A. Smith; Ted Selker
    To find ways to improve users' performance of tasks that involve both scrolling and pointing, we studied three dual-stream input methods, with one stream for pointing and one for scrolling. The results showed that a mouse augmented with a tracking wheel did not outperform the conventional single stream mouse. Two other methods, a mouse with an isometric rate-control joystick and a two handed system significantly improved users' performance.
    Keywords: Input devices, Scrolling, Dual-stream input, Two-handed input
    Easy Tactile Feedback in Bargain Basement Prices BIBAKHTML 307-308
      Naomi Friedlander; Kevin Schlueter; Marilyn M. Mantei
    Constructing a tactile feedback device can be expensive and often requires extensive expertise. We have created a simple tactile feedback device which can be built, for under $30, by anyone with a basic understanding of electronics. The results of subjects performing a simple pulse counting task suggest that the feedback generated by it can be used effectively. We therefore believe that the device has potential to enhance user interfaces.
    Keywords: Tactile feedback, Cost-efficient, User tests
    The Tactile Touchpad BIBAKHTML 309-310
      I. Scott MacKenzie; Aleks Oniszczak
    A prototype touchpad with embedded tactile feedback is described. Tactile feedback allows the touchpad to mimic the operation of a mouse for basic transactions such as clicking, double-clicking, and dragging. A button click is achieved by increasing the finger pressure applied to the touchpad, instead of using a lift-and-tap strategy or by pressing separate buttons. The result is more natural and less error prone. Pressure thresholds for the button-down and button-up actions are under software control and include hysteresis to minimise inadvertent selections.
    Keywords: Touchpads, Pointing devices, Tactile feedback
    Possibilities for the Digital Baton as a General-Purpose Gestural Interface BIBAKHTML 311-312
      Teresa Marrin
    This paper describes issues and results from the design and use of the Digital Baton, a new interface for real-time gestural control. Its construction was originally motivated by the need for a new instrument on which to perform computer music, and it was designed to replicate as closely as possible the feel of a traditional conducting baton. However, it has unexpectedly become a model for the design of new interfaces and digital objects, and is currently being used to record data for analysis in gesture-recognition research. Some preliminary results and future research areas are discussed at the end.
    Keywords: Gestural input, Hand-held device, Controller, Musical instrument, conducting
    Support for Cooperatively Controlled Objects in Multimedia Applications BIBAKHTML 313-314
      Lauren J. Bricker; Marla J. Baker; Steven L. Tanimoto
    This paper presents a class of objects that facilitate building software for "close collaboration." A definition is given for "cooperatively controlled objects" and three example activities are described.
    Keywords: Computer supported collaboration, Multiple-user interface, Co-presence, Cooperatively controlled objects, Multimedia

    SHORT TALKS: Virtual Communities and Virtual Reality

    Video Matters! When Communication Ability is Stressed, Video Helps BIBAKHTML 315-316
      Elizabeth S. Veinott; Judith S. Olson; Gary M. Olson; Xiaolan Fu
    This study assesses whether remotely located pairs of people working on a collaborative task benefit from using video, looking in particular at people for whom communication is stressed. In this study, we extend the research on video-mediated communication to the domain of non-native speaker interactions. Thirty-six pairs performed a map task using either audio-only or audio-plus-video for communication. Half the pairs were non-native speakers, half were native speakers. As in many studies of video connectivity with native speakers, no benefit from the video was found. However, non-native speakers performed significantly better with a video connection than with audio only.
    Keywords: Video-mediated communication, Remote work, Non-native speaker interaction
    HyperMirror: A Video-Mediated Communication System BIBAKHTML 317-318
      Osamu Morikawa; Takanori Maesako
    'HyperMirror', a video-mediated communication that includes reflected images of users is reported here. The users of this system, present in front of respective local cameras, can communicate with each other. They are not required to wear or operate any equipment. The images taken at the respective local sites are used to create a composite reflected image which represents a virtual room where all users seem to be present. This composite image is outputted to the respective local screens. Results of our experiment participated by users indicate that the system can provide such high reality to the composite image that many users show a tendency to talk to the screen even when the target person is locally present.
    Keywords: Video-mediated communication, Virtual direct communication, Awareness, Mirror image
    Sensing Activity in Video Images BIBAKHTML 319-320
      Alison Lee; Kevin Schlueter; Andreas Girgensohn
    Video-based awareness tools increase familiarity among remote group members and provide pre-communication information. Low-cost iconic indicators provide less but more succinct information than video images while preserving privacy. Observations of and feedback from users of our video awareness tool suggest that an activity sensing feature along with a variety of privacy options combines advantages of both the video images and iconic indicator approaches. We introduced the activity sensing feature in response to user requests. It derives activity information from video images and provides options to control privacy and improves the usability of video-based awareness tools.
    Keywords: Activity sensing, Awareness, Differences, Privacy, Usability
    Prototyping Supermarket Designs Using Virtual Reality BIBAKHTML 321-322
      Charles van der Mast; Martin van den Berg
    An experiment is described to compare the prototyping of store designs using three different media. The first medium is the traditional use of architectural drawings, the second medium is a representation of store designs made using a virtual reality software package, the third is the evaluation of real existing stores. The preliminary results indicate that prototyping with virtual reality improves the spatial/logistics, but not yet the commercial characteristics of the store designs.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, Prototyping, Design of supermarkets
    LogiMOO: A Multi-User Virtual World with Agents and Natural Language Programming BIBAKHTML 323-324
      Paul Tarau; Veronica Dahl; Stephen Rochefort; Koen de Bosschere
    LogiMOO is a BinProlog-based Virtual World running under Netscape or Internet Explorer. It is user extensible and supports distributed group-work over the Internet. Virtual places, virtual objects and agents are programmable through a "controlled English" interface.
    Keywords: Groupware, Coordination languages, Agents, Distributed logic programming, Virtual worlds, Internet applications
    Does Immersion Make a Virtual Environment More Usable? BIBAKHTML 325-326
      Casey Boyd
    Usability tests comparing three different virtual environment (VE) interface designs indicate that an immersive VE is more usable than two non-immersive VEs for a task with search and navigation components. Three interface designs were tried in a counterbalanced within-subjects procedure with ten randomly-ordered trials for each interface design. One of the interface designs used a head-tracked, stereoscopic head-mounted display. The other two interface designs used hand-tracking and were non-immersive -- the visual display appeared on a desktop monitor. Results for sixty participants doing the same task with each interface design show faster task completion times with the immersive design.
    Keywords: Virtual environments, Evaluation, User studies, Immersion

    SHORT TALKS: A Melange

    WANDS: Tools for Designing and Testing Distributed Documents BIBAKHTML 327-328
      Andrew Sears; Michael S. Borella
    Designing documents that will be viewed from remote locations via a network requires an understanding of traditional document and interaction design issues, plus an understanding of how network delays will impact document delivery. Unfortunately, being aware of networking issues is not always sufficient since designers usually have no way of viewing their documents as if those documents were being delivered to a remote site. This paper describes a set of tools that allow designers to view documents stored locally while experiencing response time delays as if the documents were delivered from a different location on the network. By using measured network latencies to drive an instrumented World-Wide Web server, we allow designers to view the documents they create from the perspective of someone sitting down the hall, across the country, or across an ocean.
    Keywords: Document design, Network delays, Response time, WWW
    Interfaces for Advanced Manufacturing Technology BIBAKHTML 329-330
      Michelle Vazquez; Marc L. Resnick
    Due to the rapid computerization of advanced manufacturing workplaces, there is an increasing need for interfaces which can support this specific set of applications and users. However, workers in these situations tend to be highly trained in the specific tasks which they must accomplish, but may be relative novices when it comes to using computing systems. This paper describes the design of Easy Assemble, a windows based support system to assist workers in a flexible assembly task. Six subjects used Easy Assemble as real-time instructional support to assemble four products in a simulated manufacturing environment. Subjects assembled products in less than half the time and with variances much lower than the control group which used the traditional method of blueprints. Furthermore, subjects made significantly fewer errors. The system provides a starting point for the development of fully integrated systems for the advanced manufacturing environment.
    Keywords: Advanced manufacturing, Novice, Computer-based training
    How Users Reciprocate to Computers: An Experiment that Demonstrates Behavior Change BIBAKHTML 331-332
      BJ Fogg; Clifford Nass
    We conducted an experiment to investigate if computers could motivate users to change their behavior. By leveraging a social dynamic called the "rule of reciprocity," this experiment demonstrated that users provided more helping behavior to a computer that had helped them previously than to a different computer. Users also worked longer, performed higher quality work, and felt happier. Conversely, the data provide evidence of a retaliation effect.
    Keywords: Reciprocity, Retaliation, Agents, Persuasion, Influence, Social dynamics, Computers are social actors, Media equation, Experiments, Empirical studies
    LICAI+: A Comprehension-Based Model of Learning for Display-Based Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKHTML 333-334
      Muneo Kitajima; Peter G. Polson
    This paper describes a model of comprehension-based learning, LICAI+, an extension to the comprehension-based model of display-based HCI, LICAI [5], that simulates a user who performs tasks given as instructions. LICAI+ models users' learning of task performance by incorporating a process for encoding events during the task performance. A simulation of encoding and recalling events is described.
    Keywords: Cognitive model, Learning, Display-based human-computer interaction, Construction-integration theory
    Leave the Office, Bring Your Colleagues: Design Solutions for Mobile Teamworkers BIBAKHTML 335-336
      Ivan Bretain; Leif Fredin; Walter Frost; Leif-Rune Hedman; Per Kroon; Scott McGlashan; Eva-Lotta Sallnas; Markku Virtanen
    One of the keys to successful deployment of mobile multimedia technology among professionals lies in identifying inherently distributed teams working under real-time constraints in dynamic field environments where the need to increase the efficiency of co-ordination, communication and collaboration is apparent. We report on some findings from investigating such non-office/out-of-office user-groups, and discuss the design of a portable environment for supporting the virtual reinforcement of teams, with special emphasis on co-worker status monitoring with respect to process phase, availability, geographical position etc.
    Keywords: Mobile multimedia, CSCW, Wearable computing
    An Automatic Method for Arranging Symbols and Widgets to Reflect their Internal Relations BIBAKHTML 337-338
      Johan Hagman
    The two data visualization techniques cluster analysis and Voronoi tessellation are combined to automatically arrange objects, e.g. the widgets of an interface, so that their positions within a given area reflect their internal relations. The method is illustrated as it arranges three sets of objects.
    Keywords: Interface design, Data visualization, Mapping optimization, Multi-dimensionality, Cluster analysis, Voronoi diagram

    SHORT TALKS: The Web and 3D

    A Method for Graphical Input on the WWW BIBAKHTML 339-340
      Lesley M. Parks; Ernest A. Edmonds
    Using the World Wide Web (Web) is rapidly becoming one of the main ways in which people interact with computers. However, although the Web has permitted a rich variety of hypertext output, input has, until recently, been restricted to text or simple menu choices. The advent of languages like Java, which permit interactive programs to be included on a page, clearly changes what is possible. This contribution discusses the requirement for graphical input on the Web and describes an initial implementation which permits graphical objects to be manipulated on a Web page to provide input for subsequent analysis and computation.
    Keywords: WWW, Java, Graphical interaction, Constraints, Semantics
    How People Use WWW Bookmarks BIBAKHTML 341-342
      David Abrams; Ron Baecker
    In this detailed empirical study of WWW browsing and bookmarks we define a personal information space as having five basic properties paralleling those of a larger complex information space. We describe user behavior on the Web and show how a user's bookmark archive is a personal Web information space.
    Keywords: WWW, Bookmark, Information space, User study, Survey, Empirical study
    Internet Scrapbook: Creating Personalized World Wide Web Pages BIBAKHTML 343-344
      Atsushi Sugiura; Yoshiyuki Koseki
    This paper describes an information personalization system, called Internet Scrapbook, which enables users to create a personal page by clipping and merging their necessary data gathered from multiple Web pages. Even when the source Web pages are modified, the system updates the personal page, replacing with the latest data extracted from the source pages. Therefore, once a user creates their personal pages, she can browse her necessary information only.
    Keywords: World Wide Web, Web browser, End-user programming, Programming by example, Programming by demonstration
    3D Object Recognition with Motion BIBAKHTML 345-346
      Geoffrey S. Hubona; Gregory W. Shirah; David W. Fout
    This extended abstract presents preliminary results of an experiment that explores the effects of stereoscopic and monoscopic viewing, and controlled and uncontrolled motion, on the accuracy and speed of visually comparing and matching solid and wire frame cube- and sphere-based objects presented on a computer screen.
    Keywords: 3D data visualization, Spatial orientation, Virtual reality
    Overlaying Motion, Time and Distance in 3-Space BIBAKHTML 347-348
      Mike Pell
    An innovative method for visually and functionally combining the elements of motion, time and distance in a three-dimensional computer animation is presented. At a glance, the elapsed time of the movement, distance traveled, relative velocity, scale and the object orientation can be derived from a single visual representation. Creation and editing of animations can also be simplified through the use of an interrelated set of immersive three-dimensional user interface elements.
    Keywords: 3D Animation, 3D interfaces, Interactivity, Visual design
    Object Manipulation in Virtual Environments: Human Bias, Consistency and Individual Differences BIBAKHTML 349-350
      Yanqing Wang; Christine L. MacKenzie; Valerie A. Summers
    This paper investigates human bias, consistency and individual differences when performing object manipulation in a virtual environment. Eight subjects were asked to manipulate a wooden cube to match a 3-D graphic target cube presented in 3 locations and 2 orientations. There were two visual conditions for the experiment: the subject performed the tasks with or without vision of the hand and the wooden cube. The constant errors of object translation and orientation suggested specific human biases. In terms of the variable errors, visual feedback appeared to be more critical for object transportation than object orientation. It was also found that individual differences were more pronounced in human bias than in consistency during object manipulation. These results suggest tolerance for human bias and variability should be accommodated in human-computer interface design.
    Keywords: Interface design, Object manipulation, Virtual environment, Human performance

    SHORT TALKS: Interaction Design

    Responsive Graphs: Understanding Engineering Concepts Through Interactive Experience BIBAKHTML 351-352
      Eviatar Shafrir; Lee Smith
    Understanding scientific engineering concepts requires learners to correlate between different model representations. Simple engineering models are formulated mathematically, visualized with one or more graphs, and verbally interpreted with engineering terminology. Past [4] and present systems [1] allow learners to modify a limited set of model parameters but not the graph-plot itself. This paper describes a set of interactive learning models consisting of standard interactors together with novel direct-manipulation Responsive Graphs. By setting values with sliders and visually modifying graph-plots, users qualitatively explore and comprehend abstract engineering concepts through interactive experimentation. All model representations are continuously updated in real-time enabling users to compare and move between different model representations. These highly interactive learning experiences are the result of a collaboration between interaction designers seeking direct manipulation of graphics and engineering domain-experts.
    Keywords: Interactive learning environment, Interaction design, Mathematical modeling, Java applet
    Internet Delay Effects: How Users Perceive Quality, Organization, and Ease of Use of Information BIBAKHTML 353-354
      Andrew Sears; Julie A. Jacko; Michael S. Borella
    In this paper we report the results of an investigation designed to determine the effects of Internet delays on users perceptions of ease of locating information, organization of information, quality of information, and navigation problems. The results demonstrated user sensitivity to delays. As expected, for text-and-graphics documents, shorter delays provoked more favorable responses. However, for text-only documents, the shorter the delay, the less favorably a document was viewed. The results indicated that users may prefer multi-media web sites but are unwilling to tolerate the substantial network delays often associated with delivering graphics, video, animation, and audio.
    Keywords: Internet, WWW, Delays, Perceived usability
    Model-Based Design of Hypermedia Presentations BIBAKHTML 355-356
      N. Hari Narayanan; Mary Hegarty
    Users' mental representations and cognitive strategies have a profound influence on how well they comprehend multimodal information that hypermedia systems present. This implies that cognitive models of comprehension ought to drive the design of effective Hypermedia Information Presentation Systems (HIPS). We report on a current research project that applies this principle to the design of hypermedia manuals of complex machines. This paper describes the comprehension model derived from prior empirical and theoretical research, discusses intermediate results, and presents a roadmap of the research project.
    Keywords: Hypermedia, Cognitive models, Model-based design
    Billow: Networked Hospital Playspace for Children BIBAKHTML 357-358
      Teri Rueb; John Wardzala; Jessica Millstone
    Through exploring play as a therapeutic process, we have developed a system called "Billow" which allows children in hospitals, who are quarantined or otherwise isolated, to play in a virtual audio-visual cloudscape using a malleable, egg-shaped input/output device. This prototype was designed in collaboration with child psychologists and art therapists who are advocates for these children in the hospital setting. It is intended to address the children's need for increased human interaction and social development, mastery and control, and comfort and security. Billow addresses these needs by enabling isolated children to play together and communicate in a locally networked, audio-visual play environment.
    Keywords: Children, Hospitals, Tactile input device, Virtual community, Audio, Telephony
    Rosebud: Technological Toys for Storytelling BIBAKHTML 359-360
      Jennifer W. Glos; Justine Cassell
    Rosebud is a user-interface prototype which elicits storytelling by child users though interaction with a computationally-augmented physical artifact. In particular, Rosebud links children's stories to their toys, such that toy and computer augment one another. The toy engages children in a familiar mode of interaction, while the computer makes a previously passive object active. The children are able to write, edit, collaborate, and share their stories, activities which have particular attraction for female users.
    Keywords: Storytelling, Children, Gender, Tangible interface, Education
    The Pillow: Artist-Designers in the Digital Age BIBAKHTML 361-362
      Anthony Dunne; William W. Gaver
    The Pillow is a treated LCD screen which shows changing patterns in response to ambient electromagnetic radiation, challenging viewers to consider our constant invasion by electronic information. It is proposed as a product for mass-production, one that people would purchase for home use. In this paper, we describe how this admittedly impractical value fiction illustrates some of the ways that designers can pursue research.
    Keywords: Design, Design centred approaches, Telecommunications

    SHORT TALKS: Devices

    inTouch: A Medium for Haptic Interpersonal Communication BIBAKHTML 363-364
      Scott Brave; Andrew Dahley
    In this paper, we introduce a new approach for applying haptic feedback technology to interpersonal communication. We present the design of our prototype inTouch system which provides a physical link between users separated by distance.
    Keywords: Haptics, Interpersonal communication, Force feedback, Telepresence
    BIOculars: A Virtual Ecosystem for Wilderness Parks BIBAKHTML 365-366
      Kiersten Muenchinger; Jon Lindsay; John Morkes; Connie Chiueh; John Russell; Tony Vastola
    BIOculars is a concept system that allows visitors to state and national wilderness parks to create virtual animals and observe them in a continually running simulation based on the park's natural environment. Users create fantasy animals with a computer interface that, inverted, transforms into a binocular-like device. When users look through the device, they can see their virtual species 'living in' and interacting with the park's real ecosystem. BIOculars was designed by a Stanford University student team using an iterative design process that emphasized repeated prototyping and user testing.
    Keywords: Interaction design, Virtual reality, Children, Education, Entertainment, Simulation
    Design of Spatially Aware Graspable Displays BIBAKHTML 367-368
      David Small; Hiroshi Ishii
    We propose spatially aware portable displays which use movement in real physical space to control navigation in the digital information space within. This paper describes two interface design studies which use physical models, such as friction and gravity, in relating the movement of the display to the movement of information on the display surface. In combining input and output aspects of the interface into a single object, we can improve control and provide a meaningful relationship between the interface and the body of the user.
    Keywords: Interaction design, Industrial design, 3D interfaces, LEGO
    The Strategy for Selecting a Minute Target and the Minute Maximum Value on a Pen-Based Computer BIBAKHTML 369-370
      Xizngshi Ren; Shinji Moriya
    This study deals with the relations between target-pointing strategies and target sizes. An evaluation experiment was performed in which the experimental system changed each of five kinds of targets (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 dots in diameter respectively, 0.36 mm per dot) and eight directions of pen-movement, while using each of six kinds of strategies of approaching the target on a pen-based computer. Two results were obtained: (1) The "Land-on2" strategy was found to be the best strategy for selecting a minute target among the six strategies, in terms of error rates, selection time and subjective evaluation. (2) This study also clarified a boundary value of target which controlled difficulty of strategy. When a target is less than 5 dots (1.80 mm), it is necessary to pay attention to the determination of the strategy in the software design.
    Keywords: Pen input, Target-pointing strategies, Minute targets, The minute maximum value
    The Bed: A Medium for Intimate Communication BIBAKHTML 371-372
      Chris Dodge
    In this paper, I present "The Bed", an environment providing a new form of abstracted presence for intimate, non-verbal inter-personal communication. This secure and familiar environment is explored for its ability to become a shared virtual space for bridging the distance between two remotely located individuals through aural, visual, and tactile manifestations of subtle emotional qualities. As an example, I describe the application of these tangible interfaces and ambient media into a working prototype.
    Keywords: Ambient media, Tangible interfaces, Telepresence, Abstracted presence, Physical avatars