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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI 96 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Companion of CHI'96 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Common Ground
Location:Vancouver, Canada
Dates:1996-Apr-14 to 1996-Apr-18
Standard No:ISBN 0-89791-832-0; ACM Order Number 608963; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI96-2
Links:Conference Home Page | Online Proceedings
  1. CHI 1996-04-14 Volume 2
    1. DEMONSTRATIONS: Prototyping
    2. DEMONSTRATIONS: Very Personal Computing
    3. DEMONSTRATIONS: Education: Modeling and Tutoring
    4. DEMONSTRATIONS: Video: Authoring and Indexing
    5. DEMONSTRATIONS: Visualization
    6. DEMONSTRATIONS: Tools for UI Analysis
    7. Doctoral Consortium
    9. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Designing and Evaluating Interfaces and Systems
    10. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Education
    11. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Gender and Skill
    12. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Remote Communication
    13. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Structuring and Finding Information
    14. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Video and Television
    15. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Social Action
    16. ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: Innovative User Interfaces
    17. ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: Introducing HCI in Industry
    18. ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: User Interface Design
    19. ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: Multidisciplinary HCI Research
    20. Panels
    21. Plenary Session
    22. SHORT PAPERS: Collaborative Systems
    23. SHORT PAPERS: Alternative Methods of Interaction
    24. SHORT PAPERS: Children and Other Learners
    25. SHORT PAPERS: Scribbling, Sketching, Drawing, and Writing
    26. SHORT PAPERS: Design Methodology
    27. SHORT PAPERS: Supporting Awareness of Others in Groupware (Short Papers Suite)
    28. SHORT PAPERS: Models of Work Practice (Short Papers Suite)
    29. SHORT PAPERS: Technologies for Virtual Interactions
    30. SHORT PAPERS: News and Mail
    31. SHORT PAPERS: The Telephony Customer Interface (Short Papers Suite)
    32. SHORT PAPERS: Development Tools
    33. SHORT PAPERS: Models That Shape Design (Short Papers Suite)
    34. SHORT PAPERS: Models
    35. SHORT PAPERS: Working Together Near and Far
    36. SHORT PAPERS: Real World Usage Patterns
    37. SHORT PAPERS: Agents
    38. SHORT PAPERS: Thought Pieces for Interaction Technology
    39. SHORT PAPERS: Information Structure
    40. SHORT PAPERS: Usability Issues
    41. Special Interest Groups (SIGs)
    42. Tutorial 1
    43. Tutorial 2
    44. Tutorial 3
    45. Tutorial 4
    46. Tutorial 5
    47. Tutorial 6
    48. Tutorial 7
    49. Tutorial 8
    50. Tutorial 9
    51. Tutorial 10
    52. Tutorial 11
    53. Tutorial 12
    54. Tutorial 13
    55. Tutorial 14
    56. Tutorial 15
    57. Tutorial 16
    58. Tutorial 17
    59. Tutorial 18
    60. Tutorial 19
    61. Tutorial 20
    62. Tutorial 21
    63. Tutorial 22
    64. Tutorial 23
    65. Tutorial 24
    66. Tutorial 25
    67. Tutorial 26
    68. Tutorial 27
    69. Tutorial 28
    70. Tutorial 29
    71. Tutorial 30
    72. VIDEOS: Visualization
    73. VIDEOS: Design
    74. VIDEOS: New Directions
    75. VIDEOS: World Wide Web
    76. Workshops
    77. Retrospective on Pre-Conference Activities

CHI 1996-04-14 Volume 2


KAP -- A Prototyper for Technical Device Interfaces BIBAKHTML 3-4
  Klaus Kespohl; Gerd Szwillus
We present the tool KAP (Kespohl's Automaton Prototyper) for prototyping user interfaces of technical devices, such as VCRs, CD players, alarm clocks, answering machines, etc. The work is based on a formal specification language, DSN/2. KAP supports this notation -- as an editor, for adding interactive elements, and as an animation tool. The system was found suitable for performing user tests on several software models, including a CD player with realistic functionality; the results were verified against user testing on the real device.
Keywords: Prototyping, Formal specification, Design techniques, Development tools, Usability testing, Evaluation
Demonstrating the Electronic Cocktail Napkin: A Paper-Like Interface for Early Design BIBAKHTML 5-6
  Mark D. Gross; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
We demonstrate the Electronic Cocktail Napkin, a pen based interface for conceptual design. The project goal is to support design by recognizing, interpreting, and managing drawings, and to serve as an interface for knowledge-based critiquing, simulation, and information retrieval. We demonstrate the Napkin's facilities for end-user programmable recognition and interpretation, drawing management, and multi-user collaboration. We show applications of the Napkin: (1) indexing visual databases and (2) a front end to a local area network design program.
Keywords: Pen based systems, Design environments, Constraint-based graphics

DEMONSTRATIONS: Very Personal Computing

SHK: Single Hand Key Card for Mobile Devices BIBAKHTML 7-8
  Masakatsu Sugimoto; Kimiyo Takahashi
A new input unit for mobile devices is discussed. High speed text input through touch typing and mouse data input is possible through an SHK: Single Hand Key card, "castanets operation", an ambiguity resolution logic applied word by word, and the other support software.
Keywords: Single hand keyboard, Mobile device, Input device, Input unit, Touch typing, Ambiguity resolution
Inhabited Digital Spaces BIBAKHTML 9-10
  Bruce Damer; Christina Kekenes; Terrel Hoffman
The emergence of standards such as Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) has made shared, three dimensional virtual spaces available to the greater Internet community. When these spaces become inhabited by representations of people, often referred to as digital actors or avatars, a whole spectrum of social behavior will emerge. Prototypes of inhabited digital spaces have been hosted on the Internet since early 1995. Enough experience has been gained with these systems to produce an initial benchmark of their effectiveness from a user interface standpoint. Observation of social interaction in these spaces has also provided some interesting insights. A key finding is that there is a need for interdisciplinary collaboration between the technologists building digital worlds and specialists in community and social behavior.
Keywords: Virtual reality, Social computing, Electronic community

DEMONSTRATIONS: Education: Modeling and Tutoring

StarLogo: An Environment for Decentralized Modeling and Decentralized Thinking BIBAKHTML 11-12
  Mitchel Resnick
StarLogo is programmable modeling environment designed to help nonexpert users (in particular, precollege students) model and explore decentralized systems, such as ant colonies and market economies. People often have difficulty understanding the workings of such systems. By using StarLogo, people can move beyond the "centralized mindset" -- that is, they begin to understand how patterns can arise through decentralized interactions, not from the dictates of a centralized authority.
Keywords: Educational applications, End-user programming, Modeling
Design Concepts for an Instructional Tool: Teaching Abductive Reasoning in Antibody Identification BIBAKHTML 13-14
  Jodi Heintz Obradovich; Philip J. Smith; Stephanie Guerlain; Jack W., Jr. Smith; Sally Rudmann; Larry Sachs; John Svirbley; Melanie Kennedy; Patricia L. Strohm
We have conducted a series of studies aimed at understanding how to design a tutoring system that will support students in expanding their knowledge of immunohematology and in developing their problem-solving skills in a problem-based learning environment [3]. Results from these studies have led to the development of an expert model of problem solving, the identification of common errors and misconceptions in solving such problems, and the development of a model of expert tutoring in this domain.
   Based on the results of these studies, we designed the Transfusion Medicine Tutor and evaluated its effectiveness in teaching medical technology students to solve antibody identification cases. In our initial evaluation of TMT, the students who used a version of the system with all tutoring functions turned on and with instructor assistance went from 0% correct on a pre-test case to 87%-93% correct on post-test cases. This compares with an improvement rate of 20% by students who used a passive version of the system with the intelligent tutoring functions turned off. The behavioral protocols collected as part of this study provide further evidence regarding the contribution of the task environment, the interface design, and the use of expert systems technology to detect and remediate errors (in cooperation with a human teacher) to the student's learning.
Keywords: Computer-aided instruction, Intelligent tutoring systems, Expert systems, Problem-based learning, Abduction, Medical diagnosis

DEMONSTRATIONS: Video: Authoring and Indexing

MMVIS: A Multimedia Visual Information Seeking Environment for Video Analysis BIBAKHTML 15-16
  Stacie Hibino; Elke A. Rundensteiner
Our MultiMedia Visual Information Seeking (MMVIS) environment is designed to support an exploratory approach to video analysis. Specialized subset, temporal, spatial, and motion dynamic query filters are tightly coupled with dynamic, user-customizable relationship visualizations to aid users in the discovery of data trends. Users can select two subsets (e.g., a subset of person P1 talking events) and then browse various relationships between them (e.g., browsing for temporal relationships such as whether events of type A frequently start at the same time as events of type B). The visualization highlights the frequencies of both the subsets and the relationships between them. This allows users to discover various relationships and trends without having to explicitly pre-code them. In this demonstration, we will focus on temporal analysis aspects of the system, presenting our temporal visual query language, temporal visualization, and an application to real CSCW data.
Keywords: Video analysis, Dynamic queries, Temporal query filters, Interactive visualizations, Trend discovery
MAD: A Movie Authoring and Design System BIBAKHTML 17-18
  Naomi Friedlander; Ronald Baecker; Alan J. Rosenthal; Eric Smith
MAD (Movie Authoring and Design) is a novel design and authoring system that facilitates the process of creating dynamic visual presentations. MAD aids this process by simultaneously allowing easy structure creation or modification of motion pictures and visualization of the result of those modifications. The principles behind MAD include hierarchical multimedia document representation, the flexible inclusion and combination of words, images, sounds, and video sequences, and real-time playback of a rough version of the final film at any time in the process.
   MAD represents a paradigm shift both from traditional methods of authoring and producing motion pictures and from modern multimedia authoring tools. Its development therefore required in-depth observation of a variety of users working on a variety of film-making projects. This demonstration will present the key concepts underlying MAD, demonstrate the current, second-generation prototype software, and review how we have worked with users in an iterative design process and how studies of the work of these users have informed key design issues.
Keywords: Iterative design, User-centred design, Multimedia systems, Multimedia documents, Authoring tools, Interactive graphics systems


Visage: Dynamic Information Exploration BIBAKHTML 19-20
  Peter Lucas; Steven F. Roth; Cristina C. Gomberg
Visage is a prototype user interface environment for exploring and analyzing information. It represents an approach to coordinating visualizations and analytical tools in data-intensive domains. Visage is based on an information-centric approach to user interface design which strives to eliminate impediments to direct user access to information objects across applications and visualizations. Visage consists of a set of data manipulation operations, an intelligent system for generating a wide variety of data visualizations and a briefing tool that supports the conversion of visual displays used during exploration into interactive presentation slides.
Keywords: Data visualization, Graphics, Data exploration, User interface environment
Using Animation to Aid Process Flow Visualization BIBAKHTML 21-22
  Brenda J. Burkhart; Marc E. Fusco
Process flows are difficult to communicate to customers effectively, particularly if they are complex or involve multiple systems. We introduce some animation techniques that we rapidly prototyped so that systems engineering or system design proposals or decisions can be effectively communicated to customers.
Keywords: Animation, Visualization, Simulation, Prototyping, Process flow

DEMONSTRATIONS: Tools for UI Analysis

Lotus Notes Database Support for Usability Testing BIBAKHTML 23-24
  Mary Beth Butler; Ericca Lahti
This demonstration will show how we have built a collection of Lotus Notes databases containing usability results and techniques. Because we have these databases available, we can easily research past testing results, share information on common UI artifacts with geographically dispersed development teams, and efficiently develop strategies for testing new products and features. The intent of this demonstration is to show the characteristics of our system of databases that we find most important for supporting our work, and how our workgroup solution helps us accomplish our goals.
Keywords: Usability testing, Lotus Notes, Groupware
QGOMS: A Direct-Manipulation Tool for Simple GOMS Models BIBAK 25-26
  David V. Beard; Dana K. Smith; Kevin M. Denelsbeck
"GOMS models can be practical if the effort required to product them is commensurate with their limited practical accuracy." This demonstration details a direct manipulation tool for quickly building GOMS models. Advanced features allow rapid model construction and analysis.
Keywords: GOMS, Time motion analysis, Medical image display

Doctoral Consortium

Providing Explicit Support for Social Constraints: In Search of the Social Computer BIBAKHTML 27-28
  Ben Anderson
This short paper outlines an approach to the design and implementation of systems that explicitly support the use of social, rather than technological, methods of control. This approach draws on recent developments in the social sciences, particularly sociology and anthropology, and builds upon current work in the development of 'Media Spaces' and other CSCW systems.
Keywords: CSCW, System design, Social norms, Videoconferencing
Effects of Field of View on Task Performance with Head-Mounted Displays BIBAKHTML 29-30
  Kevin Arthur
The goal of this research is to quantify the effects of a head-mounted display's field of view (FOV) on human performance of 3D tasks representative of those typically performed in virtual environments.
Keywords: Head-mounted display, Field of view, Task performance, Adaptation, Spatial awareness, Presence, Simulator sickness
A Computational Theory of Working Memory BIBAKHTML 31-32
  Michael D. Byrne
One of the key factors in understanding what interfaces will be easy to use is the limited capacity of the human information-processing system. This work outlines a theory of human working memory which is instantiated as a computational system called SPAN. Working memory and the related construct of short-term memory have a long history in psychology, and in the last decade have been used to explain differences in performance on a wide variety of tasks both at the individual level and between different age groups. The production system SPAN was constructed as an attempt to address working memory issues based on several well-established mechanisms such as decay, interference, and processing speed. One property unique to SPAN is its ability to model the use of external memory. It is this last property, combined with SPAN's explicit acknowledgment of individual differences, which gives it a great deal of promise in applications to HCI domains -- particularly in the prediction of errors.
Keywords: Cognitive models, Individual differences, User models, GOMS, Human memory
Putting Context into Design BIBAKHTML 33-34
  Steven J. Clarke
There are an increasing number of methods for using context in design. Unfortunately these methods are strong on the collection of contextual data but weak on ways to use the data in design. Furthermore, current methods suffer from bias which constrains the type of data collected by designers as well as the ways the data can be put to use. However, rather than eliminate these biases, we propose that designers should exploit them. This paper argues that this can be achieved by facilitating the creation of explicit links between the human context and the design specification and that this requires computer based support. Without such links, the use of context will be unsystematic and, potentially, ineffective.
Keywords: Context, Design notations, Development tools, Design rationale, Activity theory
The Effects of Information Accuracy on User Trust and Compliance BIBAKHTML 35-36
  Jean E. Fox
Designers and manufacturers of new technology must understand the factors that influence consumers' decisions to purchase new high-tech products. One important factor in the decision is how much users trust the technology. Muir [5, 6] developed a theory of how people develop trust in automated systems. Several studies have supported her model. This proposed study will provide additional data to test this theory. The application to be studied is an Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS), which provides route navigation information to automobile drivers. The study will evaluate how inaccurate congestion information affects the users' trust in and compliance with the system's advice. These results will be important to ATIS developers, who need to know how accurate the systems must be to facilitate user acceptance.
Keywords: ATIS, Automated systems, Decision aids, Human-system trust, ITS, User acceptance
Harnessing the Interface for Domain Learning BIBAKHTML 37-38
  David Golightly
Making an interface less direct changes how the user learns about the particular domain they are acting upon. Different interfaces cause the user to interact in different ways. This affects how they build up information about the domain they are working in. The counterintuitive finding is that less easy to use interfaces can be beneficial to the domain learning process. Less direct interfaces cause the user to build a more verbalisable and transferable body of knowledge about the domain. The research outlined here is examining this learning process to draw conclusions about where the effect can be most usefully employed.
Keywords: Direct manipulation, 8-puzzle, Cognitive cost, Learning, Problem-solving
Understanding the Role of Configuration Management Systems in Software Development BIBAKHTML 39-40
  Rebecca E. Grinter
This paper describes a study of how software developers use a technology, software configuration management systems, in their work. The study uses qualitative methods in three case studies to find out how well configuration management systems support the coordination of software development work. Results from this study will help to inform the design of technologies that support group work and provide insights into the complexities of software development.
Keywords: CSCW, Collaborative work, Software engineering, Empirical studies, Development tools, Group work, Configuration management systems
Extending and Evaluating Visual Information Seeking for Video Data BIBAKHTML 41-42
  Stacie Hibino
Extending and adapting the visual information seeking paradigm for video analysis would empower casual users to explore temporal, spatial, and motion relationships between video objects and events. Several extensions are required to accomplish this: extensions to dynamic queries to specify multiple subsets, customized temporal, spatial, and motion query filters, and the design of new spatio-temporal visualizations to highlight these relationships. In my thesis research, I am working on these extensions by combining a new multimedia visual query language with spatio-temporal visualizations into an integrated MultiMedia Visual Information Seeking (MMVIS) environment. This research summary describes my overall approach, research goals, and evaluation plan.
Keywords: Video analysis, Dynamic queries, Temporal query filters, Interactive visualization
Direct Learner Attention with Manipulation Styles BIBAKHTML 43-44
  Shirley J. Holst
This paper investigates what aspects of a pupil's interaction with educational software are determinants of their learning. The work reported here considers whether the computer interface can be designed to encourage people to plan, to think more deeply about relevant information, and hence to learn more successfully. Findings reported here challenge the universal welcome given to graphical user interfaces. A number of pedagogical issues involved in designing educational software are raised. These suggest that designing with considerations other than ease-of-use is paramount.
Keywords: User interface design, Direct manipulation, Problem-solving, Cognitive psychology, Interactive learning
Formal Modelling of Task Interruptions BIBAKHTML 45-46
  Francis Jambon
My doctoral research is concerned with the formal modelling of task interruptions. Although interruptions are significant events in human activities, current models and notations do not support their expression appropriately. My contribution to this problem is two-fold: the ISAU model which makes explicit the general structure of an interruption, and a UAN-based formal notation that would force designers to consider the right questions when developing a system. ISAU will be assessed using a real-world exemplar: the Data-Link system that supports communications between pilots from different aircraft's and air traffic controllers.
Keywords: Interruptions, Interleaving, Formal methods, UAN
Visualizing Patterns in the Execution of Object-Oriented Programs BIBAKHTML 47-48
  Dean F. Jerding
The purpose of this research is to assist with the development and maintenance of object-oriented software by visualizing patterns of behavior in program executions. These patterns are manifested as repeated sequences of messages between objects and recurring instantiation of objects. It is hypothesized that interactive visualizations of the dynamic patterns in object-oriented systems will increase program understanding, allowing programmers to better perform design recovery and reengineering tasks.
Keywords: Software visualization, Information visualization, Object-oriented programming, Design patterns
Supporting Interactive Information Retrieval Through Relevance Feedback BIBAHTML 49-50
  Jurgen Koenemann
I investigated the interactive searching behavior of two groups of subjects using a novel best-match, ranked-output information retrieval (IR) engine to search a large, full-text document collection. The research focuses on the use of relevance feedback, a query reformulation tool. Ten searchers who had a background in IR were observed in the first study; 64 complete novices took part in a second experiment that systematically varied the user knowledge and user control of the feedback mechanism. Behavioral and performance data suggest that user control over relevance feedback benefits retrieval performance and user satisfaction.
Interface Agents for Interacting with Virtual Environments BIBAKHTML 51-52
  Britta Lenzmann
The basic rationale of my Ph.D. thesis is to enhance and simplify interaction with an interactive 3D graphical system. To relieve users from technical detail and allow them to communicate with the system in an intuitive and human-like manner, I am investigating three main aspects: adaptation to user preferences, multimodal input, and open and underspecified input. I use agent-based techniques to approach my solutions.
Keywords: Interface agents, Interactive graphical system, User adaptation, Multimodal input, Open input
Towards Organizational Learning: Growing Group Memories in the Workplace BIBAKHTML 53-54
  Stefanie N. Lindstaedt
Designing domain-oriented systems requires knowledge both in system design and in the domain to be supported. Communication between domain experts and system developers is essential to elicit or activate this knowledge. Contextualized information, conveyed in ongoing communication and evaluation, sheds light on problems and solutions that may otherwise remain uncovered. This information is valuable beyond the particular situation in which it originates. Experiences of our L3D research group with industries and universities have shown that the tasks of activating and capturing communication about system design, relating it to prior experiences, and feeding new insights back into a group memory face a number of challenges. I am developing an interactive group memory management system called GIMMe for growing diverse group memories during software design to explore the issues surrounding these challenges.
Keywords: Design, System design, Design rationale, Group memory, Organizational learning, Collaborative work, CSCW, Participatory design
Improving Communication in Programming-by-Demonstration BIBAKHTML 55-56
  Richard G. McDaniel
The range of PBD systems can be significantly expanded by improving the user's expressiveness when communicating with the system. The techniques in my research include a new form of demonstrational interaction called nudges. Complementing nudges is a special form of selection which is used to give the system hints by identifying significant objects. A new deck-of-playing-cards metaphor is also introduced for specifying useful effects such as randomness and sequencing. The final techniques use objects for annotating examples such as behavior icons for manipulating and editing behaviors, and temporal ghosts to allow explicit references to past states. By fostering better communication between the author and the system, these techniques should allow the user with minimal programming expertise to create highly interactive software.
Keywords: User interface software, Application builders, Programming-by-demonstration, Programming-by-example, Inductive learning
Providing Awareness Information to Support Transitions in Remote Computer-Mediated Collaboration BIBAKHTML 57-58
  Susan E. McDaniel
In my dissertation research I am exploring the questions of what comprises adequate information about the presence and activities of collaborators for the purpose of moving from asynchronous to synchronous work situations. The pertinent questions are: (1) What information do collaborators need to have about co-workers in order to coordinate these transitions? (2) Is there an alternative to video for supporting these transitions? (3) Can the important information that people need be distilled and displayed in textual or graphical forms that are low cost, but still lightweight?
Keywords: Awareness, CSCW, HCI
Toolkits for Multimedia Awareness BIBAKHTML 59-60
  Ian Smith
Informal communication and awareness of coworkers is an important factor in the effectiveness of work in office environments. This dissertation focuses on an architecture for the creation of prototype tools which allow distributed workgroups to collaborate more effectively by communicating informally. This architecture supports the investigation of the area of informal communication and awareness by allowing researchers to quickly develop new application prototypes from reusable components.
Keywords: Awareness, Multimedia, CSCW, Distributed work groups, Informal communication
Usability and the Software Production Life Cycle BIBAKHTML 61-62
  Suziah Sulaiman
For many types of systems it is as important that the usability is as good as the functionality. There have been various attempts during the last fifteen years or more to encourage developers to focus on usability during the life cycle. These have had only limited success in that they have affected certain companies without fundamentally changing the overall software development process. The aim of this study is to improve software quality by finding ways to integrate usability with software quality measurements throughout the life cycle and especially at early stages of development.
Keywords: Software quality, Usability, Software production life cycle, Software testing, Usability engineering, Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
Exploring the Information Landscape BIBAKHTML 63-64
  Elaine G. Toms
Exploring or browsing is a process of searching in which the user recognizes the object of the search when they see it a human-driven and unstructured process. To examine this process, three navigational aids are experimentally manipulated: method of access, method of suggesting items to explore and method of navigation. A fourth aid, cues that influence exploration, are also assessed. The object of the study is to characterize browsing, to understand what facilitates browsing in an electronic environment, and to suggest an abstract representation of browsing.
Keywords: Exploring, Browsing, Full-text, Newspapers, Navigation, Menus, Fish-eye views, Similarity measures, Informativeness, Information searching, Experimental study
Multimedia, Mental Models and Complex Tasks BIBAKHTML 65-66
  David Williams
With the emergence of relatively cheap multimedia delivery systems incorporating bitmapped graphics and high fidelity continuous audio and video, there is an increasing need for the user interface designer to be informed in their choice of output media for a particular task. Our research is investigating the affect of different media on the formulation of mental models in the solution of complex tasks. The guiding principle is to understand why one medium has an advantage over another in a given task context. To do this one must examine how these media are utilised by the user. An experiment is outlined which will investigate this.
Keywords: Multimedia, Media selection, Mental models, Expressiveness, Tractability, Complex tasks


Touchscreen Usability in Microgravity BIBAKHTML 67-68
  Jurine A. Adolf; Kritina L. Holden
Touchscreen technology is well-suited for extreme environments, for example, microgravity. However, the usability of touchscreens has not been tested in this environment. The Human Factors and Ergonomics Laboratory (HFEL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center has conducted three evaluations of touchscreen usability both in a simulated weightless environment and on a space shuttle mission. Preliminary findings suggest that touchscreens were preferred for those tasks with larger touch areas, but not for precise positioning. Not anticipated though was the hand fatigue experienced by astronauts. Complete results will be available.
Keywords: Touchscreen, Input devices, Cursor control devices
A Wearable Computer for Use in Microgravity Space and Other Non-Desktop Environments BIBAKHTMLWeb Page 69-70
  Edgar Matias; I. Scott MacKenzie; William Buxton
We present one possible design for a "wearable" computer -- a computer that is worn. Our prototype permits text entry without the need of a table or other supporting surface. Typing can be performed while standing or even walking. Possible applications for this device are also discussed.
Keywords: Input devices, Input tasks, Wearable computers, Portable computers, Half-QWERTY, One-handed keyboard, Skill transfer
Efficacy of a Predictive Display, Steering Device, and Vehicle Body Representation in the Operation of a Lunar Vehicle BIBAKHTML 71-72
  Santosh Mathan; Arn Hyndman; Karl Fischer; Jeremiah Blatz; Douglas Brams
Time delayed teleoperation exacts a high toll on human cognitive resources. High error rates and poor performance times are typical consequences of operating a vehicle under such conditions. This paper describes the usability effects of simple enhancements to the interface for a teleoperated lunar vehicle. Experimental results suggest that simple interface elements such as a predictive display, steering wheel, and vehicle body representation can dramatically reduce errors and task performance times during time delayed teleoperation by inexperienced lunar vehicle operators.
Keywords: Predictive display, Teleoperation, Lunar vehicle, Time delay
Common Ground for Critical Shuttle and Space Station User Interfaces: An Independent Verification and Validation Approach BIBAKHTML 73-74
  Mihriban Whitmore; Andrea H. Berman
The Human Factors and Ergonomics Laboratory (HFEL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is in the process of developing an automated software interface checking tool to assess the degree to which space-related critical and high risk software system user interfaces meet objective human factors standards across each NASA program and project. A prototype tool has been identified, and usability testing is underway. Testing compares analysis time and similarity of results for the automated tool and for human-computer interface experts. The results of the evaluation will be included in the poster.
Keywords: Computer-based tool, Usability testing, HCI evaluation

INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Designing and Evaluating Interfaces and Systems

GUI Users Have Trouble Using Graphic Conventions on Novel Tasks BIBAKHTML 75-76
  Catherine A. Ashworth
Twenty-five Macintosh users performed poorly when attempting novel tasks in Macintosh-like applications. The tasks tested subjects' understanding of the meaning of ten different GUI graphic conventions (such as the symbol for a Pop-Up Menu). Subjects who had used more applications had greater accuracy rates. The trials testing Ellipses and the Walking Menu symbol revealed that even when subjects knew the convention, they were also guided by the quality of the semantic match between the command label and the task goal. An analysis of likely reasons why subjects did not know Radio Buttons or X-Boxes suggests users can employ a strategy of "re-exploring" an interface object on each use. These findings have implications for current GUI design guidelines and for theories of GUI learning and use.
Keywords: Graphic user interface, GUI, Display-based computing, Display-based skill, Exploratory learning, User testing, Macintosh
Looking for Usability Problems with the Ergonomic Criteria and with the ISO 9241-10 Dialogue Principles BIBAKHTML 77-78
  J. M. Christian Bastien; Dominique L. Scapin; Corinne Leulier
The relative effectiveness of the Ergonomic Criteria and the ISO/DIS 9241-Part 10 Dialogue Principles in guiding the evaluation of user interfaces was assessed. After a demonstration of a musical database application and a free exploration phase, three groups of participants (Criteria, ISO, Control) were invited to evaluate the interface of the application. Preliminary results indicate that the performance of the Control and ISO groups did not differ statistically in terms of the number of problems uncovered or the percentages on problems uncovered as a function of the size of the aggregates. However, when using the Ergonomic Criteria, participants uncovered statistically more usability problems, and the percentage of problems uncovered with respect to the size of the aggregates was higher. For instance, the aggregation of 3 evaluations in the Control and the ISO group permits to uncover about 48% of the usability problems while it permits to uncover about 63% of the usability problems in the Criteria group.
Keywords: User interface evaluation, Inspection methods, Ergonomic criteria, Standards, Dialogue principles, Usability problems
Examining Basic Items of a Screen Design BIBAK 79-80
  Kenji Ido; Toshiki Yamaoka
We examined basic items of screen design, and we got some results:
  • 1. * reverse video is the best type of highlight. * frame is the second best
        type of highlight * underline is an average type of highlight *
        grey-colour is the poorest type of highlight
  • 2. Horizontal area is faster than vertical area when subjects saw objects on
  • 3. Square and circle are good shape for retrieval.
  • 4. Speed of eye movement from centre to top of the screen is slower than from
        centre to bottom, from centre to left and centre to right.
    Keywords: Reaction time, Highlights, Eye movement, Basic figure
  • Case Based Reasoning Approach to Creating User Interface Components BIBAKHTML 81-82
      Suneela R. Joshi; William W. McMillan
    Software developers can save time and expense by reusing code that implements user interface tools such as windows, menus, icons, dialogues, etc. Case Based Reasoning (CBR), developed for applications in artificial intelligence, is a very effective tool for such an interactive software reuse project. In CBR, a problem is solved by searching a library of previously encountered cases, retrieving similar cases and modifying them if necessary to fit the current problem. The approach taken by this paper goes beyond this usual CBR technique. It helps a developer to select an application menu from a set of menus that are appropriate for the developer's project. It then inserts that menu directly into the developer's project. This paper uses CBR in creating user interface objects to achieve software reuse in a very effective and simple way.
    Keywords: User interface tools, Case based reasoning, Software reuse
    CockpitView: A User Interface Framework for Future Network Terminals BIBAK 83-84
      Georg Michelitsch
    We present a user interface framework for consumer oriented, network terminals that uses a combination of a 3D information landscape and a 2D work space to provide the user with a "focus plus context" environment. A comprehensive direct manipulation paradigm for user interaction with active objects on the screen replaces traditional menus in our system. Finally, with a new communication concept based on shared virtual spaces we can handle both synchronous and asynchronous communication in an integrated fashion for all types of media.
    Keywords: Active objects, Direct manipulation techniques, 3D graphics, Communication models, Network terminals
    Multi-Skill Cooperation in User Interface Design BIBAKHTML 85-86
      I. Lambert; N. Portolan
    The importance of pictures in today's interfaces makes a multi-skill approach between various people necessary: ergonomist, graphic designer, terminologist, psychosociologist. The question of the role of each partner and the integration of the different approaches is dealt with via two design projects.
    Keywords: Design process, Ergonomist, Graphic designer, Terminologist, Telecommunication product
    The Group Elicitation Method for Participatory Design and Usability Testing BIBAKHTML 87-88
      Guy A. Boy
    This short paper presents the Group Elicitation Method (GEM), a brainwriting technique augmented by a decision support system for participatory design and usability testing. GEM has been successfully used in four industrial projects to elicit knowledge from users, management and designers. In particular, in three of them it was used to elicit end-users' knowledge for the design of new user interfaces. This short paper discusses the properties of such a method and the lessons learned.
    Keywords: Knowledge elicitation, Participatory design, Decision support systems, Evaluation, Methodology


    ScienceSpace: Lessons for Designing Immersive Virtual Realities BIBAK 89-90
      Marilyn C. Salzman; Chris Dede; Deirdre McGlynn; R. Bowen Loftin
    ScienceSpace is a collection of immersive virtual realities designed to explore the potential utility of physical immersion and multisensory perception to aid in the learning of science. Through the design and evaluation of ScienceSpace, we are learning lessons about the virtual reality interface and the development of immersive virtual worlds for education. This paper describes these lessons.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, Educational applications, User interface design and evaluation, and immersion
    Appropriateness of Graphical Program Representations for Training Applications BIBAKHTML 91-92
      Marian G. Williams; Hyxia Villegas; J. Nicholas Buehler
    Recent controversy about the ease of constructing and reading graphical program representations is of interest to us because of our work on graphical programming applications for training. We apply cognitive complexity analysis to graphical and textual programs, and confirm the empirical findings of other researchers. We also apply cognitive complexity analysis to graphical programs from our own work. The analysis suggests that, when optimized for a specific task, both textual and graphical programs can carry the same information with similar cognitive complexity. The selection of graphical and textual representations for comparison in real-world training applications remains problematic.
    Keywords: Graphical programming, Visual programming, Cognitive complexity analysis, Visual labs, Training, Education

    INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Gender and Skill

    Gender and Skill in Human Computer Interaction BIBAKHTML 93-94
      Ellen Balka
    Practitioners working in HCI make implicit assumptions about gender and skill in conducting design work. More frequently than not, assumptions about both the gender of computer system users, and definitions of skill relied on in designing computer systems, remain hidden (exceptions include 1,2,10,16). Here, the importance of addressing gender and skill in HCI activities is addressed through a focus on participatory design (PD) and ergonomics. In the tradition of participatory posters [11] participants are asked to engage in generating knowledge about gender and skill in HCI by providing citations to relevant work, and/or anecdotes from their design experience (by computer entry or video clips).
    Keywords: Gender, Skill, Work, Participatory design, Ergonomics, Design theory, Design practices

    INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Remote Communication

    Anthropometric Data on Horizontal Head Movements in Videcommunications BIBAKHTML 95-96
      Martin Bocker; Werner Blohm; Lothar Muhlbach
    Head movement data were collected from 128 subjects during an experimental study using four different videoconferencing set-ups (factorial design of monoscopic / stereoscopic set-ups with / without motion parallax). The data include various parameters and are relevant inter alia for terminal and display designers.
    Keywords: Display design, Videocommunications, Motion parallax, Head tracking, 3D
    The Freedom to Work from an Arbitrary Position BIBAK 97-98
      Britt Jonsson; Anna Schomer; Konrad Tollmar
    We have designed two sets of communication tools to enable telepresence in groups who work in different locations. Afterwards we evaluated the tools. Study (A), in the first group, takes place in a big company in a relatively small group, of seven people, while study (B), in the second group, takes place in a larger group of approx. 20 members in an academic research lab. In order to design those two communication systems we argue that a broader perspective of work, living environment, life, friends and relations need to be considered. Insight into this complexity could only be gained using a "multi-domain methodology". We will in, this poster, give an example of these two ongoing research projects where we have used this methodology.
    Keywords: Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Teleworking, Information sharing, Collaborative processes, Shared workspace
    The Effects of Emotional Icons on Remote Communication BIBAKHTML 99-100
      Krisela Rivera; Nancy J. Cooke; Jeff A. Bauhs
    As technology advances, we are shifting from direct face-to-face or voice to voice interactions to computer-mediated communication (CMC). As a result of this shift the nature of communication has changed; in particular the ability to convey emotion is less straight forward. Twenty three subjects participated in a simulated, remote-CMC, group-decision making session. Twelve subjects had emoticons available, although use of these icons was optional. The remaining eleven did not have emoticons available. Dependent measures included user satisfaction, user frustration, conformity, length and focus of message, satisfaction with CMC system, and recall of communication events. The results indicated that subjects with emoticons used them and were more satisfied with the system than those subjects without emoticons. Thus it appears that users respond to emoticons and interpret them as intended.
    Keywords: Computer-mediated communication, Groupware, Computer-supported-cooperative work, Distributed cognition, Icons, Emotions, Emoticons
    Remote Assistance: A View of the Work and a View of the Face? BIBAKHTML 101-102
      Leon Watts; Andrew F. Monk
    Twenty members of the general public worked remotely from one another in pairs. One member of the pair carried out some simple manipulative tasks as instructed by the other, after which they discussed the merit of the object assembled. Sometimes there was a view of the face and sometimes a view of the room. The work was always visible. Contrary to suggestions in the literature that a view of the face has only marginal benefits, subjective ratings and direct measures of gaze behaviour both demonstrate that the view of the manipulators face was of value in this situation.
    Keywords: Video communication, CSCW, Analysis of gaze, Remote assistance

    INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Structuring and Finding Information

    A Task-Oriented Interface to a Digital Library BIBAKHTML 103-104
      Steve B. Cousins
    In this paper we describe an interface to a heterogeneous digital library. The interface is designed with the following goals in mind: to support user tasks, to smoothly integrate the results of many services, to handle services of widely-varying time scales, to be extensible, and to support sharing and reuse. We discuss each of these goals, and then describe a working prototype interface.
    Keywords: Digital Libraries, Tasks, Direct manipulation
    ESPACE 2: An Experimental HyperAudio Environment BIBAKHTML 105-106
      Nitin "Nick" Sawhney; Arthur Murphy
    Espace 2 is a prototype system for navigation of hyper-linked audio information in an immersive audio-only environment. In this paper, we propose several essential design concepts for audio-only computing environments. We will describe a hyperaudio system based on the prior design principles and discuss an evaluation of the preliminary prototype.
    Keywords: Auditory I/O, Non-speech audio, Hypermedia
    Structuring Voice Records Using Keyword Labels BIBAKHTML 107-108
      Nick Haddock
    The paper proposes an interaction technique which allows some structure and content to be extracted from a voice record, thus making it easier to review the recording and integrate it with other data. Silence detection and speech recognition are employed to pick out intentionally uttered keyword labels, in order to create a form-field view of the voice recording.
    Keywords: Speech as data, Speech recognition, Form-filling, Multi-modal interfaces, Portable computing
    A Study of User Participation in Standards Setting BIBAK 109-110
      Kai Jacobs; Rob Procter; Robin Williams
    This paper explores the views of members of standards setting organisations in the field of electronic communications. It focuses in particular on their experiences of, and attitudes towards, user participation in standards setting.
    Keywords: Standardisation, E-mail, User requirements
    BDDTCL: An Environment for Visualizing and Manipulating Binary Decisions Diagrams BIBAK 111-114
      Kurt E. Partridge
    A Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) is a data structure used in hardware verification to represent boolean expressions. Most BDD implementations provide only textual output and require the user to interact with them using a compiled programming language. BDDTCL provides an interpreted language for manipulating BDDs and a graphical viewer for manipulating and visualizing them. BDDTCL can draw BDDs with over 4,400 nodes; much larger than can be easily drawn by hand. Two users, a hardware design researcher and a student unfamiliar with BDDs, provided feedback about BDDTCL's effectiveness for understanding systems modeled by BDDs. These users also provided feedback for improving BDDTCL.
    Keywords: Data structure visualization, Binary decision diagrams, Hardware verification tools
    Characterization and Assessment of HTML Style Guides BIBAKHTML 115-116
      Julie Ratner; Eric M. Grose; Chris Forsythe
    This paper describes a study in which HTML style guides were characterized, compared to established HCI style guides, and evaluated against findings from HCI reviews of web pages and applications. Findings showed little consistency among the 21 HTML style guides assessed, with 75% of recommendations appearing in only one style guide. While there was some overlap, only 20% of HTML relevant recommendations from established style guides were found in HTML style guides. HTML style guides emphasized common look and feel, information display, and navigation issues with little mention of many issues prominent in established style guides such as help, message boxes and data entry. This difference is reinforced by other results showing that HTML style guides addressed concerns of web information content pages with much greater success than web-based applications. It is concluded that while the WWW represents a unique HCI environment, development of HTML style guides has been less rigorous, with issues associated with web-based applications largely ignored.
    Keywords: HTML, World Wide Web, Style guides, Human computer interface

    INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Video and Television

    Concurrent Engineering for an Interactive TV Interface BIBAKHTML 117-118
      Ivan Bretan; Per Kroon
    The design of a user environment for a video-on-demand service through an interdisciplinary style of collaboration called "concurrent engineering" is described. The process encompasses pre-prototype behavioural studies, traditional user studies, graphical design of interface objects, industrial design of input devices and interaction design of interface dialogue.
    Keywords: Interdisciplinary design, Interactive TV, Video-on-demand
    Interfaces for Managing Access to a Video Archive BIBAKHTML 119-120
      Andrew Gordon; Smadar Kedar; Eric Domeshek
    We describe Deja Vu, a video retrieval system which capitalizes on our understanding of the content of the video to provide an effective user interface.
    Keywords: Information access, Interface design, Browsing, Search, Indexing, Retrieval, Video archive, Visualization
    The Effect of Frame Rate and Video Information Redundancy on the Perceptual Learning of American Sign Language Gestures BIBAK 121-122
      B. F. Johnson; J. K. Caird
    An experiment is reported that addressed whether reductions of frame rate and information redundancy affected the recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) gestures that were presented in a multimedia format. Frame rate (30, 15, 5, & 1 frames-per-second or fps) primarily affected time needed to learn the gestures to criterion while point light presentation of gestures (versus conventional video) affected recognition rates in a transfer testing condition. Contrary to conventional frame rate rules of thumb (e.g., 10-20 fps), once trained participants were exceptional at recognizing ASL gestures even at rates as low as 5 and 1 fps. Results are discussed as they contribute to computer mediated learning of sign language and frame rate guidelines.
    Keywords: Sign language learning, Gesture recognition, Biological motion perception, Mental representation of movement, Multimedia assisted learning, Frame rate, Signal detection theory


    Science-By-Mail BIBAKHTML 123-124
      Marc E. Fusco; Ellen A. White
    Science-by-MailTM is a hands-on, experimental science activity program for children in grades 4-9 that is designed to be engaging, educational, and fun! Each participating child is matched with a volunteer pen-pal scientist who provides encouragement and guidance. They receive three "challenge packets" throughout the year containing information and materials related to an issue in science or technology. Communication between students and scientists about the packets forms the core of the interactions. A nationwide program developed by the Museum of Science, Boston, Science-by-Mail currently involves about 25,000 children and 2,500 scientists.
    Keywords: Science-By-Mail, Science, Children, Volunteer, Social action
    Encouraging Social Responsibility through Collaborative Team Learning BIBAKHTML 125-126
      Jean Gasen
    How do we bring the real world into the classroom? How do we teach students to see and appreciate its complexities without overwhelming them? How do we encourage them to value collaborative teamwork and multi-disciplinary approaches to problems? And how do we instill the importance of addressing larger social issues in their professional future?
       This poster will describe a multi-disciplinary team approach to teaching user-centered interface design. The course focused on the development of multimedia prototypes for the VCU Cancer Center. How the course impacted upon student motivation for learning, group process and interface design will be presented.
    Keywords: HCI education, Multimedia, Collaborative work, Social issues in design
    Community Volunteers -- Getting Involved Locally BIBAKHTML 127-128
      David R. Millen; Patricia A. Young; Perry F. Sennewald
    The promises of emerging technologies, strong financial pressures, and infrastructure demands have created a growing need for technology expertise in local schools, governments and community organizations. It follows that there has never been a better time for technical professionals to help. Assistance can be offered in areas of technology planning, training, system management and support of fundraising activities. An illustrative example of a community-based technology foundation will be described.
    Keywords: Technology advocacy, Social action, Education

    ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: Innovative User Interfaces

    Research in 3D User Interface Design at Columbia University BIBAKHTML 129-130
      Steven K. Feiner
    The Computer Graphics and User Interfaces Laboratory at Columbia University is pursuing research in the design and development of new user interface metaphors. This overview provides a high-level description of our work and surveys projects that reflect our two key research directions: 3D user interfaces (including virtual environments and augmented reality) and knowledge-based user interfaces.
    Keywords: Augmented reality, Virtual reality, Virtual environments, Knowledge-based graphics, Intelligent user interfaces, Head-mounted displays
    Real{cubed} Communication and Aromatic Group Computing: HCI and CSCW Research at Canon Media Technology Laboratory BIBAHTML 131-132
      Yuichi Bannai; Hideyuki Tamura
    The Media Technology Laboratory is one of Canon Inc.'s corporate research labs. Originally called the Information Systems Research Center, the laboratory changed its name when it started research and development in information media. Now, approximately 70 research scientists and engineers, some of them managers, are in charge of research and development mainly in HCI, CSCW, and other fields. Their range of expertise covers AI, natural language understanding, computer vision and graphics, computer architecture, and system software (OS, database, etc.).
    MIT Media Laboratory: A View after Ten Years BIBA 133-134
      Chris Schmandt
    As the MIT Media Laboratory celebrates its 10th anniversary in 1995, this makes a fitting time to describe it for the CHI audience. A number of current Media Lab faculty and students are active in user interface techniques and technologies, and our work is well represented in the CHI proceedings. Although well known now, the Lab's roots go back much further, to the early 70s.
       The Laboratory's charter is to invent and creatively exploit new media for human well-being and individual satisfaction, without regard to present day constraints. We employ supercomputers and extraordinary input/output devices to experiment with today, with the notion that these will be commonplace tomorrow. The not-so-hidden agenda is to drive technological inventions and break engineering deadlocks with new perspectives and demanding applications. The Lab explores issues in a broad range of new information technologies including: advanced digital television, electronic publishing, portable computing and communication, artificial intelligence, voice interfaces, user interface design, and education-related technologies.

    ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: Introducing HCI in Industry

    HCI at Banc Sabadell BIBAHTML 135-136
      Lynne E. Hall
    The introduction of HCI to Banc Sabadell is described, providing a brief history. Attempts to improve application usability and to encourage a focus on HCI issues are detailed. Several applications are described, identifying the success of the incorporation of HCI at Banc Sabadell.
    The Usability Group at Reuters: Virtually Global BIBAK 137-138
      Greg Garrison; Robin Heath; Allison Jaynes
    In this organization overview we discuss the approach to Customer Centered Design taken by Reuters. We address the virtual team organization of the group and the benefits and challenges that it presents. We then present the globalization of usability and the techniques that Reuters has used to expand usability operations from London throughout the world. We end with a discussion of our performance thus far and a little about the future of The Usability Group at Reuters.
    Keywords: Organization overview, Customer centered design, Usability, Globalization, Virtual team, Usability testing
    The Claris Interface Design Group: A Personal Retrospective BIBAKHTML 139-140
      Tony Fernandes
    The Claris Interface Design Group is an organization built from the ground up to help Claris Corporation define new levels of usability for its Macintosh and Windows products. This overview offers a retrospective of lessons learned through the creation of the organization I created.
    Keywords: Organizations, Usability testing, Human factors, Visual design

    ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: User Interface Design

    The Hiser Group: Pioneering Usability and User Interface Design in Australia BIBAK 141-142
      Sarah A. Bloomer; Susan J. Wolfe
    When The Hiser Group was formed, usability and user interface design were relatively unknown in Australasian software development market. This organisational overview describes the major activities of The Hiser Group and the implications for pioneering a user-centred development methodology in this environment.
    Keywords: User interface design, Usability engineering, Organisations
    Research on Human-Computer Interaction and Cooperative Hypermedia at GMD-IPSI BIBAKHTML 143-144
      Norbert A. Streitz; Heinz-Dieter Bocker
    This organization overview describes two research divisions of GMD-IPSI in Darmstadt, Germany: User Interfaces for Information Systems and Cooperative Hypermedia Systems. They are in particular addressing HCI work within the overall framework and goals of IPSI.
    Keywords: Organization overview, User-interfaces, 3D visualization, Information retrieval, Electronic publishing, Hypermedia, CSCW, Desktop-based collaboration, Electronic meeting rooms, Shared work spaces, Pen-based interaction
    Taming Complexity at MAYA Design BIBAKHTML 145-146
      Peter Lucas; Susan Salis
    MAYA Design is a full-service product design consultancy offering services at the intersection of computer science, psychology, and visual design. We have developed efficient techniques for facilitating interdisciplinary design and for communicating clearly with our clients.
    Keywords: Interdisciplinary design, Design consulting, Brainstorming, Prototyping, User studies laboratory, Usability, Product design

    ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: Multidisciplinary HCI Research

    HCI Group at Computer Research Institute of Montreal BIBAK 147-148
      Frances de Verteuil; Daniel Engelberg
    The Computer Research Institute of Montreal (CRIM) is a non-profit R&D institute in computer science. The HCI group performs both consulting and precompetitive research. Our approach emphasizes multidisciplinary teams, participation of our own software engineering experts on projects, and sensitivity to our clients' business goal and culture. Research focuses on methodologies for designing and evaluating interfaces.
    Keywords: R&D, Multidisciplinary, Software development lifecycle, HCI methodology, Task analysis, Interface evaluation
    The Center for People and Systems Interaction (CPSI) BIBAK 149-150
      Jenny Preece; Judith Ramsay; Richard Jacques; Alessandro Barabesi
    The Center for People and Systems Interaction (CPSI) is a new research center based at South Bank University in London. An inter-disciplinary group is researching two key areas of Human-Computer Interaction: (i) the inter-relationships of psychological, social and technical factors in computer mediated communication (CMC) and (ii) extending the repertoire of usability evaluation methods.
    Keywords: Center for People and Systems Interaction (CPSI), Human-computer interaction, HCI, Computer mediated communication, CMC, Desktop video conferencing, Engagement, Gender, Hypermedia, Usability, Evaluation
    Virginia Tech's Center for Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 151-152
      John M. Carroll
    An interdisciplinary effort in HCI formed at Virginia Tech in 1979. The central axis of this collaboration ran between the Department of Computer Science and the Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering. This early project studied the human-computer interface as a dialog, asking both whether dialog is a good metaphor for the interface, and how to most appropriately configure that interface.


    Universal Design: Everyone has Special Needs BIBAKHTML 153-154
      Eric Bergman; Earl Johnson; Alistair Edwards; Deborah Kaplan; Greg Lowney; T. V. Raman; Clayton Lewis
    Despite high profile discussions of user-centered design in the CHI community, until recently a substantial population of users has been largely ignored. Users who have restricted or no use of hands, eyes, ears, or voice due to environment, task context, repetitive strain injury, or disability constitute a diverse and significant user population, but these users receive relatively little mention in mainstream HCI conferences or literature. Design considerations for users with vision, hearing, or movement impairments overlap with those for the general population across a variety of tasks and contexts (e.g., high workload tasks, automobile systems, phone interfaces). Following on this theme, the panel will promote discussion of so-called "Universal Design" -- design for the broadest possible range of users.
    Keywords: Accessibility, Disability, Universal design
    Technology Transfer: So Much Research So Few Good Products BIBAHTML 155-156
      Ellen A. Isaacs; John C. Tang; Jim Foley; Jeff Johnson; Allan Kuchinsky; Jean Scholtz; John Bennett
    Since the CHI community involves both researchers and practitioners, we often struggle with the issue of technology transfer. The CHI conference features many innovative research ideas and interesting product designs, but there have been disappointingly few cases in which products were based on research projects. Although many companies have tried to address this problem on their own, the CHI conference offers a unique opportunity to bring together people from different settings to explore common obstacles to technology transfer and to share ideas for overcoming those barriers.
       This panel will cover the following range of perspectives:
  • The Prototype Perspective. The primary goal of research or advanced
       development in a company is to build prototypes that test new ideas, which
       can eventually be transferred to development groups for productization.
  • The Information Transfer Perspective. The main goal of research should be to
       transfer information of many kinds (e.g., the resolution of basic questions
       that are impeding development work, practical experience with a platform's
       ability to support future applications, explanations of why a new product
       direction is technically unfeasible).
  • The Management Perspective. Managers of industrial research need to strike a
       balance between (1) providing a climate for innovation and (2) justifying
       the research investment from a business perspective.
  • The Academic Perspective. Transferring technology from academia to industry
       has its own challenges. Those in universities must develop alliances with
       industry that mutually benefit the academic institution and the commercial
  • Criteria for Effective Groupware BIBAKHTML 157-158
      Andrew F. Monk; Jean Scholtz; Bill Buxton; Sara Bly; David Frohlich; Steve Whittaker
    The object of this panel is to identify criteria for effective groupware. That is, criteria that can be applied either to guide design or to help a purchaser select from alternative groupware applications. The criteria are expected to be generally applicable and so we take a broad definition of groupware. Panellists have been chosen with expertise in low bandwidth groupware such as email and PDAs as well as higher profile multi-media applications.
    Keywords: Groupware, CSCW, Evaluation, Design
    Real Meets Virtual: Blending Real World Artifacts with Computational Media BIBAKHTML 159-160
      Michael Eisenberg; Wendy Mackay; Allison Druin; Sheila Lehman; Mitchel Resnick
    Panelists in this session will defend a variety of distinct visions for integrating "real-world" and computational media. Our aim is to explore the ways in which computers, and computer interfaces, can lend themselves to new and enriched interactions with objects and to new paradigms of handicrafts -- with particular emphasis on the role of crafts and real-world objects in education.
    Keywords: Real-world computation, Physical multimedia, Crafts, Educational computing, Programmable brick
    User Centered Design: Quality or Quackery? BIBAK 161-162
      John Karat; Michael E. Atwood; Susan M. Dray; Martin Rantzer; Dennis R. Wixon
    Clearly User-Centered Design (UCD) is an activity that has entered the collective CHI-consciousness to an extent that should make us confident that usable systems are just around the corner. Of 18 large software producing entities surveyed over the summer of 1995, all reported either to have at least one documented UCD process in use or under development, or not to need one because UCD activities were well understood by the people responsible for carrying them out. However, scratching the surface of this utopian state reveals that the revolution is far from complete. We do not have a clear consensus about the boundaries of UCD (what constitutes a UCD method and what does not). We are not in agreement about how central users should be in the development of usable systems (If users design, what use are designers?). We have not had enough experience with our processes, to tell that they really lead to development of usable systems. This panel explores what we don't yet know, and how we can try to know it.
    Keywords: User centered design, Design
    Visualizing the Internet: Putting the User in the Driver's Seat BIBAK 163-164
      Nahum Gershon; Keith Andrews; Steven G. Eick; Jim Foley; William Ruh
    Dealing with Internet resources, users, quite frequently, feel lost, confused, and overwhelmed. The panel and the audience will discuss how advances in interactive computer graphics and visualization software and hardware could make the information distributed over the Internet more intuitively searchable, accessible, and easier to use by people from all walks of life and interests.
    Keywords: WWW, Internet, Visualization, Usability, World Wide Web, Computer graphics

    Plenary Session

    Arranging to Do Things With Others BIBA 165-167
      Herbert H. Clark
    Much of what we do we do with other people. We conduct business, gossip, play games, and take classes with others, both in person and through computers. Joint activities like these are advanced through sequences of brief joint actions. The problem is this. It takes delicate coordination against the common ground of the participants to initiate such actions. Person A has to arrange for person B (1) to commit to taking part (2) in a particular joint action (3) in a particular role (4) at a particular time and place. I will argue that people have principled ways of solving this problem, and that designers can and should leverage these principles when supporting these activities through computers and other technologies.
    A New Look to the Art of Seeing BIBA 168
      Betty Edwards
    In modern life, we are inundated by ever-growing quantities of data. The trend toward computer-graphic displays of complex data seems to indicate a new area of common ground for verbal, analytic, visual, and perceptual modes of thinking. As computers take over more and more "left-brain" tasks, educators are beginning to recognize the need for training the visual mode of thinking as well as the verbal, analytic mode -- the traditional "3Rs" of schooling. Compared with what we are capable of seeing, perceiving, and envisioning, what we actually see is doubtless very limited. By cultivating perceptual skills, we can increase our ability to derive meaning from complex verbal and numerical information and to accomplish creative leaps of insight.
       The first computers presented data in linear fashion -- strings of numbers, lines of data, largely without a visual component. Some interesting new research indicates that at a certain level of complexity, the linear, analytic mode of the brain just gives up.
       Consequently, computer programmers began to turn more and more toward visual displays of quantitative information. The reason this is working is that visual displays are easily understood.
       They are processed rapidly and globally, allowing for a view of the "big picture," unlike verbal, numerical data which must be expressed in a step-by-step linear fashion. The problem, however, is that visual presentations depend on excellent design. This is the common ground that is occurring. The good, even great designers of visual presentation are now working with the verbal, analytic, numerical information suppliers.
       Out of this common ground emerges a new need, the need for an aesthetic component in the visual display of quantitative information. We need visual displays which are beautiful and satisfying to look at, as well as being useful and informative. This, I believe, is where the experience of the artist can play a great role in bringing knowledge of the aesthetic experience to visual displays.
       The study of aesthetics has traditionally been regarded as a difficult, even murky field. To date, we do not have a completely satisfying definition of the aesthetic response. As designers, computer programmers, and information experts work together with artists, however, we can hope to see the concept of beauty emerging even in business decisions and in business leadership. Researchers interested in a recently developing field, the aesthetics of leadership, are calling for a new look at how we train individuals for leadership positions.

    SHORT PAPERS: Collaborative Systems

    Long-Term Interaction: Learning the 4 Rs BIBAKHTML 169-170
      Alan Dix; Devina Ramduny; Julie Wilkinson
    In long-term interaction (over minutes, hours, or days) the tight cycle of action and feedback is broken. People have to remember that they have to do things, that other people should do things and why things happen when they do. This paper describes some results of a study into long-term processes associated with the running of the HCI'95 conference. The focus is on the events which trigger the occurrence of activities. However, during the study we also discovered a recurrent pattern of activities and triggers we have called the 4Rs. For a longer report see [2].
    Keywords: Interruptions, Reminders, Events, Workflow
    Walking the Walk is Doing the Work: Flexible Interaction Management in Video-Supported Cooperative Work BIBAKHTML 171-172
      Steinar Kristoffersen; Tom Rodden
    This paper considers the effects of video-based communication systems on individual, local mobility in the everyday, practical 'space' of work. Previous academic research emphasises how video can extend and enhance space. We found, doing a focused ethnography, that video, in a trade-off between 'real' and 'virtual' mobility, restricted the use of personal, workaday, physical space. Issues thus raised for design of video-based systems are: physical mobility in workaday space during sessions; modal and temporal switching between different means of communication; individual work during collective activities; and, alternating between tasks as part of articulating the work.
    Keywords: Video, Communication, Multimedia, Space, Mobility

    SHORT PAPERS: Alternative Methods of Interaction

    Office Monitor BIBAKHTML 173-174
      Nicole Yankelovich; Cynthia D. McLain
    The Office Monitor is a walk-up speech system in an office setting. We present strategies developed to address design issues which emerged during a pre-design study. A follow-up user study showed that although effective, these strategies were inadequate; therefore, we propose design modifications.
    Keywords: Conversational interaction, Speech interface design, Office automation
    Visual Access for 3D Data BIBAKHTML 175-176
      David J. Cowperthwaite; M. Sheelagh; T. Carpendale; F. David Fracchia
    We describe a novel solution to the problem of occlusion in viewing three-dimensional data. A distortion function is used to clear a line of sight to previously obscured interior elements.
    Keywords: Distortion viewing, 3D interaction

    SHORT PAPERS: Children and Other Learners

    An Interface Strategy for Promoting Reflective Cognition in Children BIBAK 177-178
      Kamran Sedighian; Maria M. Klawe
    We present a strategy for interface design in mathematical computer games. Our goal is to encourage children to consciously think about the underlying mathematical concepts while playing. We believe our strategy and our experiences leading to its formulation can provide useful insights for the design of educational software in general.
    Keywords: Representation, Reflective cognition, Children, Education, Mathematical computer games
    Design Issues Involving Entertainment Click-Ons BIBAKHTML 179-180
      Douglas Super; Marvin Westrom; Maria Klawe
    Preliminary results and methodology is reported for the effectiveness of entertainment click-ons in edutainment software. Indices for findability, popularity and effectiveness are discussed. School and home use data were obtained from log files built for Counting on Frank, a CD-ROM math adventure for ages 8-12 published by EA Kids in late 1994.
    Keywords: Click-ons, Edutainment, Interface design, Log files, Games, Mathematics, Children, Motivation
    Children's Collaboration Styles in a Newtonian MicroWorld BIBAKHTML 181-182
      Andy Cockburn; Saul Greenberg
    TurboTurtle is a animated multi-user microworld that children use to explore concepts in Newtonian physics. It is a groupware system where students, each on their own computer, can simultaneous control the microworld and gesture in a shared view. Observations of pairs of young children using TurboTurtle highlight extremes in collaboration styles, from conflict to smooth interaction.
    Keywords: Computer supported collaborative learning, Microworlds
    ASK Jasper: Performance Support for Students BIBAKHTML 183-184
      Ray Bareiss; Susan M. Williams
    This paper describes ASK Jasper, a hypermedia performance support system that provides a structured work environment and in-context help and advice to students as they learn the concepts and skills of empirical geometry through solving a complex design problem.
    Keywords: Educational applications, Performance support, Hypermedia
    Designing Pedagogical Screen Savers BIBAKHTML 185-186
      Chris DiGiano; Michael Eisenberg
    The burgeoning complexity of professional application software -- the proliferation of interface options, available functionality, and end-user languages -- has resulted in the need to think creatively about ways in which such software may be made more learnable. This paper describes one promising technique -- the pedagogical screen saver -- whose purpose is to introduce users to application functionality, entertainingly and unobtrusively, during the program's "idle time." We describe a running prototype of such a screen saver for a programmable charting application.
    Keywords: Screen savers, Programmable applications, Software design, Chart'n'Art
    Using Cognitive Dimensions in the Classroom as a Discussion Tool for Visual Language Design BIBAKHTML 187-188
      Nicholas P. Wilde
    Green's cognitive dimensions framework has been put forth as a defined vocabulary for discussing HCI design [3]. To be a useful discussion tool, we must agree on common definitions of the cognitive dimensions, and the dimensions need to be such that an educated user would be able to apply them correctly and consistently. I report on using the cognitive dimensions framework as a tool for discussion in a graduate level class on visual programming languages, and the class's experience applying the framework.
    Keywords: Cognitive dimensions, Visual languages, Design and evaluation techniques

    SHORT PAPERS: Scribbling, Sketching, Drawing, and Writing

    The Usability of Scribble Matching BIBAKHTML 189-190
      David Frohlich; Richard Hull
    Scribble matching is a facility developed for pen-computers which allows users to search electronic ink. Here we report our first user evaluation of scribble matching in a scribble phonebook application. 12 users each retrieved 40 phone numbers using combinations of scribble look-up, text look-up and manual browsing. Scribble look-up was preferred to the other two methods despite problems in remembering original handwritten labels in the phonebook.
    Keywords: Pen, Handwriting, Retrieval, Usability
    What Architects See in Their Sketches: Implications for Design Tools BIBAKHTML 191-192
      Masaki Suwa; Barbara Tversky
    Freehand sketches are essential for crystallizing ideas in the early stages of design. Through the act of putting ideas down on paper and inspecting them, designers see new relations and features that suggest ways to refine and revise their ideas. We claim that seeing different types of information in sketches is the driving force in revising design ideas. Our retrospective protocol analysis revealed that sketches make apparent to designers not only perceptual features but also inherently non-visual functional relations, allowing them to extract function from perception in sketches. This has implications for ways that future sketching tools can stimulate designers to come up with creative ideas.
    Keywords: Design sketch, Sketching tools, Architectural design, Protocol analysis, Creativity
    Sketching Storyboards to Illustrate Interface Behaviors BIBAKHTML 193-194
      James A. Landay; Brad A. Myers
    Current user interface construction tools make it difficult for a user interface designer to illustrate the behavior of an interface. These tools focus on specifying widgets and manipulating details such as colors. They can show what the interface will look like, but make it hard to show what it will do. For these reasons, designers prefer to sketch early interface ideas on paper. We have developed a tool called SILK that allows designers to quickly sketch an interface electronically. Unlike paper sketches, this electronic sketch is interactive. The designer can illustrate behaviors by sketching storyboards, which specify how the screen should change in response to user actions.
    Keywords: Gestures, Design, Sketching, Interaction techniques, SILK
    EtchaPad -- Disposable Sketch Based Interfaces BIBAK 195-196
      Jonathan Meyer
    This paper describes a paradigm in which the user creates simple drawings or 'sketches' of user interfaces and then interacts directly with those sketches. It introduces EtchaPad, a system utilizing this technology to implement a drawing package. Several EtchaPad widget types are described, including buttons, sliders, and compound widgets.
    Keywords: User interfaces, Zoomable interfaces, Sketching, Interaction techniques, Pad++, Pen based computing
    Considerations for Electronic Idea-Creation Tools BIBAKHTML 197-198
      I. M. Verstijnen; R. Stuyver; J. M. Hennessey; C. C. van Leeuwen; R. Hamel
    Recent research into the psychology of paper-and-pencil sketching reveals two ongoing interacting processes during a creative process. The first of these processes can easily be performed in mental imagery and hence is not supported by sketching, the second is hard to perform before the mental eye, and hence is supported by sketching. It is argued that, in order to be intuitive, electronic sketching tools must meet the requirements of firstly not impeding the first of the two processes and secondly support and enhance the second process.
    Keywords: CAD-tools, Paper & pencil sketching, Creativity, Discovery
    Augmenting Real-World Objects: A Paper-Based Audio Notebook BIBAKHTML 199-200
      Lisa J. Stifelman
    The Audio Notebook allows a user to capture and access an audio recording of a lecture or meeting in conjunction with notes written on paper. The audio recording is synchronized with the user's handwritten notes and page turns. As a user flips through physical pages of notes, the audio scans to the start of each page. Audio is also accessed by pointing with a pen to a location in the notes or using an audio scrollbar. A small observational study of users in real settings was performed. The prototype did not interfere with the user's normal interactions yet gave reassurance that key ideas could be accessed later. In future work, automatic segmentation of the recorded speech using acoustic cues will be combined with user activity to structure the audio.
    Keywords: Speech interfaces, Speech as data

    SHORT PAPERS: Design Methodology

    Task Elaboration or Label Following: An Empirical Study of Representation in Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKHTML 201-202
      Robert B. Terwilliger; Peter G. Polson
    A study measured the time experienced Macintosh users took to create a graph from pre-existing data, including the assignment of variables to axes in a dialog box. The study revealed that the task took less time when the items in the dialog box were labeled in terms of one problem representation, even when the instructions were written in terms of another. The Kitajima and Polson model explains this as resulting from the problem representation being elaborated with task-specific schemata during the instruction comprehension process.
    Keywords: Empirical studies, Cognitive models
    When Using the Tool Interferes with Doing the Task BIBAKHTML 203-204
      Susan S. Kirschenbaum; Wayne D. Gray; Brian D. Ehret; Sheryl L. Miller
    How much time the user spends working on a task versus fiddling with the tool is an important aspect of usability. The concept of the ratio and distribution of tool-only operations to total operations is proposed to capture this aspect.
    Keywords: Problem space, Submarines, Usability

    SHORT PAPERS: Supporting Awareness of Others in Groupware (Short Papers Suite)

    Supporting Awareness of Others in Groupware (Suite Summary) BIBHTML 205
      Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg; Mark Roseman
    Peepholes: Low Cost Awareness of One's Community BIBAKHTML 206-207
      Saul Greenberg
    In distributed communities, media spaces supply people with an awareness of who is around by displaying video or periodic snapshots of common areas and offices. This in turn facilitates casual interaction. Peepholes is a low cost alternative. Instead of video, iconic presence indicators show the availability of people in a virtual community. If people are absent, a user can 'ambush' them by asking the system to announce their return. When interaction is desired, people can easily contact one another because communication software is just a button-press away.
    Keywords: Groupware, Contact facilitation, Awareness, Coordination
    Workspace Awareness for Groupware BIBAKHTML 208-209
      Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg
    Shared physical workspaces allow people to maintain up-to-the minute knowledge about others' interaction with the workspace. This knowledge is workspace awareness, part of the glue that allows groups to collaborate effectively. In this paper, we present the concept of workspace awareness as a key for groupware systems that wish to support the fluid interaction evident in face-to-face collaboration. We discuss why workspace awareness is difficult to support in groupware systems, and then present a conceptual framework that groupware designers can use as a starting point for thinking about and supporting awareness.
    Keywords: Workspace awareness, Groupware, CSCW
    Workspace Awareness Support with Radar Views BIBAKHTML 210-211
      Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg; Mark Roseman
    Real-time groupware systems often let each participant control their own view into a shared workspace. This strategy can reduce awareness about where and how others are interacting with the document or the workspace artifacts. We have designed a number of awareness widgets to help people regain this awareness. In this paper we present several radar views that provide awareness information on top of a global overview of the workspace. Our displays give lightweight access to information about others' locations and activities, providing for richer person-to-person interaction in groupware systems.
    Keywords: Radar views, Widgets, Workspace awareness
    A Fisheye Text Editor for Relaxed-WYSIWIS Groupware BIBAKHTML 212-213
      Saul Greenberg
    Participants in a real-time groupware conference require a sense of awareness about other people's interactions within a large shared workspace. Fisheye views can afford this awareness by assigning a focal point to each participant. The fisheye effect around these multiple focal points provides peripheral awareness by showing people's location in the global context, and by magnifying the area around their work to highlight interaction details. An adjustable magnification function lets people customize the awareness information to fit their collaboration needs. A fisheye text editor illustrates how this can be accomplished.
    Keywords: Groupware, Fisheye views, Awareness, Visualization
    A Usability Study of Workspace Awareness Widgets BIBAKHTML 214-215
      Carl Gutwin; Mark Roseman
    Groupware systems that use large shared workspaces generally provide only limited awareness information about other collaborators in the workspace. We are designing a set of groupware widgets to provide this missing information. This paper describes a usability study of a number of such widgets. The study has both validated our intuitions about the need for workspace awareness information, and revealed the strengths and weaknesses of several current designs.
    Keywords: Groupware, CSCW, Awareness, Usability

    SHORT PAPERS: Models of Work Practice (Short Papers Suite)

    Models of Work Practice: Can they Support the Analysis of System Designs? (Suite Summary) BIBPS 216
      William Newman
    Designing for User Acceptance using Analysis Techniques based on Responsibility Modelling BIBAKPS 217-218
      Richard Harper; William Newman
    An initial hurdle encountered by new information systems is user acceptance, and many systems fail this test at great cost to customers and developers. We have investigated methods, based on models of users' responsibilities, for assessing a system's likelihood of acceptance or rejection. We describe an instance of testing a design heuristic based on responsibility modelling.
    Keywords: Analytical models, Responsibilities, Design heuristics
    Agenda Benders: Modelling the Disruptions Caused by Technology Failures in the Workplace BIBAKPS 219-220
      Margery Eldridge; William Newman
    There is a need to understand the impact of technology failures on work. In the studies reported here, subjects' plans at the start of each day were compared with their eventual accomplishments, and failures to carry out plans were investigated. A number of sources of disruption were identified; they included technology failures, which had a particular tendency to act as "agenda benders," preventing the completion of important activities.
    Keywords: Diary studies, Productivity, Usability, Technology failures
    Modelling Last-Minute Authoring: Does Technology Add Value or Encourage Tinkering? BIBAKPS 221-222
      William Newman; Margery Eldridge; Richard Harper
    To measure the productivity gained from computer-based authoring systems, account must be taken of changes in the way the work is organised. An analysis of economists' authoring work, based on diary studies, suggests that much of this is performed at the last minute, just in time to meet deadlines. Benefits gained from word processing appear to be offset by authors' tendency to tinker with documents up to the last minute.
    Keywords: Documents, Authoring, Diary studies
    Supporting Doctor-Patient Interaction: Using a Surrogate Application as a Basis for Evaluation BIBAKPS 223-224
      Alex Dennis; William Newman
    Interactive systems to support experts in consultation with clients, such as systems for general practitioners (GPs), need to be tested under realistic conditions. However this presents risks to the client, and hence a similar but less risk-prone "surrogate" application may be chosen. We describe an attempt to conduct a comparative evaluation of three technologies for GP support by applying them to careers counselling as a surrogate. While the task appeared to be adequately supported, we were unable to measure the impact of the technologies on conversational turntaking. We make some suggestions on how to avoid this problem in future experiments of this kind.
    Keywords: Medical information systems, Expert-client interaction, Evaluation

    SHORT PAPERS: Technologies for Virtual Interactions

    Moving Motion Metaphors BIBAKHTML 225-226
      Colin Ware
    A class of visual metaphors is introduced in which simple animation conveys meaning about motion metaphorically. Antecedents in the form of static metaphors for visually conveying motion are discussed, followed by two examples of moving motion metaphors. The second is an integral part of a new heads-up flying interface for navigating 3D environments. Some concluding remarks are made concerning the practical uses of moving motion metaphors.
    Keywords: Metaphors, 3D interaction
    Effectiveness of Spatial Level of Detail Degradation in the Periphery of Head-Mounted Displays BIBAKHTML 227-228
      Benjamin Watson; Neff Walker; Larry F. Hodges
    Many researchers have proposed degradation of peripheral visual detail as a technique that can both improve frame rates in virtual environments systems, and minimize perceptual impact. A user study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique when used with head-mounted displays. Primary dependent measures were search time on correctly performed trials and percentage of all trials performed incorrectly. Results showed that a substantial amount of peripheral detail can be eliminated before user performance is impacted. The performance impact of peripheral detail degradation will vary greatly with task difficulty, although it should be useful even in the most taxing environments.
    Keywords: Immersive virtual environments, Virtual reality, Level of detail, Head-mounted displays, Usability, Search
    Getting a Grasp on Virtual Reality BIBAKHTML 229-230
      Richard J. Aldridge; Karen Carr; Rupert England; John F. Meech; Tony Solomonides
    This paper describes the development and initial evaluation of a novel system for providing force-feedback to a user's' hand in a virtual environment. The development addresses the problem of providing simple (robust and low cost) but effective sensory cues to assist a user in grasping virtual objects. The approach is to provide approximate but distinctive 'solidity' feedback, which together with visual cues creates the sensation of having grasped an object. The initial evaluations indicate that user response is very favourable.
    Keywords: Evaluation, Input devices, Interaction technology, Touch and force feedback, Virtual reality
    Fast Haptic Textures BIBAK 231-232
      Juhani O. Siira; Dinesh K. Pai
    We present a fast algorithm for generating haptic texture for simulations of virtual environments. The method is based on surface roughness analysis and is usable on a variety of force feedback haptic interfaces.
    Keywords: Haptic, Stochastic, Texture
    Vection with Large Screen 3D Imagery BIBAKHTML 233-234
      Kathy Lowther; Colin Ware
    Vection is the illusory impression of self motion that can be obtained when an observer views a large screen display containing a rotating or translating pattern. To aid in our construction of an interactive large screen interface to virtual 3D environments, we conducted studies to determine the factors which induce a sense of vection. We found that having a foreground frame and a stereo display increased vection. If subjects moved when the display was being observed then vection decreased. However, if the perspective was coupled to their head position while they moved then vection was restored.
    Keywords: Vection, Virtual environments
    High Fidelity for Immersive Displays BIBAKHTML 235-236
      Gernot Schaufler; Tomasz Mazuryk; Dieter Schmalstieg
    Head-tracked immersive displays suffer from lag and non-uniform frame rates. A novel rendering architecture is proposed that combines head prediction with dynamic impostors for 3-D image correction and achieves bounded frame rates and significantly reduced lag.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, Head tracking, Immersion, Lag, Prediction, Uniform frame rates, Impostors

    SHORT PAPERS: News and Mail

    Electronic Mail Previews Using Non-Speech Audio BIBAKHTML 237-238
      Scott E. Hudson; Ian Smith
    Conventional (visual) glances give a quick overview of the overall properties of an object. An audio glance presents a similar overview aurally rather than visually. This paper describes an audio glance for electronic mail messages. This dynamically constructed non-speech sound is designed to summarize the important properties of a message into a concise sound so that one may quickly preview a set of email messages to determine their important properties. This allows the user to make a quick assessment of, for example, the existence of messages from particular users or groups, or of responses to a recent message of importance. Along with the audio glance technique we present a "flash card" interface which provides very rapid access to the glance.
    Keywords: Non-speech audio, Audio icons, Audio glances, Email, Flash card interfaces
    Grassroots: Providing a Uniform Framework for Communicating, Sharing Information, and Organizing People BIBAKHTML 239-240
      Kenichi Kamiya; Martin Roscheisen; Terry Winograd
    People currently use a disparate set of systems such as e-mail, newsgroups, hypermail, shared Web hotlists, hierarchical indexes, etc. for activities which often cut across the boundaries implicit in each of these systems. Grassroots is a system that provides a uniform user-conceptual model to functionalities currently found in such systems, while not requiring people to give up other systems. It is designed to co-exist with and leverage from existing systems. A prototype implementation has been completed based on a Web http proxy.
    Keywords: Activity-level interface integration, E-mail, Newsgroups

    SHORT PAPERS: The Telephony Customer Interface (Short Papers Suite)

    The Telephony Customer Interface: Five Perspectives on Problems and Solutions (Suite Summary) BIBAHTML 241
      John Chin; Gregory Tatchell
    Collectively, this suite of five papers illustrate the diverse set of issues that should be addressed to formulate a strategic path towards resolving existing and growing usability problems found in telecommunications. Specifically, there are three main thrusts applied in developing profitable and competitive new services:
  • 1) identifying sources of usability problems
  • 2) exploring potential design solutions that address current and future user
  • 3) implementing prototypes to assess the feasibility of design concepts.
  • Problems with the Existing Telephony Customer Interface: The Pending Eclipse of Touch-Tone and Dial-Tone BIBAKHTML 242-243
      Gregory R. Tatchell
    The existing telephony customer interface is based on the input of commands to the telephone system via the touch tone pad of a standard telephone set. The services activated by these commands are hard to learn, easy to forget and confusing because of this restrictive user interface. A solution to ease of use problems (and the 30 others associated with the existing touch-tone telephony interface) requires a new interface. The success of the graphical user interface in the PC industry suggests the following question for the telephone industry: "Is it possible to achieve the same quantum increase in ease-of-use with the customer interface in the telephony industry as was achieved in the PC industry?" This and four associated mini-papers explore both the problems that exist and solutions that can be considered.
    Keywords: Phone-based interfaces, Intelligent agents, Personal agents, Voice recognition
    Making a Simple Interface Complex: Interactions among Telephone Features BIBAHTML 244-245
      Nancy Griffeth
    Without features, the telephone interface is simple and can easily be taught to a child, but the proliferation of telephone features makes the telephone's behavior hard for an adult to understand. The difficulty arises not just from the need to learn several ways of using the telephone, but also from the interactions among features, which can cause each feature to behave differently in the presence of other features. In this paper, we describe some of the problems feature interactions present to telephone users, and discuss their extent.
    From Interactions to Interfaces: Butlers, Job Descriptions and Personal Agents BIBKHTML 246-247
      Dave Darville; David Hignett
    Keywords: Communication services, Personal assistants, Interactions, Personal agents
    Personality Trait Attributions to Voice Mail User Interfaces BIBAKHTML 248-249
      John P. Chin
    The present study assesses user perceptions of current voice mail systems and identifies desirable traits that should be incorporated in future agent-based products. Both novices and experts ascribed similar personality traits to voice mail user interfaces: practical, intelligent, courteous, efficient, straight-forward, sophisticated, methodical, progressive and alert. Surprisingly, significantly more experts desired a more imaginative personality than novices. Moreover, 20% of the experts did not associate imaginative with voice mail systems tested. The results suggest that future voice mail user interface for experts should project an imaginative quality.
    Keywords: Phone-based interfaces, Voice mail, Personality, Agents
    Technical Considerations in the Design of an Intelligent Agent Using Automated Speech Recognition (ASR) BIBAK 250-251
      Don Xiangdong Cai; Kenneth Chan
    The objective of this paper is to discuss the impacts of the ASR technology on the design of an intelligent agent. Using ASR as the primary User Interface (UI) technology, the intelligent agent defines the fifth generation telephone customer interface which solves the problems with the touch-tone interface of the existing telephony services. To identify issues and search for solutions of the design of an intelligent agent, a prototype to demonstrate the concepts of the design was developed and used for customer researches. Based on our research and experiences, the technical issues identified and suggestions are presented in this paper.
    Keywords: Agents, Interface design, Prototyping, Voice recognition, Network & Communication

    SHORT PAPERS: Development Tools

    Animation in a Demonstrational Interface Builder BIBAK 252-253
      Gene L. Fisher; Hsin-Hui Sung; Suzanne H. Nguyen; Thang D. Nguyen
    This paper describes the integration of animation capabilities into a demonstrational interface builder. Basic interface behavior is defined using a technique called stimulus-response demonstration. To support animation, a number of new primitives have been added to specify paths, animated sprites, and timing control. These new capabilities have been smoothly integrated with the stimulus/response mechanism to provide high-level animation control. This integration permits animations to be manipulated in a number of useful and interesting ways.
    Keywords: Animation, Demonstrational interfaces, Interface builders, User interface management systems
    Early Prototyping Based on Executable Task Models (PostScript) BIBAKPS 254-255
      Birgit Bomsdorf; Gerd Szwillus
    Research has shown the great importance of task models for the design of human-computer interfaces. In this paper we develop a task model enriched with more complex relations between tasks. This model can be executed and dependent on the abstraction level of the development process graphical representations or early ideas of screen layout can be attached to it. With this technique, prototypes can be used very early in the design process, improving the capabilities to evaluate the model.
    Keywords: Task model, Executable task model, Temporal relations, Prototyping, User-interface design

    SHORT PAPERS: Models That Shape Design (Short Papers Suite)

    Models that Shape Design BIBAHTML 256
      Peter Johnson
    Modelling is a common ground for both research and practice in human computer interaction. For example, various human factors models are used to evaluate the quality and efficiency of interactive systems. Similarly, system designers employ a range of modelling techniques in the analysis, construction and development of interactive systems. This suite of papers considers some examples of the various classes of models that form an important part of HCI.
    Towards a Framework of Design Models BIBAHTML 257-258
      Mathilde Bekker; Stephanie Wilson
    This paper presents a framework for examining design models (e.g. task models, dialogue models) and their usage in the design process (e.g. elicitation, evaluation). The framework provides a basis for describing design methods in terms of the models they incorporate, for exploring the common ground between methods and for analysing studies of design in practice. The ideas are exemplified in a discussion of the use of task models in three design methods. Keywords Design methods, models, design support, task models.
    Task Model Support for Cooperative Analysis BIBAKHTML 259-260
      Eamonn J. O'Neill
    Software usability is a function of how well the software supports the user's situated tasks, so it is important for the software developer to acquire a sound knowledge of the user's roles, tasks and working environment. The research reported here assumes that the user is a primary source of such knowledge and examines how this knowledge may feed directly into the software developer's understanding through user-developer cooperation in analysis and modelling. This short paper briefly reports on the use of task models as representations to support cooperative analysis and concludes that task models provide a useful common ground for user-developer communication and cooperation.
    Keywords: Cooperative analysis, Task modelling
    Predictive Evaluation Using Task Knowledge Structures BIBAKHTML 261-262
      Fraser Hamilton
    Task Knowledge Structures (TKS) are models of users' domain tasks. These TKS models are being utilised within the design process to facilitate design generation and early evaluation of interactive systems. By understanding the knowledge users possess of their domain, we believe that we can support designers in generating designs in a principled manner. Often it may be desirable to change the ways in which users perform their tasks, e.g. to improve task efficiency. However, in changing the nature of users' tasks it is possible to introduce learning problems. We are attempting to produce a framework for predicting what difficulties users might have in using the new system by comparing the knowledge they currently have about their domain to the knowledge required to interact effectively with a system designed to support their goals in that domain.
    Keywords: Models, Conceptual design, TKS, Prediction, Evaluation
    Beyond Task Analysis: Exploiting Task Models in Application Implementation BIBAKHTML 263-264
      Michael J. Smith; Eamonn J. O'Neill
    This paper briefly reports how task models may be exploited in software development beyond early analysis and specifically within application implementation. We describe three ways in which task models have been used directly to support application implementation and briefly touch upon how such use impacts upon the usability of the resulting application.
    Keywords: Task models, Application implementation, Workflow
    Continuous and Explicit Dialogue Modelling BIBAKHTML 265-266
      Thomas Elwert
    Dialogue modelling represents an important stage in the User Interface (UI) development process. Existing UI development methodologies do not reflect sufficiently this importance by including an explicit dialogue model which covers all levels of dialogue modelling and uses a uniform notation. The paper argues the need for an explicit dialogue model and its continuous development to improve the homogeneity of the entire UI development process. Further, the paper outlines such a model-based approach which supports continuous and explicit dialogue modelling.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction, User interface design, Dialogue model, Graphical dialogue notation

    SHORT PAPERS: Models

    Negotiating User-Initiated Cancellation and Interruption Requests BIBAKHTML 267-268
      Manuel A. Perez-Quinones; John L. Sibert
    Interruptions and cancellations are important parts of a user interface, yet they are treated as special cases in user interface design and notations. In an effort to build a dialogue notation that allows for effective definition of these commands or user turns, we present a behavioral definition of interruptions and cancellations. We show several examples of how our definition accounts for different forms of behavior. The behavioral definitions provided here are a step towards providing better support for the definition and implementation of these turns.
    Keywords: Cancellations, Interruptions, Human-computer dialogues
    An Interface Design Tool Based on Explicit Task Models BIBAKHTML 269-270
      Tom Hinrichs; Ray Bareiss; Lawrence Birnbaum; Gregg Collins
    Producing high-quality, comprehensible human interfaces is a difficult, labor-intensive process that requires experience and judgment. In this paper, we describe an approach to assisting this process by using explicit models of the user's task to drive the interface design and to serve as a functional component of the interface itself. The task model helps to ensure that the resulting interface directly and transparently supports the user in performing his task, and serves as a scaffolding for providing in-context help and advice. By crafting a library of standardized, reusable tasks and interface constructs, we believe it is possible to capture some of the design expertise and to amortize much of the labor required for building effective user interfaces.
    Keywords: Model-based interface design tools, Task analysis

    SHORT PAPERS: Working Together Near and Far

    GroupWeb: A WWW Browser as Real Time Groupware BIBAKHTML 271-272
      Saul Greenberg; Mark Roseman
    GroupWeb is a browser that allows group members to visually share and navigate World Wide Web pages in real time. Its groupware features include document and view slaving for synchronizing information sharing, telepointers for enacting gestures, and relaxed "what you see is what I see" views to handle display differences. A groupware text editor lets groups create and attach annotations to pages. An immediate application of GroupWeb is as a presentation tool for real time distance education and conferencing.
    Keywords: Word wide web, Groupware, Shared visual workspaces
    Do-I-Care: A Collaborative Web Agent BIBAKHTML 273-274
      Brian Starr; Mark S. Ackerman; Michael Pazzani
    Social filtering and collaborative resource discovery mechanisms often fail because of the extra burden, even tiny, placed on the user. This work proposes an innovative World Wide Web agent that uses a model of collaboration that leverages the natural incentives for individual users to easily provide for collaborative work.
    Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, CSCW, Social filtering, Collaboration, World Wide Web
    TeamRooms: Groupware for Shared Electronic Spaces BIBAKHTML 275-276
      Mark Roseman; Saul Greenberg
    Teams whose members are in close physical proximity often rely on team rooms to serve both as meeting places and repositories of the documents and artifacts that support the team's projects. TeamRooms is a prototype groupware system designed to fill the role of a team room for groups whose members can work both co-located and at a distance. Facilities in TeamRooms allow team members to collaborate either in real-time or asynchronously, and to customize their shared electronic space to suit their needs.
    Keywords: Groupware, CSCW, Shared electronic spaces
    Guidelines for Designing Usable World Wide Web Pages BIBAKHTML 277-278
      Jose A. Borges; Israel Morales; Nestor J. Rodriguez
    The proliferation of World Wide Web pages with poor usability is a serious problem because these pages waste user time, discourage exploration and could be responsible for a large amount of unnecessary traffic on the Internet. To alleviate this problem, we are proposing a set of simple guidelines for designing usable Web pages. The guidelines were compiled from a heuristic evaluation of existing Web sites. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the usability of home pages designed with the proposed guidelines. The experiment demonstrated that designers of Web pages can improve the usability of home pages by applying these guidelines.
    Keywords: Usability testing, Interaction design, World Wide Web, WWW pages design
    Creating User Manuals for Use in Collaborative Design BIBAKHTML 279-280
      Harold Thimbleby
    User manuals are usually written by technical authors after the design of the device has been committed for production. If the manual's review leads to insight into the design, it is too late. Meanwhile, if the design is modified, the manual may be inaccurate. This paper describes an example language for creating accurate and complete manuals from formal specifications. We show how it can be used to improve part of the Flight Crew Operating Manual for the Airbus A320 fly-by-wire airplane. The technique is easy to implement, can be generalised to other domains, and contributes to concurrent engineering practice -- increasing common ground between engineers, users and HCI practitioners.
    Keywords: User manuals, Formal specification, Concurrent engineering
    Creating Image Context Using Image Trees BIBAKHTML 281-282
      Erik Wistrand
    Presenting artwork such as paintings, graphics and other images over networks creates several problems, including loss of context, loss of image resolution and bandwidth rate problems. This paper presents a method, ImageTrees, for displaying images which attempts to solve these problems. Applications may be WWW applications, or other media where image resolution and bandwidth problems arise.
    Keywords: Visualization, ImageTree, Dynamic layout, Image display, Image context, Art, WWW

    SHORT PAPERS: Real World Usage Patterns

    Engineering Ethnography in the Home BIBAKHTML 283-284
      Michael Mateas; Tony Salvador; Jean Scholtz; Doug Sorensen
    To inform the design and development of domestic computing systems, we performed a pilot ethnographic study of the home. The resulting model of domestic activity shows that the implicit design assumptions of the personal computer are inappropriate for the home. Our model suggests that small, integrated, computational appliances are a more appropriate domestic technology than the monolithic PC.
    Keywords: Ethnography, Home computing, Ubiquitous computing
    Visualisation of Entrenched User Preferences BIBAK 285-286
      Judy Kay; Richard C. Thomas
    A group of 63 students has been studied during three years of editor use. We have examined their long term evolution and here report the variation with accumulated experience in preference between two file-write commands. It is clear that while about 75% of students fixed their preferences early, about 25% did not. We present a clear example of spontaneous, long-term changes by individuals which collectively fit a pattern.
    Keywords: Editors, Long term field studies, Temporal aspects of usability, Visualisation of behaviour

    SHORT PAPERS: Agents

    Adaptive Agents and Personality Change: Complimentary versus Similarity as Forms of Adaptation BIBAKHTML 287-288
      Youngme Moon; Clifford I. Nass
    The idea that computer agents should be adaptive is a well-accepted tenet in the software industry. The concept of adaptivity is rarely defined in explicit terms, however. On the one hand, adaptivity could mean change in the direction of similarity; on the other hand, an agent could adapt in the direction of complementarity. The question for software developers is, Which type of adaptivity -- similarity or complementarity -- does the user prefer? To investigate this question, a laboratory experiment was conducted (N=88). Results indicate that, consistent with the gain-loss literature in the field of social psychology, subjects preferred interacting with a computer that became similar to themselves over time.
    Keywords: Adaptivity, Agents, Complementarity, Personality, Similarity, Social psychology
    The Representation of Agents: Anthropomorphism, Agency, and Intelligence BIBAKHTML 289-290
      William Joseph King; Jun Ohya
    Agents have become a predominant area of research and development in human interfaces. A major issue in the development of these agents is how to represent them and their activities to the user. Anthropomorphic forms have been suggested, since they provide a great degree of subtlety and afford social interaction. However, these forms may be problematic since they may be inherently interpretted as having a high degree of agency and intelligence. An experiment is presented which supports these contentions.
    Keywords: Agents, Anthropomorphism, Facial expression, User interface design

    SHORT PAPERS: Thought Pieces for Interaction Technology

    Using Force Feedback to Enhance Human Performance in Graphical User Interfaces BIBAKHTML 291-292
      Louis Rosenberg; Scott Brave
    This project uses a force feedback joystick to enhance user interaction with standard graphical user interface paradigms. While typical joystick and mouse devices are input-only, force feedback controllers allow physical sensations to be reflected to a user. Tasks that require users to position a cursor on a given target can be enhanced by applying physical forces to the user that aid in targeting. For example, an attractive force field implemented at the location of a graphical icon can greatly facilitate target acquisition and selection of the icon. It has been shown that force feedback can enhance a users ability to perform basic functions within graphical user interfaces.
    Keywords: Force feedback, Haptic interface, Manual performance
    Cyberguide: Prototyping Context-Aware Mobile Applications BIBAKHTML 293-294
      Sue Long; Dietmar Aust; Gregory Abowd; Chris Atkeson
    We are interested in prototyping future computing environments. In this paper, we present the Cyberguide project, which is building prototypes of handheld, intelligent tour guides that provide information to a tourist based on knowledge of position and orientation. We will describe features of existing Cyberguide prototypes and discuss important research issues that have emerged in context-aware applications development in a mobile environment.
    Keywords: Mobile computing, Ubiquitous computing, Location-aware applications, Newton/PDA
    Flying Fingers: A Tool for Three-Dimensional Shared Workspace BIBAKHTML 295-296
      Akira Sakai
    This paper describes Flying Fingers, which is a tool designed for remote collaboration, such as reviewing mock-ups generated in CAD system between designers in remote places. Flying Fingers can potentially be controlled by two-dimensional pointing devices such as mice, because it employs a spherical coordinate system. Moreover, it can be implemented using narrow bandwidth communication.
    Keywords: CSCW, Shared workspace, Spherical coordinates, WYSIWIS
    SportScope: A User-Centered Design for Baseball Fans BIBAKHTML 297-298
      David S. Cortright
    The 1995 Apple Design Project asked students to design a system that would bridge the gulf between the physical and virtual worlds. SportScope, a system which augments the user's experience at a professional baseball game, was designed for this project. A binocular-like video scope is the centerpiece of the design, enabling baseball fans to obtain up-to-the-minute information from objects within the stadium environment (such as players and billboards) using a simple point-and-shoot camera metaphor. Users provided feedback on the design at all stages of the design process and participated in prototype testing.
    Keywords: User interface design, Consumer product design, Usability testing, Hardware/software integration, User-centered design, Apple design project, Baseball
    Auditory Illusions for Audio Feedback BIBAKHTML 299-300
      Michel Beaudouin-Lafon; Stephane Conversy
    Sheppard-Risset tones are sounds that seem to go up (or down) indefinitely. We have designed an "elevator" sound based on this auditory illusion and have implemented it in the ENO audio system. The sound is synthesized in real-time and can be controlled in real-time through high-level parameters. We have used this sound for audio feedback when scrolling and for monitoring the progress of long system operations.
    Keywords: Non-speech audio, Auditory icons, Auditory illusions, Feedback, Notification
    Stretch Button Scrollbar BIBAKHTML 301-302
      Daniel J. Smith; Robert A. Henning
    Previous research has examined the use of a scrollbar for item selection in very large lists. This report presents an alternative design based on an understanding of the action capabilities and perceptual feedback. Experimental results show substantial performance benefits when using the Stretch Button scrollbar compared to other designs.
    Keywords: Scrollbar, Widget, Selection technology, Action/perception based control, Dynamic system

    SHORT PAPERS: Information Structure

    Finding the Cut of the Wrong Trousers: Fast Video Search Using Automatic Storyboard Generation BIBAKHTML 303-304
      Peter J. Macer; Peter J. Thomas; Nouhman Chalabi; John F. Meech
    The development of high capacity storage media and moving image file format standards (e.g. MPEG-2) have improved the quality of digital video and provided the possibility of enhanced digital video browsing techniques. This paper describes an approach to search and navigation in video databases which automatically identifies shots in a video sequence to present a single frame from each shot that best represents the shot as a whole. Using the approach a storyboard is generated which can be either visually scanned by the user, or searched using automatic techniques such as query-by-visual-example (QVE).
    Keywords: Visual search, Digital video, Video database, Query-by-visual-example, Information management
    Homer: A Pattern Discovery Support System BIBAKHTML 305-306
      Garett Dworman
    Traditional research in information retrieval concentrates on retrieving documents. This paper introduces the idea that valuable information exists within a document collection as thematic patterns that can be found without looking at individual documents in the collection. This information is valuable in its own right and as an aid to the IR process, and is often not contained in any of the collection's documents. This paper introduces a pattern discovery support system, Homer, which aids users' search for patterns and some compelling anecdotal evidence.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, Pattern discovery

    SHORT PAPERS: Usability Issues

    User Interface Evaluation in an Iterative Design Process: A Comparison of Three Techniques BIBAKHTML 307-308
      Pamela Savage
    This paper compares the results of three different user interface evaluation techniques: expert reviews, user reviews, and interactive usability testing. Results from these techniques were obtained during the iterative design of a graphical user interface for an interactive multimedia messaging application. User reviews resulted in significantly more redesign of the user interface (UI), however, they also involved the most expense and effort to conduct. Expert review feedback tended to identify areas that required further user testing. A comparison of these techniques and the user interface design changes resulting from their feedback is discussed. The relative benefits and limitations of the techniques are addressed within the framework of an iterative design process.
    Keywords: Usability inspections, Usability testing, User interface evaluation, Iterative design
    Don't Use a Product's Developers for Icon Testing BIBAKHTML 309-310
      Julie B. Holloway; John H. Bailey
    This study compared the results of 10 software developers and 10 university students for icon recognition and preferences. There were 54 icons and 15 concepts, and each concept had two to four representative icons. First, participants attempted to match each icon with one of the 15 product concepts. Next, the participants were asked to pick the best icon from the ones specifically designed to represent each concept. The students correctly recognized more icons (M = 34.7) than the developers (M = 27.8), t(18) = 2.1, p < .05. The icons recognized most often by students and developers were different for two concepts, and the icons preferred most often by students and developers were different for four concepts. We believe that the data support the hypothesis that using product developers rather than representative users can result in incorrect decisions in icon usage.
    Keywords: Icon, Developer, Student, User, Recognition, Usability, Preference
    Visualizing Efficiency: A Technique to Help Designers Judge Interface Efficiency BIBAK 311-312
      Andrew Sears
    Efficiency is an important issue to consider when designing user interfaces. However, several small studies indicate that interface designers and evaluators are not particularly good at judging the efficiency of simple single screen interfaces. This paper introduces a visualization technique that allows designers to judge efficiency of an interface layout and reports on a pilot study that demonstrates the potential of this technique.
    Keywords: Efficiency, Visualization, Evaluation
    Working with Marketing BIBAKHTML 313-314
      Mike Atyeo; Charanjit Sidhu; Gerry Cole; Simon Robinson
    This paper describes our experiences in BT working with Marketing on a number of recently released and forthcoming telecommunications products. We believe that usability professionals will find it increasingly important to work with marketing professionals, and we provide practical advice for those who do so.
    Keywords: Human factors, Marketing, Focus groups, Telecommunications

    Special Interest Groups (SIGs)

    Students at CHI BIBAKHTML 315
      Casey Boyd; Jennifer Kay
    The Students at CHI SIG provides an open session where all students attending CHI 96 can meet their peers while discussing graduate student issues. The SIG is intended for the participation of graduate students (beginning through senior), recent graduates, undergraduates, and friends.
    Keywords: CHI students, Graduate students, Thesis issues
    From Technical Writer to Information Engineer: Adapting to a Changing Identity BIBAK 316
      Virginia Allen-Terry
    Technical communicators in the computer industry are currently witness to a paradigm shift in their identity. They are being solicited to perform roles, ranging from technical writer, human factors engineer, editor and documentation production specialist to multimedia specialist.
       Their identity however remains ambiguous both within and outside the community. As borders between technical communities disappear with the widespread use of new technologies, writers must now be both engineers and communications specialists.
       This SIG allows us to share our experiences in order to identify the issues, with the ultimate goal of achieving success in this new environment. Part of that success is dependent on finding common ground between ours and other communities, particularly that of development engineers, wherein we can develop our added value.
    Keywords: Writing, Technical communications, Information engineering, Professional identity
    Worldwide HCI Professional Education BIBAKHTML 317
      Marian G. Williams; Guy Boy
    The goals of the SIG are to disseminate information about the SIGCHI working group on HCI professional continuing education and to gather information and ideas to guide the working group in their efforts to improve HCI professional education worldwide.
    Keywords: SIGCHI, Education, Continuing education, CHI professional issues
    Newcomers' Orientation BIBAK 318
      Bonnie Nardi; Gerrit C. van der Veer
    This will be a special session devoted to helping newcomers get the most out of their CHI conference experience. If you are a first time CHI participant, please join us to meet the organization and volunteers responsible for the Conference. The CHI 96 Technical Program Co-Chairs will offer suggestions on how to get the most benefit from attending the conference, and volunteers will be available to answer your questions.
    Keywords: CHI conference, SIGCHI, First time attendees
    The CHI Tutorial Program: Building on Common Ground BIBAKHTML 319
      Marian G. Williams; Mark W. Altom
    The goal of the SIG is to provide a comfortable forum in which interested people, no matter what their relationship to the tutorial program, may contribute ideas for guiding the evolution of the CHI tutorial program.
    Keywords: SIGCHI, Tutorials, Education, Continuing education, HCI professional issues
    Getting Started with Contextual Techniques BIBAHTML 320
      Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
    Contextual techniques, which ensure good system design by taking the designer out into the users' world, are revolutionizing the way organizations approach design. But since the techniques are still new, individuals and teams which want to adopt them must do so with no organizational support. In this SIG, we will use the experience of the organizers and others who have successfully adopted contextual techniques to produce a guide on how to get started. Participants will share their experience and knowledge while producing a guide useful to future practitioners. People wanting to use contextual techniques will have the opportunity to ask questions and raise issues, and will leave with a guide to help them get started. We will use the template below to structure the discussion for the SIG. We will collect participants' ideas and experience for each section, capturing points on-line. Following the session, we will consolidate the discussion into a simple a 2-5 page guide and send it to all participants.
    CHI Ten Year View: A Community Discussion BIBAKHTML 321
      Catherine R. Marshall; David G. Novick
    In addition to providing a means for communicating the results of the CHI Ten Year View workshop, this SIG will provide an opportunity for a larger set of conference participants to contribute to refining and extending those results. It also will provide an opportunity for interested members of the CHI community to further address the focal issue of common ground as a community.
    Keywords: Future, Scenario, Planning, Education, Management, Career, CHI, HCI, Human factors, CHI'06
    HCI and Users with Disabilities BIBAKHTML 322
      Alistair D. N. Edwards
    If you think of interfaces you have designed or built, how well do users who are blind get on with accessing them? What about people who cannot use keyboards, because of a manual impairment? If you have never asked these questions, perhaps you should. If for no other reason, legislation now exists which requires that suppliers of computer equipment must be able to demonstrate that it can be used by people with disabilities. The purpose of this SIG will be to bring together people asking those sorts of questions with those who have been trying to answer them. CHI has a good record of sponsoring events related to users with disabilities (panels, tutorials, papers); CHI attendees have a bad record for turning up to them. However, it is no longer tenable to assume that the needs of users with disabilities will be catered for by someone else; 'design for all' must be taken literally. CHI '96 is going to be a particularly good opportunity to address these questions since it is being held back-to-back with the ACM Assets Conference on Assistive Technologies. The SIG will foster cross-over between the group.
  • Can designing for users with special needs improve designs for all users?
  • How can interface designers find out about how to make their interfaces more
       accessible to people with disabilities?
  • Are there mainstream techniques and principles which can be applied to
       improve the design of adapted interfaces?
  • How does one convince a commercial company that it should expend resources in
       accommodating a small minority of potential users?
  • What are the implications of legislation, such as the Americans with
       Disabilities Act?
  • Will developments in multi-modal interfaces erect new barriers or provide new
  • What are the roles of organizations such as ACM and the International
       Federation for Information Processing (IFIP)?
    Keywords: Disability, Design-for-all, Adapted interfaces, Legislation, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
  • Current Issues in Assessing and Improving Documentation Usability BIBAKHTML 323
      Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey
    User documentation, whether in print or "built in" to the online user interface, is now a vital element of successful computer products. Managers and developers recognize that the common model of documentation as remediation for deficient design must not persist, but they often don't know how to build documentation usability into an ongoing product-development effort.
       Therefore, this meeting -- now in its seventh annual session -- is a forum on human factors in computer documentation. With the growth of online user support and the increasing integration of documentation with the user interface, this SIG provides CHI '95 attendees a specific opportunity to discuss recent developments in documentation usability. Topics include:
  • Addressing documentation usability early in the product design process
  • Qualitative and quantitative methods for collecting documentation usability
  • Roles and relationships among documentation specialists, user-interface
       designers, and software developers
  • Cost-justifying documentation usability programs
    Keywords: Documentation, Documentation usability, Information development, Documentation standards, Usability testing, Product development
  • Corporate Pioneers -- Lessons Learned: Introducing and Promoting Usability Testing in a Corporate Environment BIBAKHTML 324
      Lora Davenport
    The goal of this SIG is for attendees to leave with ideas and techniques to establish or enhance usability in their own organizations. It is designed for the novice and the advanced usability professional.
       The followings issues are covered during this session:
  • Gaining approval from the top down (executive approval)
  • Gaining approval from the bottom up (development teams)
  • Recruiting and hiring usability professionals
  • Managing usability resources and projects
  • Usability testing process improvements
  • Marketing usability within an organization
  • Processing the data
  • Usability lab equipment and facilities
  • Spreading the word on results
  • Training on usability methods
    Keywords: Usability, Tools, Corporate environment, Testing, Quality
  • Gender and Skill in Human Computer Interaction BIBAKHTML 325
      Ellen Balka
    The goals of this SIG are to bring HCI designers together to discuss gender and skill as factors in the design process, to allow HCI designers interested in questions related to gender and skill to share information, successes and failures related to gender and skill in HCI work.
       As HCI designers, we rely on notions of both gender and skill that often are not explicit in our work. When we bring gender and skill to the foreground of our work, several issues emerge, including:
  • How does gender come to bear on the dynamics of system design?
  • Are system users primarily men or women?
  • If system users are women, are there any physical or social factors that come
       to bear on their system use?
  • What are the implicit definitions of skill in use by designers?
  • Are definitions of skill tied to gender stereotypes?
  • If so, how might different conceptions of skill come to bear on system
    Keywords: Gender, Skill, Design approaches, Design strategies
  • User Requirements Analysis for the Home BIBAKHTML 326
      Jean Scholtz; Michael Mateas; Tony Salvador; Doug Sorensen
    Today many software firms do some form of user-centered design and requirements analysis for their business products. As the computer moves more and more into the home, these software firms are beginning to design products for the home market. However, the home differs significantly from the business world in the type of applications that are desired Some possible differences might include the social nature of computing, amount of time available for computing, reasons for interacting with technology, tolerance for technical glitches etc. Moreover, there is much diversity in the types of users found in the home -- age, computer ability, interests, social awareness etc. Therefore, it seems imperative to do user requirements analysis and user-centered design studies for the home market. There are several issues involved in this. First, the HCI community is still evolving and defining methods for doing requirements analysis and user-centered design work in the more established business market. We think it is fair to say that these methods won't succeed in the home. What are the reasons and what are the options for methodology to elicit this information from the home? Secondly, the business market can often be subdivided into "vertical markets" for the purpose of application definition and design. Do "vertical markets" exist in the home market and if so, what are possibilities for them?
       The purpose of this SIG is to gather HCI professionals who are currently studying the home or are interested in studying the home. The discussion will focus on: the various methods that people have employed, the outcomes in using that particular methodology, issues or models of the home that emerge from these studies, and a discussion of the differences between business and home studies.
    Keywords: Ethnography, User requirements analysis, Design process, User-centered design, Usability, Domain analysis, Home computing
    The Amulet User Interface Development Environment BIBAKHTML 327
      Brad A. Myers
    Important features of Amulet include:
  • A dynamic, prototype-instance object system that makes prototyping easier.
  • Constraints integrated with the object system, so any value of any object can
       be computed by a formula which is automatically re-evaluated whenever
  • A high-level object-oriented output graphics model that handles automatic
       refresh of objects when they change.
  • A high-level input model that makes it easy to add conventional and gestural
       behaviors to objects.
  • Built-in support for undo and help.
  • Flexible widgets, such as buttons, menus, scrollbars, text input fields and
       pull-down menus, implemented using the Amulet intrinsics, which you can
       easily parameterize or even replace with your own.
  • Interactive debugging tools, including an "Inspector."
    Keywords: User interface management systems, Toolkits, User interface development environments, Interface builders, C++
  • Tutorial 1

    Introduction and Overview to Human-Computer Interaction BIBAK 328-329
      Keith Butler; Robert J. K. Jacob; Bonnie E. John
    The objective of this special introductory seminar is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. The material will begin with a brief history of the field, followed by presentation and discussion of how good application development methods pull on the interdisciplinary technologies of HCI. The topics will include the psychology of human-computer interaction, psychologically-based design methods and tools, user interface media and tools, and introduction to user interface architecture.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Usability engineering, Human performance engineering, Cognitive modeling, Analysis methods, Interaction styles, Interaction hardware, User interface software, User interface management systems

    Tutorial 2

    User Interface Design for the World Wide Web BIBAK 330-331
      Jakob Nielsen; Annette Wagner
    World Wide Web user interfaces need to be very easy to use since users are not going to allow much time to learn a site given the large number of WWW pages on the Internet.
    Keywords: World Wide Web, WWW, Hypertext, Hypermedia, Visual design, Icons, Home page design

    Tutorial 3

    Designing Visual Interfaces: How to Create Communication -- Oriented Solutions BIBA 332-333
      Kevin E. Mullet
    This tutorial describes a number of fundamental techniques applied routinely in communication-oriented visual design. The orientation, process, training, and culture of the visual design disciplines (graphic design, industrial design, interior design, architecture) are essential components of effective interface design. Unfortunately, few software developers or human factors engineers receive any training in these disciplines. This tutorial describes important design rules and techniques internalized by every visual designer through coursework and studio experience. While mastery will indeed require extended practice, the techniques we describe are not difficult to understand and can be immediately applied to real-world problems.
       We draw our background, training, and influence from the rational, functional, information-oriented perspective of the Modernist design ethic. Because all graphical user interfaces are communication systems, we believe their design should reflect these same values. Our tutorial is organized not along the traditional subdisciplines of color, typography, or ideation, but along the problems of graphical interface design as experienced in commercial software development. We describe basic design principles (the what and why), common errors, and practical techniques (the how) for each of the six major areas outlined below.

    Tutorial 4

    Structured Observation: Techniques for Gathering Information about Users in their Own World BIBAK 334-335
      Susan M. Dray
    This tutorial will focus on why and how to do observations of users in their own worksite. It will focus on practical application of techniques which can help systems professionals incorporate user input early in the development process.
    Keywords: User-centered design, Observation, Ethnography, Contextual inquiry, Qualitative data, User profiles, User data collection, Usability, Tools and techniques

    Tutorial 5

    Participatory Activities with Users and Others in the Software Life Cycle BIBAK 336-337
      Michael J. Muller
    This tutorial extends conceptions of theory and practice in participatory design, and in participatory activities more generally. Extensions in breadth cover diversity in using participatory techniques in multiple phases of the software development lifecycle, and diversity in practice within two participatory methods. Extensions in depth consider theoretical and heuristic approaches -- based in part on anthropology, cultural criticism, feminism, and post-modernism -- to working with a mosaic of dissimilar people in terms of mutual value, exchange, and respect. The tutorial's themes are integrated in a closing discussion of participatory methods in the software lifecycle.
    Keywords: Participatory design, Collaborative design, Participatory practices, Usability methods, User centered design, User interface design, Task analysis, Usability assessment, CARD, PICTIVE, Bifocals, Participatory heuristic evaluation, PANDA

    Tutorial 6

    CSCW, Groupware, and Workflow: Experiences, State of Art, and Future Trends BIBAKHTML 338-339
      Jonathan Grudin; Steven Poltrock
    Technology to support groups is rapidly coming into use and is starting to have an impact on us, our organizations, and society. This course addresses recent experiences, current possibilities, and future trends and shocks. Lecture and video illustrations are accompanied by discussions in which participants organize and present their collective experiences with and interests in groupware and workflow technologies, and CSCW issues and methods. The instructors summarize the current composition of the CSCW community and the state of the art in technology, and organize discussion of fundamental challenges that face us as users (and developers) of these technologies.
    Keywords: Groupware, Workflow, Computer-supported cooperative work, Coordination theory, Organizational design, Sociotechnical evolution

    Tutorial 7

    User Interface Issues for Virtual Reality Systems BIBAK 340-341
      Chris Esposito
    This tutorial presents many of the user interface issues a developer must deal with when developing virtual reality (VR) systems, including virtual body definition and control, choosing interaction devices and techniques, system evaluation criteria, and choosing a development environment.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, 3D user interfaces, Stereo displays, Interaction techniques, Tactile I/O, 3D Sound

    Tutorial 8

    Object-Oriented Design from User Scenarios BIBAKHTML 342-343
      Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll
    The tutorial leverages HCI professionals' expertise in generating and analyzing user tasks to teach the fundamentals of object-oriented design. Students begin working on design projects immediately, creating object models of user scenarios, and elaborating these models throughout the day to develop a complete design. The students learn methods of responsibility-driven design, as well as how to generalize from individual scenario models to develop class abstractions.
    Keywords: Object-oriented design, Scenarios, Object-oriented programming, Scenario-based design

    Tutorial 9

    Managing the Design of the User Interface BIBAK 344-345
      Deborah J. Mayhew
    The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of practical methods and techniques for managing the process of designing good user interfaces. The tutorial is organized around a typical, modem project life cycle, and presents usability methods which can be applied at different points in the development process. Methods and techniques presented include not only information gathering, design and evaluation techniques, but also organizational and managerial strategies.
    Keywords: User interface design, User profile, Task analysis, Usability goals, Style guide, Conceptual model, Walkthroughs, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Usability organization, Cost-benefit analysis

    Tutorial 10

    Spatial Metaphors for User Interfaces BIBAK 346-347
      Werner Kuhn; Brad Blumenthal
    Spatialized user interfaces incorporate spatial metaphors to structure and represent the objects and operations of an application. Examples include desktop or room metaphors and virtual cities or landscapes. Spatialized user interfaces proliferated over the past few years, first popularized by spatialized operating systems and then spreading into virtual reality and multimedia gaming worlds as well as shared work spaces for CSCW. The awareness of the potential benefits of spatialization is growing, but there is a lack of systematic treatments. This one-day tutorial provides a grounding in the concepts of spatialization and spatial metaphors and their application to user interface design.
    Keywords: Spatial metaphors, Spatial cognition, Spatialization, Navigation, Hypertext, Virtual reality, CSCW

    Tutorial 11

    Practical Usability Evaluation BIBAKHTML 348-349
      Gary Perlman
    Practical Usability Evaluation is an introduction to cost-effective, low-skill, low-investment methods of usability assessment. The methods include (1) Inspection Methods (e.g., heuristic evaluation), (2) Observational Skills and Video (including user testing with think-aloud protocols), (3) Program Instrumentation, and (4) Questionnaires. The tutorial features many step-by-step procedures to aid in evaluation plan design.
    Keywords: [H.5.2] User interface, Evaluation/methodology, [D.2.2] Software engineering, Tools and techniques, User interfaces, [H.1.2] Information systems, User/machine systems, Human factors

    Tutorial 12

    Design Lessons from the Best of the World Wide Web BIBAK 350-351
      Hagan Heller; David Rivers
    This tutorial is intended to introduce web developers and would-be web developers to techniques and principles that can assist in creating compelling web sites. The presentation will include many examples of well designed and poorly designed web sites based on a set of criteria. Design exercises will reinforce the design principles, and time will be taken to review the exercises to help avoid design pitfalls.
    Keywords: World Wide Web, Web design, Hypertext, Graphic design, Design rules

    Tutorial 13

    Interface Issues and Interaction Strategies for Information Retrieval Systems BIBAKHTML 352-353
      Scott Henninger; Nicholas J. Belkin
    The need for effective information retrieval systems becomes increasingly important as computer-based information repositories grow larger and more diverse. In this tutorial, we present the key issues involved in the use and design of effective interfaces to information retrieval systems. The process of satisfying information needs is analyzed as a problem solving activity in which users learn and refine their needs as they interact with a repository. Current systems are analyzed in terms of key interface and interaction techniques such as querying, browsing, and relevance feedback. We discuss the impact of information seeking strategies on the search process and what is needed to more effectively support the search process. Retrieval system evaluation techniques is discussed in terms of its implications for users. We close by outlining some user-centered design strategies for retrieval systems.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, User interfaces, Databases, Information systems, Interaction strategies

    Tutorial 14

    Contextual Inquiry: Grounding Your Design in User's Work BIBAK 354-355
      Dennis Wixon; Alicia Flanders; Minette A. Beabes
    Contextual Inquiry [4] is a synthesis of ethnographic, field research and participatory design [8] methods that provide designers with detailed knowledge of user work which establishes a basis for design. The tutorial provides an understanding of the fundamental principles of Contextual Inquiry and practical experiences with methods for data gathering and analysis.
    Keywords: Contextual inquiry, Participatory design, Ethnographic methods, Qualitative research, Requirements, System design

    Tutorial 15

    Interactive Television: A New Challenge for HCI BIBAK 356
      Barbee E. Teasley; Arnold Lund; Raymond Bennett
    Interactive television (ITV) is a burgeoning new medium with exciting possibilities and challenges for the CHI community. This tutorial provided a basic introduction to the field by delving into three different aspects: the market and scope of ITV, the types of and platforms for ITV, and how HCI relates to designing applications for ITV. While most material was presented in lecture format, the participants also worked on a small design problem which was reviewed by others in the class.
    Keywords: Interactive television, User interface design, Applications, New media

    Tutorial 16

    Network Communities BIBAK 357-358
      John M. Carroll; Stuart Laughton; Mary Beth Rosson
    A network community is a group of people whose communication and collaboration over networks strengthens their shared goals and concerns. Visions and possibilities for network communities are being discussed throughout the computer industry, and throughout society. This tutorial will survey network communities focusing on how they may impact human activities and institutions.
    Keywords: Network communities, Remote collaboration, Internet Relay Chat, World-Wide Web, Listserv, Newsgroups, Electronic bulletin boards, Gopher, Community networks, Multi-user domains, Interactive video

    Tutorial 17

    Rapid Prototyping Using Visual Programming Tools BIBAK 359-360
      Kurt J. Schmucker
    Commercially available visual programming tools offer an easily-learned and efficient means for the production of custom software -- perhaps for a dissertation project, a deployable prototype for user testing, or even just a quick test of a new idea. This CHI tutorial provided an in-depth examination of two of these tools, Novell's AppWare and Pictorius' Prograph CPX, as well as an introduction to the area of visual programming.
    Keywords: Visual programming, Visual languages, Prograph, AppWare, Visual AppBuilder, Prototyping, End-user programming, Authoring tools

    Tutorial 18

    Requirements, Models, and Prototypes for HCI Design BIBAK 361-362
      George Casaday; Cynthia Rainis
    Requirements, Models, Prototypes (RMP) is a structured process for HCI design for industrial software development teams. It consists of an organized collection of ten design deliverables, templates for each, and a set of practices. RMP is derived from the authors' ongoing experience and the HCI literature of research and practice. It was devised to aid experienced designers and to help beginners learn. The tutorial is intended for those already familiar with basic HCI design who desire a more systematic approach.
    Keywords: Design process, Structured design, Usability requirements model, Prototype, Formative evaluation, HCI design

    Tutorial 19

    Practical Interface Design: Getting the Most from Your Development Budget BIBAK 363-364
      Debra Herschmann
    User interface designers are trained to strive for the ultimate interface, one that is usable, effective and engaging. However, in a commercial production environment, there are rarely sufficient resources to achieve the ultimate interface. Tight deadlines, limited budget and staff, shifting priorities and conflicting agendas all affect the final product design. In such a setting, designers must revise their vision of the ultimate interface to provide the best implementable and affordable user interface, one that can be realized with the given resource constraints.
    Keywords: Constraints, Production environment, Cost estimation, Reducing implementation cost

    Tutorial 20

    Smarter Usability Testing: Practical Techniques for Developing Products BIBAK 365-366
      Jared M. Spool; Carolyn Snyder; Mavis Robinson
    The goal of usability testing is to get timely, useful information, but doing this on a regular basis can be difficult and taxing. Planning and conducting tests takes time, and if the development team doesn't get information in a usable form, they will rightfully ignore the results. This tutorial looks at usability testing from 3 angles -- planning, conducting tests, and summarizing the data -- with an emphasis on practical suggestions for making these activities more efficient while keeping them focused on the users of the test results: the entire development team.
    Keywords: Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Prototyping, Low-fidelity prototyping, Usability test facilitation, Data analysis, Product development, Practical techniques

    Tutorial 21

    Cognitive Factors in Design: Basic Phenomena in Human Memory and Problem Solving BIBAKHTML 367-368
      Thomas T. Hewett
    This tutorial provides a "hands-on" (actually, "minds-on") exploration of several basic processes and phenomena of human memory, and problem solving. The emphasis is on developing both intuitive and formal knowledge which can serve as background knowledge which will be useful in interpreting design guidelines and in making educated design judgments when design guidelines fail, conflict, or are nonexistent. The demonstrations used emphasize basic general phenomena with which any theory of memory or problem solving must deal. In addition, the tutorial suggests some of the implications of these phenomena for designing interactive computing systems.
    Keywords: Memory, Problem solving, Design, Models of the user

    Tutorial 22

    Interface Agents BIBAK 369-370
      Pattie Maes; Alan Wexelblat
    This course covers the basics of material related to the design and implementation of software agents: semi-intelligent programs which assist users with their computer-based tasks and activities.
    Keywords: Agents, Adaptive interface, Machine learning, Personalized software

    Tutorial 23

    Designing Icons and Visual Symbols BIBAHTML 371-372
      William Horton
    With the proliferation of graphical user interfaces, the need for clearly designed icons has become critical. Unfortunately, not all icons are clear and easy to understand. It is my belief that icon design should be more of a science and less of an art.

    Tutorial 24

    Contextual Design: Using Customer Work Models to Drive Systems Design BIBAKHTML 373-374
      Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
    Field data gathering techniques such as Contextual Inquiry enable a design team to gather the detailed data they need. These techniques produce enormous amounts of information on how the customers of a system work. This creates a new problem -- how to represent all this detail in a coherent, comprehensible form, which can be a suitable basis for design. An affinity diagram effectively shows the scope of the customer problem, but is less effective at capturing and coherently representing the details of how people work. Design teams need a way to organize this detail so they can use it within their own development process.
       In this tutorial we present the latest methods for representing detailed information about work practice and using these representations to drive system design. These methods have been adopted over the last few years by major product development and information systems organizations. We show how to represent the work of individual users in models, how to generalize these to describe a whole market or department, and how to use these to drive innovative design. We present the process by which we build and use the models and practice key steps. We show how these methods fit into the overall design process, and summarize Contextual Design, which gathers field data and uses it to drive design through a well-defined series of steps.
       The tutorial is appropriate for those who have used field techniques, especially Contextual Inquiry, and would like to put more structure on the process of using field data.
    Keywords: Analysis methods, Design techniques, Customer-centered design, Ethnography, Usability engineering, Methodology, Team design, Domain analysis, Work modeling, Software engineering, Task analysis, User models, User studies work analysis

    Tutorial 25

    Participatory GUI Design from Task Models BIBAKHTML 375-376
      Tom Dayton; Joseph Kramer; Al McFarland; Monica Heidelberg
    This tutorial provides practical experience in using an object-oriented (OO) graphical user interface (GUI) design model, participatory OO methods, low-tech materials, and iterative usability testing, to design a GUI that conforms to multiple GUI platform styles. Participants turn user data (a previously done task flow) into a GUI design via the bridge of mapping the task flow into abstract task objects and mapping the task objects into GUI objects such as windows. They fill in the GUI's foundation, such as the menus, by using multiplatform design guidelines.
    Keywords: PD, PANDA, User-centered design, UCD, Usability engineering, Human-computer interaction, HCI, Prototyping

    Tutorial 26

    Dynamics of Color BIBAKHTML 377
      Ati Gropius Johansen; Hal Shubin
    This is a hands-on introduction to the interaction, potential and behavior of color based on the teaching of Josef Albers and the method of Bauhaus foundation courses. Personal discovery rather than theory is emphasized.
    Keywords: Visual design, Graphic design, Color

    Tutorial 27

    Interviewing Customers: Discovering What They Can't Tell You BIBAKHTML 378-379
      Ellen A. Isaacs
    Product designers typically talk to customers in an effort to better understand their needs. However, without interviewing skills and an understanding of the types of information people can provide about themselves, interviewers may collect little useful information or even misleading information. This tutorial provides a practical approach to interviewing customers. It focuses on three areas: (a) the types of information you should (and should not) expect to learn from interviews, (b) good interviewing techniques, and (c) methods for analyzing the large volumes of information collected in interviews. The tutorial makes heavy use of demonstrations and exercises to give the participants hands-on experience with preparing and conducting interviews as well as analyzing information collected.
    Keywords: Interviewing, Customer needs, Requirements gathering

    Tutorial 28

    Multimedia Authoring Tools BIBAK 380-381
      Michael D. Rabin; Michael J. Burns
    This tutorial provides an introduction to multimedia authoring tools. We contrast these tools with presentation packages and with programming languages. We also describe some of the most important features to look for when selecting a multimedia authoring tool for a project -- whether PC-based or Web-based, and we give an overview of the most popular multimedia authoring tools currently on the market. Multimedia authoring concepts and procedures are demonstrated by highlighting two of the more popular authoring tools, Director and Authorware, as well as World Wide Web publishing tools.
    Keywords: Multimedia, Authoring, Programming, World Wide Web, Director, Authorware

    Tutorial 29

    Structural Issues in Multimedia Design BIBAK 382-383
      Linn Marks Collins
    This tutorial addresses the structural issues that emerge in the context of designing and developing a range of interactive multimedia applications, from those with basic navigational structures, such as branching and elaboration, to those with complex discourse structures, such as interactive narratives and interactive essays. Topics include basic interactive structures; complex interactive discourse structures; and the kinds of global representations of content, or conceptual macrostructures [1], that are appropriate for various kinds of content and applications. Concepts are illustrated with examples from the World Wide Web, commercial products, and research prototypes.
    Keywords: Multimedia, Interactivity, Navigational structure, Discourse structure, Content representation, User interface

    Tutorial 30

    Interactive Learning Environments: Where They've Come From and Where They're Going BIBAK 384-385
      Elliot Soloway
    A historical survey of the various teaching and training technologies will be given. The architectures of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems, simulations, intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), microworlds, and interactive learning environments (ILE) will be described. In addition, the types of learning outcomes that can be expected from the various technologies will also be summarized. Emphasis will be placed on how the 90's computing infrastructure (e.g., high-MIP/GIP computation, high-bandwidth networks) will impact teaching and training, e.g., what is the role of multimedia, computer-aided design systems, ubiquitous access to information, the home information appliance, in learning? What will the impact be as we transition from User-Centered Design to Learner-Centered Design? Case studies from real instructional systems will be used to illustrate the main points in the tutorial.
    Keywords: Education & computers, Interactive learning environments, Intelligent tutoring systems, Constructionism

    VIDEOS: Visualization

    Dynamic Timelines: Visualizing the History of Photography BIBAKHTML 386-387
      Robin L. Kullberg
    This research reinvents the traditional timeline as a dynamic, three-dimensional framework for the interactive presentation of historical information. An experimental visualization of the history of photography uses visual techniques such as infinite zoom, translucency, and animation to present a database of over 200 annotated photographs from the collection of the George Eastman House. Dynamic, interactive design solutions address the communicative goals of allowing seamless micro and macro readings of information at several levels of detail and from multiple points of view.
    Keywords: Three-dimensional visualization, Visual design, Interaction design, Cinema
    Visualizing Large Trees Using the Hyperbolic Browser BIBAKHTML 388-389
      John Lamping; Ramana Rao
    We demonstrate a focus+context (fisheye) scheme for visualizing and manipulating large hierarchies. Our approach is to lay out the hierarchy uniformly on the hyperbolic plane and map this plane onto a circular display region. The projection onto the disk provides a natural mechanism for assigning more space to a portion of the hierarchy while still embedding it in a much larger context. Change of focus is accomplished by translating the structure on the hyperbolic plane, which allows a smooth transition without compromising the presentation of the context.
    Keywords: Hierarchy display, Information visualization, Fisheye display, Focus+context technique
    The Influence Explorer -- a Tool for Design BIBAHTML 390-391
      Lisa Tweedie; Bob Spence; Huw Dawkes; Hua Su
    This video demonstrates the Influence Explorer, an interactive visualisation tool to support engineering design. The video uses a simplified example related to light bulb design to demonstrate the complex multivariate nature of such problems. We then try to show how interactive visualisation allows fluent exploration of this problem and subsequent acquisition of insight.
    LifeLines: Visualizing Personal Histories BIBAKHTML 392-393
      Brett Milash; Catherine Plaisant; Anne Rose
    In our project for the Maryland Department of Juvenile Justice we are developing new techniques to visualize youth records. By showing multiple timelines with selectable markers to retrieve detailed information, overviews are always available even for complex records. Data can be zoomed and filtered, and related events can be highlighted. We show how this technique can be used to visualize medical patient records and other personal histories.
    Keywords: Visualization, History, Timeline, Personal record, Justice, Medical record, Screen design, Overview, Screen management
    Visualizing Information Retrieval Results: A Demonstration of the TileBar Interface BIBAKHTML 394-395
      Marti A. Hearst; Jan O. Pedersen
    The TileBars interface is a graphical tool for users of information access systems, that shows the relationship between the terms in a query and the documents that are retrieved in response to that query. TileBars simultaneously and compactly indicate relative document length and query term overlap, frequency and distribution. The patterns in a column of TileBars are meant to help users make fast judgments about the potential relevance of the retrieved documents. An unexpected benefit of the interface is that because it requires users to specify their queries as a list of topics, better rank orderings can be obtained than with standard information retrieval ranking mechanisms.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, Information access, Full-length text, Visualization
    Exploring Information with Visage BIBAKHTML 396-397
      Peter Lucas; Steven F. Roth
    The Visage prototype responds to data-intensive work environments where users, exploring and analyzing data, struggle to make useful multiple applications with disparate visualizations of potentially related information. Visage seeks to coordinate the exploration, analyses, and visualizations of information regardless of their source or type. This coordination is accomplished by using an information-centric approach to user interface design to eliminate impediments to direct user access to information objects across applications and visualizations. Visage consists of a set of data manipulation operations, an intelligent system for generating data visualizations and a briefing tool that supports the conversion of visual displays used into interactive presentation slides.
    Keywords: Data visualization, Graphics, Data exploration, User interface environment

    VIDEOS: Design

    SILK: Sketching Interfaces Like Krazy BIBAKHTML 398-399
      James A. Landay
    Current interactive user interface construction tools are often more of a hindrance than a benefit during the early stages of interface design. These tools take too much time to use and force designers to specify more of the design details than they wish at this stage. Most designers prefer to sketch early interface ideas on paper. I have developed an interactive tool called SILK that allows designers to quickly sketch an interface using an electronic pad and stylus. SILK preserves the important properties of pencil and paper: a rough drawing can be produced very quickly and the medium is very flexible. However, unlike a paper sketch, this electronic sketch is interactive. The designer can illustrate behaviors by sketching storyboards, which specify how the screen should change in response to end-user actions. In addition, it can be semi-automatically transformed into a complete, operational interface in a specified look-and-feel.
    Keywords: Design, Sketching, Prototyping, Gestures, SILK
    TIME: Three-Dimensional Input, Modification and Evaluation BIBAKHTML 400-401
      Maarten Gribnau; Gert Pasman
    Simple intuitive manipulation of three-dimensional objects is needed for the conceptualizing phase of design. Present CAD systems do not allow for the quick and interactive generation and development of objects, which are based more on free-form ideas than on hard numerical input. This video presents a prototype envisionment that uses intuitive 3D sketch input with two hands.
    Keywords: Tactile or gestural I/O, Visualization, Input devices, Two handed input
    NEIMO, a Multiworkstation Usability Lab for Observing and Analyzing Multimodal Interaction BIBAKHTML 402-403
      Joelle Coutaz; Daniel Salber; Eric Carraux; Nathalie Portolan
    NEIMO is a generic and flexible multiworkstation usability lab that supports the observation and analysis of multimodal interaction as well as Wizard of Oz experiments. It captures behavioral data at multiple levels of abstraction from keystroke to high level tasks. In the near future, it will be used to study the relevance of multimodality for telecommunication tasks.
    Keywords: Usability testing, Usability lab, Multimodal interaction, Wizard of Oz usability testing
    Light Switch Exploration Video 25th June 1995 BIBAK 404-405
      Sam Hecht
    The Light Switch Exploration is the first in a series of self-initiated projects undertaken by industrial designers at the San Francisco office of IDEO Product Development. Each project aims to explore the world of a specific product. The benefits of this exploration, beyond those delivered through the individual designs, are to expand both the group's and each designer's range of thinking. The group deliberately chose the humblest of product interfaces for exploration, asking that the test of success be in the using. It was felt strongly that this type of project would indirectly inspire the more complex products IDEO designers usually work on, and which the layman eventually must operate. The approach taken was heavily rooted in both a large vocabulary of materials and the appraisal of a light switch within its environment. The group intends to extend the concept of 'using,' by holding an exhibition where the public can try the switches for themselves.
    Keywords: Industrial design, Interaction design, Light switches, Metaphor, Product design

    VIDEOS: New Directions

    Adaptive User Interfaces with Force Feedback BIBAKHTML 406-407
      Christophe Ramstein; Jean-Francois Arcand; Martin Deveault
    A software and hardware system related to the design of a force feedback assistance service (FAS) for human-computer interfaces is described. FAS is a service which can be applied to human-computer interfaces utilizing a force feedback pointing device. The force feedback device guides the user's hand in order to facilitate direct manipulation tasks either for training or for improving performance and comfort. Artificial neural networks are used to adapt, in real-time, to the user's task. In order to facilitate the design and understanding of the FAS, a Wizard of Oz technique was designed.
    Keywords: Adaptive multimodal user interface, Force feedback, Human-computer interface design, Artificial neural networks
    Temporal Typography: A Proposal to Enrich Written Expression BIBAKHTML 408-409
      Yin Yin Wong
    This paper proposes "temporal typography" as an area of study which incorporates the dynamic visual treatment of text as an extension of written language. Design examples presented in the video show the expressive power of time -- varying typographic form to convey emotion and tones of voice. Several expressive examples are called out in this paper and discussed. As a part of our ongoing research, we have developed a scheme which allows for the description of typographic expressions that change dynamically over time. The examples were constructed using a software tool, exPress, along with a scripting language based on the scheme.
    Keywords: Typography, Temporal, Dynamic text presentation, Graphic design
    Lifestreams: An Alternative to the Desktop Metaphor BIBAKHTML 410-411
      Scott Fertig; Eric Freeman; David Gelernter
    We contend that managing one's own electronic world can be a frustrating task for most computer users, requiring too many separate applications, too many file transfers and format translations, the invention of too many pointless names and the construction of organizational hierarchies that too quickly become obsolete. What is needed is a metaphor and system for organizing the electronic "bits of paper" we all so easily collect, whether we create them ourselves or they come to us in the form of email, downloaded images, web pages, or scheduling reminders. Lifestreams is such a system.
    Keywords: Desktop metaphor, Information retrieval, Filtering, Hierarchical file systems, Reminding, Organization, Information overload
    Improvisational Animation BIBAK 412-413
      Athomas Goldberg; Ken Perlin
    We are developing software tools for authoring real-time applications involving virtual actors. The actors have mood, presence and personality. They follow a script, using body language and gesture to convey an interactive story that has been scripted beforehand by an author. Scripts can contain random elements, so the same story is never told twice.
       As the story unfolds, end-users participate and become part of the story by controlling an actor, by interacting with actors, or by giving instructions to the story telling system. For example, as two actors are embroiled in an argument, a user might instruct his actor to leave the room, or to end the argument by conceding. The virtual actors adapt as changes in the story occur, using guidelines from their scripts to decide how to respond and behave.
       In this video, we present the history of our research in Improvisational Animation and discuss some of the principles involved in creating animated virtual actors who perform autonomously in real time and how this can be applied to the creation of compelling interactive experiences which allow for endless possibilities, yet always conform to the framework established by author and animator.
    Keywords: Agents, Entertainment, Networks, Programming Environments, Virtual reality

    VIDEOS: World Wide Web

    Browsing Anatomical Image Databases: A Case Study of the Visible Human BIBAKHTML 414-415
      Chris North; Flip Korn
    This video demonstrates two user interface prototypes for browsing the National Library of Medicine Visible Human dataset on the internet. The first uses a graphical approach and demonstrates a general interface for exploring volumetric data. The second uses a textual approach for exploring hierarchical information containing inter-relationships.
    Keywords: User interface, Information exploration, Digital library, Medical imaging, Volume visualization, Hierarchical information, Network access
    The WebBook and the Web Forager: Video Use Scenarios for a World-Wide Web Information Workspache BIBAKHTML 416-417
      Stuart K. Card; George G. Robertson; William York
    The World-Wide Web has achieved global connectivity stimulating the transition of computers from knowledge processors to knowledge sources, but the Web and its client software are seriously deficient for supporting user interactive use of this information. In particular, there is no support for the concept of a user workspace. This video presents the Web Forager and the WebBook, an information workspace that enables rapid interaction with materials gleaned from the Web.
    Keywords: 3D graphics, User interfaces, Information access, World-Wide Web, Information workspace, Workspace
    The DeckScape Web Browser BIBAKHTML 418-419
      Marc H. Brown; Robert A. Shillner
    This video shows DeckScape, an experimental World-Wide Web browser. DeckScape uses the metaphor of a deck of playing cards, where each card is a Web page, and each deck is displayed in its own window. As the user traverses links, new pages appear on top of the deck. Users can circulate through the pages in a deck, move and copy pages between decks, and so on. The primary contributions of DeckScape are "away" pages and a general-purpose way to organize Web pages such as hotlists, page expansions, and query results.
    Keywords: Interactive user interfaces, Information navigation, Interaction techniques, World-Wide Web, Mosaic


    Manipulation in Virtual Environments BIBAKHTML 420
      Christine L. MacKenzie; Kellogg S. Booth
    The goals of this workshop on Manipulation in Virtual Environments are:
  • 1. to identify common ground, common issues, common misconceptions, common
  • 2. to provide opportunities for learning from one another, collaboration,
        sharing solutions,
  • 3. to develop the beginnings of a common vocabulary for more effective
        communication, and
  • 4. to identify future directions, for research and application. The workshop will provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to share their issues and insights, and to develop a common vocabulary in this rapidly developing area. The workshop report will update CHI members on the state-of-the-art for manipulation in virtual environments.
    Keywords: Grasping, Grasping space, Grippers, Haptics, Motor control, Opposition space, Orienting, Positioning, Teleoperation, Telemanipulation, Telesurgery, User interfaces, Viewpoint, Virtual arm, Virtual finger, Virtual hand, Virtual objects, Virtual reality, Vision
  • The User Model as a Discipline for Interface Design BIBA 421
      Matt Belge; Kate Ehrlich
    This workshop is for UI design practitioners who consciously work on the set of underlying concepts that users must understand in order to use a given system. This set of concepts we are calling the user model. The workshop seeks to bring practitioners together to exchange information regarding the best techniques to develop user models. Theoreticians who work on formal methods (such as GOMS) with interest in contributing their insights to the practice of developing user models will be welcome.
    The HCI Professional as Consultant BIBK 422
      Lauren Schwartz; Heather Desurvire
    Keywords: Usability, HCI specialists, Consultants, Organizational acceptance
    HCI Issues of the World Wide Web BIBA 423
      Keith Instone; Steven Pemberton
    The goals of this workshop are fourfold:
  • to identify areas with HTTP and HTML where the HCI community can usefully
       contribute to the development of the Web from the user's viewpoint
  • to initiate a plan of action to get the HCI community involved with the
       technical issues of the Web
  • to initiate an analysis of good practice on the Web, with the aim of
       providing an information service to users
  • to continue discussion on the structure and content of information pertaining
       to HCI that we should be making available on the Web.
  • Formal Methods in Computer-Human Interaction: Comparison, Benefits, Open Questions BIBK 424
      Fabio Paterno; Gregory Abowd; Philippe Palanque
    Keywords: Interactive systems, Formal methods, Notations and models, User interface properties
    Educating HCI Practitioners: Evaluating What Industry Needs and What Academia Delivers BIBAK 425
      Mary Czerwinski; Laurie P. Dringus; Andrew Sears; Barbara Bernal Thomas
  • 1. Identify HCI skills and knowledge that industrial representatives must teach
        recent graduates.
  • 2. Identify and discuss techniques academia can use to convey HCI issues to
        students to prepare them for industry work.
    Keywords: Education, Industry, HCI issues, Academic-industrial collaboration
  • Psychological Issues of Virtual Environment Interfaces BIBAKHTML 426
      Casey Boyd; Rudy Darken
    The purpose of this workshop is to provide a common ground for the diverse research into the psychology of virtual environments (VEs). There is a small but growing research community investigating these issues, but there is no research forum devoted to them. Publications on the psychology of VE interaction are scattered across various conferences and journals.
    Keywords: Cognitive psychology, Ecological psychology, Evaluation, Interface design, Perceptual psychology, Usability, Virtual environments
    Towards an International Information Interface BIBAK 427
      Alison Popowicz-Toon; Eviatar Shafrir
    The aim of this two-day workshop is to draw up a set of best practices and guidelines for access to information by an international audience. The workshop will share success-and-horror-story experiences with different information interfaces, and use brainstorming techniques to compile and expand the best-practices and guidelines.
       How can we provide an information solution that satisfies the requirements of a world-wide audience? What do we need to be aware of?
       Information providers who are used to dealing with an English-speaking, local audience are not always aware of the difficulties encountered by the users of their products and services in other countries. The difficulties are not always language or translation problems: they may be caused by servers, systems or support being unavailable outside of USA working hours, or by differences in "standard" paper size, or by disparate cost structures for Internet access.
       In studying several examples of international information interfaces, the workshop participants will share and learn good working practices -- and practices to be avoided.
    Keywords: Localization, Internationalization, Translation, Culture, CD-ROM, WWW, Internet, Usability, Best practices
    Corporate Strategy and Usability Research: A New Partnership BIBAKHTML 428
      Judee Humburg; Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey
    Usability research findings can contribute strategically to the definition of a product family during early planning and design. Rather than waiting for user-testing of prototypes, we can learn about user task habits, preferences, and concerns to identify product opportunities and help define a product's business direction and market positioning. Early usability research methods can collect specific user data needed to plan the product scope, a compelling feature set, and early design prototypes.
       This workshop expands on the organizers' previous CHI tutorials to explore how practitioners apply early and iterative usability research as a strategic tool: partnering with other groups in our companies, building cross-functional teams of usability, marketing, development, and support people.
       The workshop brings together practitioners who have:
  • Incorporated iterative usability research into the phases of the product
       planning and development process
  • Evaluated the trade-offs of investing limited usability resources during
       these phases
  • Tried to establish usability research processes and findings as contributors
       to the strategic planning efforts in their organizations
  • Attempted to build cross-functional teams to achieve this vision
    Keywords: Business direction, Cross-functional teams, Customer data collection, Design methodologies, Market positioning, Partnering, Product development cycle, Product life cycle, Strategic planning, Usability, User-centered design, User data collection
  • Transforming User-Centered Analysis into Concrete Design BIBAK 429
      Larry E. Wood; Ron Zeno
    There seems to be little published information available on specific techniques for transforming the results of user work/task analysis into a GUI interface. Therefore, we are organizing a workshop to document how experienced designers use the information from task analysis, principles of interaction design, and interface components to produce preliminary GUI designs.
    Keywords: GUI design, Analysis, Procedures, Requirements
    CHI Ten Year View: Creating and Sustaining Common Ground BIBAKHTML 430
      Catherine R. Marshall; David G. Novick
    The first goal of this workshop is to create and document a set of three scenarios that describe alternative futures based on the following questions:
  • What will be the state of the CHI community in the year 2006?
  • What kind of work will the members of that community be doing?
  • What will they consider to be the key issues and research questions of the
  • What will be the nature of the social and technological context in which
       their work will occur?
  • What educational preparation and work experience will characterize a
       successful CHI professional?
  • What body of knowledge and set of skills will form the common ground of the
       field? The second goal of the workshop will be to use the scenarios to address further the subject of common ground.
    Keywords: Future, Scenario, Planning, Education, Management, Career, CHI, HCI, Human factors, CHI'06
  • Designing the User Interface for Speech Recognition Applications BIBAK 431
      Amir Mane; Susan Boyce; Demetrios Karis; Nicole Yankelovich
    During the last decade there has been significant progress in the development of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems. As a result of technical advances in speech modeling techniques, recognition search strategies, and other areas, combined with the increased processing power of workstations and PCs, large vocabulary continuous speech recognition is now feasible even under the constraints and demanding conditions imposed by the public switched telephone network. These new technical capabilities, along with advances in Natural Language Processing, have opened up the possibility of new services and applications, and have made it possible to incorporate more natural styles of human-computer verbal interactions. The purpose of this workshop is to bring together a small group of researchers and practitioners to focus discussion on how to design applications and services that rely on speech as the primary medium for communication between the user and the system. Our goal is to increase participants' understanding of the issues that face designers of such systems, exchange ideas and information, and increase communication among the diverse groups involved in speech recognition.
    Keywords: Automatic Speech Recognition, Natural Language Processing
    User Centered Design Principles: How Far Have They Been Industrialised? BIBAKHTML 432
      Ian McClelland; Bronwen Taylor; Bill Hefley
    The workshop will examine how far industry has incorporated user-centred design principles into their product and system development processes. Issues to be explored include:
  • - how far are UCD principles recognised as relevant to the business objectives?
  • - how far are UCD practices in need of adaptation as the "usability issue"
       becomes more widely applied to many product areas beyond traditional areas
       of HCI? By working in groups during the workshop we plan to identify:
  • - the key components required for an effective and successful UCD process,
  • - the essential skill bases (established and emerging),
  • - the enablers and constraints associated with managing "quality of use" in
       practice. It is intended that the results of this workshop will be reported in the SIGCHI bulletin and/or Interactions.
    Keywords: User-centred design, Process improvement, Usability engineering, User involvement
  • User Autonomy: Who Should Control What and When? BIBAHTML 433
      Batya Friedman; Helen Nissenbaum
    In this workshop we are concerned with understanding the relationship between user autonomy, the user interface, and computer system design. By autonomy we mean the capability to act on the basis of one's own decisions; to be guided by one's own reasons, desires, and goals. When actions are unduly constrained or restricted then autonomy may be diminished or violated. Evaluating the interface and system design in relation to user autonomy involves uncovering the extent to which systems either enhance or diminish autonomy.
       Workshop goals:
  • To explore with colleagues the meaning and value of user autonomy, the nature
       of the relationship between user autonomy and control of computer systems,
       and the elements of interface and system design that affect user autonomy.
  • To provide a forum (opportunity) for colleagues to discuss issues of user
       autonomy in computer systems that have arisen from their own design
  • To work with colleagues to identify positive designs and abuses of user
       autonomy in computer systems.
  • To work with colleagues to generate design principles for protecting user
       autonomy in the design of future systems.
  • A Future for E-Mail BIBAHTML 434
      Stacey L. Ashlund; Steven Pemberton
    The goal of this workshop is to address these and related problems from a usability point of view, for example:
  • How can we handle the problem of information overload? Is the usefulness of
       agents hindered by issues of reliability and trust? Is the overhead of
       setting them up and maintaining them prohibitive?
  • Will there be a necessary integration of e-mail with related technologies,
       such as groupware and the World Wide Web?
  • Is the lack of standardization of e-mail (front-ends and back-ends) a
  • How can large-volume sources of e-mail, such as mailing lists and
       "listservs", be kept manageable? Is there a need to address social issues,
       such as etiquette in e-mail application UI's? Are grassroots evolving
       standards an indication of what's needed?
  • How can the issues pertaining to realistic usability testing e-mail be
       solved, e.g., creating sample "data" (messages, folders, aliases, etc.)?
       Are testing results impaired by using such fake e-mail in testing, due to
       ethnographic observation and privacy issues?
  • What are some possible software and user interface technological solutions to
       these problems?
  • Retrospective on Pre-Conference Activities

    Retrospective on Pre-Conference Activities BIBAK 435
      Bonnie A. Nardi; Gerrit C. van der Veer
    Prior to the CHI 96 conference several activities took place that were attended by relatively small groups. A global overview of the content of this meetings will be of interest to CHI attendees.
    Keywords: Workshops, Doctoral consortium, Basic research symposium, ASSETS