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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI'95 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Companion of CHI'95 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Mosaic of Creativity
Location:Denver, Colorado
Dates:1995-May-07 to 1995-May-11
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-755-3 ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608952; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI95-2
Papers:238
Pages:486
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 1995-05-07 Volume 2
    1. Demonstrations: Programming
    2. Demonstrations: Educational Applications
    3. Demonstrations: Multi-Media Applications
    4. Demonstrations: Visualization
    5. Demonstrations: Interface Design Tools
    6. Demonstrations: Information Navigation/Usability
    7. Demonstrations: Tools for Designing Interactive Services
    8. Demonstrations: Accessing Information
    9. Demonstrations: Interfaces for Children
    10. Doctoral Consortium
    11. Interactive Experience
    12. Interactive Posters
    13. Interactive Posters: Social Action
    14. Organization Overviews
    15. Organization Overviews: Cognitive Modeling
    16. Organization Overviews: HCI Consulting
    17. Panels
    18. Plenary Session: Opening
    19. Plenary Session: Closing
    20. Short Papers: Information Visualization
    21. Short Papers: Audio Interfaces
    22. Short Papers: Agents and Anthropomorphism
    23. Short Papers: UI Specification and Programming
    24. Short Papers: Pens and Touchpads
    25. Short Papers: Workplaces and Classrooms
    26. Short Papers: Behavioral Issues and Studies
    27. Short Papers: Usability Evaluation
    28. Short Papers: Drawing, Painting and Sketching
    29. Short Papers: Multimodal Interfaces
    30. Short Papers: Web Browsing
    31. Special Interest Groups (SIGs)
    32. Tutorials
    33. Videos
    34. Workshops

CHI 1995-05-07 Volume 2

Demonstrations: Programming

Programming as Driving: Unsafe at Any Speed? BIBAHTML 3-4
  Christopher Fry; Henry Lieberman
Programming is dangerous. As programmers, we are still driving the equivalent of a '57 Chevy: the chrome plated bumpers on our programming environment might look good while it's cruising down the road, but it's not very efficient with [mental] fuel, and it's all too likely to crumple in a crash. No seat belts, no anti-lock brakes, and the rear view mirror is obstructed by the fuzzy dice.
   ZStep 94 is a reversible, WYSIWYG, animated, source code debugger that brings programming into the safety conscious '90s. It provides safety and efficiency options not found on the used car dealer's lot.
Creating Real-Time Animated Interfaces with Stimulus-Response Demonstration BIBAKHTML 5-6
  David Wolber; Edward Janne; Kirk Chen
Pavlov is a programming-by-demonstration (PBD) system that allows non-programmers to create animated interfaces. Based on stimulus-response demonstration, it is the first PBD system to allow real-time animation to be defined, and it is the first animation system that allows the interactive part of a presentation to be designed using PBD.
Keywords: End-user programming, UIMS, Programming-by-demonstration, Animation

Demonstrations: Educational Applications

The ScienceWare Modeler: A Learner-Centered Tool for Students Building Models BIBAKHTML 7-8
  Shari L. Jackson
Constructing and testing models is a complex task, but the process helps scientists develop a better understanding of natural systems. Similarly, we wish to support students building models, and so we have designed the ScienceWare Modeler with special learner-centered support for students to do scientific modeling and simulation. With the Modeler, students can easily construct dynamic models of scientific phenomena, and run simulations based on their models to verify and analyze the results. Students build their models using an easy-to-use object-oriented visual language -- not traditional programming. This allows students to construct models quickly and easily, focusing their attention on the tasks of testing, analyzing, and re-examining their models, and the understanding on which these models are based.
Keywords: Educational applications, Science applications, Modeling, Simulation, Multimedia, Learner-centered software design
Teaching Problem-Solving Through a Cooperative Learning Environment BIBAKHTML 9-10
  Rebecca Denning; Philip J. Smith
The Biology Sleuth was developed to provide a testbed in which the distribution of critical resources could be varied and the consequent effects on group dynamics and individual learning could be studied. The primary teaching goal of The Biology Sleuth is to teach important problem-solving skills (specifically, diagnostic reasoning) to high school students. In order to meet this goal a cooperative learning [3] environment has been developed in which students work in groups, aided by each other, software, and the classroom teacher.
Keywords: Multimedia, Hypermedia, Educational applications, Design rationale

Demonstrations: Multi-Media Applications

Home Health Care Support BIBAKHTML 11-12
  Linda Tetzlaff; Michelle Kim; Robert J. Schloss
We describe an application to interconnect health care providers and their patients in the home. The application includes information services, symptom analysis, guidance in the performance of procedures, emotional support, and communications among the health care providers, patients and caretakers.
Keywords: Medical, Patient, Health, Home systems
Interactive Multimedia Conference Proceedings BIBAKHTML 13-14
  Samuel A. Rebelsky; James Ford; Kenneth Harker; Fillia Makedon; P. Takis Metaxas; Charles Owen
Computer technology has changed the way that conference proceedings can be archived and presented. No longer are researchers limited to printed text; electronic proceedings allow virtual participants in the conference to search the proceedings for ideas, to add and share annotations, and to create paths of related concepts through the proceedings. Proceedings that incorporate nontextual materials, such as audio, video, and slides from conference presentations provide further opportunities for virtual participants.
   In this demonstration of the DAGS interactive multimedia conference proceedings, we present an electronic conference proceedings interface that incorporates both papers and presentations. This interface presents a wide variety of features, admits nonlinear interactions, and suggests new roles for conference proceedings.
Keywords: Electronic conference proceedings, Multimedia interfaces, Hypermedia, Academic/educational applications, User-interface components

Demonstrations: Visualization

IVEE: An Environment for Automatic Creation of Dynamic Queries Applications BIBAKHTML 15-16
  Christopher Ahlberg; Erik Wistrand
The Information Visualization & Exploration Environment (IVEE) is a system for automatic creation of dynamic queries applications. IVEE can take a database relation and create an environment holding visualizations and query widgets. IVEE offers multiple visualizations such as maps, scatterplots, and cluster visualizations, and multiple query widgets, such as sliders, alphasliders, and toggles.
Keywords: Information visualization, Information exploration, Dynamic queries, Database query, Tight coupling
Interactive Data Visualization at AT&T Bell Labs BIBAKHTML 17-18
  Stephen G. Eick; Brian S. Johnson
Visualization is a key technology for understanding large bodies of data. Our approach to visualizing abstract, non-geometric data involves a reduced-representation overview, multiple linked views, filtering and focusing techniques to reduce visual clutter, color, and a highly-interactive user interface. The reduced representations allow users to see the entire data set in one view while still providing immediate access to relevant detail and answers to specific questions in the linked views. We have developed a software infrastructure embodying our design principles for producing novel, high-bandwidth visualizations of corporate datasets. Our approach to abstract data visualization is one the best off-ramps on the information superhighway.
Keywords: Visualization, Graphic interaction, Abstract data visualization, Database visualization, Data mining

Demonstrations: Interface Design Tools

Reno: A Component-Based User Interface BIBAKHTML 19-20
  Randy Kerr; Mike Markley; Martin Sonntag; Tandy Trower
Reno is a proof of concept prototype produced by the Advanced User Interface Group of Microsoft. It illustrates the power and simplicity of object-orientation for the end user when applied completely and uniformly throughout the entire user interface. Its minimalist design is based on a small set of widely applicable object types and commands which are combined into more sophisticated constructions that accommodate the functionality of shells and applications of today, yet with greater integration, consistency, and simplicity.
Keywords: Object-oriented user interface, Direct manipulation, Constraints, Constructionism, User programming, Document-centric user interface
Building Dynamic Graphical Interfaces with Escalante BIBAKHTML 21-22
  Jeffery D. McWhirter
The development of dynamic graphical applications is a difficult and time consuming task. This difficulty stems from the complexity of the applications as well as the lack of adequate development tools. Escalante is an environment that supports the visual specification, rapid prototyping and generation of complex graphical applications. Using Escalante, one can rapidly construct a broad range of highly functional applications with a minimal amount of manual programming.
Keywords: User interface development environments, Visual languages, Graph editors

Demonstrations: Information Navigation/Usability

Pad++: A Zooming Graphical Interface System BIBAKHTML 23-24
  Benjamin B. Bederson; James D. Hollan
Large information spaces are often difficult to access efficiently and intuitively. We are exploring Pad++, a graphical interface system based on zooming, as an alternative to traditional window and icon-based approaches. Objects can be placed in the graphical workspace at any size, and zooming is the fundamental navigational technique. The goal is to provide simple methods for visually navigating complex information spaces that ease the burden of locating information while maintaining an intuitive sense of location and of relationship between information objects.
Keywords: Navigation, Interactive interfaces, Multiscale interfaces, Zooming, Authoring, Information navigation, Hypertext, Information visualization, Multimedia, World wide web
PDA-Based Observation Logging BIBAKHTML 25-26
  Monty Hammontree; Paul Weiler; Bob Hendrich
This demonstration will show how using personal digital assistants (PDAs) can facilitate the collection of observer notes during usability testing and expedite the ensuing analysis of those notes once testing is complete. The intent of the demonstration is to provide a forum for the exchange of new ideas regarding the use of PDAs as usability tools. The authors will provide an overview of how PDAs have been employed in their usability testing process and what costs and benefits have been realized as a result of their use.
Keywords: Usability, Tools, Data collection, Laboratory, Testing, Logging, Video, Analysis

Demonstrations: Tools for Designing Interactive Services

NIC: Interaction on the World Wide Web BIBAHTML 27-28
  Dan Olsen; Ken Rodham; Doug Kohlert; Jeff Jensen; Brett Ahlstrom; Mike Bastian; Darren Davis
The NICUI client provides a full functioned interface interpretation facility. Based on this client, interactive services can be created and posted via normal World Wide Web servers. MIME-based tools can launch the client to provide the interactive services. NIC provides authoring tools for creating interactive artifacts. These tools themselves can be accessed via the WWW.
DynaDesigner: A Tool for Rapid Design and Deployment of Device-Independent Interactive Services BIBAKHTML 29-30
  Loren Terveen; Elena Papavero; Mark Tuomenoksa
DynaDesigner is a tool for creating, testing, and deploying interactive services to be delivered on devices such as telephones, TVs, and PCs. A key feature is that it supports device-independent service design -- a service is designed once, independent of any particular device. This eases the design and maintenance task for service providers and makes services easier for consumers to use, since they are consistent across devices. DynaDesigner has been used to design and deploy many services. With DynaDesigner, services can be designed and deployed in hours.
Keywords: Service creation tools, Device-independent design, End user programming, Consumer systems

Demonstrations: Accessing Information

Personalized Galaxies of Information BIBAKHTML 31-32
  Earl Rennison
The Personalized Galaxies of Information demonstration presents a new interface approach for visualizing, navigating and accessing information objects in a large body of unstructured information, such as on-line news stories, photographs and video clips available via Clarinews; electronic mail; and World Wide Web documents. The system provides mechanisms to analyze the relationships between information objects and builds a representation of the underlying structure of the entire body of information. This relational structure is used to construct a visual information space with which the user interacts to explore the contents of the information base. The system also uses a learning algorithm to adaptively customize the presentation of information to a particular user's interests. This dynamic, personalized structuring of information helps users perform directed searches while simultaneously affording general browsing in a fluid and seamless environment.
Keywords: Information visualization, Abstracted information spaces, 3D interactive graphics, User interest models, Reinforcement learning
Hyper-G and Harmony: Towards the Next Generation of Networked Information Technology BIBAKHTML 33-34
  Keith Andrews; Frank Kappe; Hermann Maurer
Current networked information systems on the Internet, whilst extremely successful, run into problems of fragmentation, consistency, scalability, and loss of orientation. The development of "second generation" networked information systems, such as Hyper-G and its Harmony client, can help overcome these limitations. Of particular note are Hyper-G's tightly-coupled structuring, linking, and search facilities, its projection of a seamless information space across server boundaries with respect to each of these facilities, and its support for multiple languages. Harmony utilises two and three-dimensional visualisations of the information space and couples location feedback to search and link browsing operations, in order to reduce the likelihood of disorientation.
Keywords: Hypermedia, Information retrieval, Information visualisation, Graphical interaction, Internet

Demonstrations: Interfaces for Children

KidSim: End User Programming of Simulations BIBAKHTML 35-36
  Allen Cypher; David Canfield Smith
KidSim is an environment that allows children to create their own simulations. They create their own characters, and they create rules that specify how the characters are to behave and interact. KidSim is programmed by demonstration, so that users do not need to learn a conventional programming language or scripting language.
Keywords: End user programming, Simulations, Programming by demonstration, Graphical rewrite rules, Production systems, Programming by example, User programming
Creative Multimedia for Children: Isis Story Builder BIBAKHTML 37-38
  Michelle Y. Kim
Isis is a multimedia authoring tool for children, where videos, photos, drawings, texts, sounds and cartoons are treated as electronic building blocks (time boxes). Adopting a metaphor of simple building blocks, Isis allows children to create complex time-space multimedia stories by stacking and arranging "time boxes" on the screen. The algorithms within Isis are based on symbolic temporal constraints, such as "co-start", "co-end", "co-occur", "meet".
Keywords: Multimedia, Educational applications, Home applications, Entertainment applications, Multimedia authoring

Doctoral Consortium

Merging Language, Direct Manipulation, and Visualization: A Programmable Research Environment for Diffusion-Limited Aggregation BIBAKHTML 39-40
  Eric Blough
As domain experts with programming expertise, computational scientists require the flexibility of programming languages, yet appreciate the convenience and power of direct-manipulation interfaces and scientific visualization tools. Although traditionally separate, direct-manipulation and programming can support each other in the same application [2]. In such an environment, graphic and textual language elements can be freely intermingled. We are in the process of developing a programmable environment to support research in diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), an area of computational science, as an exploration of the issues surrounding these ideas.
Keywords: Programming environments, End-user programming, User interface components, Scientific visualization, Visual programming, Simulation, Computational science, Programmable applications
Human and Machine Dimensions of 3D Interfaces for Virtual Environments BIBAKHTML 41-42
  Casey Boyd
This work explores two categories for evaluating and measuring virtual environment (VE) interfaces. One category concerns characteristics of the interface, such as its complexity and abstractness. The other category concerns the human capacities for understanding and using three-dimensional input/output devices. The results may help us predict the usability of VE interfaces and help us to design interfaces that are well matched to their intended users.
Keywords: Virtual environments, Evaluation, Navigation
AdventurePlayer: An Intelligent Learning Environment BIBAKHTML 43-44
  Thaddeus R., Jr. Crews
Intelligent Learning Environments (ILE) are constructivist systems that attempt to incorporate beneficial aspects of tutoring systems and cognitive tools. ILEs support discovery learning through reflective interaction as well as curriculum-driven learning through scaffolding and coaching. ILEs are concerned with students developing both general and domain specific thinking and problem solving skills. AdventurePlayer is an ILE designed to facilitate constructivist learning in the context of an anchored instruction curriculum.
Keywords: Intelligent learning environments, Anchored instruction, Macrocontext microworlds, Trip planning, Optimal solutions, Heuristic techniques
Wayfinding in Large-Scale Virtual Worlds BIBAKHTML 45-46
  Rudolph P. Darken
The spatial nature of large-scale virtual worlds introduces wayfinding problems which are often overlooked in the design process. In order to design and build useful virtual worlds in which real work can take place, these issues must be addressed. The research described here is a study of human wayfinding in virtual worlds and how real world solutions can be applied to virtual world design. The objective of this work is to develop design principles which will lead to a design methodology for virtual worlds in which wayfinding problems are alleviated.
Keywords: Virtual worlds, Virtual reality, Wayfinding, Navigation, Environmental design, Spatial orientation, Cognitive maps
Evaluating Distributed Environments Based on Communicative Efficacy BIBAKHTML 47-48
  Eckehard Doerry
One of the most rapidly expanding areas of HCI research is centered around supporting the collaborative endeavors of widely distributed participants. Whether the domain is advanced learning environments or desktop conferencing, the underlying goal of such efforts is to provide a maximally robust simulacrum of copresent interaction. The current trend in research is to characterize these computer-mediated communication environments -- and to argue their efficacy -- by focusing on the technical parameters of the environment. This approach places form above function, completely ignoring the communicative difficulties actually encountered by users. The work described here explores a new evaluative technique, based on methodologies originally developed by Conversation Analysts, which characterizes the communicative efficacy of a computer-mediated environment by documenting how well participants are able to maintain intersubjectivity throughout the interaction.
Keywords: Collaborative work, Distributed interaction, Conversation analysis, Evaluation, Simulation, Learning environments
Evaluating Multimedia Presentations for Comprehension BIBAKHTML 49-50
  Peter Faraday
The paper reports the basis for a cognitive walkthrough method to support the formative evaluation of visually based multimedia expository presentations.
Keywords: Multimedia, Evaluation, Presentation
High-End High School Communication: Strategies and Practices of Students in a Networked Environment BIBAKHTML 51-52
  Barry J. Fishman
This paper describes a study of the design of computer-based communication and media space environments that support highly interactive school-based learning communities. The two basic questions posed in this research are: (1) How are media space tools used by students in these classrooms, both in terms of the structure of communications activity and the surrounding physical and temporal constraints of the environment?; and (2) What are possible explanations for student behaviors and attitudes with regard to media space tools? The answers to these questions will provide insight for the design of next-generation media spaces for educational settings.
Keywords: Media spaces, Education, Communication, Design
A System for Application-Independent Time-Critical Rendering BIBAKHTML 53-54
  Rich Gossweiler
I am developing a rendering system which supports automatic, application-independent time-critical rendering for 3D graphics. When the scenes being generated overload the rendering engine, a rendering scheduler employs perception-based techniques to reduce the scene complexity at run-time. Perception-based degradation mechanisms are used because they are based on characteristics of the human, not characteristics of the application. Since the human is the one element guaranteed to exist across all interactive applications, this rendering system is application-independent.
Keywords: Virtual reality, Virtual environments, Time-critical rendering, Rendering scheduler, Image degradation, Real-time, Application-independence, Interactive graphics
The Effect of Domain Knowledge on Elementary School Children's Search Behavior on an Information Retrieval System: The Science Library Catalog BIBAKHTML 55-56
  Sandra Goldstein Hirsh
Few information retrieval systems are designed with children's special needs and capabilities in mind. We need to learn more about children's information-seeking behavior in order to provide them with information-based tools which support exploratory learning. This dissertation examines children's search behavior on a hypertext-based automated library catalog designed for elementary school children. The focus of this research is on the effect of domain knowledge on children's search performance, search behavior, and learning as they look for science books on this system. Research has shown that level of domain knowledge influences the way people search for information. Data was collected through one-on-one interviews, direct observation, and online monitoring of search sessions. This dissertation will contribute to our understanding of children's search behavior and the factors which influence their behavior. This research also has implications for information retrieval system evaluation and interface design.
Keywords: Elementary school children, Information retrieval, Search behavior, Science education, Learning, Online catalogs, Domain knowledge, Browsing, Keyword searching, Online monitoring, User interface design
Conflicting Class Structures between the Object Oriented Paradigm and Users Concepts BIBAKHTML 57-58
  Charles M. Hymes
The computer science design goals of the object-oriented paradigm may fundamentally conflict with the goal of modeling an application domain as users see it. I propose a research strategy to explore this question.
Keywords: Object-oriented, Categories, Abstraction, Reuse
STRIPE: Remote Driving Using Limited Image Data BIBAKHTML 59-60
  Jennifer S. Kay
Guiding a remote vehicle when real time image transmission is not possible is an important problem in the field of teleoperation. In such a situation it is impractical for an operator to attempt to directly steer the vehicle using a steering wheel. In semi-autonomous teleoperation, an operator designates the path that the vehicle should follow in an image of the scene transmitted from the vehicle, and the vehicle autonomously follows this path. Previous techniques for semi-autonomous teleoperation require stereo image data, or inaccurately track paths on non-planar terrain. STRIPE (Supervised TeleRobotics using Incremental Polyhedral-Earth geometry) is a new method that I am developing for accurate semi-autonomous teleoperation using monocular image data. This paper provides an summary of the work I am doing for my thesis. This includes the development of the STRIPE robotic system, user studies to empirically measure the accuracy of the STRIPE method under various conditions and with different user interfaces, as well as measurement of baseline data for traditional steering wheel based teleoperation under low-bandwidth and high-latency conditions.
Keywords: Remotely operated vehicles, Low-bandwidth teleoperation, Semi-autonomous teleoperation, User-interfaces, Interfaces for novice users, Robotics
Supporting Design Activities in the Written Medium BIBAHTML 61-62
  Axel Kramer
The goal of this thesis is to empower individuals involved in design activities using the written medium. The aim is to preserve positive features of traditional written medium while enhancing them by computational components. Towards this goal, the thesis explores the role of the written medium in the design process, discusses prior art in support of such activities, and presents a framework to integrate computational components into the written medium.
   The central idea of this work is to dissolve the static association between input marks and their interpretation and experiment with a dynamic, yet fluid, user driven association instead.
Interactive Sketching for User Interface Design BIBAKHTML 63-64
  James A. Landay
Current interactive user interface construction tools are often more of a hindrance than a benefit during the early stages of interface design. These tools take too much time to use and force designers to specify more of the design details than they wish at this stage. Most designers prefer to sketch early interface ideas on paper. I am developing an interactive tool called SILK that allows designers to quickly sketch an interface using an electronic pad and stylus. SILK preserves the important properties of pencil and paper: a rough drawing can be produced very quickly and the medium is very flexible. However, unlike a paper sketch, this electronic sketch can easily be edited, exercised, and semi-automatically transformed into a complete, operational interface in a specified look-and-feel.
Keywords: Design, Sketching, Prototyping
Using Psychomotor Models of Movement in the Analysis and Design of Computer Pointing Devices BIBAKHTML 65-66
  Anant Kartik Mithal
Pointing devices have become very important for HCI and their design needs to move beyond iterative engineering approaches towards methods guided by models that describe how pointing devices are used. This thesis aims to extend psychologists' models of manual pointing to pointing devices, as a step towards providing human factors engineers with a basis for pointing device design.
Keywords: Fitts' law, Pointing devices, Mouse, Isometric joystick, Modeling, Design, Psychomotor models
Transforming Graphical Interfaces into Auditory Interfaces BIBKHTML 67-68
  Elizabeth D. Mynatt
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Auditory interfaces, Enabling technology, Mercator
Supporting Collaborative Design with Representations for Mutual Understanding BIBAKHTML 69-70
  Jonathan Ostwald
This paper describes a research effort to investigate cross-cultural collaboration in software development. The work is based on a model of collaborative design that calls for stakeholders (including developers and end-users) to iteratively construct an understanding of design problems and potential solutions through the construction and refinement of design representations. The Evolving Artifact (EVA) software design environment has been implemented to support this process. EVA has been used in a development project in a regional telephone company. A case study of this project will be analyzed to yield guidelines and design principles for constructing representations for mutual understanding.
Keywords: Collaborative design, Workplace cultures, Work-oriented design, Software development, EVA, Functional objects, Prototyping
Conversational Dialogue in Graphical User Interfaces: Interaction Technique Feedback and Dialogue Structure BIBAKHTML 71-72
  Manuel A. Perez
Human conversations have long been considered as a model for interaction with computers [1]. One theory of human conversations, proposed by Clark and Schaefer [2,3], has already been used in other HCI efforts. In the work proposed here, another part of this theory, the states of understanding principles, is used as the basis for a model of feedback for graphical interaction techniques. A formal evaluation of the feedback model will be performed. The feedback model is extended to a multi-threaded dialogue model with which to handle interruption and cancellation requests as negotiated requests. The proposed dialogue model will serve as the requirement specification for the design of a dialogue controller in a user interface management system (UIMS). A prototype of this model will be built and a usability study will be conducted.
Keywords: Human-computer dialogues, Feedback, States of understanding, User interface management systems
Describing Interactive Visualization Artifacts -- DIVA BIBAKHTML 73-74
  Lisa Tweedie; Imperial College
DIVA is a notation for describing interactive visualization artifacts (IVA). This notation forms one part of my thesis work -- the overall aim of this thesis is to find ways to improve the design of IVAs. By describing different IVAs I hope to elicit general principles to aid this process.
Keywords: Visualization, Interactive graphics
Integrating Multiple Cues for Spoken Language Understanding BIBAKHTML 75-76
  Karen Ward
As spoken language interfaces for real-world systems become a practical possibility, it has become apparent that such interfaces will need to draw on a variety of cues from diverse sources to achieve a robustness and naturalness approaching that of human performance [1]. However, our knowledge of how these relationships behave in the aggregate is still tantalizingly sketchy. We lack a strong theoretical basis for predicting which cues will prove useful in practice and for specifying how these cues should be combined to signal or cancel out potential interpretations of the communicative signal. In the research program summarized here, I propose to develop and test an initial theory of cue integration for spoken language interfaces.
Keywords: Spoken language interfaces

Interactive Experience

Interactive City Planning Using Multimedia Representation Aids BIBAKHTML 77-78
  Michael J. Schiffer
This interactive exhibition demonstrates a method of interacting with city planning analysis tools using direct manipulation graphical interfaces. The technology combines maps, interactive video, text, sound, and other forms of data with analytic tools and an associative information structure using a city map as a central metaphor. This allows immediate navigation amongst chunks of related information during city planning meetings. The technology also makes it possible to link descriptive images, such as digital video and sound, to information that would normally be represented quantitatively.
Keywords: Geographic, Direct manipulation, Noise, Multimedia, Maps, Implementation, Group, Decision
Directed Improvisation with Animated Puppets BIBAKHTML 79-80
  Barbara Hayes-Roth; Erik Sincoff; Lee Brownston; Ruth Huard; Brian Lent
In "directed improvisation," users give computer characters abstract directions that establish a skeletal structure for and other weak constraints on their behavior. The characters improvise a course of behavior that follows the structure, meets the constraints, and achieves other application-specific objectives. Thus, characters perform as directed, but also surprise and engage users with their improvisations along the way. In "Animated Puppets," children (or other users) direct the improvisational behavior of animated characters in a graphical setting to create their own stories.
Keywords: Artistic self-expression, Intelligent systems, Education and entertainment applications, HCI paradigm
A Prototype User Interface for a Mobile Multimedia Terminal BIBAKHTML 81-82
  Allan Christian, Jr. Long; Shankar Narayanaswamy; Andrew Burstein; Richard Han; Ken Lutz; Brian Richards; Samuel Sheng; Robert W. Brodersen; Jan Rabaey
We have shown a prototype user interface for the InfoPad, a portable terminal with multi-modal input and multimedia output. We believe that many of the people who could benefit from inexpensive, portable, networked terminals are not computer experts, and we are therefore designing the InfoPad and its user interface to be more like a notebook than a workstation. The InfoPad's main features are:
  • Portability
  • Continuous network connectivity using a high-bandwidth radio link
  • Pen input with handwriting recognition
  • Audio input with speech recognition
  • Full-motion video playback with synchronized audio The InfoPad's unique input and output characteristics offer challenges and opportunities for user interface design. We are prototyping applications and user interfaces to explore how handwriting and voice recognition may best be used together. We believe that the lessons we will learn can be applied to other multi-modal platforms.
    Keywords: Human computer interaction, Mobile computing, Speech recognition, Handwriting recognition, Pen-based computing, Multimedia, Multi-modal input
  • On Site Wearable Computer System BIBAKHTML 83-84
      Len Bass; Dan Siewiorek; Asim Smailagic; John Stivoric
    A wearable computer system designed for on site, hands free maintenance operations will be demonstrated. This system is the latest completed model in a family of wearable computers developed by Carnegie Mellon University. It is approximately one and a half pounds in weight (including batteries), uses a 386 processor and a Private Eye display device. Also being demonstrated are components for the next iteration of the device. The system is designed to be used in a hands free operating mode by large vehicle maintenance personnel.
    Keywords: Wearable computers, Body worn computers, Task oriented computer systems
    Audio GUIs: Interacting with Graphical Applications in an Auditory World BIBAKHTML 85-86
      Elizabeth D. Mynatt; W. Keith Edwards
    One of the foremost design rules for human-computer interfaces is "Know Thy User." As designers, this rule is difficult to follow if the users are much different than us. The purpose of this interactive experience is to allow people to experience what interacting with graphical interfaces might be like for a blind computer user. In this exhibit, we demonstrate Mercator, a system which transforms X Windows applications into auditory interfaces. The exhibit allows individuals to interact with common graphical applications via an auditory interface. Additional applications of this work for mobile, limited-display devices are also described.
    Keywords: Audio, Human-computer interaction, Auditory interfaces, Interface models, Rehabilitation engineering, Users with special needs, Disability
    DO-IT: Deformable Objects as Input Tools BIBAKHTML 87-88
      Tamostsu Murakami; Kazuhiko Hayashi; Kazuhiro Oikawa; Naomasa Nakajima
    Standard input tools such as the mouse and keyboard do not provide users with a direct and intuitive means of 3-D shape manipulation. This study proposes a new concept of interface system for 3-D shape deformation using a deformable real object as an input tool. By deforming the tool with bare hands with a tactile feedback, users can manipulate a 3-D shape modeled and displayed on a computer screen directly and intuitively. A PC-based prototype system with a cubical input tool made of electrically conductive polyurethane foam demonstrates the effectiveness and promise of the concept.
    Keywords: Human interface, 3-D input tool, Computer graphics, Computer-aided design, Free-form deformation
    Designing a Multimedia Publication: American Center for Design Interact Journal BIBAKHTML 89-90
      Peter Spreenberg
    In August of 1994, the American Center for Design published a journal on Interaction Design containing a CD-ROM edited by IDEO. The editing task included constructing a navigational interface and integrating content supplied by a variety of contributors. Visitors to this exhibit will be able to browse both the paper and interactive CD-ROM versions of the Interact Journal, experiencing for themselves the synergy of information presented in two separate but complimentary media.
    Keywords: Design, Interactive publication, Interaction design, Interface design, Graphic design, Interactive multimedia, Navigational interface

    Interactive Posters

    Merging Language, Direct Manipulation, and Visualization: Programmable Research Environments for Computational Scientists BIBAKHTML 91-92
      Eric Blough
    As domain experts with programming expertise, computational scientists require the flexibility of programming languages, yet appreciate the convenience and power of direct-manipulation interfaces and scientific visualization tools. Although traditionally separate, direct-manipulation and programming can support each other in the same application [1]. In such an environment, graphic and textual language elements can be freely intermingled, as can manipulations and textual programming statements. We are in the process of developing a programmable environment to support research in diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), an area of computational science, as an exploration of the issues surrounding these ideas.
    Keywords: Programming environments, End-user programming, User interface components, Scientific visualization, Visual programming, Simulation, Computational science, Programmable applications
    Directing Pictures with Art Pals BIBAKHTML 93-94
      James Ambach
    Creating art can be seen as the creative exploration of a design space defined by the artist and his or her tools. Existing artistic tools such as paint brushes, chisels and erasers are of a passive nature stressing a direct manipulation interaction scheme which leaves the exploration process strictly to the artist. If these tools had the ability to be more autonomous, they could assist in the exploration process, possibly discovering things that the artist was unaware of. This poster describes Art Pals, a drawing application which combines passive drawing tools with active, behavior-based tools in order to create an artistic environment more conducive to creative exploration.
    Keywords: Artistic exploration, Direct manipulation, Delegation
    The Just Noticeable Difference of Speech Recognition Accuracy BIBAKHTML 95
      Ron Van Buskirk; Mary LaLomia
    An important speech recognition issue is how large an improvement do you have to make to the speech recognizor's accuracy rate so that people can detect an improvement. We are exploring the just-noticeable difference (JND) for speech recognition accuracy. Participants dictate pairs of 200-word passages and then report which passage is recognized more accurately. The difference between the accuracy rates of the passages is continually reduced until the subject is unable to reliably report a difference (the method of limits). We used a "Wizard of Oz" methodology to simulate speech recognizors with varied accuracy rates. A second factor under investigation is how error correction affects participants' perception of accuracy and whether the perception of accuracy follows Weber's Law.
    Keywords: Speech recognition, Recognition accuracy, JND
    A Comparison of Speech and Mouse/Keyboard GUI Navigation BIBAKHTML 96
      Ron Van Buskirk; Mary LaLomia
    We compared two speaker-independent, navigation systems (discrete and continuous) on 11 tasks, measuring accuracy, perceived performance, task time, and perceived system usability. Ten IBM and temporary help agency employees with GUI experience participated. Their ages ranged from 25 to 55 years. The participants completed 11 tasks on both systems using voice or keyboard. The participants began the set of tasks on a randomly selected navigator, filled out a questionnaire about the perceived system speed and accuracy, completed the same tasks using the keyboard, then repeated the same procedure on a second system and keyboard. The voice navigator tasks took approximately twice as long as the keyboard tasks. Additionally, the survey results showed that participants' acceptance of the system was quite sensitive to small changes in system response time. The slowest tasks were the ones with precise cursor or window movement, the fastest were ones only requiring brief commands. The results are discussed in terms of recommendations for designing speech into GUIs.
    Keywords: Speech navigation, Continuous speech recognition, Discrete speech recognition
    The TrackPad -- A Study on User Comfort and Performance BIBAKHTML 97-98
      Ahmet E. Cakir; Gisela Cakir; Thomas Miller; Pieter Unema
    The user study on the TrackPad, a new touch tablet technology input device, was designed to investigate the impact of the use of the device on the biomechanical load and postural comfort of the users. In a one day test, the subjects, experienced Macintosh users, performed tests and worked on tasks, using a portable computer, that were organized to resemble normal office tasks and measure performance. The tasks included intensive use of the keyboard.
       The performance was measured by text editing tasks and eight Fitts's Tests with two levels of difficulty. The biomechanical load was measured and evaluated by means of EMG and postural (motion) analyses. General comfort and postural comfort was evaluated with questionnaires.
       The analyses of the EMG-measurements yielded no indication of progressive fatigue or increased muscular load from one session to the next. On the contrary, the recorded EMG-levels showed a decrease in muscular activity. The postural analyses indicated that undue deviation, extension, or flexion of the hands, which may cause discomfort, generally did not occur. The average values were within the limits given by the physiology of the human arm. However, personal preferences for the arm posture were highly different.
       When performing the text editing task with the TrackPad, during the training session, the subjects had already achieved a performance equivalent to 65% of mouse performance. A performance of more than 90% was achieved after two hours and 100% in the fifth hour session. This means that the learning period for such tasks will in practice be accomplished within one working day. The average performance achieved with the TrackPad for the eight tasks with Fitts's Test, during the last session, was lower than that with the mouse, but the difference was not statistically significant.
       The results of this study indicate that the TrackPad can be used for everyday tasks without causing postural discomfort or fatigue. In some respects, this device may even be preferable to the mouse, if the users can achieve the same level of performance.
    Keywords: Input device, TrackPad, Postural discomfort, EMG
    High-End High School Communication: Strategies and Practices of Students in a Networked Environment BIBAKHTML 99-100
      Barry J. Fishman
    This poster describes a dissertation study presented at the CHIs'95 Doctoral Consortium on the design of computer-based communication and media space environments to support highly interactive school-based communities. The two basic questions posed in this research are: (1) How are media space tools used by students in these classrooms, both in terms of the structure of communications activity and the surrounding physical and temporal constraints of the environment?; and (2) What are possible explanations for student behaviors and attitudes with regard to media space tools? The answers to these questions will guide the design of next-generation media spaces for educational settings.
    Keywords: Media spaces, Education, Communication, Design
    Improving Human-Proceedings Interaction: Indexing the CHI Index BIBAKHTML 101-102
      Peter Foltz
    Over the past two years, the CHI conference committee has tried to improve the usability of the conference proceedings through improving the index. Latent Semantic Indexing, a statistically-based retrieval method, was used to analyze the titles and abstracts of papers and suggest additional relevant keywords not provided by the authors. This poster describes the method for generating the indices and shows how it can be used as a general approach for improving access to paper-based documents.
    Keywords: Indexing, Information retrieval, Latent semantic analysis, Keywords, Paper-based documents
    An Example of Formal Usability Inspections in Practice at Hewlett-Packard Company BIBAKHTML 103-104
      Cathy Gunn
    Can usability engineers, not formally educated as human factors engineers, help facilitate improving the ease of use of software products? Can design engineers learn to detect usability defects? The answer to both questions is yes. This is a success story of a partnership between human factors engineers and usability engineers in providing a Formal Usability Methodology that has been accepted and is continuing to be used by product developers since it was introduced two years ago. The usability engineers have added usability practices and facilitation skills to their traditional roles as technical writers and support engineers. Design engineers enjoy using the methodology, and learn how to evaluate their products from the user's viewpoint.
    Keywords: Usability inspections, Human computer interaction, User-centered design, Process redesign
    Rewriting Interaction BIBAKHTML 105-106
      Roland Hubscher
    Interactive visual computer animation is becoming an important tool for science education in grade school. Unfortunately, students and teachers cannot easily create their own animations, because programming these systems tends to be too hard for non-professional programmers. I present an approach that simplifies the description of complex interactions of objects by describing interactions with declarative, temporal constraints. A system that describes animation in terms of the actions of the objects and the interactions between the objects is being built on top of a grid-based, graphical programming environment.
    Keywords: Visual animation, Science education, Visual programming, Rewrite rules, Temporal constraints
    STRIPE: Remote Driving Using Limited Image Data BIBAKHTML 107-108
      Jennifer S. Kay
    Guiding a remote vehicle when real time image transmission is not possible is an important problem in the field of teleoperation. In such a situation it is impractical for an operator to attempt to directly steer the vehicle using a steering wheel. In semi-autonomous teleoperation, an operator designates the path that the vehicle should follow in an image of the scene transmitted from the vehicle, and the vehicle autonomously follows this path. Previous techniques for semi-autonomous teleoperation require stereo image data, or inaccurately track paths on non-planar terrain. STRIPE (Supervised TeleRobotics using Incremental Polyhedral-Earth geometry) is a new method that I am developing for accurate semi-autonomous teleoperation using monocular image data. This paper provides an summary of the work I am doing for my thesis. This includes the development of the STRIPE robotic system, user studies to empirically measure the accuracy of the STRIPE method under various conditions and with different user interfaces, as well as measurement of baseline data for traditional steering wheel based teleoperation under low-bandwidth and high-latency conditions.
    Keywords: Remotely operated vehicles, Low-bandwidth teleoperation, Semi-autonomous teleoperation, User-interfaces, Interfaces for novice users, Robotics
    Teachers in Charge: Model-Based Authoring of Educational Software BIBAKHTML 109-110
      Smadar Kedar; Benjamin Bell
    We describe Goal-Based Scenario Builder, a prototype model-based authoring tool for multimedia educational software, intended for teachers and curriculum designers.
    Keywords: Educational software, Multimedia, Authoring tools, Model-based interface tools
    Is Multimedia-Based Training Effective? Yes and No. BIBAKHTML 111-112
      Adrienne Y. Lee; Douglas J. Gillan; Evan E. Upchurch; Jeffrey S. Melton
    Most studies in multimedia have not been controlled and have focused on student satisfaction rather than examining what students have learned. This poster will describe results from current research designed to evaluate the efficacy of multimedia-based training in producing increased learning and retention of factual knowledge and skills.
    Keywords: Education, Multimedia, Evaluation
    Generalized Fitts' Law Model Builder BIBAKHTML 113-114
      R. William Soukoreff; I. Scott MacKenzie
    A tool for designing experiments, capturing data, and building Fitts' law models is described. The software runs on an IBM or compatible computer equipped with an appropriate graphical display and selection device (e.g., mouse, joystick). Features intended for HCI educational purposes or experimental research are included, making this a very powerful utility for research in input techniques or Fitts' law. The software is available via anonymous FTP through the internet.
    Keywords: Fitts' law, Mouse, Input techniques, Human performance modeling, HCI education
    Validating an Extension to Participatory Heuristic Evaluation: Quality of Work and Quality of Work Life BIBAKHTML 115-116
      Michael J. Muller; Anne McClard; Brigham Bell; Scott Dooley; Lori Meiskey; Judith A. Meskill; Randall Sparks; Donna Tellam
    We describe an extension and validation of Nielsen's heuristic evaluation approach, to include "humanistic" aspects of systems. Three additional heuristics addressed quality of work product, quality of work life, and respect for users' skills. In a participatory heuristic evaluation of an intelligent tutoring system, the three new heuristics performed comparably to earlier sets of heuristics.
    Keywords: Heuristic evaluation, Usability, Participatory design, Participatory assessment, Quality of worklife, Skill, Quality
    Remote Exploratoriums: Combining Network Media with Design Environments BIBAKHTML 117-118
      Corrina Perrone; Alexander Repenning
    In an educational context World Wide Web clients such as Mosaic are of limited value because they put learners into the role of information absorbers. Drawing on a museum analogy, learners using Mosaic can be perceived, like museum visitors, to be passive observers of exhibits. Despite the richness of exhibits in terms of the amount of material presented and the use of multimedia, activity is restricted to navigation through real (museum) or hyper (Mosaic) spaces. To be most effective, learning should include constructive activities more engaging than browsing through hyperspaces. Distance education can be facilitated by combining network media with design environments to create highly interactive, engaging environments that we call Remote Exploratoriums. In contrast to classical museums, exploratoriums, such as in San Francisco or numerous children's museums, feature engaged, hands-on learning experiences through interactive exhibits that are not only observed but are actively manipulated. The Agentsheets Remote Exploratorium is a mechanism to facilitate the easy exchange and distribution of educational interactive exhibits through networks. Agentsheets is a programming substrate to create interactive simulation and design environments. In this paper, we discuss the implications of combining a network medium and a design environment to support distance education.
    Keywords: World Wide Web, Mosaic, Learning, Distance education, Design environments
    On Site Maintenance Using a Wearable Computer System BIBAKHTML 119-120
      Bethany Smith; Len Bass; Jane Siegel
    This poster displays a vision of the future of vehicle maintenance. This future includes a wearable computer system that can be operated with the mechanics' hands free. The computer system will provide necessary information to solve maintenance tasks and to communicate with collaborators. The ability to support both solo and collaborative maintenance activity, especially trouble shooting and the ability to effectively deliver light weight, hands free information access will be achieved through improvements in both technology and HCI. The poster displays the current state, a vision of the future and identifies the HCI and technological improvements necessary to achieve this future state of vehicle maintenance.
    Keywords: Wearable computers, Body worn computers, Task oriented computer systems, Hands free maintenance, Help desks, Vehicle maintenance, Help desk collaboration
    3-D Displays for Real-Time Monitoring of Air Traffic BIBAKHTML 121-122
      Dick Steinberg; Charles DePlachett; Kacheshwar Pathak; Dennis Strickland
    Previous research has revealed that three-dimensional (3-D) display formats do not always improve user performance [3]. This report describes an experiment to determine the utility of using a 3-D format for monitoring air traffic of a Department of Defense (DoD) real-time display. An overwhelming quantity of data must be assimilated by personnel monitoring a typical mission. Data from these missions must be monitored and crucial life and death decisions made by personnel within a short period of time. The need for a precise human engineered computer interface resulted in the development and laboratory testing of a 3-D display concept for monitoring a typical DoD air surveillance display. In addition, the 3-D format was augmented using a two-dimensional (2-D) vertical bar graph directly beneath to provide users with additional information (i.e., signal strength) about displayed objects in the 3-D space. The 2-D, 3-D, and 3-D (augmented with vertical bar graph) displays were user tested for accuracy and performance. Results from this analysis revealed that user response times were decreased by 23% with a reduction in errors of 60% using the standard 3-D display. Additional testing is needed to determine the benefit of the vertical bar graph.
    Keywords: Graphical user interface, Real-time, Air space monitoring
    Belvedere: Stimulating Students' Critical Discussion BIBAKHTML 123-124
      Massimo Paolucci; Daniel Suthers; Arlene Weiner
    We describe "Belvedere," a system to support students engaged in critical discussion of science and public policy issues. The design is intended to address cognitive and metacognitive limitations of unpracticed beginners while supporting their practice of this complex skill. The limitations include (1) difficulty in focusing attention given the abstract and complex nature of theories and arguments, (2) lack of domain knowledge, and (3) lack of motivation. Belvedere addresses these limitations by (1) giving arguments a concrete diagrammatic form, and providing tools for focusing on particular problems encountered in the construction and evaluation of complex arguments; (2) providing access to on-line information resources; and (3) supporting students working in small groups to construct documents to be shared with others. Both prior psychological research and formative evaluation studies with users shaped the interface design.
    Keywords: Collaborative argumentation environment, Educational application, Design rationale
    The Gear Model of HCI Education BIBAKHTML 125-126
      Manfred Tscheligi; Verena Giller
    Gears are used as central metaphor for the philosophy of a coordinated HCI education program. The program consists of six parts distributed over one year. The main emphasis of all parts is on active involvement with a considerable amount of feedback and reflection.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Curriculum, HCI education
    Readability of Fonts in the Windows Environment BIBAKHTML 127-128
      Thomas S. Tullis; Jennifer L. Boynton; Harry Hersh
    The readability of twelve different fonts and sizes in the Microsoft Windows environment was studied. The specific fonts were Arial, MS Sans Serif, MS Serif, and Small Fonts. Their sizes ranged from 6.0 to 9.75 points. These were presented using black text on either a white or gray background and either bold or non-bold style. There were significant differences between the various font/size combinations in terms of reading speed, accuracy, and subjective preferences. There were no consistent differences as a result of background color or boldness. The most preferred fonts were Arial and MS Sans Serif at 9.75. Most of the fonts from 8.25 to 9.75 performed well in terms of reading speed and accuracy, with the exception of MS Serif at 8.25. Arial at 7.5 and both of the Small Fonts (6.0 and 6.75) should generally be avoided.
    Keywords: Font, Text, Readability, Legibility, Windows
    The Influence Explorer BIBAHTML 129-130
      Lisa Tweedie; Bob Spence; Huw Dawkes; Hua Su
    This paper illustrates the benefits, for a wide range of design activities, of Interactive Visualization Artifacts.
    Integrating Multiple Cues for Spoken Language Understanding BIBAKHTML 131-132
      Karen Ward; David G. Novick
    As spoken language interfaces for real-world systems become a practical possibility, it has become apparent that such interfaces will need to draw on a variety of cues from diverse sources to achieve a robustness and naturalness approaching that of human performance [1]. However, our knowledge of how these cues behave in the aggregate is still tantalizingly sketchy. We lack a strong theoretical basis for predicting which cues will prove useful in practice and for specifying how these cues should be combined to signal or cancel out potential interpretations of the communicative signal. In the research program summarized here, we propose to develop and test an initial theory of cue integration for spoken language interfaces. By establishing a principled basis for integrating knowledge sources for such interfaces, we believe that we can develop systems that perform better from a computer-human interaction standpoint.
    Keywords: Spoken language interfaces
    Usability Testing of Posture Video Analysis Tool BIBAKHTML 133-134
      Mihriban Whitmore; Tim McKay
    The Posture Video Analysis Tool (PVAT) is an interactive Macintosh menu and button driven SuperCard prototype for classifying working postures from video footage. Following preliminary evaluations, a usability test was conducted to test interface design and to identify required modifications to the software. Five users participated in the study. Each user completed training (to a preset criterion), test, and a post-test questionnaire. All the sessions were video taped for detailed analysis. Preliminary results indicate that PVAT was acceptable in terms of setup and video monitoring procedures as well as screen layouts. Detailed data reduction and analysis are in progress.
    Keywords: Video analysis, User evaluations
    Human and Machine Dimensions of 3D Interfaces for Virtual Environments BIBAKHTML 135-136
      Casey Boyd
    This work explores two categories for evaluating and measuring virtual environment (VE) interfaces. One category concerns characteristics of the interface, such as its complexity and abstractness. The other category concerns the human capacities for understanding and using three-dimensional input/output devices. The results may help us predict the usability of VE interfaces and help us to design interfaces that are well matched to their intended users.
    Keywords: Virtual environments, Evaluation, Navigation
    Editing User-Specific Diagrams by Direct Manipulation BIBAKHTML 137-138
      G. Viehstaedt; M. Minas
    Diagrams, e.g., certain kinds of trees or graphs, are often needed as part of advanced user interfaces, and are frequently specific to a user's application. Editing these diagrams should be possible by direct manipulation. Some examples of direct manipulation in an editor for Nassi-Shneiderman diagrams (NSDs) are described. This sample editor was generated from a specification by DiaGen, our generator for diagram editors.
    Keywords: User interface, Direct manipulation, Diagram, Generator, Syntax-directed editing
    Growing Simplicity: A Task-Based Approach to Containing Complexity BIBAKHTML 139-140
      Jason Cassee; Meghan R. Ede; Todd Kemp
    A feature-based approach to designing information systems software produces results which, although technically correct, are likely deficient in their ease of use. Designing from a task-based perspective significantly enhances interface usability. Our project team made this change in approach based on a consultation with a specialist in human computer interaction. We describe the impact of this consultation and its effect of dramatically simplifying the user interface.
    Keywords: Task-based design, Human computer interaction, Walkthrough, Information system software, User interface
    InteractiveDESK: A Computer-Augmented Desk which Responds to Operations on Real Objects BIBAKHTML 141-142
      Toshifumi Arai; Kimiyoshi Machii; Soshiro Kuzunuki; Hiroshi Shojima
    Office and engineering workers' workloads are reduced with a computer-augmented desk named InteractiveDESK. The desk has a large desktop display with a pen-input facility and an ordinary upright display with a keyboard, thus integrating features of conventional systems and pen-based systems. The desk detects the operations on real objects on its real desk top, and responds to the operations to reduce users' workloads. The prototype of the desk assists users in switching input methods and retrieving electronic files.
    Keywords: Augmented reality, Pen-based system, Computer-augmented desk
    Elastic Graphical Interfaces for Precise Data Manipulation BIBAKHTML 143-144
      Toshiyuki Masui; Kouichi Kashiwagi; George R., IV Borden
    We propose an interaction technique for manipulating precise data or selecting one element from a large number of items. Although conventional graphical interaction tools like sliders cannot be used for selecting more items than the pixel size of the slider, we can specify more precise data by using the elastic slider based on the rubber-band metaphor, where a control object can be moved by pulling the object with a rubber-band between the object and the mouse cursor. The same technique can be applied to many graphical interface tools like scroll bars and drawing editors.
    Keywords: Elastic interface, Slider, Scroll bar, Rubber-band interface
    Simulation-Based Dialogue Design for Speech-Controlled Telephone Services BIBAKHTML 145-146
      Ivan Bretan; Anna-Lena Ereback; Catriona MacDermid; Annika Wærn
    A design methodology for speech-controlled telephone services has been developed using Wizard-of-Oz simulations as the principal mechanism for evaluating and getting input for dialogue design. This methodology may enable service developers to support dialogues that are optimal with respect to naturalness, especially on a pragmatic level, given the technical restrictions at hand.
    Keywords: Speech interfaces, Wizard-of-Oz simulations, Telephone services
    Abstract Specification of User Interfaces BIBAKHTML 147-148
      Ole Lauridsen
    The paper discusses automation of user interface design and proposes a user interface design method that combines the use of formal semantic specification and rapid user interface builders. Based on formalized design rules, a user interface design proposal can be derived from the functionality of an application. The advantages of this method are: Automation of parts of the design process, automatic design evaluation, and automatic mapping to multiple user interface toolkits. The method will ease the transition from the functional design of an application to the user interface design by a semantically driven design of user interfaces.
    Keywords: Interface design, Automatic generation of user interface, Design process

    Interactive Posters: Social Action

    Science-by-Mail BIBAKHTML 149-150
      Ellen A. White; Marc E. Fusco
    Science-by-Mail is a hands-on, experimental science activity program for children in grades 4-9 that is designed to be engaging, educational, and fun! Each participating child is matched with a volunteer pen-pal scientist who provides encouragement and guidance. They receive three "challenge packets" throughout the year containing information and materials related to an issue in science or technology. Communication between students and scientists about the packets forms the core of the interactions. A nationwide program developed by the Museum of Science, Boston, Science-by-Mail currently involves about 25,000 children and 2,500 scientists.
    Keywords: Science-by-Mail, Science, Children, Volunteer, Social action
    A Computer Science Community Service Project BIBAKHTML 151-152
      Saul Jimenez
    Computer science is a rapidly changing field which makes academic and professional education both necessary and problematic. This paper shows, by describing the analysis, design and implementation of relational database for community child care providers, the need for technical service donations to human service organizations. These donations have both an educational use (appropriate for academe or industry) and a beneficial outcome for the sponsoring organization.
    Keywords: Service learning, Curriculum development
    CompuMentor: People Helping Computers Help People BIBAKHTML 153-154
      Melissa Schofield; Daniel Ben-Horin
    California and also, increasingly, on a national scale, whose main purpose is to match skilled computer users (volunteer mentors) with nonprofits and other public service groups that need their skills. In recent years CompuMentor projects have included 1) basic computerization assistance to nonprofits and schools, 2) scholarships programs for agencies with no funds for technical support, 3) computerization and telecommunications-focused consultation and training for nonprofits and public institutions, and 4) a software distribution project specifically for nonprofits and public schools. In addition to our regular work, we are now starting to design a scaleable model of our organization that we hope to share with other groups around the country, with the intent of providing nonprofits in other communities access to the services we've made available in the Bay Area.
    Keywords: Community service, Nonprofits, Not-for-profits, Schools, Volunteers, Computer consulting, Mentoring

    Organization Overviews

    What You See, Some of What's in the Future, And How We Go About Doing It: HI at Apple Computer, Inc. BIBAKHTML 155
      Don Norman; Jim Miller; Austin Henderson
    In this organizational overview we cover some of the critical aspects of human interface research and application at Apple or, as we prefer to call it, the "User Experience." We cover what we do, where we are going (as much as we are permitted to say in public), and how we are organized. Some of our innovations in the product process and in the transfer of research from the laboratories to product should be of special interest to the HCI community.
    Keywords: Organizational overview, Organizational structure, Technology transfer
    Usability at Eastman Kodak Company: A Study in Group Collaboration BIBAKHTML 156-157
      Elizabeth Rosenzweig; Cay Lodine
    This presentation describes the Kodak Boston Development Center Usability Laboratory and its collaborative work within the larger Eastman Kodak Company corporate environment. The unique product development process, resultant user interface guidelines and subsequent products are discussed. In addition, a description of the collaborative work within the larger corporation is described.
    Keywords: Interaction, Research organizations, User testing, Design guidelines, Collaborative development, Organizational context, Development tools and methods
    Interface Evaluation, Design and Research at Intel BIBAKHTML 158-159
      Jean Scholtz; Paul Sorenson
    At Intel, usability engineers are currently seen as vital contributors to our goal of making the PC appear everywhere! Intel has in the past been predominately a hardware company. However, the scope at Intel is being broadened to software in order to illustrate the usefulness of new hardware technology. As more leading edge software is being produced, usability has become an important process at Intel.
    Keywords: Usability, Interface design, Usability research

    Organization Overviews: Cognitive Modeling

    FRIEND21 Project: Two-Tiered Architecture for 21st-Century Human Interfaces BIBAKHTML 160-161
      Hajime Nonagaki; Hirotada Ueda
    The FRIEND21 Project, which ended on March 31, 1994, is briefly described and its final results are presented. The FRIEND21 Project conducted research into human interfaces having two-tiered architecture consisting of "metaware" and "agency model." This approach attempts to deal with human-interface issues from the very top layer of a symbolic and cognitive environment constructed between the user and the machine to the bottom layer of machine functions organized into the agency model.
    Keywords: Symbolic environment, Symbolic context, Two-tiered HI architecture, Metaware, Agency model
    HCI at New Mexico State University BIBAKHTML 162-163
      Douglas J. Gillan
    HCI at New Mexico State University has a dual focus -- the development of cognitive theory in a real-world context and the application of cognitive principles and methods to interface design. Graduate training exhibits that dual focus, with general training in experimental psychology and statistical methods, as well as specialized training in HCI design, prototyping, and evaluation. Faculty research centers around the development of cognitive models of computer users, with particular emphasis on multivariate methods for modeling user knowledge, such as Pathfinder networks.
    Keywords: Organization overview, University, Cognitive models

    Organization Overviews: HCI Consulting

    Interaction Design at IDEO Product Development BIBAKHTML 164-165
      Peter Spreenberg; Gitta Salomon; Phillip Joe
    IDEO Product Development is a multidisciplinary consultancy with offices worldwide. This overview describes how interaction design personnel within the San Francisco and London offices work with other disciplines such as human factors and industrial design to apply a five step, user-centered approach to product development. Three broad areas of interaction design work and the IDEO design process are described.
    Keywords: Interaction design, Information design, Multimedia, Human factors, User interface, Prototyping, Hardware integration, User-centered design
    User Interface Engineering: Fostering Creative Product Development BIBAKHTML 166-167
      Jared M. Spool; Carolyn Snyder; Will Schroeder
    User Interface Engineering is a seven-year old company researching and consulting on what makes products usable. Our mission is to encourage and foster creative product development teams that build applications users will use and value. We do this not only by demonstrating the technology used in building better product interfaces, but also through the processes which produce that technology.
       We accomplish this through research, training, consulting, and publication. Training, consulting and publication serve to transfer the techniques and technologies developed in our research. Our work emphasizes innovative applications of usability to the challenges facing today's product developers.
    Keywords: Prototyping, Low-fidelity prototyping, Process management, Product development, Contextual inquiry, Modeling, Practical techniques, Group dynamics
    Integrated Software Usability Services BIBAKHTML 168-169
      Christel Dehaes; Kris Vanstappen
    The Human Interface Group is a consulting firm specialising in software usability. Their services cover the complete software development cycle. The integration of user interface design (from conceptual design to usability testing) and user documentation (from documentation plan to localisation, DTP and packaging) makes them excellent partners for large international companies that develop software.
    Keywords: HCI services, User interface design, User documentation

    Panels

    Creative Prototyping Tools: What Interaction Designers Really Need to Produce Advanced User Interface Concepts BIBAKHTML 170-171
      Manfred Tscheligi; Stephanie Houde; Raghu Kolli; Aaron Marcus; Michael Muller; Kevin Mullet
    Prototyping is an important, well accepted and compelling technique for any person dealing with the design of effective communication between people and technology. We all use some "tool" to enlive our ideas and to tell our stories to all of the other people involved during development of new and alternative user interface concepts. The word "tool" covers all sorts of means to tell these stories. Available prototyping tools run behind the need of interaction designers in particular with the goal to invent new forms of interaction. Do they really deserve the name "prototyping" tool? Based on the experiences of the panelists the panel should discuss the current situation and proclaim thinking in the direction of more designer oriented and flexible prototyping support. Panelists should discuss their vision of an "ideal" prototyping environment useful for designers and not only suited for programmers. The discussion should include support for the whole activity of innovation (from high level conceptual design and idea sketching to detailed design activities) and support for non style guide oriented interaction designs.
       At the beginning of the panel a short introduction to the main issues of the panel is given by the moderator. This will be followed by the initial position presentations of the panelists. The panelists cover the topic by addressing their experiences based on their different backgrounds and fields of experience. Examples will be provided. Time will be reserved for interaction with the audience. At the end of the panel the panelists will be asked to give a personal summary of the discussion and will be particularly asked to address the most important parts of their dreams of an ideal prototyping tool. The panel is closed by a short resume.
    Keywords: Prototyping, Interaction design, Visual design, Participatory design, Industrial design, Non standard user interfaces
    Retrospective Views on Apple Computer's Interface Design Project BIBAKHTML 172-173
      S. Joy Mountford; Stephanie Houde; Ron Baecker; Sergio Canetti; Yvonne Rogers; Tom Bellman; Robert Girling; Patrick Meehan; Magnus Ramage
    This panel will illustrate, through personal anecdotes, first hand experiences of being involved with the Apple Computer Interface Design Project. This project was initiated to better prepare and train students for real world interaction design problems. This was accomplished by sponsoring a specific project within the university curriculum system. All of the panel participants have been directly involved with the Apple Interface Design Project over the last few years, 1991-94. They represent different sides of the partnership. The faculty who constructed courses around the Apple brief and students who designed interaction prototypes as part of the project class. This will be an open discussion between students and faculty about the benefits and problems encountered. We aim to examine future roles that industry could play in shaping project topics to facilitate more real world design problem experiences.
    Keywords: Design process, Teaching HCI, Relationship between industry & academia
    3D or Not 3d: "More is Better" or "Less is More"? BIBAKHTML 174-175
      Kevin Mullet; Diane J. Schiano; George Robertson; Joel Tesler; Barbara Tversky
    The rapid growth in platform-level support for real-time 3D rendering and animation has recently created an explosion of public interest in adding to the dimensionality of the user interface, and the SIGCHI community has been a major source of activity in this area. This panel considers several points of view on the ever-increasing use of 3D visual representations in the user interface itself. We aim to help distinguish between conditions under which "more" truly is better -- from a user-centered perspective -- and those in which a well-designed 2D solution would serve as well or even better. Panelists will offer examples of applications in which 3D is highly essential or completely unnecessary.
    Keywords: Visualization, 3D Graphics, User interface design
    Discount or Disservice? Discount Usability Analysis -- Evaluation at a Bargain Price or Simply Damaged Merchandise? BIBAKHTML 176-177
      Wayne D. Gray; Michael E. Atwood; Carolanne Fisher; Jakob Nielsen; John M. Carroll; John Long
    The panel will focus on Jakob Nielsen's Discount Usability approach and guidelines. Nielsen has single handily restored guidelines to CHI. After being discredited because of the sheer impracticality of using 1000+ guidelines, Nielsen has been working hard to convince practitioners that all they need to know about usability can be summarized in 10 guidelines. This may be a real disservice. While using 10 guidelines may be better than using none, do people who have learned Nielsen's 10 think that they now know all they need to know about usability? The panel proposes a wide-ranging, public discussion of these issues.
    Keywords: Discount usability, Guidelines, Analysis and evaluation techniques
    Interface Styles: Direct Manipulation versus Social Interactions BIBAKHTML 178
      Lynn Streeter; Sara Kiesler; Clifford Nass; Ben Shneiderman
    This panel will debate whether, when, and why interfaces should take on human characteristics, such as assume particular personality styles, interact with user in socially meanful terms, use natural language as a means of communicating, etc. Some will argue that interfaces are enhanced by judicious use of social interactions styles while others argue that that users prefer direct control and manipulation of interfaces to anthropomorphic interaction styles, as seen in talking automobiles or talking automatic teller machines. Some panelists will argue that under appropriate circumstances social characteristics can enhance the interface and make it more likable by the user. Other panelists will argue that data has repeatedly shown that social interaction styles are eshewed by users.
       This debate is particularly timely given the widespread interest ins software agents and how they should be designed. There are several behaviors agents could display (anthropomorphic presentation, adaptive behavior, accept vague goal specification, give the user just what is need, work while the user sleeps or work in places that the user is not physically present). Which of these are important to include or exclude from an interface will be debated.
    Keywords: Agents, Personality, Direct manipulation, Social interaction, Social actors
    Browsing vs. Search: Can We Find a Synergy? BIBAKHTML 179-180
      Jock D. Mackinlay; Polle T. Zellweger; Mark Chignell; George Furnas; Gerard Salton
    This panel seeks a synergy between two common user interface approaches for information access: browsing and search. Panelists from a variety of backgrounds including information retrieval and hypertext will give short presentations suggesting what the synergy might be from their individual perspectives. The panelists and the audience will then jointly discuss how to achieve an overall synergy.
    Keywords: Information access, Browsing, Search, Querying, Navigation, Information visualization
    The NSF/ARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative: Opportunities for HCI Research BIBAKHTML 181-182
      William Hefley; Ann Bishop; Barbara Buttenfield; Joseph Hanes; Scott Stevens; Nancy Van House; Terry Winograd
    In September, 1994, the National Science Foundation (NSF) awarded six research projects a total of $24.4 million to develop new technologies for digital libraries. A joint initiative of NSF, the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the projects' focus is to dramatically advance the means to collect, store, and organize information in digital forms, making it available for networked search and retrieval. Exciting opportunities exist for research in human-computer interaction with huge libraries of digital information. Panel members discuss the individual projects and HCI implications.
    Keywords: Digital libraries, Multimedia, User interface design
    The Anti-Mac: Violating the Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines BIBAKHTML 183-184
      Stuart Card; Don Gentner; Jakob Nielsen; Austin Henderson; Don Norman
    Graphical computer interfaces have become the norm. They are based on a number of principles such as metaphor, see-and-point, direct manipulation, user control, and WYSIWIG. The Anti-Mac project explored alternative interfaces that might result from violating the principles behind conventional graphical interfaces. What emerges is a human-computer interface based on language, a richer representation of objects, expert users, skilled agents, and shared control.
    Keywords: Computer-human interface, Macintosh human interface, Metaphor, Direct manipulation, User control, WYSIWYG, User interface design, WIMP interface, Language, Computer agents, Objects, Attributes, Futurism
    Creativity: Interacting with Computers BIBAKHTML 185-186
      Ernest Edmonds; Gerhard Fischer; S. Joy Mountford; Frieder Nake; Douglas Riecken; Robert Spence
    Much traditional HCI research has concentrated on routine, well-defined and stable, tasks or low level computer support for complex tasks, e.g. spell-checking for someone writing a book. Increasingly, however, interest is moving to the support of people involved in creative tasks. This is the topic of the panel. Design and the visual arts will be used as typical examples of creative work and visions of computer futures and their cultural and social implications are explored.
    Keywords: Creativity, Interaction, Design, Art, Emergence, Distribution, Concurrency
    From Our Past to Our Future: User Interfaces Over the Lifespan BIBAHTML 187-188
      Maddy D. Brouwer-Janse; Jane Fulton Suri; Roger Coleman; Sandra Edwards; James L. Fozard; David V. Keyson
    The design of user interfaces for consumer products and services for different generations of users presents problems which have been rarely addressed by the HCI community. How can designers meet the needs of senior citizens, the "elderboom" of the 2000's, if they themselves are of the computer game and "edutainment" generation? Or, how do we design for children, having passed childhood long ago, and with guidelines that are lagging behind technological development? The panel will address user interface design issues that concern the lifespan of people and products as they relate to the rapid change in our population distribution.
    Mapping the Design Process: Visualizing What We Don't See BIBAKHTML 189-190
      Daniel Boyarski; Virginia Howlett; Scott Mathis; David Peters
    The process of developing and designing software varies widely across projects and development teams. There are short-term projects and endless ones; small teams and large ones; clearly defined objectives and goals defined on the fly. What is common to most of these efforts is that they are not simple and easy endeavors, developed in linear fashion with predictable results. They are also rarely documented in visual terms, say as process maps with artifacts as exemplars, that can later be studied and improved upon. Within the HCI community, we tend to focus on parts of the process -- such as user models or evaluation methods -- and less often consider the life and shape of the process as a whole.
       Because of time constraints, development teams are rarely afforded the time to reflect on a completed project, or even a particular phase of a project. How did it turn out? Did we achieve what we set out to do? What worked well and what didn't? What would we do differently next time? Time to reflect on the process employed ends up being time well spent, as such reflection informs future projects, benefitting everyone by saving time and resources.
       The idea behind this panel is to make the design process explicit. We will do this by showing how three interface design projects progressed from start to finish. Mapping each project's process makes visual a seemingly abstract process. By graphically representing a complex procedure, we are able to see the parts and how they relate to each other within the whole. These are three very different projects from three very different companies; in fact, the situations and constraints could not be more varied. This affords us the chance to compare and contrast design process maps.
    Keywords: Development and design process, Interdisciplinary teamwork, Problem solving, Visualization
    Dealing with Complexity: Uniting Agents and Direct Manipulation BIB 191-192
      Doug Riecken; Pattie Maes; Ben Shneiderman; David Canfield Smith
    CHI Conference User Feedback Session BIBAKHTML 193-194
      Kevin M. Schofield; Gene Lynch; Michael Tauber; Bill Curtis; Rodney Fuller; Terry Roberts
    One can think of the annual CHI conference as the HCI community's own piece of "groupware". Since we as a community advocate user participation in the design process, it is fitting that we should devote time during the conference to soliciting feedback from our users. This session will provide an opportunity for conference attendees to critique the conference and to provide suggestions for improving the conference in the future. Panelists will also raise broader issues about the long-term direction of our field and how the conference can best serve that evolution.
    Keywords: User feedback, CHI conference, Conference design

    Plenary Session: Opening

    The Design Challenge -- Creating a Mosaic Out of Chaos BIBAHTML 195-196
      Joan Greenbaum; Morten Kyng
    As designers we usually find ourselves -- and our designs -- in complex organizational settings, where diverse and often conflicting interests co-exist. Yet design is often seen as a process where the 'one best solution' is developed instead of allowing the rich mosaic of conflicting perspectives to be brought to light. Sooner or later the official pictures of the foreground are contradicted by current practice and create conflicts that may seriously jeopardize systems built on them. With hindsight we can see how this happened, for example in the 1960's and '70's when mainframe system software was designed to follow the automation-like flow of production work, controlling work process and workers and dividing labour and tasks. In the 1980's, despite the use of new software tools and the emphasis on PC-based applications, designers focused on the tasks and procedures of given work flows instead of embarking on approaches that would have allowed them to learn about how new software might be appropriated, put to use and tailored in an organization.
       We argue that these are not simple mistakes. They are partly due to the failure of our methods and techniques -- and more broadly to the failure of system design practice -- to seriously confront political, social and economic issues, allowing power, politics and perspectives to stay hidden.
       In order to address these issues, some background assumptions about work and users must be challenged, together with ideas about tools and techniques.

    Plenary Session: Closing

    Learning from Diversity: Interactive TV, Computers, and the Frontier of the Cognitive Sciences BIBA 197
      Scott McDonald
    The digital revolution has promoted the convergence of technologies that heretofore have been in separate spheres: television, computers, and telephones. Yet the dynamics of human interaction with these technologies retain some important differences. Indeed, the early testing of interfaces for interactive television indicates that the "conventional wisdom" derived from work in one sphere may not be wholly applicable to the creation of interfaces in the other spheres. Even after the digital data streams feeding all three technologies converge into one irreducible "atomic" substructure of zeroes and ones, the social contexts in which the three technologies are used may limit the transferability of interface design generalizations across the spheres. The current development scene, though unruly, chaotic, and competitive, offers a unique opportunity to use the diversity of approaches not only to develop optimal user interfaces, but also to advance the formulation of more general theories about human cognition and perception. Individual tiles do not automatically make a mosaic; they need to be organized to create some picture or design. As we work on our separate and diverse interfaces, we should not fail to meet this larger challenge of theory development.

    Short Papers: Information Visualization

    Designing Glyphs to Exploit Patterns in Multidimensional Datasets BIBAK 198-199
      Christopher Joslyn; Clayton Lewis; Brigitta Domik
    Designing glyphs for revealing patterns in multidimensional data has been largely a trial-and-error process. We suggest that characteristics of human texture perception can provide useful guidance, allowing more effective glyphs to be designed. Using a combination of empirical study of existing glyphs and analysis of the Bergen and Landy [1] model of texture perception, we developed improved versions of existing glyphs and a new glyph, all effective in revealing certain simple regularities in data.
    Keywords: Glyphs, Iconic displays, Multidimensional data, Pattern detection, Visualization, Visual perception
    Livemap -- A System for Viewing Multiple Transparent and Time-Varying Planes in Three Dimensional Space BIBAKHTML 200-201
      Robert Silvers
    Livemap dynamically combines related components of time-varying data to provide a context-relevant view into an information landscape. Livemap facilitates a display of increased density by layering content that contains transparent elements and provides utility to help abstract areas of interest.
    Keywords: Layers, Transparency, Planes, Visualization, Stereo
    Automatic Generation of Starfield Displays Using Constraints BIBAKHTML 202-203
      Scott E. Hudson; Ian Smith
    In this paper we present an constraint-based approach to the automatic generation of starfield displays for use with dynamic query filters. This approach automatically transforms a specification of the data to be displayed into a dynamic query filter interface whose results are shown to the user in a starfield display. This transformation is accomplished by translating the data specification into a specification for a one-way constraint system and accompanying user interface objects. Both of these are compiled into fast, executable code to create a final program.
    Keywords: Starfield displays, Visualization techniques, Constraints, Graphical user interfaces, Dynamic query filters, Automatic generation
    Visualising Complex Interacting Systems BIBAKHTML 204-205
      Nick Drew; Bob Hendley
    The work described here is concerned with enhancing the visualisation of complex software systems (in particular object-oriented systems [4]). The major concern is to provide a powerful and concrete visual representation of such abstract systems, through which a user can move seamlessly from viewing the architectural structure to considering low level detail. The main approaches are to use virtual reality techniques and self organising systems.
    Keywords: VR, Object-orientation, Software visualisation, Complex systems
    Issues of Gestural Navigation in Abstract Information Spaces BIBAKHTML 206-207
      David Allport; Earl Rennison; Lisa Strausfeld
    Navigating large multidimensional information spaces presents a set of unique problems for user interface design. The key challenge is not to provide fast and accurate object manipulation, but to prevent the user from getting "lost", and to provide an intuitive way to move through the space. We have developed an interface that uses electrostatic field sensing to interpret natural hand gestures as motion controllers. We are investigating the conceptual models that provide intuitive mappings from hand gestures to movements in multidimensional information space.
    Keywords: Gestural navigation, Conceptual navigation models, Input devices, Abstract information spaces
    Financial Viewpoints: Using Point-of-View to Enable Understanding of Information BIBAKHTML 208-209
      Lisa Strausfeld
    This paper presents Financial Viewpoints, an experimental interactive 3D information space that spatially and volumetrically represents a portfolio of seven mutual funds. 3D point-of-view is used to represent context and context shifts in the information and to allow users to view multiple representations of the information in a single, continuous environment. This project is the first in a larger and ongoing research effort to explore the notion of embodied virtual space.
    Keywords: Information visualization, 3D interactive graphics, Financial visualization, Point-of-view, Embodied virtual space, User interface metaphors

    Short Papers: Audio Interfaces

    Audio Augmented Reality: A Prototype Automated Tour Guide BIBAKHTML 210-211
      Benjamin B. Bederson
    Large information spaces are often difficult to access efficiently and intuitively with traditional window and icon-based interfaces. In this paper, we demonstrate Pad++, a graphical interface system based on zooming. Objects can be placed in the graphical workspace at any size, and zooming is a basic interaction technique for navigating. The goal is to provide simple methods for visually navigating complex information spaces that ease the burden of locating information while maintaining an intuitive sense of location and of relationships between information objects.
    Keywords: Interactive user interfaces, Multiscale and zoomable interfaces, Authoring, Information navigation, Hypertext, Information visualization
    Speaker Segmentation for Browsing Recorded Audio BIBAKHTML 212-213
      Donald D. Kimber; Lynn D. Wilcox; Francine R. Chen; Thomas P. Moran
    Audio recording is an easy way to capture the content of meetings, group discussions, or conversations. However the sequential nature of the media makes good indexing essential to the effective use of the recorded audio. One kind of index is speaker identity. We describe a system which automatically divides a multi-speaker recording into speaker segments and displays this information graphically. The tool allows a user to easily access the parts of a recording where given people are talking.
    Keywords: Multi-media, Auditory I/O, Speaker segmentation, Speaker identification, Audio indexing, Browsing
    Ear Tracking: Visualizing Auditory Localization Strategies BIBAKHTML 214-215
      William Joseph King; Suzanne J. Weghorst
    Auditory displays are an ongoing topic of human computer interaction research and have been shown to be beneficial in human interfaces. Further, binaural spatial acoustic displays are a topic of increasingly active research. As these virtual acoustic displays become more predominant, new methods for measuring user's perceptions and the display's effectiveness become necessary. A novel method for examining virtual acoustic displays, specifically localization strategies within these displays, is presented. This method is analogous to eye tracking in visual displays. Such a method may be useful in the evaluation of virtual acoustic displays and in the design of adaptive acoustic displays.
    Keywords: Binaural audio, Virtual acoustic displays, Auditory perception, Position tracking, Adaptive interfaces
    A Metaphor for the Visually Impaired: Browsing Information in a 3D Auditory Environment BIBAKHTML 216-217
      Mauricio Lumbreras; Gustavo Rossi
    In this paper we propose a conversational metaphor to provide an easy access to an information base in the context of a 3D aural environment. This approach tries to exploit the hearing sense at the outmost. We show that this approach allows us to build or to adapt current hypermedia interfaces so that they can be used by blind people.
       We analyze how to represent the static architecture of a virtual environment in which the user travels, comparing it with existing initiatives for enabling the visually impaired to have access to computer systems. We discuss how a (blind) user navigates through the environment, how he can manage and control the flow of information and how he gets oriented in this aural framework.
    Keywords: Hypermedia, Auditory I/O, Aids for the impaired, Metaphors, Virtual reality
    AudioStreamer: Exploiting Simultaneity for Listening BIBAHTML 218-219
      Chris Schmandt; Atty Mullins
    AudioStreamer exploits peoples' ability to separate the mix of sounds that arrive at our ears into distinct sources to more effectively browse multiple simultaneous channels of real-time or stored audio. AudioStreamer's listener interface enhances our ability to selectively attend to the source of greatest interest by making it acoustically prominent. It also augments our ability to perceive events in the audio channels which are out of focus by auditorially alerting us to salient events on those channels. The main contributions of AudioStreamer are the use of spatial separation and simultaneous listening for audio document retrieval and modeling listener interest to enhance the effectiveness of simultaneous listening.
    Musical vs. Real World Feedback Signals BIBAKHTML 220-221
      Cynthia A. Sikora; Linda Roberts; La Tondra Murray
    Sound families comprised of either musical sounds (abstract musical signals), communications sounds (based on traditional electronic signals), or real world sounds (based on naturally occurring, nonmusical events) were designed to provide auditory feedback in a graphical user interface. Typical business users mapped the sounds to functions and rated their confidence in the functional mapping. The sounds which mapped well to functions were then tested within the context of a graphical user interface business communications simulation. Users rated the pleasantness and appropriateness of each sound and selected the best sound for each function. In general, real world sounds mapped most reliably to the functions. However, users consistently preferred musical sounds to the real world sounds. Of the eleven feedback signals selected for specific functions four were communications based and seven were musical. None of the real world auditory signals were acceptable.
    Keywords: Auditory feedback, Auditory icons, Earcons, Sound

    Short Papers: Agents and Anthropomorphism

    Visual Annotation of Links in Adaptive Hypermedia BIBAKHTML 222-223
      Peter Brusilovsky; Leonid Pesin
    Visual annotation of links is a new technique for adaptive navigation support in adaptive educational hypermedia. This paper explains briefly this technique and reports preliminary experimental results of its evaluation. The results show that adaptive visual annotation is helpful and can reduce user floundering in hyperspace.
    Keywords: User models, Adaptive hypermedia, Adaptive navigation support
    Conceptually Adapted Hypertext for Learning BIBAKHTML 224-225
      Kelvin Clibbon
    Cognitive overload and disorientation limits the effectiveness of hypertext for learning. By cognitively adapting a hypertext system to the user and by providing instructional cues, the effects of these problems might be reduced. A quasi-experimental evaluation study is reported, with a view to testing the efficacy of this theory.
    Keywords: Adaptive hypertext, Hypertext based learning, Conceptual modelling, Learning styles
    "It's the Computer's Fault" -- Reasoning about Computers as Moral Agents BIBAKHTML 226-227
      Batya Friedman
    Typically tool use poses few confusions about who are understand to be the moral agent for a given act. But when the "tool" becomes a computer, do people attribute moral agency and responsibility to the technology ("it's the computer's fault")? Twenty-nine male undergraduate computer science majors were interviewed. Results showed that most students (83%) attributed aspects of agency -- either decision-making and/or intentions -- to computers. In addition, some students (21%) consistently held computers morally responsible for error. Discussion includes implications for computer system design.
    Keywords: Computer agents, Computer ethics, Intelligent agents, Social computing, Social impact
    Can Computer Personalities be Human Personalities? BIBAKHTML 228-229
      Clifford Nass; Youngme Moon; BJ Fogg; Byron Reeves; Chris Dryer
    The present study demonstrates that (1) computer personalities can be easily created using a minimal set of cues, and (2) that people will respond to these personalities in the same way they would respond to similar human personalities. The present study focuses on the similarity-attraction hypothesis, which predicts that people will prefer to interact with others who are similar in personality. In an experiment (N = 48), dominant and submissive subjects were randomly matched with either a dominant or submissive computer. When a computer was endowed with the properties associated with dominance or submissiveness, subjects recognized the computer's personality type along only that dimension. In addition, subjects not only preferred the similar computer, but they were more satisfied with the interaction. The findings demonstrate that personality does not require richly defined agents, sophisticated pictorial representations, natural language processing, or artificial intelligence. Rather, even the most superficial manipulations are sufficient to produce personality, with powerful effects.
    Keywords: Agents, Personality, Individual differences, Computers are social actors
    A Model of Optimal Exploration and Decision Making in Novel Interfaces BIBAKHTML 230-231
      Bob Rehder; Clayton Lewis; Bob Terwilliger; Peter Polson; John Rieman
    Users attempting to interact with an application for the first time are confronted with the problem of determining which command to execute in order to accomplish their goals. A "rational analysis" was conducted in order to determine how users ought to behave when faced with this decision problem. The resulting model is able to account at a qualitative level for a number of behaviors that users actually exhibit when trying to use a new application.
    Keywords: User models, Exploratory behavior
    The Use of an Automatic "To Do" List to Guide Structured Interaction BIBAHTML 232-233
      Ian Rogers
    Knowledge-driven editors can improve productivity by taking care of the low-level details of a design artifact, and by guiding the user through an interaction. Despite this, editors that dictate their knowledge too strongly can actually reduce usability by forbidding a sequence of interactions that the user has planned -- a sequence that may be the most natural to the user.
       This paper introduces the use of an automatically managed "To Do" list as the primary method for the knowledge agent to communicate to the user. The "To Do" list guides the user to a correctly constructed design artifact, without overly constraining the user.

    Short Papers: UI Specification and Programming

    Evaluating Program Representation in a Demonstrational Visual Shell BIBAKHTML 234-235
      Francesmary Modugno; Albert Corbett; Brad A. Myers
    For Programming by Demonstration (PBD) systems to reach their full potential, a program representation is needed so users can view, edit and share programs. We designed and implemented two equivalent representation languages for a PBD desktop similar to the MacIntosh Finder. One language graphically depicts the program's effects. The other language describes the program's actions. A user study showed that both languages enabled users with no prior programming experience to generate and comprehend programs, and that the first language doubled users' abilities to generate programs.
    Keywords: End-user programming, Programming by demonstration, Visual language, Visual shell, Pursuit
    Virtual Slots: Increasing Power and Reusability for User Interface Development Languages BIBAKHTML 236-237
      Francisco Saiz; Javier Contreras; Roberto Moriyon
    An extension to constraint-based user interface development languages is shown. It permits the abstract representation of constraints which must be applied to objects that are not accessible in the moment of the constraint definition. Using this mechanism, more modularity is achieved, as each part of information is stored where it is needed. Richer libraries of reusable objects can therefore be built in a natural way.
    Keywords: Constraints, Reusability, User interface implementation, Libraries
    Students' Use of Animations for Algorithm Understanding BIBAKHTML 238-239
      Judith Wilson; Irvin R. Katz; Giorgio Ingargiola; Robert Aiken; Nathan Hoskin
    Our goal in this pilot study is to explore students' behavior as they learn about two search algorithms, observing the role of algorithm animations. We find that alternative animations of the same algorithm may provide different information and facilitate different types of reasoning.
    Keywords: AI education, Visual reasoning
    Abstract Specification of User Interfaces BIBAKHTML 240-241
      Ole Lauridsen
    The paper discusses automation of user interface design and proposes a user interface design method that combines the use of formal semantic specification and rapid user interface builders. Based on formalized design rules, a user interface design proposal can be derived from the functionality of an application. The advantages of this method are: Automation of parts of the design process, automatic design evaluation, and automatic mapping to multiple user interface toolkits. The method will ease the transition from the functional design of an application to the user interface design by a semantically driven design of user interfaces.
    Keywords: Interface design, Automatic generation of user interface, Design process
    Interface Engineering in an Office Information Appliance BIBAKHTML 242-243
      Constance Fleuriot; David Y. Lees; Robert D. Macredie; Peter J. Thomas; John F. Meech
    This paper describes Wells, a prototype information appliance that supports communication, information exchange and information management between co-workers. The appliance is particularly targeted on the requirements of the relationship between managers and their assistants. Wells aims to integrate and coordinate a range of information devices such as phones, faxes, and email and incorporate it with diary-based information. In more general terms, Wells provides an opportunity to explore the issues of personal information management and the design of interfaces to appliances to support these activities [1].
    Keywords: Information appliances, Metaphors, Intelligent systems, Information management, Time management, Office applications
    Building Non-Visual Interaction through the Development of the Rooms Metaphor BIBAKHTML 244-245
      Anthony Savidis; Constantine Stephanidis
    Today, there are no tools for supporting non-visual User Interface construction. Computer-based applications accessible by blind users are merely non-visual reproductions [2] of interactive software designed for sighted users. Moreover, the above approaches explicitly employ the Desktop metaphor for non-visual interaction. It is evident that there is a the need for: (i) the design of interaction metaphors appropriate for blind users, and (ii) a software developer's library for building non-visual User Interfaces on the basis of these new metaphors. In this context: (a) a methodology for metaphor development has been constructed, (b) a metaphor called Rooms (not to be confused with other systems) has been designed, and (c) a toolkit for developing Rooms-based non-visual interfaces, called COMONKIT, has been developed.
    Keywords: Metaphors, Non-visual interaction, Interface toolkits, Aids for the impaired

    Short Papers: Pens and Touchpads

    The TrackPad -- A Study on User Comfort and Performance BIBAKHTML 246-247
      Ahmet E. Cakir; Gisela Cakir; Thomas Mller; Pieter Unema
    The user study on the TrackPad, a new touch tablet technology input device, was designed to investigate the impact of the use of the device on the biomechanical load and postural comfort of the users. In a one day test, the subjects, experienced Macintosh users, performed tests and worked on tasks, using a portable computer, that were organized to resemble normal office tasks and measure performance. The tasks included intensive use of the keyboard.
       The performance was measured by text editing tasks and eight Fitts's Tests with two levels of difficulty. The biomechanical load was measured and evaluated by means of EMG and postural (motion) analyses. General comfort and postural comfort was evaluated with questionnaires.
       The analyses of the EMG-measurements yielded no indication of progressive fatigue or increased muscular load from one session to the next. On the contrary, the recorded EMG-levels showed a decrease in muscular activity. The postural analyses indicated that undue deviation, extension, or flexion of the hands, which may cause discomfort, generally did not occur. The average values were within the limits given by the physiology of the human arm. However, personal preferences for the arm posture were highly different. When performing the text editing task with the TrackPad, during the training session, the subjects had already achieved a performance equivalent to 65% of mouse performance. A performance of more than 90% was achieved after two hours and 100% in the fifth hour session. This means that the learning period for such tasks will in practice be accomplished within one working day. The average performance achieved with the TrackPad for the eight tasks with Fitts's Test, during the last session, was lower than that with the mouse, but the difference was not statistically significant.
       The results of this study indicate that the TrackPad can be used for everyday tasks without causing postural discomfort or fatigue. In some respects, this device may even be preferable to the mouse, if the users can achieve the same level of performance.
    Keywords: Input device, TrackPad, Touchpad, Postural discomfort, EMG
    BITS: Browsing in Time and Space BIBAKHTML 248-249
      Antonio Eduardo Dias; Joao Pedro Silva; Antonio S. Camara
    Virtual ecosystems are virtual worlds representing real ecosystems. Humans have a limited perception of space and time and are poorly equipped to handle the flow of information generated in such environments. This paper focuses on the creation of an interface, BITS (Browsing In Time and Space), that allows users to browse through such a complex virtual world, interact with its objects and take notes. The pen and note-pad metaphor is used in an intuitive way, replicating a real pen and note-pad. A new concept of the use of this metaphor arises with the use of the space and time sliders.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, Pen-based input, Metaphors, User interface components, Virtual ecosystems, Browsing in time and space
    Translucent History BIBAKHTML 250-251
      Andreas Genau; Axel Kramer
    This paper presents an approach that visualizes object history by using translucent presentations. It extends the typical sequential presentation of an object history by a concurrent presentation of the object contents through time.
       Our goal is to enable the fluid refinement and animation of graphically presented ideas while exposing the changes to objects as a whole and not just in discrete steps.
       Translucency, as a mechanism, works particularly well if the object content is sufficiently spatially distributed.
    Keywords: Versioning, History-mechanism, Translucency, Interface metaphor, Pen-based interface
    Scribbler: A Tool for Searching Digital Ink BIBAKHTML 252-253
      Alex Poon; Karon Weber; Todd Cass
    Scribbler is a tool that enables users to search untranslated digital ink for target patterns such as words, symbols and simple sketches. By matching the raw stroke data instead of performing traditional handwriting recognition, Scribbler allows users to write quickly and naturally without being constrained to a particular writing style or a limited set of dictionary terms. This paper gives a brief description of the current implementation of Scribbler and discusses the results of a controlled experiment run to evaluate the matching engine's effectiveness.
    Keywords: Pen-based input, Digital ink, Information retrieval, Handwriting recognition, Handwriting matching
    A Virtual Oval Keyboard and a Vector Input Method for Pen-Based Character Input BIBAKHTML 254-255
      Minako Hashimoto; Masatomo Togasi
    This paper proposes a virtual oval keyboard whose shape is designed on the basis of the easily pointed area with a pen, and a vector input method where user can input both a vector and its origin with one wedge-shaped stroke. Since the shape of conventional virtual keyboards, a rectangle, is not suitable for rotational movement of a wrist, it forces much strain upon the wrist. And since non-alphabet keys frequently used in typing English texts, such as space, are assigned on the outside of alphabet key area on the conventional virtual keyboards, it is necessary to move the wrist excessively. The virtual oval keyboard fits a natural movement of a wrist, because a reclined oval is obtained as the easily pointed area by our experiment. In our preliminary experiment for evaluation, all subjects input faster with the virtual oval keyboard than with a conventional virtual keyboard. In the vector input method, four kinds of vectors enable users to input space, carriage return, back space and SHIFT at any position without moving a pen out of the alphabet key area.
    Keywords: Virtual oval keyboard, Vector input method, Wedge-shaped stroke, Pen-based character input
    MEMO-PEN: A New Input Device BIBAKHTML 256-257
      Shinji Nabeshima; Shinichirou Yamamoto; Kiyoshi Agusa; Toshio Taguchi
    We have developed a new input device, named MEMO-PEN. The MEMO-PEN is an ordinary ball point pen except for a capability of memorizing what it draws in itself. We can hold the handwriting in computers as it has been, and we can treat it as image data for favorite application. The pen is carrying a small CCD close to its tip to capture a series of not whole but partial snapshots in its memory. This paper presents a brief description of the MEMO-PEN system and an experiment on reconstructing a whole image from the partial snapshots. We also show that we can satisfactorily work out a whole image for 80% of more than 50 examples.
    Keywords: Pen-based input, Input device, Pointing device

    Short Papers: Workplaces and Classrooms

    Give and Take: Children Collaborating on One Computer BIBAKHTML 258-259
      Kori Inkpen; Kellogg S. Booth; Steven D. Gribble; Maria Klawe
    When two children work together on one computer, it is necessary for them to share the input devices. This study examines the effects of having multiple mice with two different control passing protocols: Give and Take. The results suggest that having two mice instead of a single mouse affects the performance of a pair of children playing on a shared computer. This result was gender dependent in that girls solved the most puzzles in the Give condition while boys solved the most puzzles in the Take condition. Moreover, boys in the Take condition exhibited a larger number of exchanges of control than all other experimental conditions.
    Keywords: CSCL, CSCW, Input devices, Interaction styles, Computers in education, Children
    Community Help: Discovering Tools and Locating Experts in a Dynamic Environment BIBAKHTML 260-261
      Carlos Maltzahn
    In a research community each researcher knows only a small fraction of the vast number of tools offered in the continually changing environment of local computer networks. Since the on-line or off-line documentation for these tools poorly support people in finding the best tool for a given task, users prefer to ask colleagues. However, finding the right person to ask can be time consuming and asking questions can reveal incompetence. In this paper we present an architecture to a community sensitive help system which actively collects information about Unix tools by tapping into accounting information generated by the operating system and by interviewing users that are selected on the basis of collected information. The result is a help system that continually seeks to update itself, that contains information that is entirely based on the community's perspective on tools, and that consequently grows with the community and its dynamic environment.
    Keywords: Group work, Help systems, Group memory, Unix, Research environments
    Timespace in the Workplace: Dealing with Interruptions BIBAKHTML 262-263
      Brid O'Conaill; David Frohlich
    We report findings from an observational study on the nature of interruptions in the workplace. The results show that in most cases, (64%), the recipient received some benefit from the interruption. However in just over 40% of interruptions the recipient did not resume the work they were doing prior to the interruption. Some implications for time management and communication technology are presented.
    Keywords: Interruptions, Workplace communication, CSCW, Ethnography
    Parallel Design in the Classroom BIBAKHTML 264-265
      Saila Ovaska; Kari-Jouko Raiha
    In parallel design the main goal is to produce design ideas worth investigating further. We have used a design problem previously solved by three experts as the term assignment in our HCI class. We discuss the wealth of solutions produced by the students and their relationship to the expert solutions. Together, the students could come up with more interesting ideas than the experts. On the other hand, for choosing one solution for further development the expert solutions stood out.
    Keywords: Parallel design, Expert and novice designers, HCI education
    Why are Computer Manuals So Bad? BIBAKHTML 266-267
      Charles Woodson
    Two experiments examined the utility of restructured help information as an aid to new users learning the UNIX commands trn and tin. In both experiments, the help information was reorganized to reflect the conceptual model or mental organization inferred from users response to questions, rather than the dictionary-like organization favored by programmers. A retention test showed higher scores on questions about the program, and student ratings indicated a higher opinion of the instruction they received, greater self-confidence in their knowledge.
       This paper concludes that the difficulties new users have with most computer manuals is the lack of correspondence between the user's schemata or mental model of the task, and the programmers conceptualization of the task upon which the manual is usually based.
    Keywords: Mental models, Computer manuals, Documentation, User training, Online help, Educational applications
    Reducing Visual Stress Symptoms of VDT Users with Prescription Eyeglasses BIBAKHTML 268-269
      Erik Nilsen; David Fencsik; Aidan Smith; Linda Solares; Scott Stratton
    The use of Video Display Terminals (VDT's) in modern information processing environments is associated with a variety of visual stress symptoms including eye strain, headaches, blurry vision and neck/shoulder pain. This study evaluates a method of prescribing computer specific glasses to improve vision and reduce symptoms. Thirty-seven computer users who suffer from VDT related visual symptoms wore two pairs of prescription eyeglasses for two weeks each in a double blind crossover experiment. The experimental glasses were prescribed using a Gaussian image testing device and the control glasses were prescribed using a standard paper Snellen chart. Data was collected on the frequency and severity of symptoms in their regular work environment as well as in a controlled laboratory setting. Results indicate that the experimental eyeglasses were preferred overall (p<.05). Visual stress symptoms were significantly reduced in frequency and severity for the eyeglasses prescribed using the Gaussian image testing device.
    Keywords: VDT, Eye strain, Visual symptoms

    Short Papers: Behavioral Issues and Studies

    Oh What a Tangled Web We Weave: Metaphor and Mapping in Graphical Interfaces BIBAKHTML 270-271
      William W. Gaver
    The relations among graphical representations, computer functionality, and everyday objects are more complex than terms like "the desktop metaphor" may suggest. While metaphors in the everyday world highlight similarities between preexisting entities, interface metaphors create new ones. New computer entities can also be created without metaphor, when existing elements are combined by conceptual structuring. Naming such constructs, however, may involve yet another metaphor, between the functionality suggested graphically and that implied by the name. In sum, interface representations -- which can only be called "metaphors" metaphorically -- are complex and confusing, but this leads to a flexibility and power that may be lost if simpler mappings are used.
    Keywords: Mapping, Metaphor, Semiotics
    To Influence Time Perception BIBAKHTML 272-273
      Erik Geelhoed; Peter Toft; Suzanne Roberts; Patrick Hyland
    Within IT there are no studies on how to reduce waiting time perception. We demonstrate the relevance of this issue within the context of synchronous voice and data communication and conclude that waiting time perception can be reduced.
    Keywords: CSCW, Time perception, User interface
    A Poor Quality Video Link Affects Speech But Not Gaze BIBAKHTML 274-275
      Andrew F. Monk; Leon Watts
    Thirty two members of the general public worked remotely from one another in pairs on some simple joint tasks. All the pairs had high quality audio links and were able to see one another's faces through an on-screen video image. For half the pairs this image was small (40 x 65 mm) and for the other half it was large (103 x 140mm). The conversations were analysed in terms of gaze focus (looking at the video image or elsewhere) and speech (speaking or silent). It is concluded that the small video image results in more formal and less fluent verbal interaction but gaze behaviour is unaltered.
    Keywords: Video communication, CSCW, Analysis of conversation
    Improved Reasoning with Convince Me BIBAKHTML 276-277
      Patricia Schank; Michael Ranney
    This paper describes Convince Me, a tool for generating and analyzing arguments. Results indicate that the system makes people better reasoners while they employ it, and yields transfer to situations unsupported by the software.
    Keywords: Connectionism, Reasoning, Instruction
    Looking and Lingering as Conversational Cues in Video-Mediated Communication BIBAHTML 278-279
      Herbert L. Colston; Diane J. Schiano
    A study is described in which observers rated the difficulty people had in solving problems, based either upon simply how long the person looked at each problem, or also how long his or her gaze lingered on it after being instructed to move on. Initial results show a linear relationship between gaze duration and rated difficulty, with lingering as an added significant factor. These findings are discussed in terms of the role(s) gaze cues play in tracking understanding in conversations, with implications for the design of video-mediated communication (VMC) systems.
    Dynamic What-If Analysis: Exploring Computational Dependencies with Slidercells and Micrographs BIBAKHTML 280-281
      Staffan Truve
    The use of spreadsheets for what-if analyses can be simplified by allowing cell values to be set by small sliders and displayed as micro-graphs. The sliders define a range in which a cell value will be varied, and the graphs illustrate how other cell values vary when the slider-cell has a value in that range. The resulting mode of operation emphasizes interaction between the system and the user in searching for a desirable value of a cell, and also illustrates the stability of that value by showing the value in a context around it.
    Keywords: Spreadsheet, Dynamic queries, What-if analysis

    Short Papers: Usability Evaluation

    A Comparison of Four Navigation Techniques in a 2D Browsing Task BIBAKHTML 282-283
      Victor Kaptelinin
    Four window navigation techniques were compared in the experiment: scroll bars, dragging, and two modifications of a "bird's eye view." It was found that standard scroll bar navigation was associated with the slowest performance and was rated by the subjects as least preferable. The best performance and the highest preference ranks were observed under the "bird's eye view" conditions. Individual differences between subjects and the potential role of task specificity are discussed.
    Keywords: Windows, Navigation techniques
    The Effect of Computer Experience on Subjective and Objective Software Usability Measures BIBAHTML 284-285
      George V. Kissel
    In the user-centered approach to software design and development, end-users act as evaluators in usability tests at various points during the development life-cycle. Some usability professionals argue that these usability tests simply reflect the preferences of the participants and should not be used in place of objective performance measures. In an attempt to strengthen the validity of the user-centered approach, the present study examined the association between subjective preference measures and objective performance measures in relation to the user's hardware and software use and familiarity. The results suggest that not only do the subjective ratings of end-user evaluators often differ from objective performance measures, but also that this relationship is dependent on the user's past computer experience.
    Apple Guide: A Case Study in User-Aided Design of Online Help BIBAKHTML 286-287
      Kevin Knabe
    Apple Guide, the new online help system in Macintosh system software, provides a standard human interface to online help on the Macintosh. It is the culmination of extensive study at Apple of how users can work most effectively with online help. This paper summarizes several of the major studies in Apple's research, briefly describing the research methods used, major findings, and how those findings contributed to the design of Apple Guide.
    Keywords: Online help, User studies, Instructional design
    Why are Geographic Information Systems Hard to Use? BIBAKHTML 288-289
      Carol Traynor; Marian G. Williams
    Geographic Information System (GIS) software evolved out of the fields of geography, cartography, and database management. As a result, off-the-shelf GIS software requires the user to have or to acquire considerable knowledge of these fields. Navigation through the interfaces of most off-the-shelf GIS software is difficult because they support a system architecture view, rather than a view of the user's work. These problems are compounded for users with little computing experience. In many workplaces, a single technical user becomes the local GIS expert, and acts as a surrogate for other users who have neither the expertise to use the software nor the resources to acquire that expertise. In this paper, we summarize our analysis of what makes GIS so hard to use, and describe our research directions toward designing effective GIS software for non-specialist users.
    Keywords: Geographic information systems, Participatory design, Task analysis
    User Action Graphing Effort (UsAGE) BIBAKHTML 290-291
      Dana Uehling; Karl Wolf
    This paper describes a prototype usability test tool which will automate detection of serious usability problems. The tool records the actions that a user makes while performing a predefined application task. Currently the tool supports only user interfaces created with TAE Plus.
       Prior to a usability testing session, an "expert" user is recorded performing a task. The recording becomes a performance baseline. Later, during actual usability testing, a "novice" user is recorded performing the same task. The action recordings of the two users are then compared by the tool and the comparison results are shown graphically. The hypothesis is that by graphically comparing the actions of an expert and average novice users, a usability analyst can quickly figure out where usability problems (e.g. confusion with menu choices) arise with the user interface.
    Keywords: Usability testing, User interface design, TAE Plus
    Apparent Usability vs. Inherent Usability: Experimental Analysis on the Determinants of the Apparent Usability BIBAKHTML 292-293
      Masaaki Kurosu; Kaori Kashimura
    Correlational analysis of the evaluation data of the apparent usability with the inherent usability measures revealed that the apparent usability is more strongly affected by the aesthetic aspects than the inherent usability.
    Keywords: Usability, Screen layout

    Short Papers: Drawing, Painting and Sketching

    Diagram Entry Mechanisms in Graphical Environments BIBAHTML 294-295
      Wayne Citrin; Jeffrey D. McWhirter
    Although great strides have been made in the last 10-15 years in the development of systems that use graphical representations, very little work has been done in developing systems that help users input and edit diagrams efficiently. This paper describes an ongoing project addressing the design of one such feature of a graphical editor: diagram entry. We show how knowledge of the syntax and semantics of the language being edited allows us to design a more intelligent diagram entry facility.
    3D Painting: Paradigms for Painting in a New Dimension BIBAKHTML 296-297
      Julie Daily; Kenneth Kiss
    This paper describes the design process of an innovative digital 3D paint program. The system enables industrial designers to paint surface details directly on rough 3D models for the first time. Contextual inquiry into designers' work inspired a real-world metaphor of painting a physical model. This provided the foundation for making 3D tools as natural to use as 2D. Familiar 2D digital painting paradigms, such as brushes, layers, and masks, were extended to 3 dimensions without adding complexity to the interface. Our informal evaluation sessions have shown that with a cursory introduction, designers who have never seen the interface were able to paint 3D models as easily as they could sketch.
    Keywords: 3D painting, Contextual inquiry, Direct manipulation, Texture mapping
    Some Effects of Angle of Approach on Icon Selection BIBAKHTML 298-299
      Thomas G. Whisenand; Henry H. Emurian
    Over the past decade, research related to various aspects of human-computer interactions has become increasingly prominent within the human factors field. In that regard, the speed and accuracy of human motor movements associated with computer input devices has often been modeled by Fitts' law. However, most such analyses have not considered the angle of movement as a factor. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effects of the angle of approach for a mouse as the input device to select icon-like targets presented on a VDT. The angle of approach had a significant effect on movement time.
    Keywords: Icon selection, Fitts' Law, Input devices, Human performance modeling
    Color Adaptive Graphics: What You See in Your Color Palette Isn't What You Get! BIBAKHTML 300-301
      Suguru Ishizaki
    The color you perceive in a typical color palette is always different from the color you perceive when it is used in your color document because of simultaneous color contrast effect -- a phenomenon in which humans perceive the same physical color differently against different background. The effect is particularly problematic in the visual design of information graphics, in terms of its reliability and communicative quality. This paper presents a prototype of a color adaptive graphic system where simultaneous contrast effect is automatically adjusted such that the color perceived in a palette is preserved when it is used against various background colors.
    Keywords: Color, Simultaneous contrast, Color palette, Visual communication, Information graphics
    Mark Your Calendar! Learning Personalized Annotation from Integrated Sketch and Speech BIBAKHTML 302-303
      Robin L. Kullberg
    An intelligent agent learns the user's personal sketch annotations by gathering, integrating, and interpreting sketch and speech input. This agent-assisted, multi-modal interaction affords a natural and adaptable approach to graphical annotation of a personal datebook.
    Keywords: Multi-modal interface, Sketch input, Speech input, Interaction design, Intelligent learning agent
    Hyperbolic User Interfaces for Computer Aided Architectural Design BIBAKHTML 304-305
      Volkmar Hovestadt; Oliver Gramberg; Oliver Deussen
    We present basic ideas and a prototypical implementation of a graphical user interface intended for the architectural design process. The interface integrates CAD-like object manipulation and navigation through large data sets. Navigation and working area are not separated as done in prior work. Geometric transformations produce a deformed but controllable display of the data in the border area of the working window while normal working is possible in the untransformed center. The arrangement allows the user to shift directly from construction tasks to navigation tasks. Data reduction techniques have been implemented in order to reduce the cost of transformation and display.
    Keywords: Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD), Information visualization, Fisheye technique, Focus+Context technique, Interaction

    Short Papers: Multimodal Interfaces

    An Experimental Evaluation of Video Support for Shared Work-Space Interaction BIBAKHTML 306-307
      Mark Apperley; Masood Masoodian
    An experimental evaluation of video support for shared work-space software is described. Groups of two users worked simultaneously and cooperatively on a problem using Aspects on Macintosh computers in one of four scenarios. Each of these scenarios provided a different form of supplementary communication: audio only, reduced frame-rate video, standard video, and full face-to-face communication. Although the audio link had been found to be essential in an earlier pilot study, in this experiment there was no discernible difference in performance between any of the four scenarios. Nevertheless, users indicated that they were more comfortable with the face-to-face situation.
    Keywords: CSCW, Video, Evaluation, Shared work-space
    Voicefax: A Shared Workspace for Voicemail Partners BIBAKHTML 308-309
      David Frohlich; Owen Daly-Jones
    We report a pen-based study in which we provided voicefax facilities for the recording of animated voice, writing and gesture on a document background. The findings reflect some cumulative benefits of combining written and spoken media for asynchronous communication.
    Keywords: Multimedia messaging, Asynchronous communication, Workspace, Annotation, Voicemail, Fax, Pen
    Exploring Tabla Drumming Using Rhythmic Input BIBAKHTML 310-311
      jae Hun Roh; Lynn Wilcox
    We describe a system that enables the use of rhythmic input for exploring Indian tabla drumming. Rhythms drummed by the user on a pair of drum pads are mapped to tabla phrases using a hidden Markov model based recognizer. The recognized tabla phrases are played back to the user, while an animated visual representation of the phrase is displayed.
    Keywords: Multi-media, Tactile or gestural I/O, Auditory I/O, Intelligent systems, Educational applications, Music applications
    An Empirical Study of Collaborative Wearable Computer Systems BIBAKHTML 312-313
      Jane Siegel; Robert E. Kraut; Bonnie E. John; Kathleen M. Carley
    We report an empirical study of aircraft maintenance workers using wearable visual interfaces and collaborative systems to support troubleshooting and repair work. Preliminary results suggest gains in coordination and ease of work when users have shared hypertext, video and audio capability. Study results are being used to inform design and rapid prototyping of wearable systems for use in vehicle maintenance systems.
    Keywords: Wearable computers, Empirical studies, Collaborative work, Vehicle maintenance
    Pointing on a Computer Display BIBAKHTML 314-315
      Evan Graham; Christine L. MacKenzie
    Pointing movements with the hand were used to control directly a cursor to point to targets on a graphical display with different gain settings. A detailed analysis of both the cursor and hand movements showed how features of the movements scale over a wide range of distances and target widths. Cursor movements showed gain effects, while hand movements were relatively unaffected by gain. The results suggest that considering the behaviour of the hand, rather than the cursor, will lead to more effective modelling of human performance with certain types of pointing devices.
    Keywords: Human performance modelling, Input devices, Fitts' law, Pointing
    Negative Inertia: A Dynamic Pointing Function BIBAKHTML 316-317
      R. C. Barrett; E. J. Selker; J. D. Rutledge; R. S. Olyha
    In-keyboard isometric joysticks can give better performance than mice for mixed typing/pointing tasks. The continuing challenge is to improve such devices to the point that they are preferable even for pure pointing tasks. Previous work has improved joystick performance by considering user perception and motor skills. This paper considers the dynamics of the pointing operation. A dynamic transfer function for an isometric joystick is described which amplifies changes in the applied force to increase responsiveness without loss of control. User tests show a 7.8 +/- 3.5% performance improvement over a standard non-dynamic joystick. This feature has been incorporated into the TrackPoint III from IBM.
    Keywords: Pointing devices, Isometric joystick, Transfer functions, Index of performance

    Short Papers: Web Browsing

    The Audible Web: Auditory Enhancements for Mosaic BIBAKHTML 318-319
      Michael C. Albers; Eric Bergman
    Interest in the World-Wide Web (WWW), a collection of hypermedia information distributed across the Internet, has exploded with the advent of Mosaic, a graphical user interface for navigating the WWW. In spite of Mosaic's popularity, studies have found usability problems in the original interface, especially with regard to feedback, terminology, and adherence to GUI guidelines [2,4]. This paper reports on a preliminary investigation of auditory feedback as one approach to enhancing Mosaic's user interface. The Audible Web is Mosaic embedded with non-speech auditory cues intended to aid user monitoring of data transfer progress, provide feedback for user actions, and to provide content feedback to aid navigation of the WWW.
    Keywords: Auditory interface, World-Wide Web, WWW, Mosaic user interface, Mosaic, WWW browsers
    A New Paradigm for Browsing the Web BIBAKHTML 320-321
      Marc H. Brown; Robert A. Shillner
    This paper introduces DeckScape, a World-Wide Web browser based on a "deck" metaphor. A deck is a collection of Web pages; as the user traverses links, new pages appear on top of the current deck. All retrievals are done using a background thread, so the visible pages in all decks remain active at all times. Users can circulate through the pages in a deck, move and copy pages between decks, and so on. Our primary innovation is the use of decks as a general-purpose way to organize material such as hotlists, query results, and breadth-first expansions.
    Keywords: Interactive user interfaces, Information navigation, Interaction techniques, World-Wide Web, Mosaic
    CyberBELT: Multi-Modal Interaction with a Multi-Threaded Documentary BIBAKHTML 322-323
      Joshua Bers; Sara Elo; Sherry Lassiter; David Tames
    CyberBELT allows a viewer to interact with a multi-threaded documentary using a multi-modal interface. The viewer interacts with the documentary by speaking, pointing and looking around the display. The viewer selects the threads of the story to follow or lets the system navigate through the story. Feedback from the viewer evolves the story to present concepts she is interested in. We discuss the suitability of combining multi-modal interaction and multi-threaded narrative.
    Keywords: Multi-modal interaction, Interactive documentary, Information exploration, Dynamic story-telling system
    VGrep: A Graphical Tool for the Exploration of Textual Documents BIBAKHTML 324-325
      Jeffrey D. McWhirter
    Discovering the content and structure of textual files through keyword based search is a common task of computer users. However, the results of such a search is often difficult to understand and to use. This paper describes VGrep, a tool that facilitates keyword based search through large textual documents. VGrep provides the ability to formulate queries and present the results of the queries in an abstract graphical representation.
    Keywords: Word search, Visualization
    Showing the Context of Nodes in the World-Wide Web BIBAKHTML 326-327
      Sougata Mukherjea; James D. Foley
    This paper talks about a method to show the context of nodes in the World-Wide Web. World-Wide Web presents a lot of information to the user. Consequently, it suffers from the famous lost in hyperspace problem. One way to solve the problem is to show the user where they are in the context of the overall information space. Since the overall information space is large, we need to show the node's context with respect to only the important nodes. In this paper we discuss our method of showing the context and show some examples of our implementation.
    Keywords: Hypermedia, Visualization, Structural analysis, World-Wide Web
    Interaction Design for Shared World-Wide Web Annotations BIBAKHTML 328-329
      Martin Rscheisen; Christian Mogensen; Terry Winograd
    We describe the interaction design for a set of facilities that enable users of an augmented version of the NCSA Mosaic browser to read, write, and filter for annotations on arbitrary segments of World-Wide Web documents, and share them with any other such user.
    Keywords: Mosaic, World-Wide Web, Group annotation, Collaborative filtering, Seal of approval

    Special Interest Groups (SIGs)

    The CHI Tutorial Program: Just What is the "Common Ground"? BIBAKHTML 330
      Mark Altom; Marian G. Williams
    The formal feedback that is traditionally available to the tutorial program planning committee comes from survey questionnaires filled out by tutorial attendees at prior conferences. The surveys are extremely valuable for helping the tutorial committee decide whether individual tutorials meet the needs of attendees. However, the theme of CHI'96, "Common Ground," suggests that we can do more to shape the content and evolution of the CHI tutorial program.
       At this SIG, we hope to gather opinions and experiences that will help us look at the tutorial program as a whole. This is not the place to compliment or zing an individual tutorial. Rather, it is a place to help shape the future of the CHI tutorial program.
       Although we are the co-chairs for the CHI'96 tutorial program, we want to make it clear that this SIG is not a CHI'96 planning meeting. Rather, we hope it will be the beginning of an on-going discussion about what the CHI tutorial program should be.
    Keywords: SIGCHI, Tutorials, Common ground
    Contextual Techniques: Handling the Organization BIBAKHTML 331
      Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
    Contextual techniques, which ensure good system design by taking the designer out into the users' world, are revolutionizing the way organizations approach design. But since the techniques are still new and unfamiliar, practitioners still wrestle with the problem of marrying this new way of working to traditional development. This SIG gives practitioners the chance to hear others tell how they successfully overcame this challenge, to share their experience, and to get help and perspective on the specific problems they face. The SIG will interest practitioners and researchers concerned with gathering and using of field data in design, whether they do this now or would like to do it in the future.
    Keywords: Design process, Contextual inquiry, Customer-centered design, Ethnography, Usability, Team design, Domain analysis
    Visual Interaction Design Special Interest Area Annual Meeting BIBAKHTML 332
      Loretta Staples; Suzanne Watzman
    This fifth annual gathering will provide an informal opportunity for visual communicators at CHI to meet and share ideas and work. In the past, attendees have included practitioners in graphic and industrial design, design educators and students, and those interested in the visual design of interactive digital environments.
       Most of the meeting will be devoted to informal presentations by attendees who will be invited (through a VISUAL-L announcement) to bring design work to share. These may include demonstrations of recent work or works-in-progress, student presentations, and experimental pieces. A high-end Macintosh and PC will be available.
       A portion of the meeting will be reserved to discuss a proposed project for CHI'96 -- a functional "design studio" to be located within the Interactive Experience area of the conference. The studio would be "staffed" with volunteers for the duration of the conference to offer design feedback to conference attendees and to serve as a living illustration of the visual design process from the standpoint of design development, iteration, and critique.
       Preliminary discussion about this project has already taken place in San Francisco among a small group of Bay Area CHI members. Further planning on proceeding with this particular proposal will take place at this meeting.
    Keywords: Design, Graphic design, Visual design, Interaction design, Product design, Industrial design, Information design, Special interest group, Special interest area
    Current Issues in Assessing and Improving Documentation Usability BIBAKHTML 333
      Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey
    User documentation, whether in print or "built in" to the online user interface, is now a vital element of successful computer products. Managers and developers recognize that the common model of documentation as remediation for deficient design must not persist, but they often don't know how to build documentation usability into an ongoing product-development effort.
       Therefore, this meeting is a forum on human factors in computer documentation. With the growth of online user support and the increasing integration of documentation with the user interface, this SIG provides CHI'95 attendees a specific opportunity to discuss recent developments in documentation usability. Topics include:
  • Addressing documentation usability early in the product design process
  • Qualitative and quantitative methods for collecting documentation usability
       data
  • Roles and relationships among documentation specialists, user-interface
       designers, and software developers
  • Schedule and budget issues relating to documentation usability The structure of the SIG is informal discussion, moderated by the session leaders. If attendees have additional issues or concerns related to documentation usability, we welcome them.
       The first five minutes of the session will be used to create and prioritize a list of specific topics for discussion. We will audiotape the session and make either copies of the tape or meeting notes (depending on volunteers) available to the SIG participants after the conference.
    Keywords: Documentation, Documentation usability, Information development, Documentation standards, Usability testing, Product development
  • The Garnet and Amulet User Interface Development Environments BIBKHTML 334
      Brad A. Myers
    Keywords: User interface management systems, User interface development environments, Toolkits, Interface builders, Demonstrational interfaces, Lisp, C++
    Ergonomic Standards for Software: Economic and Design Implications BIBAK 335
      Patricia A. Billingsley
    In response to a 1990 European health and safety directive, the member nations of the European Union (EU) have begun to adopt minimum ergonomic standards for computer hardware and software used in office environments. Most EU countries have chosen to base their national ergonomic standards on the 17-part ISO 9241 standard, Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs. However, since most of the software-related parts of the ISO 9241 standard are still incomplete, countries cannot yet formally reference the ISO software material in their national regulations.
       In this session, we will discuss the different strategies EU nations have adopted to fill this gap, and their impact on the design, development, and marketing of software for European customers. The session will also address the impact of the European initiative on national and international ergonomic standards committees as they continue their efforts to develop reasonable and meaningful standards for software user interfaces. The final half-hour of the session will be set aside for an open discussion with the audience.
    Keywords: Software user interface standards, Software ergonomics, European Union, ISO 9241
    Usability Management Maturity, Part 1: Self-Assessment -- How Do You Stack Up? BIBAKHTML 336
      George A. Flanagan; Thyra L. Rauch
    This SIG is a follow-up to the "Issues in Human Factors Organization and Practices" SIG held at CHI'94. During that session, many people expressed interest in the assessment methodology used to evaluate the maturity of usability management in organizations. The intent of this SIG is to provide a forum for participants to assess their own organizations using structured evaluation methods similar to those that the SIG leader previously used in 53 organizational assessments. Participants in this SIG may also want to attend the follow-up SIG, "Usability Management Maturity -- Part 2, Usability Techniques: What can you do?" which explores techniques available for dealing with any weaknesses identified in the self-assessment.
    Keywords: Usability, Software, Human factors, Organization, Process
    Getting Respect: Beyond Lip-Service to HCI Contributions BIBAKHTML 337
      Harold H. Miller-Jacobs
    Do you have to fight to get funding for your HCIactivities? Does your organization pay lip-service to usability? This SIG will help identify tools and techniques that have been successfully used in getting smaller organizations to recognize the need and value of HCI studies and in particular usability evaluations.
    Keywords: HCI contributions, Organizational effectiveness, HCI tools & techniques
    Usability Management Maturity, Part 2: Usability Techniques -- What Can You Do? BIBAKHTML 338
      Thyra L. Rauch; George A. Flanagan
    This session is a follow-up to both the Special Interest Group (SIG) "Usability Management Maturity, Part 1, Self Assessment: How do you stack up?" held earlier today (an opportunity to self-assess the maturity of your organization's usability activities), and to the "Issues in Human Factors Organization and Practices" SIG held at CHI'94, at which interest was expressed in discussing ways to ascend the usability maturity scale. If you are from an organization with informal or no usability teams, then this is an opportunity to explore and discuss various tools and techniques (e.g. prototyping and user selection).
    Keywords: Usability, Software, Human factors, Methodologies, Activities
    SIGKID: Multimedia and Children BIBAK 339
      Lynn Rosener; Debra Lieberman
    This SIG will focus on the design of interactive multimedia for children and teens. Its purpose is to establish a community of researchers, educators, and multimedia practitioners who want to exchange information about the goals, interface, curriculum, content, format, and evaluation of entertainment and educational multimedia for young people. At the first meeting, participants will have the opportunity to explore basic issues and share practical ideas about the design and development of children's interactive products.
       The children's software and video game market is exploding. What are the ingredients of a successful children's product? A great deal of information can be found in the research literature and in educators' and practitioners' heads about children's special needs, interests, and abilities when it comes to interactive software, yet there is no easy way to find that information and integrate it into new products. A SIG focusing on multimedia and children would provide a forum for discussing recent developments and sharing resources.
       SIG participants will raise and define the issues, which may include:
  • Information needs. What should we know about children in order to design
       engaging and effective children's multimedia?
  • Design issues. What is unique about designing multimedia for children? How
       do children differ from adults in their use and understanding of interactive
       media?
  • Usability testing. What are some techniques to use when testing software
       with children and teens?
  • Access to research results. How can we develop products that draw on the
       latest findings in the research literature?
  • Access to each other. How can we stay in touch throughout the year?
    Keywords: Children, Education, Entertainment, Interface design, Learning, Multimedia, Research, Usability testing
  • Subjective Usability Feedback from the Field over a Network BIBAKHTML 340
      Bruce Elgin
    How can good continuous feedback about the effectiveness of a computer-human interface be obtained from distributed users?
       What kinds of useful subjective usability feedback can be obtained over a network? What approaches and techniques can be used to:
  • secure the willingness and confidence of users to communicate usability
       problems and concerns,
  • assist them in recognizing useful feedback,
  • assist them in communicating feedback with minimum effort?
    Keywords: Usability, Remote evaluation, Network, User feedback, User motivation, Subjective feedback
  • Computer Systems Technical Group (CSTG) Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) BIBAKHTML 341
      Martha E. Crosby
    This special interest group is one of the two yearly meetings of the Computer Systems Technical Group of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
    Keywords: Human aspects of interactive computer systems
    Using Speech and Audio in the Interface BIBAKHTML 342
      Stephanie Everett; Bill Gaver
    A workshop entitled The Future of Speech and Audio in the Interface [1] was held at CHI'94 with the goal of further defining the emerging area of sound in user interfaces and applications, and exploring applications, research areas, and interaction techniques that use audio in the interface. The focus of the workshop was on the "CHI perspective" of using speech and sound to exploit the audio channel for the user's benefit. This SIG is designed as a follow-on to that workshop; the focus of the workshop will provide the focus for this session as well.
    Keywords: Auditory interfaces, Speech interfaces, Multimodal interfaces, Sound, Acoustic displays, Sonification, Auditory perception
    Participatory Design Practices: A Special Interest Group BIBAK 343
      Elizabeth B.-N. Sanders; Elizabeth H. Nutter
    This special interest group will focus on participatory design and its methods, tools, and practices.
       The key idea in participatory design is that users and other stakeholders become direct participants in the design and development of systems, products, and spaces. This approach is different from more traditional design development approaches that employ users as respondents who react to and/or validate previously constructed concepts, ideas, models, and/or prototypes.
       GOALS:
  • To provide a forum for people with experience in participatory design to
       share methods, ideas, and experiences.
  • To provide an opportunity for people with an interest in, or curiosity about,
       participatory design to learn more about the field from the people who are
       currently practicing it.
  • To establish a network of participatory design practitioners who are willing
       to share what they have learned in practice in an ongoing manner.
    Keywords: Participatory design, Participation, User-centered design, Usefulness research, Exploratory research, Participatory analysis
  • Usability Lab Tools BIBAKHTML 344
      Paul Weiler; Bob Hendrich; Monty Hammontree
    This Special Interest Group (SIG) will be an update to panels and SIGs from previous conferences including CHI and the Usability Professionals Association. The intent of the SIG is to provide a forum for the exchange of new ideas and technologies in the area of usability laboratory tools. Experts in the area will meet to discuss and demonstrate recent developments in tools and talk about future plans. Topics for discussion include event logging, observation logging, video tape analysis, digital video, highlight tape production, remote usability testing, and other new techniques/technologies. Anyone involved or interested in usability testing is invited to attend.
    Keywords: Usability, Tools, Data collection, Laboratory, Testing, Logging, Video, Analysis

    Tutorials

    Introduction & Overview of Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKHTML 345-346
      Keith A. Butler; Robert J. K. Jacob; Bonnie E. John
    The objective of this special introductory seminar is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. The material will begin with a brief history of the field, followed by presentation and discussion of how good application development methods pull on the interdisciplinary technologies of HCI. The topics will include the psychology of human-computer interaction, psychologically-based design methods and tools, user interface media and tools, and introduction to user interface architecture.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Usability engineering, Human performance engineering, Cognitive modeling, Analysis methods, Interaction styles, Interaction hardware, User interface software, User interface management systems
    Interactive Learning Environments: Where They've Come From & Where They're Going BIBAKHTML 347-348
      Elliot Soloway; Kate Bielaczyc
    A historical survey of the various teaching and training technologies will be given. The architectures of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems, simulations, intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), microworlds, and interactive learning environments (ILE) will be described. In addition, the types of learning outcomes that can be expected from the various technologies will also be summarized. Emphasis will be placed on how the 90's computing infrastructure (e.g., high-MIP/GIP computation, high-bandwidth networks) will impact teaching and training, e.g., what is the role of multimedia, computer-aided design systems, ubiquitous access to information, the home information appliance, in learning? What will the impact be as we transition from User-Centered Design to Learner-Centered Design? Case studies from real instructional systems will be used to illustrate the main points in the tutorial.
    Keywords: Education & computers, Interactive learning environments, Intelligent tutoring systems, Constructionism
    Methods of Cognitive Analysis for HCI BIBAKHTML 349-350
      Douglas J. Gillan; Nancy J. Cooke
    This tutorial teaches participants about methods used to measure cognitive content, structure, and processes in an active hands-on manner, and how to apply those methods to HCI. The structure of the tutorial centers around the phases of a design process; the areas of cognition addressed are perception, memory, language, and thinking. For the initial analytical phase of design, the tutorial describes methods for measuring visual search, the structure of semantic memory, and process tracing. Methods for measuring readability and comprehension, as well as memory recall and recognition are applied to data from the second phase -- design and diagnostic testing. For the third phase -- system testing, the discussion focuses on scaling methods and statistical techniques.
    Keywords: Cognition, Cognitive task analysis, Design, User testing
    Enabling Technology for Users with Special Needs BIBAKHTML 351-352
      Alan Edwards; Alistair D. N. Edwards; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
    The field of human-computer interface design profits from understanding potential users and exploring difficult design problems. Addressing the design of enabling technology for users with special needs offers both those advantages. Adapting computer interfaces for access and use by people with various physical and cognitive impairments exposes many basic human-computer interface design issues. Likewise, these efforts will result in computer interfaces which are more attractive and usable by all.
    Keywords: Disability, Human-computer interaction, Rehabilitation engineering, Users with special needs
    Cognitive Factors in Design: Basic Phenomena in Human Memory and Problem Solving BIBAKHTML 353-354
      Thomas T. Hewett
    This tutorial provides a "hands-on" (actually, "minds-on") exploration of several basic processes and phenomena of human memory, and problem solving. The emphasis is on developing both intuitive and formal knowledge which can serve as background knowledge useful in making educated design judgments when design guidelines fail, conflict, or are nonexistent. The demonstrations used emphasize phenomena with which any theory of memory or problem solving must deal. In addition, the tutorial suggests some of the general implications of these phenomena for designing interactive computing systems.
    Keywords: Memory, Problem solving, Design, Models of the user
    Groupware and Workflow: A Survey of Systems and Behavioral Issues BIBAKHTML 355-356
      Steven Poltrock; Jonathan Grudin
    This course describes the origin and composition of groupware and workflow management, and discusses significant behavioral and social (as contrasted with technical) challenges to successful development. Recent research prototypes and commercial products are covered, focusing on advances in supporting communication, cooperation, and coordination (primarily through workflow management). Finally, we describe several approaches to addressing the behavioral and social obstacles. Video illustrations of systems and issues are used throughout the tutorial.
    Keywords: Groupware, Workflow, Computer-supported cooperative work, Computer-mediated communication, Collaborative work, Electronic mail, Computer-supported meetings, Desktop conferencing, Video conferencing, Coordination, Organizational design
    Managing the Design of the User Interface BIBAKHTML 357-358
      Deborah J. Mayhew
    The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of practical methods and techniques for managing the process of designing good user interfaces. The tutorial is organized around a typical, modern project life cycle, and presents human factors methods which can be applied at different points in the development process. Methods and techniques presented include not only information gathering, design and evaluation techniques, but also organizational and managerial strategies.
    Keywords: System design, Implementation and use, Analysis methods, Managing human factors in system development, Cost-benefit analysis, Organization of human factors
    Contextual Inquiry: Grounding Your Design in Users' Work BIBAKHTML 359-360
      Anne Smith Duncan; Minette A. Beabes
    Contextual Inquiry [4] is a synthesis of ethnographic, field research, and participatory design [8] methods that provide designers with grounded and detailed knowledge of user work as a basis for their design. The tutorial provides an understanding of the fundamental principles behind Contextual Inquiry and practical experiences with methods for data gathering and data analysis.
    Keywords: Contextual inquiry, Participatory design, Ethnographic methods, Qualitative research, Requirements, System design
    Introduction to Object-Oriented Design: A Minimalist Approach BIBAKHTML 361-362
      Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll
    The tutorial takes a minimalist approach to introducing object-oriented design (OOD): Students begin working on design projects immediately, creating object models of user task scenarios, and elaborating these models throughout the day to develop a complete design. The students learn methods of responsibility-driven design, as well as how to generalize from a single problem to support class and framework reuse.
    Keywords: Object-oriented design, Object-oriented programming, Scenario-based design
    Global User Interface Design BIBAKHTML 363-364
      Tony Fernandes
    Computer software products have become a world-wide commodity. Yet little thought is given to how products that are shipped internationally should be designed to maintain a high level of usability. This tutorial looks at how this issue should be addressed in the user interface through interaction design, visual design, and through an understanding of the world's cultural differences.
    Keywords: International, User interface design, Diversity, Culture; Internationalization, Globalization, Software Localization
    An Introduction to the Internet and the World Wide Web BIBAKHTML 365-366
      Bill Hefley; John "Scooter" Morris
    The Internet has become an important aspect of the profession of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), both as part of the design landscape, and as an important resource for information related to HCI and related fields and technologies. This tutorial will present an introduction to the technology and history which has led to the current Internet, discuss some of the services and tools which are commonly used to access the Internet, and provide some guidance and experience on how to begin searching the Internet for information. In addition, a specific technology which is rapidly becoming one of the central mechanisms for providing information on the Internet, the World Wide Web, will be presented and explored in detail.
    Keywords: Internet, World Wide Web (WWW), Interactive systems design, HCI resources, Hypermedia
    Tools and Trade-Offs: Making Wise Choices for User-Centered Design BIBAKHTML 367-368
      Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey; Judee Humburg; Anne Seeley
    How can we choose among customer data collection methods when limited staff and financial resources must be spread across the whole development cycle? This tutorial helps participants understand the tradeoffs, so they can make effective choices among methods at different points during product design and development. It focuses on early user-centered intervention to gain cost-effective, reusable end-user information.
    Keywords: User-centered design, Design methodologies, Product life cycle, Product development cycle, User data collection, Customer data collection, Usability, Documentation usability, Documentation design, Functional specifications
    Practical Usability Evaluation BIBAKHTML 369-370
      Gary Perlman
    Practical Usability Evaluation is an introduction to cost-effective, low-skill, low-investment methods of usability assessment. The methods include (1) Inspection Methods (e.g., heuristic evaluation), (2) Observational Skills and Video (including user testing with think-aloud protocols), (3) Program Instrumentation, and (4) Questionnaires. The tutorial features many step-by-step procedures to aid in evaluation plan design.
    Keywords: User interface, Evaluation/methodology, Software engineering, Tools and techniques, User interfaces, Information systems, User/machine systems, Human factors
    Converting to Graphical User Interfaces: Design Guidelines for Success BIBAKHTML 371-372
      Arlene F. Aucella
    This tutorial reviews published research, guidelines and case studies on ease-of-use for graphical user interfaces. Many text-based user interfaces are being converted into graphical user interface platforms. This tutorial emphasizes using graphical user interface components without undermining good principles of design.
       Course topics include windows, icons, menus and dialogue boxes. Usability aspects of commercial graphical interfaces such as Apple Macintosh, Microsoft Windows and OSF Motif are compared and evaluated. In addition, techniques for collecting user feedback and usability data are discussed. A multi-part class exercise gives participants skill in converting a non-graphical menu and forms-based user interface into a pull-down menu and dialogue box interface.
    Keywords: Graphical user interface design, Windows, Scroll bars, Icons, Dialogue boxes, Pull-down menus, Input devices, Usability engineering
    Metaphor Design in User Interfaces: How to Effectively Manage Expectation, Surprise, Comprehension, and Delight BIBAKHTML 373-374
      Aaron Marcus
    User interface design requires designing metaphors, the essential terms, concepts, and images representing data, functions, tasks, roles, organizations, and people. Advanced user interfaces require consideration of new metaphors and repurposing of older ones. Awareness of semiotics principles, in particular the use of metaphors, can assist researchers and developers in achieving more efficient, effective ways to communicate to more diverse user communities.
    Keywords: Consumers, Culture, Diversity, Graphic design, Icons, Information design, Metaphors, Multimedia, Rhetoric, Semantics, Semiotics, Symbols, User interfaces, Visible language
    Teaching User Interface Development to Software Engineers BIBAKHTML 375-376
      Gary Perlman
    Teaching User Interface Development to Software Engineers is an overview of the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation topics to teach and the resources to teach them to software engineers, the people who make most of the user interface design decisions. The goal is to improve the quality of user interface development instruction for software engineers and in turn improve the quality of the user interfaces they build.
    Keywords: Computer and information science education, Curriculum, Project and people management, Staffing, Training, Human factors, Management, Education, Software engineering, User interface
    Usability Inspection Methods BIBAKHTML 377-378
      Jakob Nielsen
    Usability inspection is the generic name for a set of cost-effective ways of evaluating user interfaces to find usability problems. They are fairly informal methods and easy to use.
    Keywords: Usability engineering, Heuristic evaluation, Cognitive walkthroughs, Pluralistic walkthroughs, Feature inspection, Consistency inspection, Standards inspection
    Designing Educational Computer Environments for Children BIBAKHTML 379-380
      Allison Druin; Cynthia Solomon
    This full-day, introductory tutorial will contain lectures and a hands-on design session, for educators and other professionals who are, or would like to be, actively engaged in designing multimedia environments for children. Participants will explore the special challenges and global implications of designing educational computer environments for children. Participants will begin this full-day tutorial with an introduction to past, present, and emerging technologies for children. This will be followed by a hands-on design session where elementary school children will join participants in designing and prototyping a new educational computer environment. Participants will leave this tutorial with a historical perspective on what has been done in this field, as well as actual design experience.
    Keywords: Children, Educational theories, Design process, Prototyping, Historical perspective, Interactive textbook
    Designing Icons and Visual Symbols BIBAKHTML 381-382
      William Horton
    This one-day tutorial teaches a systematic way to develop icons and other visual symbols. It shows how designers can develop consistent sets of understandable icons by treating icons as a language and applying accepted ergonomic principles.
    Keywords: Icons, Visual symbols, Pictographs, Design, Language
    Designing Hypertext Documents for the World Wide Web BIBAKHTML 383-384
      Darrell Sano; Carl Meske; Jarrett Rosenberg
    This all-day tutorial teaches how to create hypertext documents in HTML for use with the World Wide Web, along with visual design principles to make such documents pleasant and efficient conveyors of information.
    Keywords: Hypertext, Visual design, Graphical design, User interface design, Mosaic, World-Wide Web
    Diversity and Depth in Participatory Design: Working with a Mosaic of Users and other Stakeholders in the Software Development Lifecycle BIBAKHTML 385-386
      Michael J. Muller
    This advanced-level tutorial extends conceptions of participatory activities in software development processes. Diversity in practice begins with a re-assessment of two methods for participatory design -- CARD and PICTIVE -- to include applications in participatory analysis and participatory assessment. These experiences are generalized to a broader approach called PANDA (Participatory ANalysis, Design, and Assessment). Topics in support of participatory activities cover democratic processes for small groups, as well as theoretical and heuristic approaches to working with a mosaic of dissimilar people in terms of mutual validation, learning, exchange, and respect. The tutorial's themes are integrated in a closing discussion of participatory methods in the software lifecycle.
    Keywords: Participatory design, Collaborative design, Participatory practices, Usability methods, User centered design, User interface design, Task analysis, Requirements analysis, Usability assessment, CARD, PICTIVE, Bifocals, PANDA
    Usability Evaluation with the Cognitive Walkthrough BIBAKHTML 387-388
      John Rieman; Marita Franzke; David Redmiles
    The cognitive walkthrough is a technique for evaluating the design of a user interface, with special attention to how well the interface supports "exploratory learning," i.e., first-time use without formal training. The evaluation can be performed by the system's designers in the early stages of design, before empirical user testing is possible. Early versions of the walkthrough method relied on a detailed series of questions, to be answered on paper or electronic forms. This tutorial presents a simpler method, founded in an understanding of the cognitive theory that describes a user's interactions with a system. The tutorial refines the method on the basis of recent empirical and theoretical studies of exploratory learning with display-based interfaces. The strengths and limitations of the walkthrough method are considered, and it is placed into the context of a more complete design approach.
    Keywords: Cognitive walkthroughs, Usability inspections, Exploratory learning, Software engineering
    Contextual Design: Using Customer Work Models to Drive System Design BIBAKHTML 391-392
      Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
    Field data gathering techniques such as Contextual Inquiry enable a design team to gather the detailed data they need. These techniques produce enormous amounts of information on how the customers of a system work. This creates a new problem-how to represent all this detail in a coherent, comprehensible form, which can be a suitable basis for design? An affinity diagram effectively shows the scope of the customer problem, but is less effective at capturing and coherently representing the details of how people work. Design teams need a way to organize this detail so they can use it within their own development process.
       In this tutorial we present the latest methods for representing detailed information about work practice and using these representations to drive system design. These methods have been adopted over the last few years by major product development and information systems organizations. We show how to represent the work of individual users, how to generalize these to describe a whole market or department, and how to use these to drive innovative design. We present both the representation methods and the process by which we build and use them. Participants receive extensive practice in the techniques and also in the team skills necessary to do this work as part of a design team. We show how these methods fit into the Contextual Design process, which gathers field data and uses it to drive design through a well-defined series of steps.
       The tutorial is particularly appropriate for those who have used field techniques, especially Contextual Inquiry, and would like to put more structure on the process of using field data.
    Keywords: Design process, Customer-centered design, Usability, Team design, Domain analysis, Work modeling
    CPM-GOMS: An Analysis Method for Tasks with Parallel Activities BIBAKHTML 393-394
      Bonnie E. John; Wayne D. Gray
    GOMS is a family of techniques for analyzing human performance in terms of the Goals, Operators, Methods and Selection rules necessary to perform a task. Traditionally, GOMS has approximated human performance as perceptual, cognitive, and motor activities performed sequentially. However, many tasks require users to perform activities in parallel, e.g., visually searching for information, while listening to a customer, while typing. This tutorial will teach aversion of GOMS, CPM-GOMS, that predicts performance on such tasks and saved an industrial organization millions of dollars through the evaluation of alternative system designs.
    Keywords: GOMS, User models, Cognitive models, Analytic methods
    Designing for Complex Products BIBAKHTML 395-396
      Jared M. Spool; Carolyn Snyder
    Increasingly, software interfaces bear the burden for communicating new and complex concepts to users. To do this, the designer can employ create wizards, cue cards, drag-and-drop, or other similar techniques. Interfaces contain an ever-increasing amount of functionality. But, in order for these methods to be effective, they must be properly designed. How does the designer determine which approach is called for? How can the designer determine what the user needs? How can the designer create these tools so that they are effective?
       This tutorial examines the latest interface tools and the techniques for developing them for complex products.
    Keywords: Prototyping, Low-fidelity prototyping, Process management, Product development, Contextual inquiry, Modeling, Practical techniques, Wizards, Cue cards, Guided learning, Complexity management
    Models, Prototypes, and Evaluations for HCI Design: Making the Structured Approach Practical BIBAKHTML 397-398
      George Casaday; Cynthia Rainis
    Designing human-computer interaction can be a large and complex task. One way to manage that complexity is to divide design into smaller interrelated subcomponents; this is called the structured approach. It is an excellent way for a beginner to learn design and for a team to stay on track while doing design.
       However, there are some difficult parts of the structured approach that must be handled for the approach to be practical: A good selection of subcomponents must be made, the relationships among them must be taken into account, and effort must be allocated to them in balance. This tutorial teaches a robust, practical, and learnable route to the structured approach for designing human-computer interaction.
       The tutorial offers examples, templates, and practice on a specific set of design artifacts called intermediate work products and a process for creating and evaluating them in practical team design. The presentation is accessible to beginners but the techniques are taken from real practice and can be applied immediately.
    Keywords: Design process, Structured design, Modeling, Prototyping, Formative evaluation
    Intuitive Statistics for CHI Practitioners: Developing Understanding and Avoiding Bloopers BIBAKHTML 399-400
      Jeff Johnson; Robin Jeffries
    This full-day tutorial tries a new approach to teaching statistics to CHI practitioners. The approach avoids two errors common in statistics pedagogy: 1) snowing students with mathematics and 2) handing them "recipes" to apply without understanding. Instead, this tutorial focuses on building intuition and common-sense understanding.
    Keywords: Statistics, Experimental design, Probability, Intuition, Common sense
    Interface Issues and Interaction Strategies for Information Retrieval Systems BIBAKHTML 401-402
      Scott Henninger; Nick Belkin
    The need for effective information retrieval systems becomes increasingly important as computer-based information repositories grow larger and more diverse. In this tutorial, we will present the key issues involved in the use and design of effective interfaces to information retrieval systems. The process of satisfying information needs is analyzed as a problem solving activity in which users learn and refine their needs as they interact with a repository. Current systems are analyzed in terms of key interface and interaction techniques such as querying, browsing, and relevance feedback. We will discuss the impact of information seeking strategies on the search process and what is needed to more effectively support the search process. Retrieval system evaluation techniques will be discussed in terms of their implications for users. We close by outlining some user-centered design strategies for retrieval systems.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, User interfaces, Databases, Information systems, Interaction strategies

    Videos

    Exploring Large Tables with the Table Lens BIBAKHTML 403-404
      Ramana Rao; Stuart K. Card
    The Table Lens is a new technique for visualizing and making sense of large tables. By fusing symbolic and graphical representations into a single manipulable focus+context display and providing a small set of interactive operations (e.g. sorting), the Table Lens supports navigating around a large data space easily isolating and investigating interesting features and patterns. This high-bandwidth interactivity enables an extremely powerful style of direct manipulation exploratory data analysis.
    Keywords: Information visualization, Exploratory data analysis, Graphical representations, Focus+Context technique, Fisheye technique, Tables, Spreadsheets, Relational tables
    Visual Decision-Making: Using Treemaps for the Analytic Hierarchy Process BIBAKHTML 405-406
      Toshiyuki Asahi; David Turo; Ben Shneiderman
    The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a decision-making method based upon division of problem spaces into hierarchies, is visualized through the use of treemaps, which pack large amounts of hierarchical information into small screen spaces. Two direct manipulation tools, presented metaphorically as a "pump" and a "hook," were developed and applied to the treemap to support AHP sensitivity analysis. The problem of construction site selection is considered in this video. Apart from its traditional use for problem/information space visualization, the treemap also serves as a potent visual tool for "what if" type analysis.
    Keywords: Visualization, Treemap, Analytic hierarchy process, AHP, Decision support
    The DragMag Image Magnifier BIBAKHTML 407-408
      Colin Ware; Marlon Lewis
    Computer image magnification often results in the loss of the contextual information. Two image magnification prototypes are presented that solve this problem. In both the base image is shown at all times with lines connecting the magnified region on the base image to the magnified image. Both prototypes allow for smooth pan, scroll, and zoom of large 2D images with both coarse and fine translation movements. The second design implements a magnifying glass metaphor whereby the degree of magnification is controlled by the distance of the enlarged image to the magnified region of the base image.
    Keywords: Data display, Pan, Scroll, Zoom
    SageTools: An Intelligent Environment for Sketching, Browsing, and Customizing Data-Graphics BIBAKHTML 409-410
      Steven Roth; John Kolojejchick; Joe Mattis; Mei C. Chuah
    Our approach views data-graphic design as two complementary processes: design as a constructive process of selecting and arranging graphical elements, and design as a process of browsing and customizing previous cases. We present three novel tools for supporting these processes. SageBrush assembles data-graphics from primitive elements like bars, lines, and axes. SageBook browses previously created data-graphics relevant to current needs. SAGE automatically designs data-graphics, interpreting the user's specifications as conveyed with the other tools. The combined environment, SageTools, enhances user-directed design by providing automatic presentation capabilities with styles of interaction that support data-graphic design.
    Keywords: Graphic design, Data visualization, Automatic presentation systems, Intelligent interfaces, Design environments, Interactive techniques
    A Taxonomy of See-Through Tools: The Video BIBAKHTML 411-412
      Eric A. Bier; Ken Fishkin; Ken Pier; Maureen C. Stone
    At the CHI'94 conference we presented a new user interface paradigm, the See-Through Interface, that allows movable tools to readily be brought to computer-based work. On a computer display, see-through tools appear on a semi-transparent sheet that can be positioned over applications using either hand. The tools are applied by clicking through them with a cursor controlled by the dominant hand. This video quickly reviews the see-through paradigm, and then illustrates a taxonomy of see-through tools [1, 4] with examples from graphical editing and text editing tasks.
    Keywords: Taxonomy, User interface, See-through, Transparent, Multi-hand, Lens, Viewing filter, Button, Menu, Control panel, Macro
    The Movable Filter as an Interface Tool: The Video BIBAKHTML 413-414
      Eric A. Bier; Ken Fishkin; Ken Pier; Maureen C. Stone
    At the CHI'94 conference we presented a new user interface tool, the Magic Lens filter, that combines an arbitrarily-shaped region with an operator that changes the view of objects viewed through that region. On a computer display, Magic Lens filters appear on a Toolglass sheet that can be positioned over applications, much as a magnifying glass is moved over a newspaper. This video quickly reviews the basics of Magic Lens filters and then illustrates their evolution with examples of Magic Lens filters in use over a variety of applications.
    Keywords: User interface, See-through, Transparent, Lens, Viewing filter, Composition, Browsing
    Building a Distributed Application Using Visual Obliq BIBAKHTML 415-416
      Krishna Bharat; Marc H. Brown
    This video shows the construction of a distributed, multi-user application using Visual Obliq. In Visual Obliq, applications are created by designing the interface with a GUI-builder and embedding callback code in an interpreted language, in much the same way as one would build a traditional (non-distributed, single-user) application with a modern user interface development environment. The resulting application can be run from within the GUI-builder for rapid turnaround or as a stand-alone executable. The Visual Obliq runtime provides abstractions and support for issues specific to distributed computing, such as replication, sharing, communication, and session management.
    Keywords: UIMS, GUI-builders, Application builders, Distributed applications, CSCW, Groupware
    Lyberworld -- A 3D Graphical User Interface for Fulltext Retrieval BIBAKHTML 417-418
      Matthias Hemmje
    LyberWorld is a prototype IR user interface. It implements visualizations of an abstract information space: fulltext. The video demonstrates a visual user interface for the probabilistic fulltext retrieval system INQUERY. Visualizations are used to communicate information search and browsing activities in a natural way by applying metaphors of spatial navigation in abstract information spaces. Visualization tools for exploring information spaces and judging relevance of information items are introduced and an example session demonstrates the prototype. The presence of a spatial model in the user's mind is regarded as an essential contribution towards natural interaction and reduction of cognitive costs during retrieval dialogues.
    Keywords: User interface, Information retrieval, Navigation, 3D, Spatial perception, Visualization
    Organization Overviews and Role Management: Inspiration for Future Desktop Environments BIBKHTML 419-420
      Catherine Plaisant; Ben Shneiderman
    Keywords: Role manager, Personal roles, Desktop metaphor, Coordination, Window management
    Ariel: Augmenting Paper Engineering Drawings BIBAHTML 421-422
      W. E. Mackay; D. S. Pagani; L. Faber; B. Inwood; P. Launiainen; L. Brenta; V. Pouzol
    Ariel is an example of a new approach to user interfaces called Augmented Reality (see Wellner et al., 1993, Mackay et al., 1993). The goal is to allow users to continue to use the ordinary, everyday objects they encounter in their daily work, and then to enhance or augment them with functionality from the computer. Ariel is designed to augment the use of a particular type of paper document: engineering drawings. Computer information (menus, multimedia annotations, access to a media space) is projected onto a drawing and users can interact with both the projected information and the paper drawing.
       The design of Ariel is based on studies of users in a distributed cooperative work setting (the construction of a bridge) combined with a scenario-based design approach in which users contribute to the development of design scenarios. This video shows the third Ariel prototype. Future versions will continue to evolve, based on input from users when the system is installed at the work site.
    SYNERGIES: A Vision of Information Products Working Together BIBAKHTML 423-424
      Steve Anderson; Shiz Kobara; Barry Mathis; Dustin Rosing; Eviatar Shafrir
    SYNERGIES is a vision of how information products designed for everyday use will serve people in extraordinary situations. The year is 2001. Los Angeles is rocked by a major earthquake. Buildings collapse. Poisons fill the air. But a new kind of emergency response is underway. Equipped with various communications and information appliances which can be rapidly tailored to meet situation needs, a Neighborhood Emergency Team volunteer, a HAZMAT (Hazardous Materials) team, and an Urban Search and Rescue squad come to the aid of the victims. At the Emergency Operations Center, the nerve center for emergency planning and response, incidents are assigned priorities, resources are dispatched and logistics are managed. The underlying premise of SYNERGIES is that the most valuable information assets are informed people. Technology's role is to give people the facts they need to make decisions, and link them together to coordinate action. The interface concepts shown allow users to share information and communicate in the most direct and task-specific way possible.
    Keywords: Future, Vision, Interfaces, Earthquake, Information appliance
    The Tablet Newspaper: A Vision for the Future BIBAKHTML 425
      Teresa A. Martin
    The Table Newspaper: A Vision for the Future overviews tomorrow's portable information appliances and the ways in which we may interact with information. It explores the role a newspaper may have in the digital era and the form a newspaper may take as an electronic product.
    Keywords: Electronic publishing, Newspaper interface design, Tablet, Information appliance, Information interface
    A Three-Step Filtering Mechanism BIBAKHTML 426-427
      Masashi Uyama
    Computer systems should help users find useful software services and integrate such services into their tasks. The three-step filtering mechanism selects services that trustworthy colleagues have recommended. It then selects services specific to the context of the user's task executions. Finally, the mechanism discloses the selected services to the user dynamically and unobtrusively. This context-sensitive disclosure allows users to try out new services in their own task context. The disclosure is unobtrusive since users can ignore the disclosure and continue with their tasks. With the task-associated press, users can reflectively learn such ignored services.
    Keywords: Innovation-decision process, Collaborative filtering, Context sensitivity, Trialability, Intelligent interface, Reflective learning
    Tactile-Based Direct Manipulation in GUIs for Blind Users BIBAKHTML 428-429
      Helen Petrie; Sarah Morley; Gerhard Weber
    The increasing use of graphical user interfaces is making computer systems more, rather than less difficult to interact with for blind users. One solution is to create interfaces for blind users which are based on auditory and tactile information rather than visual information. The GUIB Project is developing such an interface making use of a number of different information sources: synthetic and digitised speech, non-speech sounds, braille and a touchpad. This video illustrates how the GUIB interface allows users to directly manipulate interface objects using a touchpad and braille display with cursor routing buttons. This gives blind users the same sense of engagement with the interface which sighted users gain from using a mouse.
    Keywords: Users with special needs, Blind users, Alternative interaction methods
    Voice Systems: An Inventor's Guide BIBA 430-431
      Chris K. Cowley; Dylan M. Jones
    After many years of research and development, computer speech technology has finally achieved a level of sophistication conducive to commercial implementation in a wide variety of domains.
       Speech recognition, synthesis, and digitization facilities are now available at low cost for most computing systems. Widespread implementation of voice systems in the commercial and private sectors has highlighted the need for systematic research into the unique attributes of the auditory modality in human computer interaction. In order for computer speech technology to achieve its long-awaited potential, it is vital for designers to support the implementation of increasingly sophisticated technology with a solid foundation of human-factors research.
       Contemporary research in these areas in the United Kingdom is taking place in a number of institutions, including: the University of Wales School of Psychology and Dundee University's Micro centre.
       The film "Voice Systems" examines a wide range of research projects which have been conducted at these institutions, findings from which will be of benefit to speech system designers in all potential implementation domains. The film describes research and development in many areas such as:
  • Voice annotation
  • Designing voices
  • Talking with machines
  • Speech recognition and error correction
  • Perceptual centering
  • Future potential
  • Workshops

    Cognitive Architectures & HCI BIBAKHTML 432
      Susan S. Kirschenbaum; Wayne D. Gray; Richard M. Young
    This workshop will focus on appropriate use of cognitive models for the analysis and solution of HCI problems.
    Keywords: Cognitive modeling, User modeling, Simulation
    From "Model World" to "Magic World": Making Graphical Objects the Medium for Intelligent Design Assistance BIBKHTML 433
      Loren Terveen; Markus Stolze; Will Hill
    Keywords: Model worlds, Magic worlds, Agents, Design assistance, What you see is what you want, Visualization
    HCI Challenges in Government Contracting BIBAKHTML 434
      Ira S. Winkler; Elizabeth A. Buie
    Governments spend huge resources on custom computer systems, developed by contractors to government specifications under government monitoring. Although a number of these systems involve defined usability efforts, a majority of the development efforts have little requirement for system usability. For these systems, usability generally relies on the awareness, skills, and perseverance of the developers. HCI practitioners face an exceptionally daunting task in government environments, because funding allocations for the various development activities are clearly defined very early in the development process. A relatively poor understanding of usability issues by most development and acquisition managers usually gives the HCI effort short shrift. Government HCI practitioners met at a Special Interest Group (SIG) Session at CHI'94 to discuss the challenges they face in their work assignments and to explore potential approaches to the challenges.
    Keywords: User-centered design, Government contracting, Organizational context, Analysis
    Increasing Collaboration between Industry and Academia in HCI Education BIBAKHTML 435-436
      Susan B. Hornstein; Maxine S. Cohen; Laurie P. Dringus; Andrew Sears
    This workshop will continue to explore issues in HCI education. Our goal for the workshop is to identify ways to increase the collaboration between industry and academia, providing benefit to both. To accomplish this we will bring together a diverse group of participants, evenly distributed between university and industry representatives.
    Keywords: Education, Industry, Partnerships, Academic-industrial cooperation
    Knowledge-Based Support for the User Interface Design Process BIBAKHTML 437
      Uwe Malinowski; Kumiyo Nakakoji; Jonas Lowgren
    The goal of this workshop is to develop a conceptual map for various supporting techniques for the user interface design process. Rather than applying a single technique, designers can use this map to decide which combination of supporting techniques is appropriate for their current task. During the process of constructing this map, opportunities and limitations of the technical combination of different approaches will be explored. In this workshop, rather than trying to find "the best approach," we use the assumption that combining the approaches increases usefulness as a prerequisite. No discussions about "which technique is better" are allowed.
    Keywords: User-interface design support, Knowledge-based approaches, Design environments, Combination of support techniques
    Gesture at the User Interface BIBAHTML 438
      Alan Wexelblat; Marc Cavazza
    The goal of this workshop is to explore the uses of, and research issues associated with, the use of empty-handed gesture at the user interface. This workshop will help disconnected research efforts become aware of each other and jointly work to identify issues that are important for progress in making full use of this mode at the user interface. It is our belief that the current set of disconnected research efforts addresses a common set of key research questions which need to be answered in order for gestural interfaces to make progress.
    Field Oriented Design Techniques: Case Studies and Organizing Dimensions BIBKHTML 439-440
      Dennis Wixon; Judy Ramey
    Keywords: Ethnographic methods, Field research, Participatory design, Qualitative research, Requirements gathering, System design
    Formal Specification of User Interfaces BIBAKHTML 441
      Christopher Rouff
    The goals of the workshop are to bring together researchers and practitioners to discuss:
  • 1. Issues and problems surrounding current specification techniques.
  • 2. Successes and failures in specification projects.
  • 3. How current techniques could be improved.
  • 4. Areas where current research should be focusing. Through this workshop it is hoped that better techniques for specifying user interfaces can be developed.
    Keywords: Formal specifications, User interfaces
  • Designing & Testing Groupware User Interfaces BIBAKHTML 442-443
      Jean C. Scholtz; Anthony C. Salvador; James A. Larson
    The purpose of this workshop is to provide a synthesized view of the computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) and groupware knowledge and literature as specifically related to user interface design and evaluation.
    Keywords: User interface, Design, Evaluation, Groupware, Multiple-user, Multiple-use, Human-computer interaction, Human-automation interaction, Human-human interaction
    Minimizing Bias in Computer Systems BIBAKHTML 444
      Batya Friedman; Helen Nissenbaum
    A few Novembers ago I walked into my familiar voting place -- the run-down social hall of a local church in Berkeley, California. The same old voting booths on tottering legs with scant curtains greeted me. Inside, however, was something new -- a computerized voting card. With a bit of fumbling and careful reading of the directions, I think I figured the thing out. Cast my vote. Participated in the modern democracy. But nationwide, computer punch card tallying systems pose serious problems for fair elections. In particular, under-educated groups are more likely not to understand how the computerized system works and, thus, to invalidate their own votes by either not voting for a position, or by voting for more than one person per position [1]. This example begins to illustrate how the interface design of computerized voting systems can favor some groups over others. More generally, the example speaks to the problem of bias in computing technologies.
       In this workshop we are concerned with understanding bias in computer systems and developing methods to help minimize bias through the design process. The workshop builds on the organizers' previous work, presented in Amsterdam at InterCHI 1993 [2,3], which provides a framework for understanding biac in computer systems. In the workshop, we apply this framework and draw on participants' research and design experiences to (a) identify common biases in computer systems, (b) generate design guidelines for minimizing bias, and (c) gain hands-on experience with minimizing bias in a design.
       WORKSHOP GOALS
  • To share with colleagues a framework for understanding bias in computer
       systems.
  • To provide a forum (opportunity) for colleagues to discuss issues of bias in
       computer systems that have arisen from their own design experiences.
  • To work with colleagues to identify a list of common biases and means to
       minimize them. For example interface designs that rely on color to convey
       information can become biased against people who are colorblind. Such bias
       against colorblind people can be avoided by encoding the information not
       only in the hue, but in its intensity, or in some other formal unrelated to
       color.
  • To work with colleagues to generate design guidelines to minimize bias. For
       example, rapid prototyping, formative evaluation, and field testing with a
       well-conceived population of users can be an effective means to detect
       unintentional biases in a design early on in the design process.
  • To provide colleagues with a "low tech" hands-on experience with minimizing
       bias in the design of an interface.
    Keywords: Bias, Computer system design, Design methods, Ethics, Information systems, Social computing, Social impact
  • Collecting User Information on a Limited Budget BIBAKHTML 445
      Alison Popowicz
    The aim of this workshop is to investigate and propose methods of collecting user information without a large market research budget. This will be done by brainstorming methods for collecting information and by participating in an exercise during the CHI'95 conference. The skills learned during this exercise will be valid for any product or project that requires information about end-users.
    Keywords: User profiles, Usability engineering, Surveys, Questionnaires, Design, Research
    Tools & Techniques for Visual Design Development BIBAKHTML 446
      Loretta Staples
    This one-day workshop provides an opportunity for experienced practitioners in visual design to share ideas, techniques, and methods for developing visual designs for interfaces. The range of techniques is expected to include ways to generate images, represent sequences, and iterate designs with respect to media, cultural context, and technology. Toward this end, each participant is expected to share a single useful technique with the group. This technique can be shared through example, demonstration, or case history. The only requirement is that the technique be presented as concretely as possible, in a manner that allows all participants to apply the technique. Possible examples might include:
  • The use of a specific tool or technology for generating drawings of interface
       elements with a focus on the attributes that make it preferred.
  • Non-digital techniques for visualizing and representing linear and branching
       sequences.
  • The analysis of media images in advertising as a basis for developing brand
       identity in a multimedia interface.
    Keywords: User interfaces, Graphical user interfaces, Visual interaction design, Graphic design, Design methodology, Visual representation, Tools
  • CHI'95 Basic Research Symposium on Human-Computer Interaction BIBHTML 447
      Cathleen Wharton; Janni Nielsen