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Proceedings of ACM CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Companion of CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Celebrating Interdependence
Editors:Catherine Plaisant
Location:Boston, Massachusetts
Dates:1994-Apr-24 to 1994-Apr-28
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-651-4 ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608941; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI94-2
  1. CHI 1994-04-24 Volume 2
    1. Introduction
    2. DEMONSTRATIONS: Evaluation
    3. DEMONSTRATIONS: Information Retrieval
    4. DEMONSTRATIONS: Education/Training
    5. DEMONSTRATIONS: Multimedia and Education
    7. DEMONSTRATIONS: Demonstrational Interfaces
    9. DEMONSTRATIONS: Virtual Reality Multimedia
    14. INTERACTIVE POSTERS -- Social Action Posters
    16. PANELS
    17. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Design in the Workplace
    18. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Accessing and Exploring Information
    19. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Supporting Distributed Work
    20. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Multimedia in Use
    21. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Expressive Interfaces
    22. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Multimedia Interfaces
    23. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Active Support for Interaction
    24. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Studies of Communication and Cooperative Work
    25. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Tools for Design
    26. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Auditory Information Interfaces
    27. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Accessing and Using Stored Documents
    28. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Social Aspects of Design
    29. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Designing Spoken Language Systems
    30. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Automatic Support in Design and Use
    31. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Evaluation Methods
    32. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Pen Input
    33. PAPER ABSTRACTS: HCI Research?
    34. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Design Evaluation
    35. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Information Visualization
    36. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Access to Organized Data Structures
    37. PAPER ABSTRACTS: GOMS Analysis
    38. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Visual Interaction Techniques
    39. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Designing Interaction Objects
    40. PAPER ABSTRACTS: HCI in the Real World
    41. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Evaluating Pointing Devices
    42. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Analysis of Programming Environments
    43. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Cognitive Models
    44. PAPER ABSTRACTS: Interacting in 3-D
    46. SHORT PAPERS: Design in the Workplace
    47. SHORT PAPERS: Multimedia in Use
    48. SHORT PAPERS: Modeling I/O
    49. SHORT PAPERS: Multimedia Interfaces
    50. SHORT PAPERS: Auditory Information Interfaces
    51. SHORT PAPERS: Social Aspects of Design
    52. SHORT PAPERS: Designing Spoken Language Systems
    53. SHORT PAPERS: HCI Research?
    54. SHORT PAPERS: Access to Organized Data Structures
    55. SHORT PAPERS: Visual Interaction Techniques
    56. SHORT PAPERS: Designing Interaction Objects
    57. SHORT PAPERS: Cognitive Models
    58. SHORT PAPERS: Enhancing Interaction
    59. SHORT PAPERS: Virtual and Visual Environments
    62. VIDEOS: Part I: Browsing Navigation
    63. VIDEOS: Part II -- Techniques for Improved Human-Computer Interaction
    64. VIDEOS: Part III -- Programming and Collaboration

CHI 1994-04-24 Volume 2


Introduction to the Technical Program BIB 1
  Thomas Landauer; Wendy W. Mackay


A Toolset for Systematic Observation and Evaluation of Computer-Human Interaction BIBAKPDF 5-6
  James Hicinbothom; Mark Watanabe; William Weiland; James Boardway; Wayne Zachary
The software engineering community is in need of tools that can provide useful, affordable usability testing and evaluation of design concepts throughout the software system life-cycle. Rapid interface prototyping tools help develop software products for potential users, but they are unable to perform the needed usability testing. The Intelligent Interface Construction (IICON) Evaluator solves this problem for advanced software systems that are built using OSF/Motif and the X Window System. It provides a systematic means of collecting objective observations of the computer-human interaction dialogue of interest, an extensive database capability supporting all phases of the evaluation process, and an extensible set of analysis tools.
Keywords: Evaluation, Observation, Tools, Dialogue analysis, Exploratory sequential data analysis (ESDA), Usability testing
Timelines, A Tool for the Gathering, Coding and Analysis of Temporal HCI Usability Data BIBAKPDF 7-8
  Russell N. Owen; Ronald M. Baecker; Beverly Harrison
The gathering and analysis of temporal data is an important and difficult step in evaluating interactive systems. Generation of large sets of data using keystroke capture or video tape is deceptively simple. The real difficulty lies in analyzing this data. Timelines addresses this problem of coding the video and searching such temporal data for patterns.
Keywords: User interface evaluation, Usability studies, Data visualization, Video analysis

DEMONSTRATIONS: Information Retrieval

Workscape: A Scriptable Document Management Environment BIBAKPDF 9-10
  Peter Lucas; Lauren Schneider
Workscape is a prototype office document management system designed to break the barriers between various types of electronic documents. It provides users with a common user interface for direct and scripted manipulation of information of heterogeneous forms and from diverse sources. Workscape is comprised of a client/server architecture, a three-dimensional direct manipulation interface, and an asynchronous scripting environment. The system provides a platform for the cost-effective development of highly customized applications in many task domains.
Keywords: Document management, Three dimensional interface, Unifying data sources, Objectification, Scriptability
InfoCrystal: A Visual Tool for Information Retrieval & Management BIBAKPDF 11-12
  Anselm Spoerri
This demonstration introduces the InfoCrystal that can be used both as a visualization tool and a visual query language to help users search for information. The InfoCrystal visualizes all the possible binary as well as continuous relationships among N concepts. Users can assign relevance weights to the concepts and set a threshold to select relationships of interest. The InfoCrystal allows users to specify Boolean as well as vector-space queries graphically. Arbitrarily complex queries can be created by using the InfoCrystals as building blocks and organizing them in a hierarchical structure. The InfoCrystal enables users to explore and filter information in a flexible, dynamic and interactive way.
Keywords: Information visualization, Visual query language, Information retrieval, Graphical user interface

DEMONSTRATIONS: Education/Training

Studying Motion with KidVid, A Data Collection and Analysis Tool for Digitized Video BIBAKPDF 13-14
  Andee Rubin; Dewi Win
With the support of a grant from the Applications of Advanced Technologies Program of the National Science Foundation, the VIEW project at TERC investigates how to use the power of video to help middle school students learn the mathematical concepts of change over time. Video is an appropriate medium for studying processes that take place over time since it renders transient events permanent, making them available for analysis and replication. By using video as a data collection device, students explore previously inaccessible aspects of the world, such as the motion of animals walking, plants growing, or wheels spinning. Video also provides a means for students to apply graphical, kinesthetic, and linguistic representations of mathematical relationships to obtain more solid understandings of motion. Toward this end, VIEW is designing software tools for students to extract measurements from digitized video.
Keywords: Video-based laboratories, Digitized video, Motion velocity, Change over time, Multimedia, Data collection, Data analysis, Middle school mathematics
DIME: Distributed Intelligent Multimedia Education BIBAKPDF 15-16
  Bob Radlinski; Michael E. Atwood; Michael Villano
The DIME (Distributed Intelligent Multimedia Education) system is a desktop learning environment that provides computer-based instruction, regardless of the students' or instructors' physical location. The DIME system currently has four components: an intelligent tutor; a CSCW facility; an on-line video library; and a two-way video link. Collectively, these components provide students with the ability to independently review and practice newly learned concepts and to collaborate with remote instructors or with other students.
Keywords: Intelligent tutoring, Distance learning, CSCW, Training, Multimedia

DEMONSTRATIONS: Multimedia and Education

Media Fusion: An Application of Model-Based Communication BIBAKPDF 17-18
  R. D. Borovoy; E. B. W. Cooper; R. K. E. Bellamy
Model-Based Communication (MBC) is a technology that enhances electronic communication with "conversational props". This technology has been applied to the educational domain, the resulting application is called Media Fusion. Media Fusion seeks to support learning by linking video and text messaging to data analysis tools in order to encourage communication and reflection.
Keywords: Collaboration, Learning, Multimedia
The Development of an Interactive Multimedia Courseware Program Highlighting Visual Momentum BIBAKPDF 19-20
  Wayne C. Neale; Pamela Kurstedt
In an application serving a freshman engineering course, visual momentum is used to demonstrate the conceptual integration of information that exists in tabular, mathematical, and graphical form. Visual momentum is a design technique that cognitively integrates information across displays. The increasingly complex and novel multimedia interfaces require new research and new techniques that will ensure usability. Furthermore, when an interface is used to instruct, additional effort and new techniques are required to create a learning situation. The concept of visual momentum is introduced to the interface of a multimedia courseware program named "World of Quality."
Keywords: Multimedia, Interface design, Courseware, Cognition, Learning, Visual momentum


The Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory BIBAKPDF 21
  S. E. McDaniel; G. M. Olson; T. E. Weymouth; C. E. Rasmussen; A. Prakash; C. R. Clauer; D. E. Atkins; L. R. Penmetsa; N. R. Manohar; H. S. Shim
This is a demonstration of a computer-based science collaboratory which provides real-time remote access to instruments located in Greenland and their data to space physicists located in the US and Denmark. The demonstration will include a connection to the instruments as well as to scientists using the software.
Keywords: Collaboratory, Graphical user interface, Computer supported collaborative work (CSCW)
The Collaborative Desktop: An Environment for Computer Supported Cooperative Work BIBAKPDF 23-24
  Konrad Tollmar; Hans Marmolin; Yngve Sundblad
The Collaborative Desktop, CoDesk, consists of a set of generic tools for CSCW, Computer Supported Cooperative Work. The Collaborative Desktop is an attempt to make collaboration a natural part of the daily use of a computer. Our way to achieve this is to put the user in the center of the computing in a similar way that applications and documents are defined and visualized in Apples Finders metaphor of the daily-work desktop. TheKnowledgeNet is a vision of a system for collaboration in teams where the members have access to a common base of information, including knowledge about who-knows-what. The design of CoDesk is based on its function as an interface to TheKnowledgeNet. Basic principles in the CoDesk interface are object orientation, direct manipulation, a structured room metaphor, generic communication and co-editing tools.
Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work -- CSCW, Knowledge organisation, User-centred design, Distributed systems, Multimedia communication, Direct manipulation

DEMONSTRATIONS: Demonstrational Interfaces

The Garnet User Interface Development Environment BIBAKPDF 25-26
  Brad A. Myers
The Garnet User Interface Development Environment contains a comprehensive set of tools that make it significantly easier to design and implement highly-interactive, graphical, direct manipulation user interfaces. The toolkit layer of Garnet provides a prototype-instance object system, automatic constraint maintenance, an efficient retained-object graphics output model, a novel input model, two complete widget sets, and complete debugging tools. Garnet also contains a set of interactive user interface editors that aim to make it possible to create the user interface without programming. Instead, the user draws examples of the desired graphics and demonstrates their behaviors. The demonstration will show the various parts of Garnet.
Keywords: User interface management systems, User interface development environments, Toolkits, Interface builders, Demonstrational interfaces
SAGE Tools: A Knowledge-Based Environment for Designing and Perusing Data Visualizations BIBAKPDF 27-28
  Steven F. Roth; John Kolojejchick; Joe Mattis; Mei C. Chuah; Jade Goldstein; Octavio Juarez
We present three novel tools for creating data graphics: (1) SageBrush, for assembling graphics from primitive objects like bars, lines and axes, (2) SageBook, for browsing previously created graphics relevant to current needs, and (3) SAGE, a knowledge-based presentation system that automatically designs graphics and also interprets a user's specifications conveyed with the other tools. The combination of these tools supports two complementary processes in a single environment: design as a constructive process of selecting and arranging graphical elements, and design as a process of browsing and customizing previous cases. SAGE enhances user-directed design by completing partial specifications, by retrieving previously created graphics based on their appearance and data content, by creating the novel displays that users specify, and by designing alternatives when users request them. Our approach was to propose interfaces employing styles of interaction that appear to support graphic design. Knowledge-based techniques were then applied to enable the interfaces and enhance their usability. This paper summarizes a more detailed presentation of work contained in [4].
Keywords: Graphic design, Data visualization, Automatic presentation systems, Intelligent interfaces, Design environments, Interactive techniques


Demonstrating Raison d'Etre: Multimedia Design History and Rationale BIBAKPDF 29-30
  John M. Carroll; Sherman R. Alpert; John Karat; Mary S. Van Deusen; Mary Beth Rosson
Raison d'Etre is a hypermedia design history application. It provides access to a database of video clips containing stories and personal perspectives of design team members recorded at various times through the course of a project. The system is intended to provide a simple framework for recording and organizing the informal history and rationale that design teams create and share in the course of their collaboration.
Keywords: Documentation, Design history, Collaboration, Multimedia database, Hypermedia
Repeat and Predict -- Two Keys to Efficient Text Editing BIBAKPDF 31-32
  Toshiyuki Masui; Ken Nakayama
We demonstrate a simple and powerful predictive interface technique for text editing tasks. With our technique called the dynamic macro creation, when a user types a special "repeat" key after doing repetitive operations in a text editor, an editing sequence corresponding to one iteration is detected, defined as a macro, and executed at the same time. When we use another special "predict" key in addition to the repeat key, wider range of prediction schemes can be performed depending on the order of using these two keys.
Keywords: Text editing, Predictive interface, Programming by example, PBE, Programming by demonstration, PBD, Keyboard macro, Dynamic macro creation

DEMONSTRATIONS: Virtual Reality Multimedia

DesignSpace: A Manual Interaction Environment for Computer Aided Design BIBAKPDF 33-34
  William L. Chapin; Timothy A. Lacey; Larry Leifer
DesignSpace is a computer-aided-design (CAD) system that facilitates dexterous manipulation of mechanical design representations. The system consists of an interactive simulation programmed with a seamless extended model of the designer's physical environment and driven with continuous instrumentation of the designer's physical actions. The simulation displays consistent visual and aural images of the virtual environment without occluding the designer's sensation of the physical surroundings. Developed at Stanford University's Center for Design Research (CDR), DesignSpace serves as an experimental testbed for design theory and methodology research. DesignSpace includes significant contributions from recent CDR development projects: TalkingGlove, CutPlane, VirtualHand, TeleSign, and VirtualGrasp. The current DesignSpace prototype provides modeling facility for only crude conceptual design and assembly, but can network multiple systems to share a common virtual space and arbitrate the collaborative interaction. The DesignSpace prototype employs three head-tracked rear projection images, head-coupled binaural audio, hand instrumentation, and electromagnetic position tracking.
Keywords: CAD, Virtual environment, Dexterous manipulation, Interactive simulation, Presence, Spatial acoustics, Manual and gestural communication, Teleconference, Collaboration
Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) BIBAPDF 35-36
  Sherman W. Tyler
This demonstration illustrates a system to support the early stages in the design of complex human-machine systems. One of its major contributions derives from modeling both the hardware devices and human cognitive and physical behavior in software, obviating the need for expensive simulators or human-in-the-loop testing during early design. This demonstration highlights the dynamic simulation capability of MIDAS and points to the variety of areas where this system has been applied (cockpit design for rotor- and fixed-wing aircraft, nuclear power plant control, 911 emergency operations consoles).


LiveWorld: A Construction Kit for Animate Systems BIBAKPDF 37-38
  Michael Travers
LiveWorld is a graphical environment designed to support research into programming with active objects. It offers novice users a world of manipulable objects, with graphical objects and elements of the programs that make them move integrated into a single framework. LiveWorld is designed to support a style of programming based on rule-like agents that allow objects to be responsive to their environment. In order to make this style of programming accessible to novices, computational objects such as behavioral rules need to be just as concrete and accessible as the graphic objects. LiveWorld fills this need by using a novel object system, Framer, in which the usual structures of an object-oriented system (classes, objects, and slots) are replaced with a single one, the frame, that has a simple and intuitive graphic representation.
   This unification enables the construction of an interface that achieves elegance, simplicity and power. Allowing graphic objects and internal computational objects to be manipulated through an integrated interface can provide a conceptual scaffolding for novices to enter into programming.
Keywords: Programming environments, Objects, Direct manipulation, Visual object-oriented programming, Agents, Rules
ReActor: A System for Real-Time, Reactive Animations BIBAKPDF 39-40
  J. Eugene Ball; Daniel T. Ling; David Pugh; Tim Skelly; Andrew Stankosky; David Thiel
Real-time, reactive 3D animation is a basic technology needed to implement a diverse range of user interfaces, from simulation-based virtual realities, to interactive games, to visually expressive, personal assistants. However, there has been little support for the creation of animations which have real-time specifications, synchronized across multiple time-based modalities, and having complex behavior in response to user input.
   ReActor is a run-time environment which provides a hierarchical set of abstractions to support real-time, reactive animations. These abstractions support the animation of geometric and abstract properties and the specification of behavior in real and relative time. They also facilitate the construction of user interfaces with interactive animations exhibiting complex, procedure-driven behaviors. This demonstration will illustrate these abstractions and the power that they provide through a series of examples.
Keywords: Interactive animation, 3D-graphics, Real-time scheduling, Synchronization


List of Students Selected to Participate in the Doctoral Consortium BIBAPDF 41
  Marilyn Mantei; Andrew Monk
The Doctoral Consortium is a closed session in which Ph.D. students have a chance to discuss their thesis work with each other and a panel of CHI experts. This year the panel consists of:
  • Bill Buxton
  • Joan Greenbaum
  • Marilyn Mantei
  • Andrew Monk
  • Dan Olsen, Jr.

    3-D Interactive Percussion: The Virtual Drum Kit BIBAKPDF 45-46
      David Burgess; Elizabeth Mynatt
    This interactive experience places the user in an auditory virtual environment which combines computed models of natural sound sources with spatial audio. The user wears headphones and a lightweight head-tracking receiver. A second receiver is held in the user's hand and used as a mallet for striking various virtual objects, or drums. When struck, each drum generates a particular percussive sound. Each sound is specialized to appear to come from the direction of the virtual drum that generates it. The drums are also responsive to the manner (velocity, angle, etc.) in which they are struck and may sound different when heard from different angles.
    Keywords: Acoustic displays, Spatial sound, Auditory perception, Virtual displays
    DesignSpace: A Manual Interaction Environment for Computer Aided Design BIBAKPDF 47-48
      William L. Chapin; Timothy A. Lacey; Larry Leifer
    DesignSpace is a computer-aided-design (CAD) system that facilitates dexterous manipulation of mechanical design representations. The system consists of an interactive simulation programmed with a seamless extended model of the designer's physical environment and driven with continuous instrumentation of the designer's physical actions. The simulation displays consistent visual and aural images of the virtual environment without occluding the designer's sensation of the physical surroundings. Developed at Stanford University's Center for Design Research (CDR), DesignSpace serves as an experimental testbed for design theory and methodology research. DesignSpace includes significant contributions from recent CDR development projects: TalkingGlove, CutPlane, VirtualHand, TeleSign, and VirtualGrasp. The current DesignSpace prototype provides modeling facility for only crude conceptual design and assembly, but can network multiple systems to share a common virtual space and arbitrate the collaborative interaction. The DesignSpace prototype employs three head-tracked rear projection images, head-coupled binaural audio, hand instrumentation, and electromagnetic position tracking.
    Keywords: CAD, Virtual environment, Dexterous manipulation, Interactive simulation, Presence, Spatial acoustics, Manual and gestural communication, Teleconference, Collaboration
    The Future of Programming Interactive Experience BIBAPDF 49-50
      Chris DiGiano; Clayton Lewis; Chris Hurtt
    The Future of Programming Interactive Experience is a multimedia exhibit about future directions in the field of computer programming. Visitors to the exhibit will be able to explore visions resulting from a recent Future of Programming Workshop. They will also be able to contribute their own commentary on these visions, which will become part of the exhibit for subsequent visitors.
    Half-QWERTY: Typing with One Hand Using Your Two-Handed Skills BIBAKPDFWeb Page 51-52
      Edgar Matias; I. Scott MacKenzie; William Buxton
    Half-QWERTY is a new one-handed typing technique, designed to facilitate the transfer of two-handed typing skill to the one-handed condition. It is performed on a standard keyboard (with modified software), or a special half keyboard (with full-sized keys). Experiments have shown [2] that it is possible for QWERTY touch-typists to achieve high one-handed typing rates (40+ wpm) in a relatively short period of time (<10 hr) using the Half-QWERTY technique. These speeds are 2-3 times the rates achievable using compact keyboards, and exceed handwriting speeds. Half-QWERTY is important in providing access to disabled users, and for the design of compact computers.
    Keywords: Input devices, Input tasks, Human performance, One-handed keyboard, QWERTY, Portable computers, Disabled users, Skill transfer
    Making it Macintosh: Process, People and Product BIBAKPDF 53-54
      Lauralee Alben; Jim Faris; Harry J. Saddler
    This exhibit is designed to provide a look into the process of interface design, specifically the design of an interactive CD-ROM title called Making It Macintosh: The Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines. The exhibit follows three congruent themes: the interactive, instructional product itself; the history of the design and development process; and interdisciplinary collaboration.
    Keywords: Design, Interface design, Graphic design, Multimedia, Guidelines, Design process, Visual design, Interdisciplinary collaboration
    Memory Map: An Interactive Installation that Maps Memory Space to Physical Space BIBAKPDF 55-56
      Stephen Wilson
    Memory Map is an interactive installation in which the memories, reflections, and anticipations of visitors become critical aesthetic elements. The physical space of a hall becomes a metaphor for the collective memory space of those who have visited the installation -- for example, with the voices of those older than the present viewer coming from in front and those younger coming from behind. The installation explores interface issues of 3-D sound and the mapping of conceptual abstractions to physical space.
    Keywords: 3-D sound, Visualization, Mapping of conceptual space
    The Pantograph: A Large Workspace Haptic Device for Multi-Modal Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 57-58
      Christophe Ramstein; Vincent Hayward
    A multi-modal user interface taking advantage of kinesthesia, force display, sound, and graphics, to improve human-computer interaction is described. This design primarily addresses the needs of visually impaired persons working in an office situation, but is presently applied to numerous other instances of human-machine interaction; such as operator workstations in control rooms or cockpits. The main technological item introduced here is the haptic interface itself (nicknamed the "Pantograph") which measures position and velocity of a manipulated knob and displays forces in two dimensions over a wide frequency range. Programmed mechanical models are used to kinesthetically describe the features of the interface. These models are analogous to ironic representations in conventional graphic interfaces. Users, acting and perceiving through the haptic channel, simultaneously perceive simulated objects through the visual and auditory channels. Further developments are briefly reported.
    Keywords: Multimodal human-computer interaction, Haptic device, Physical model
    Portraits of People Living with AIDS: An Interactive Documentary BIBAKPDF 59-60
      Hazen Reed
    "Portraits of People Living With AIDS" seeks to involve users in an active understanding of the AIDS condition. This interactive documentary introduces participants to four people living with AIDS (a male painter, a woman activist, a male inner-city AIDS councilor, and twenty-five year old college woman) via audio, video clips, and photographic essays digitally stored on a Macintosh computer. Each new user of "Portraits of People Living With AIDS" has the opportunity to contribute to the evolution of the documentary by leaving their own digitally recorded message (via a video camera attached to a digitizer card in the computer), allowing both interviewee and end users to have a voice in the process of constructing knowledge about AIDS.
    Keywords: Interactive documentary, Interactive ethnography, Social construction of knowledge, Self, User, Non-dogmatic, Non-domineering, Collaborative
    StillDancing: Interacting Inside the Dance BIBAKPDF 61-62
      Thecla Schiphorst; Sang Mah; John Crawford
    StillDancing is a system in which a participant's physical whole body movement defines interactions with a 3D graphical movement composition system. The Ascension Technologies Flock of Birds, a six degree of freedom motion capture system, will provide input to LifeForms [1,2], a computer choreographic design tool for human movement. A participant is able to select their own movement samples displayed in real time and projected in a life-size scale, and also to use other characteristics of their gesture to provide a mechanism to compose and position themselves within an ongoing dance created from movement images and the collective movement of other participants who "enter the dance" during CHI 94.
    Keywords: User interface design, Motion tracking system, Gestural interface, Dance, Choreography, Human animation, Interaction, Input devices, Virtual reality, Composition, Design
    Tabletop and Tabletop Jr.: Two Tools for Hands-On Data Exploration for Kids BIBAKPDF 63-64
      Laura Bagnall
    The Tabletop programs are exploratory environments and personal tools for students to learn about organizing and representing information, and about data analysis and statistics. Both programs share the same visual representation of data in which records appear as animated, movable icons. In Tabletop Jr., children can build "data" in the form of objects that carry visible features. Tabletop (aka Tabletop Sr.) combines general database capabilities with a powerful, flexible graphing facility based on an intuitive system of spatial representation.
    Keywords: K-12 education, Databases, Visual representation, Statistics, Data analysis, Data visualization
    Video Streamer BIBAKPDF 65-66
      Eddie Elliott; Glorianna Davenport
    Motion images are usually conveyed full-screen, coming to life through a rapid sequence of individual frames. The tools presented here allow a viewer to step back from the full-screen view to gain perspective of time, and then to transfer from sequential image streams to collages of parallel images. The Video Streamer presents motion picture time as a three dimensional block of images flowing away from us in distance and in time. The Streamer's rendering reveals a number of temporal aspects of a video stream. The accompanying shot parser automatically segments any given video stream into separate shots, as the streamer flows. The Collage provides an environment for arranging clips plucked from a sequential stream as associations of parallel elements. This process of arranging motion images is posed as an engaging viewing activity. The focus is on viewing utensils, but these tools provide an alternative perspective to video elements that also has bearing on editing.
    Keywords: Time, Digital video, Video capture, Video editing, Video parsing, Visual thinking


    The Effect of Evaluation and Redesign BIBAKPDF 69-70
      Thomas K. Landauer
    It is clear that formative evaluation and redesign holds great promise for rapid progress. Projections suggest that ten years of widespread application of these methods could yield more than 20 times the gains that would be expected otherwise.
    Keywords: Usability engineering, Usefulness, Productivity, Iterative design, Iteration, Efficiency, Measurement, Assessment, Evaluation, History of UCD, Benefits, Progress, Testing, Improvement, UCD, User centered design, Comparisons
    The HCI Bibliography: Past, Present, and Future BIBAKPDF 71-72
      Gary Perlman
    The HCI Bibliography is a free-access online bibliographic database on Human-Computer Interaction. The basic goal of the project is to put an electronic bibliography for most of HCI on the screens of all researchers, developers, educators and students in the field through anonymous ftp access, mail servers, and Macintosh and DOS floppy disks. In 1994, through the efforts of over 100 volunteers from 13 nations, the bibliography has grown to a resource of over 10,000 entries occupying over 10 megabytes, used by over 350 sites in 23 nations. This notice describes the contents of the database, how to access it, and its history.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Bibliographic information, Research aids, Distributed group work, Networks, Information sharing, Online/electronic publication
    The ACM SIGCHI Education Survey BIBAKPDF 73-74
      Gary Perlman; Jean Gasen
    The HCI Education survey describes 68 programs, 162 faculty, and 139 courses in graduate-level education in human-computer interaction. In addition to the data files on each program, summary reports of programs, faculty, courses and other information have been generated. The survey was designed, conducted, analyzed, and distributed entirely online using Internet mail and ftp. The low cost and active nature of the medium of the survey administration and distribution makes it possible to have continuously updated information.
    Keywords: Computer and information science education, Curriculum, Human-computer interaction, Electronic / online survey administration
    Exploratory Learning of Interactive Devices BIBAKPDF 75-76
      Carol-Ina Trudel
    The locus of this research is on the nature of exploratory learning of interactive devices. Exploratory Learning is a commonplace activity when people are faced with novel devices. It basically consists of "pressing buttons" and observing what happens. In this first series of experiments the performance of subjects exploring the various functions of a computer simulated digital watch was observed under three conditions: Unstructured (free exploration), Structured (given a list of goals) and Key Press Limit (restricted to 250 key presses). The main finding was that the latter group performed significantly better than the other two groups on a post-exploration questionnaire, and completed tasks significantly more efficiently on a post-exploration test. This finding is interpreted in terms of reflection: a limit on the number of moves permitted may encourage reflection, which is more beneficial to learning than the "mindless" exploration allowed on certain devices.
    Keywords: Exploratory learning, User behaviour, Individual differences
    Pointing in Entertainment-Oriented Environments: Appreciation versus Performance BIBAKPDF 77-78
      J. H. D. M. Westerink; K. van den Reek
    Pointing in multi-media applications for entertainment is investigated, more specifically the relation between (subjective) user appreciation of pointing devices and (objective) performance measures like time-to-target.
    Keywords: Multi-media, Consumer products, Pointing devices, Fitts' Law, User appreciation, Performance measures
    Why You Can't Program Your VCR, or, Predicting Errors and Performance with Production System Models of Display-Based Action BIBAKPDF 79-80
      Wayne D. Gray; Haresh Sabnani
    We present a production rule model of display-based action for a humble yet error-prone task: programming a VCR. The system is data-driven in that the task goal is achieved in spite of partially specified plans by relying on changes in the display to trigger the creation of new goals. Knowledge in the system is partitioned into Task Knowledge, Display-Based Knowledge, and Device Specific Knowledge. Predictions are made regarding novice-level errors that are then compared to empirical data. The system is implemented in ACT-R, and uses Apple events to communicate with a VCR simulated in HyperCard.
    Keywords: Cognitive models, GOMS, D-TAG, ACT-R, VCR, Production systems, Errors, Performance, Display-based action, Symbolic theories of interactive tasks
    "FingeRing": A Full-Time Wearable Interface BIBAPDF 81-82
      Masaaki Fukumoto; Yasuhito Suenaga
    A new interface concept for mobile computing, the "Full-time Wearable Interface", is proposed. By wearing tiny interface devices similar to watches or glasses all the time, the user can operate PDAs at any time desired. As the first study of such an interface, we propose the finger ring style chord keyboard named "FingeRing". FingeRing can be used with any typing surface such as the waist or thigh; no subsidiary devices like keys or pads are needed. FingeRing can be used anytime, anywhere, and in any situation including standing or walking.
    Virtual Hand Tool with Force Feedback BIBAKPDF 83-84
      Ravin Balakrishnan; Colin Ware; Tim Smith
    We present a system which simulates working with a hand held machine tool on a piece of soft material. A two degree-of-freedom force reflecting joystick allows the user to feel the reactive forces between the virtual toolkit and material. An experiment to investigate the effects on performance in a high precision task when the standard visual display is augmented by our force display system shows a 44% (p < 0.01) improvement in accuracy but with time to completion also increased (by 64%). Users of the system find force feedback to be useful and feel that the system is a realistic simulation of the real world task.
    Keywords: Force feedback, Haptics, Human performance, Virtual worlds
    Input Techniques for HCI in 3D Environments BIBAKPDF 85-86
      Shumin Zhai; Paul Milgram
    This poster is a summary of a long-term systematic investigation of 6 DOF input techniques for human computer interaction in 3D environments. It presents a taxonomic design space model and the major results of three experiments on various 6DOF input techniques.
    Keywords: Input devices, Virtual reality, 3D interfaces, Psychomotor behaviour, Telerobotics
    Electronic Meeting Assistance BIBAKPDF 87-88
      Stefanie Rather; Michael Stupperich
    An electronic Meeting Assistance tool is being developed as part of the ESPRIT Project 5233 [TELESTATION]. This tool has a general purpose approach for electronic assistance of people during meetings. The most frequent tasks carried out during meetings, and therefore assisted by the tool, are exchanging information, supporting presentations and jointly editing documents. To demonstrate this new way of handling information, a first prototype has been realized and a field test is performed in a hospital environment.
    Keywords: CSCW, Electronic conferencing, Mobile computing, Electronic WhiteBoard, Wireless communication
    A Framework for Information Sharing in Collaborative Applications BIBAKPDF 89-90
      W. Keith Edwards
    Collaborative applications can potentially have a great positive impact on the way groups of people work together. Unfortunately, collaborative applications are very hard to build. At the most basic level all collaborative applications facilitate information sharing. This project is looking at mechanisms for a particular class of information sharing in an attempt to make the construction of collaborative software easier.
       This work deals with the sharing of "coordinating" information. Coordinating information is information used to link a set of applications or processes together into a unified collaborative environment. The implementation portion of this work, called Intermezzo, provides programming models and runtime support to facilitate the sharing of coordinating information in collaborative applications.
    Keywords: Collaborative applications, CSCW, Collaboration support environments
    Using Cognitive Walkthrough for Evaluating a CSCW Application BIBAKPDF 91-92
      Anna-Lena Ereback; Kristina Höök
    We studied the usefulness of the Cognitive Walkthrough method for evaluating an interface to a meeting booking system. We found that cognitive walkthrough is a useful method, but some alterations is needed. Specifically we found that the underlying theory of the method must be expanded, since goals may not be given in the same way as in single-user applications -- one user's goal is often affected by other users. We also found that the user descriptions should preferably be richer since there are several users involved, but that this makes the walkthrough very cumbersome.
       For comparison a video study was conducted. The studies proved that the Cognitive Walkthrough method was roughly as efficient in finding problems related to groupwork as the user study.
    Keywords: Evaluation, Cognitive walkthrough, CSCW-applications, Meeting booking system
    Characterising the Social Salience of Electronically Mediated Communication BIBAKPDF 93-94
      Owen Daly-Jones
    A study was conducted to explore the impact of communication media on conversational structure, and to identify markers of the social salience of ensuing discussion. Sixteen subjects took part in a collaborative role-play exercise over two modes of communication; an audio link, and a video link with audio capabilities. Self-report measures highlighted the advantages of having a visual channel, in terms of assessing a partner's focus of attention and as an aid to teamwork. The value of a range of other measures (e.g. backchannel acknowledgements, and equivocal phrasings) are also reported on. In particular, there was some indication that collaborators in the audio condition found it harder to monitor understanding, being more likely to resort to explicitly questioning the remote partner.
    Keywords: Communication media, Social salience, Conversational structure and process
    Conveying Emotion in Remote Computer-Mediated-Communication BIBAKPDF 95-96
      Krisela Rivera; Nancy J. Cooke; Anna L. Rowe; Jeff A. Bauhs
    Having the capability to express emotion via remote Computer-Mediated-Communication (CMC) systems may enhance decision making. Thirty-two subjects participated in a simulated remote CMC group-decision-making session. Seventeen subjects had emotional icons available, although use of these icons was optional. The remaining 15 subjects did not have icons available. Dependent measures included frequency of icon usage, conformity, quality of decision, and responses to a subjective questionnaire. The results indicated that subjects used icons when available and liked using them. Finally, subjective questionnaire data indicated that having emotional icons available seemed to make geographically-dispersed CMC more appealing.
    Keywords: Groupware, Computer-mediated-communication, Computer-supported-cooperative work, Distributed cognition
    A Comparison of Verbal Interaction in Literal and Virtual Shared Learning Environments BIBAKPDF 97-98
      Karl E. Steiner; Thomas G. Moher
    We performed a study to examine the differences in verbal interaction between groups of young users working together at a single computer and groups working on a shared workspace at individual computers. Pairs of Kindergarten and First Grade students worked with the Graphic Story Writer (an interactive learning environment) at a single computer or at two networked computers running a shared workspace. A review of the student's verbal interactions showed that students in the shared workspace participated in fewer total verbal interactions, and participated in significantly fewer questions and answers.
    Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work, Shared workspaces, Computer supported cooperative learning, Interactive learning environments, Constructive learning
    Is Knowing More Really Better? Effects of System Development Information in Human-Expert System Interactions BIBAKPDF 99-100
      Jeff A. Bauhs; Nancy J. Cooke
    With the time, cost and effort involved in the development of expertise, expert systems have become more commonplace in the work environment. It has been suggested that in order to enhance human-expert system interactions, it is necessary to provide users with system development information. This research empirically examined the role that providing this information plays in new user interactions with expert systems. Results indicate that system information aided in calibrating users' confidence in accord with system reliability, but that it had little effect on users' willingness to take expert system advice and may even hunt users' willingness to continue consulting a particular expert system.
    Keywords: Expert systems, Trust in machines, Human-expert system interactions
    Multiple Methods Mean More Minutes BIBAKPDF 101-102
      Marita Franzke
    An experiment was conducted to produce a low-level description of the initial acquisition of skill with a display-based application. This experiment constituted of a situation in which interface-literate users explored new functionality in two versions of a graphing system. Performance on initial exploration trials is compared to performance on subsequent structure-equivalent trials that profit from previous experiences with the system, both at short and long time delays. Performance times for exploration and two different delay conditions are discussed. Preliminary data analyses indicate that several interactions were difficult to discover, but are well retained even after a one-week interval. Comparisons between the two versions suggest that the availability of more functions and multiple methods inflated our subjects' performance times during exploration and during later trials.
    Keywords: Display based systems, Multiple methods, Exploration, Retention, Versions
    Observing Users in Multimodal Interaction BIBAKPDF 103-104
      Daniel Salber
    My doctoral research focuses on the usability and usage of new computer technology such as interactive systems that support the combination different input media such as voice, gesture and video. I have contributed to the study of these systems in four complementary ways: the MSM framework helps classifying and reasoning about current and future "interactionally-rich" systems; I have also used formal methods to specify multimodal interaction; I have designed and developed the NEIMO multimodal Wizard of Oz platform, a tool for observing users using multimodal interaction and assessing usability issues; I am now working on computer-mediated communication and collaboration through audio and video.
    Keywords: Multimodal interaction, Evaluation, Usability, Formal methods, Observation of users, Video, Groupware, CSCW, MediaSpace
    Cost of Operations Affects Planfulness of Problem-Solving Behaviour BIBAKPDF 105-106
      Kenton O'Hara
    There is currently a debate in cognitive psychology between plan-based theories of action and more 'situated' accounts. I argue instead that there is a continuum between planned and situated action along which people shift according to various properties of the task. One such factor may be the cost of performing an action. This paper reports three experiments that examine this factor within the domain of problem solving. These manipulate different aspects of the user interface, each with a high profile as determinants of usability in the HCI literature. In all three experiments, the high cost condition was seen to encourage people to engage in advance planning, resulting in more efficient solutions, in terms of number of operations.
    Keywords: Problem solving, Planning, Operator cost, 8-puzzle, Jump-slide puzzle, System response time, Error recovery
    User Acceptance of Handwritten Recognition Accuracy BIBAKPDF 107
      Mary J. LaLomia
    One disadvantage for an individual using handwriting to communicate with a computer is that their handwriting may not always be recognized correctly by current recognition technologies. We are attempting to answer the question of how high does recognition accuracy have to be for people to find the technology useful. We used a "Wizard of Oz" methodology to simulate different recognition accuracy rates that were output to a participant writing on a pen-based computer. Mode of presentation, type of writing pad and recognition rate were varied. After reviewing the errors, participants ruled the acceptability of the recognition rate under different conditions. In general, participants found a handwriting recognition rate of 97% or higher to be acceptable, however, this relationship was modulated by the different evaluation conditions.
    Keywords: Pen-based computers, Handwriting, Recognition accuracy
    A Comparison of Usability Evaluations Conducted by Different Teams BIBAKPDF 109-110
      Anna L. Rowe; Tammy Lowry; Shannon L. Halgren; Nancy J. Cooke
    The wide variety of usability methods available to usability engineers offer many approaches to usability testing. However, different evaluation methodologies may lead to the identification of varying interface issues, and different interface designs may result. This study examined how different usability teams approach the same interface evaluation. The results indicate that different teams begin their evaluations in similar manners but tend to diverge after this point. Furthermore, different interface problems are identified by the teams. However, when similar issues are identified, the teams' redesign recommendations are similar. In general, the results indicate that several evaluators and several methods should be utilized to optimize the identification of interface issues.
    Keywords: Usability, Interface evaluation, User interface, Design process
    Wizard: Non-Wimp Oriented Prototyping of Direct Manipulative Behavior BIBAKPDF 111-112
      Martina Manhartsberger; Manfred Tscheligi
    In spite of the number of user interface design and development systems developed in the past years there is still a lack of real prototyping tools supporting the iterative development of user interface design alternatives. The behavioral part of a user interface is often neglected or has to be implemented by low level programming. The Wizard Tool supports the prototyping of interface behavior especially for Non-WIMP interfaces at a very high level of abstraction.
    Keywords: Prototyping, User interface design tools, Direct manipulation
    CHIRP: The Computer Human Interface Rapid Prototyping and Design Assistant Toolkit BIBAPDF 113-114
      Robert J. Remington
    This presentation includes a description and a demonstration video of the Computer Human Interface Rapid Prototyping (CHIRP) Toolkit. The CHIRP Toolkit architecture, planned capabilities, and the way in which computer human interface (CHI) designers interact with it to build and modify functional interactive scenarios are described. The presentation includes a sample of case studies that illustrate how the evolving CHIRP toolkit is being used to support CHI design for real world systems.
    Participatory Design for Sensitive Interface Parameters: Contributions of Traumatic Brain Injury Patients to Their Prosthetic Software BIBAKPDF 115-116
      Elliot Cole; Parto Dehdashti; Linda Petti; Marlene Angert
    Interface design is important in the design of prosthetic software for brain injury patients. Personal productivity modules demonstrated their ability to help patients when other rehabilitation methods had failed. However, the software was typically very sensitive to what are considered relatively minor design parameters. Patients were able to guide designers and their therapists in constructing highly effective interfaces. In some instances, the dimension which the patient was optimizing was not readily apparent, and consequently could not be achieved by other means. The research and poster has relevance the broader area of learning disabilities.
    Keywords: Participatory design, Users with disabilities
    Using a Game to Teach a Design Process BIBAKPDF 117-118
      Jared M. Spool; Carolyn Snyder; Don Ballman; Will Schroeder
    The gap between theory and practice presents a perennial problem in teaching good interface design. To bridge this gap, we have developed a game that allows participants to prove to themselves how paper prototyping and usability testing can be used to quickly and effectively iterate the design of a product interface. It is an intense, fun, and thought-provoking experience. Participants not only learn new skills, but also how to apply them as a team to a complex problem under time and resource constraints.
    Keywords: Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Prototyping, Low-fidelity prototyping, Process management, Product development, Practical techniques
    Actors, Hairdos & Videotape -- Informance Design: Using Performance Techniques in Multi-Disciplinary, Observation Based Design BIBAKPDF 119-120
      Colin Burns; Eric Dishman; William Verplank; Bud Lassiter
    We have been developing a visualisation technique that we call Informance Design. We render scenarios as plays and interactive environments. Designer "actors" role-play as users with simple prototypes employed as "props". These performances open up informed dialogues between designers and an audience, to further explore the design issues raised. The use of performance techniques such as improvisation can promote multi-disciplinary, collaborative design work in ways that are as much visceral and experiential as intellectual and reflective. Informances, like user testing, are enactive and evaluative. Unlike user testing, they are intended to explore design ideas in ways that are generative rather than analytic.
    Keywords: Collaborative design, Iterative design, Participatory design, User-centred design, User interface design, User observations, Wizard of Oz, Role-play, Scenarios, Storyboards, Rapid prototyping
    Visual Layout Techniques in Multimedia Applications BIBAKPDF 121-122
      Francois Bodart; Jean Vanderdonckt
    The aim of this work is to explore and illustrate how techniques for visual communication can serve for laying out interaction and interactive objects in multimedia applications. These techniques have been extracted from visual literacy in order to be adapted to the area of multimedia applications. These applications are generally known and designed for their great feedback and power of interaction between simple interaction objects (e.g. list boxes, radio buttons, push buttons) and interactive objects (e.g. text, image, picture, video motion). Thirty groups of techniques are introduced by defining their opposites on a continuum. Combination of these techniques can provide a particular multimedia layout style as encountered in visual arts. To prove that such visual layout techniques are affordable, several examples are given, compared and discussed.
    Keywords: Graphical arts, Interaction objects, Interactive objects, Layout frame, Layout grid, Multimedia applications, Visual design, Visual techniques
    Automatic Generation of a User Interface for Highly Interactive Business-Oriented Applications BIBAKPDF 123-124
      Jean Vanderdonckt
    The goal of this work is to prove that a designer can be able to generate as systematically as possible a first sketch of the presentation for an ergonomical user interface in the specific area of highly-interactive business-oriented applications. It basically consists of three foundations: (i) the corpus ergonomicus, a multi-purpose high-level styleguide; (ii) the SEGUIA tool which is able to assist the designer in the selection and layout tasks; (iii) the SIERRA tool which an on-line hypermedia documenting linguistic ergonomic criteria and guidelines defined in the corpus ergonomics. This work is integrated in the TRIDENT project which is a methodology and a supporting environment for developing highly-interactive business-oriented applications.
    Keywords: Business-oriented applications, Computer-aided generation, Criteria, Guidelines, Layout, Selection, Styleguide
    Dual Task Model: An Evaluation Model for the Complex Operation BIBAKPDF 125-126
      Masaaki Kurosu
    An evaluation model for the dual task situation was developed. The model estimates the total duration of the operation for any bench-mark task based on the unit operations.
    Keywords: Operation model, Evaluation, Task analysis
    An EPIC Model for a High-Performance HCI Task BIBAKPDF 127-128
      Scott D. Wood; David E. Kieras; David E. Meyer
    EPIC is an architecture for computational models of human information processing that incorporates current results and theories from human performance. It combines detailed processors for different modalities with a production-system cognitive processor. An EPIC model was constructed for telephone operator tasks based on one protocol and then was validated against two other protocols for similar tasks. Total execution time and detailed keystroke-level inter-event times were predicted with good accuracy. It should be possible to construct such models on a routine basis to predict performance of interface designs involving multiple modalities and time-critical tasks.
    Keywords: User models, Cognitive architecture, Performance prediction, Human performance
    Dilemma -- A Tool for Rapid Manual Translation BIBAKPDF 129-130
      Jussi Karlgren; Hans Karlgren; Paul Pettersson; Magnus Nordstrom; Bengt Wahrolen
    Dilemma is a tool built to aid human translators in achieving higher productivity and better quality, by presenting lexical information which is automatically extracted from previous translations. The design decisions have been based on analyses of the human translation process. We present the ideas behind the tool, and outline the functionality. The system described has been used by professional translators with good results.
    Keywords: Natural language, Translation
    Hierarchical Events in Graphical User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 131-132
      David S. Kosbie
    This poster describes part of the Ph.D. thesis work presented by the author in the 1994 CHI Doctoral Consortium. There are many uses of history mechanisms in modern graphical user interfaces, including Undo, Help, and Programming by Demonstration. Virtually all research into history mechanisms, however, presumes that the history is simply a linear sequence of unstructured events. People, however use computers to perform richly-structured tasks. The basic premise of this thesis is that including the task structure in the event history will allow Undo, PBD, and other history mechanisms to operate more correctly and in more situations. A second premise is that hierarchical event histories can be presented to end users in an understandable and useful manner. This poster describes Katie, an application environment which demonstrates the viability of these premises.
    Keywords: Hierarchical events, Event history, Application interface, Undo, Programming by demonstration
    PVAT: Development of a Video Analysis Tool BIBAKPDF 133-134
      Mihriban Whitmore; Tim McKay
    The Posture Video Analysis Tool (PVAT) was developed to provide a structured methodology for classifying microgravity working postures from video footage. A user evaluation was conducted to identify interface issues and required modifications to the software. Two raters were trained to use PVAT for analysis of a Shuttle mission video. Preliminary results indicate that PVAT was acceptable in terms of setup procedure, button labels and locations, and screen layout. However, the raters experienced eyestrain and had to take breaks every 15-25 minutes. As a follow-up, comprehensive usability testing of PVAT will be conducted using a pre-analyzed video to evaluate the inter- and intra-rater reliability.
    Keywords: Video analysis, User evaluations
    InHouse: An Information Manipulation Environment for Monitoring Parallel Programs BIBAKPDF 135-136
      Manfred Tscheligi; Sabine Musil
    Information Manipulation Environments (IME) are user interfaces for non standard application domains. They are visual, metaphor oriented, direct manipulative and problem oriented. This new kind of user interface is described and an example for one actual application of this concept is given. The chosen application domain was that of parallel programming. InHouse provides a user interface for user oriented monitoring of parallel system behaviour. Making the complex concepts of parallel systems as easy as possible for users not familiar with them is one of the main goals in the design of this specific IME.
    Keywords: Non-standard interface, Metaphors, User interface design, Prototyping, Non-WIMP paradigm, Parallel systems
    The Design of Animated Signs as Help BIBAKPDF 137-138
      C. Dormann
    The theory of design might be more useful to graphical user interface design and animation than traditional methods. The rhetoric perspective is applied to the development of animated signs (i.e "icons"), specifically to animated help: the function of the interface sign is shown by a short animation. Then, a few principles of visual rhetorics are introduced such as metaphor, personification, etc. It will be explained how these principles could provide an attractive and enjoyable visual help system for a novice user.
    Keywords: User interface design, Help, Animation, Visual rhetorics
    Examining Animated Algorithms: The Role of Problem Domain Experience and Problem Representation in Rule Development BIBAKPDF 139-140
      Faison P. Gibson; F. Javier Lerch; Mark Fichman
    One of the key activities in designing software is developing explicit rules or theories about the problem domain. We investigated two factors expected to influence rule development the designer's level of prior experience in the problem domain and the designer's problem representation. Our experimental results indicate that higher problem domain experience enhances subjects' ability to effectively consider multiple problem domain constraints and improves the likelihood of writing correct rules. Alternative problem representations focused subjects' attention toward or away from tractable units of analysis for writing rules. However, our problem representation manipulation did not affect the success rate for writing correct rules.
    Keywords: Rule development, Domain experience, Problem representation, Software design
    The Visual Browsing Tool for Astrophysical Data Management BIBAKPDF 141
      Paul Pinkney; Alice Bertini
    The Visual Browsing Tool (VBT) for Astrophysical Data Management is a software tool that allows interaction and visual exploration of astrophysical science mission databases containing heterogeneous data. The attributes characterizing these data include text, tables, images, and spectra. Visual browsing through a database allows graphical/textual representations of data in their most natural appearance. Such data carry spatial, spectral and temporal relations which are important for the scientists to collect and compare disparate information. The objective of the VBT is to provide a tool for visual exploration of and direct interaction with the content of astrophysical databases.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Graphical user interface, Scientific visualization, Astrophysical data management, Multi-spectral data analysis, Task-centered design, Structured query language, Client-server architecture
    Visual Access to Hyper-Information: Using Multiple Metaphors with Graphic Affordances BIBAKPDF 142
      Eviatar Shafrir; Jafar Nabkel
    Finding answers in a maze of hyper-linked information is disorienting and frustrating for computer users. Online help for workstation applications is largely inaccessible, difficult to consume, and rarely used. Confronted by these large volumes, users ask themselves "where am I?" and "is what I'm looking for really here?" The poster presents an integrated product of information design with graphic affordances that together ease user access and exploration. Multiple recognizable metaphors visually couple hyperlinks with topics, helping each user create a predictable cognitive map of the information-space. The collaboration between learning products professionals and visual designers, practicing visual thinking techniques was instrumental in creating this integrated solution.
    Keywords: Hyper-information, Online help, Metaphor, Affordance, Icon, Visual design, Visual language
    Note: Color plates on page 483
    Library Information Access Client BIBAKPDF 143-144
      J. Ray Scott
    The Library Information Access Client is a prototype client designed for the library user. This client allows the user to explore large numbers of information sources, issue queries to multiple information sources, and retrieve the results. The client uses the Workscape scripting capabilities as well as Workscape tools to provide the library patron with a complete information management environment.
    Keywords: Information access, Search and retrieve, Library client
    V: A Visual Query Language for a Multimodal Environment BIBAKPDF 145-146
      Ivan Bretan; Robert Nilsson; Kent Saxin Hammarstrom
    V is a two-dimensional, visual, direct manipulation query language designed for use in a multimodal environment that includes a natural language processing component. The language has the expressiveness of at least full first order predicate logic, including some higher-order extensions that provide a framework within the language itself for navigating and browsing the query domain. The language focuses on the visualisation of the logic structure of queries and is intended as a complement to natural language, providing reification and persistence of discourse objects, together with support for bidirectional paraphrasing and user controlled discourse management.
    Keywords: Visual language, Database query, Multimodal interfaces

    INTERACTIVE POSTERS -- Social Action Posters

    Social Action Posters BIBAPDF 147
      Pamela A. Burke; Michael J. Muller
    At CHI'92, several hundred people joined a discussion of the events taking place in Los Angeles CA US -- the police actions, the civic demonstrations, and the insurrection in response to the first verdict in the Los Angeles Police - Rodney King beating case. We exchanged our experiences in working for social change. People spoke of their work in providing information access to disadvantaged groups, designing electronic methods for improving the democratic process, supporting community anti-bias commissions, implementing computer (and non-computer) literacy outreach programs, and much more. Many of us were sustained and renewed in our individual work. This meeting contributed to the formation of the SIGCHI Special Interest Area on Social Action.
       Through the social action posters program, we continue this exchange of information at CHI'94. In the Call for Participation, we encouraged people to submit work that focused on practical projects, solid achievements, and to communicate enough information so that others could develop similar or related projects of their own -- or could join an existing social action project. These criteria guided the review committee in its selection process.
    Computer Science Olympiad: Community Project for Disadvantaged Schools BIBAKPDF 148
      Donald Cook
    The project that we established in 1990, has as its goal the introduction of computer technology into black schools, has now run successfully for three years. Our aim to teach a number of black pupils computer programming and problem solving, is being realized. The sub goal; to have at least one programmer among the finalists in the Computer Olympiad within three years, is not within our reach at this stage. The disruptions at the schools has severely impacted our efforts in the last two years.
    Keywords: Olympiad, Community project, Disadvantaged schools
    The Boston Peace and Justice Hotline: A Phone-Based Community Bulletin Board BIBAKPDF 149-150
      Paul Resnick
    Touch-tone telephones are the most widely available, best-networked computer terminals. Any civic networking project would do well to consider ways to leverage this resource, since even people who have never used a computer have access to touch-tone phones. I have conducted several tests of telephone bulletin boards, of which the most successful has been an event calendar for Boston area political activists.
    Keywords: Social impact, Community, Phone-based interface, Bulletin board
    CAIS: A University-Based Social Action Project BIBAPDF 151-152
      Dov Te'eni
    By providing computer services to local not-for-profit organizations, the Cleveland Arts Information Systems project (CAIS) at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) is a vehicle for combining social action with teaching and research. Through its work with three target groups (cultural organizations, religious organizations and neighborhood centers), CAIS utilizes the University's resources to assist not-for-profit organizations in identifying and satisfying their computer needs. Therefore, CAIS effectively unites the University's academic mission with its mission to provide service to the surrounding community.
    Science-by-Mail BIBAKPDF 153-154
      Ellen A. White; Marc E. Fusco
    Science-by-Mail is a hands-on, experimental science activity program for children in grades 4-9 that is designed to be engaging, educational, and fun! Each participating child is matched with a volunteer pen-pal scientist who provides encouragement and guidance. They receive three "challenge packets" throughout the year containing information and materials related to an issue in science or technology. Communication between students and scientists about the packets forms the core of the interactions. A nationwide program developed by the Museum of Science, Boston, Science-by-Mail currently involves about 25,000 children and 2,500 scientists.
    Keywords: Science-by-mail, Science, Children, Volunteer, Social action


    Usability at Digital After 15 Years: Principles and Pitfalls BIBAKPDF 157-158
      Elizabeth M. Comstock; Dennis R. Wixon
    This overview describes the evolution of the Usability Expertise Center at Digital Equipment Corporation.
    Keywords: Organizational overview, Usability methods
    HCI Research in Paderborn, Germany BIBAKPDF 159-160
      Gerd Szwillus
    Research and development in Human-Computer Interaction in Paderborn is housed within two corporations: the Computer Science Department of the University of Paderborn and the CADLAB Institute, a joint R&D-Institute of the University and the SIEMENS-NIXDORF INFORMATIONSSYSTEME AG (SNI). SNI has evolved from the traditionally Paderborn based computer company NIXDORF AG, by beckoning part of the SIEMENS trust. CADLAB is half funded from SNI and half funded from the University. Its main goal is to provide an effective knowledge and technology transfer between the two organizations. The University of Paderborn has about 18000 students in a large number of mostly technically and pedagogically oriented departments. Paderborn itself is a small city with about 120000 inhabitants, and is situated right in the middle of the united Germany.
    Keywords: 3-D-interaction, Visualization, Virtual reality, CSCW, Task analysis, Work analysis, User interface specification, User interface evaluation, User interface development tools, Graphical constraints, Pen-based interfaces
    "But, How Much Does It Cost?": Selling User Interface Design BIBAKPDF 161-162
      Ingrid K. Towey; James M., II Gill; Kurt W. Morehouse
    Because Glaxo's purpose is to discover drugs and not to write software, proponents of user interface design and user testing at our company have had to sell the importance of HCI. This presentation outlines the strategies used to convince our management that user interface design and user testing are critical to the role of computing in the pharmaceutical industry. We also discuss how we have learned to use interface design principles in our projects and the approaches used to ensure that our work is cost-effective and contributes to the drug-discovery process.
    Keywords: User interface design, User testing, Minimalist manual, Documentation, Task analysis, Directed dialogs
    An Overview of Interval Research Corporation BIBAKPDF 163-164
      David E. Liddle; Meg Withgott; Debby Hindus
    This short paper describes the background, philosophy, organization, staff, and business model of Interval Research Corporation. Several of Interval's research directions are briefly presented, including field ethnography, media manipulation, immersive narratives, cultural play, and virtual communities.
    Keywords: Interaction research, Research organization, Business models
    Research at The Center for HCI Design -- City University BIBAPDF 165-166
      Alistair Sutcliffe
    The Centre was formed in January 1991 as a focus of research excellence for human computer interface design within City University. The Centre concentrates on CHI-in-the-large, i.e. user centred design of complete applications rather than CHI-in-the-small for detailed design of widgets or small scale interactive artefacts. The principle theme is application of theory from cognitive science to the design process by methodological studies and research within the task artefact cycle tradition.
       Research sub themes are requirements engineering for interactive systems, design methods for graphical user interfaces, including study of complex 3D visualisation, methods and models for assessing human error and failure within the context of system level dependability, and integration of HCI with software engineering methods. Four major projects illustrate this work, the first two conduct basic research into the requirements analysis phase of systems engineering while the latter projects investigate modelling visual human computer communication and development of intelligent user interfaces.
    Communication and Cognitive Science Research in Linkoping BIBAKPDF 167-168
      Yvonne Wærn; Sture Hagglund
    The research reported is interdisciplinary with contributions from psychology, artificial intelligence and linguistics.
       Questions approached are: design of user interfaces natural language understanding and generation, and critiquing systems.
    Keywords: Critiquing systems, Interface design, Natural language, Wizard of Oz
    CMI and Ventana Corporation BIBAPDF 169-170
      Jay F., Jr. Nunamaker; Robert O. Briggs
    The Center for the Management of Information (CMI) conducts research on designing, developing, and using electronic technology to make teams more productive. CMI conducts several streams of research: electronic meeting systems, process re-engineering, group interface, group memory, and multimedia support for distributed teams.
    The COMIC Research Project on CSCW BIBAPDF 171-172
      Tom Rodden; Liam Bannon; Kari Kuutti
    This paper provides an overview of the COMIC (COmputer-based Mechanisms of Interaction in Cooperative work) project, an EC ESPRIT-funded Basic Research Project (No. 6225) on CSCW. The project aims to develop the theories and techniques necessary to support the development of future CSCW systems. The development of these systems needs to be informed by a range of disciplines that combine an understanding of the nature of co-operative work with the technology to support it within a real world setting.
    The Ontario Telepresence Project BIBAKPDF 173-174
      Ron Riesenbach
    The Ontario Telepresence Project is an inter-disciplinary research effort between academics and industry scientists studying sociological issues associated with the deployment of advanced computer and video supported cooperative work systems. The project's focus is on the integration and packaging of existing computer, video and telecommunications systems and on the development of methodologies for their successful deployment in arms-length user sites.
    Keywords: Desk-top video, Media space, Inter-disciplinary research, User studies, CSCW


    What HCI Designers Can Learn from Video Game Designers BIBAKPDF 177-178
      Randy Pausch; Rich Gold; Tim Skelly; David Thiel
    Computer users have tasks they need to perform, and are therefore motivated to overcome poorly designed interfaces. With video games, there is no external motivation for the task -- if the game's interface is not compelling and entertaining, the product fails in the marketplace. Many aspects of game design, such as an attractor mode to draw users toward the game, have direct relevance to other domains, such as information kiosks. This panel will consist of video game designers who will relate their design methodologies, techniques, and other experiences which will help HCI designers create more compelling, engaging, and effective interfaces.
       The panel will consist of panelists' presentations followed by a large allocation of time for interaction with the audience's questions. The panelists' presentations will include demonstration examples drawn from coin-operated and computer-based games.
    Keywords: Video games, Design process, Direct manipulation, Input devices, Interface design, Design methodology, Consumer acceptance
    Diversified Parallel Design: Contrasting Design Approaches BIBAKPDF 179-180
      Jakob Nielsen; Tony Fernandes; Annette Wagner; Richard Wolf; Kate Ehrlich
    Three leading user interface designers were asked to design interfaces for a given problem. Each designer was asked to optimize the design for certain usage conditions, making this panel into a case study of diversified parallel design. The panel will feature a lively discussion of the designers' various approaches and solutions, including a discussion of their preliminary design solutions and their design process. Furthermore, in preparation for the panel, the designs have been made available to a usability specialist who will critique them and point out possible usability problems inherent in the designs.
    Keywords: Internationalization
    Guilty or Not Guilty? Human Factors Structured Methods on Trial BIBAPDF 181-182
      John Long; Simon Hakiel; Leela Damodoran; Bill Hefley; Kee Yong Lim
    How well do structured human factors methods meet their requirements and so help solve the 'too-little-too-late' contribution of human factors to system design and development? This panel brings together industrial practitioners and academic researchers to put human factors structured methods on trial and to judge their fitness for purpose. Panelists share the same perspective, but their views differ within that perspective. When experts disagree, non-experts learn most.
    Approaches to Managing Deviant Behavior in Virtual Communities BIBAKPDF 183-184
      Amy Bruckman; Pavel Curtis; Cliff Figallo; Brenda Laurel
    It is an unfortunate fact of life that where there are multi-user computer systems, there will be antisocial behavior. On bulletin board systems (BBSs), there are those who persist in being obscene, harassing, and libelous. In virtual worlds such as MUDS, there are problems of theft, vandalism, and virtual rape.
       Behavior is "deviant" if it is not in accordance with community standards. How are such standards developed? Should standards be established by system administrators and accepted as a condition of participation, or should they be developed by community members? Once a particular person's behavior is deemed unacceptable, what steps should be taken? Should such steps be taken by individuals, such as "filters" or "kill" files on BBSs, and "gagging" or "ignoring" on MUDS? Or should the administrators take action, banning an individual from the system or censoring their postings? What is the appropriate balance between centralized and decentralized solutions? (Figure 1).
       Figure 1: Approaches to Deviant Behavior: Two Continuums
        gagging (MUDs)
        kill files (BBSs)
        from peers
        banishment (MUDs)
        feedback from
        account suspension BBSs) administration
       Gags and filters are computational solutions to deviant behavior. Are there appropriate social solutions? How effective are approaches like feedback from peers, community forums, and heart-to-heart chats with sympathetic system administrators? Are different approaches effective with communities of different sizes? What is the appropriate balance between social and technological solutions?
    Keywords: Community, Standards, Behavior, Social versus technological approaches, Virtual communities, MUDs, Bulletin board systems (BBSs)
    Media Spaces and Their Application in K-12 and College Learning Communities BIBAKPDF 185-186
      Louis Gomez; Rob Fish; Sara Bly; Yvonne Andres; Sergio Canetti; Barry Fishman; Joseph Polman
    The CHI community has grappled with the design of media spaces in white collar settings for the past several years [1,2]. This forum is intended to challenge the assumptions made by that research in light of new settings presented by schools. We explore the opportunities that exist in media space research and design for K-12 and college learning communities.
    Keywords: Media spaces, Design, Collaborative learning, Education, Networking, Video
    Interaction Paradigms for Human-Computer Cooperation in Design BIBAKPDF 187-188
      Mark Friedell; Sandeep Kochhar; Joe Marks; Steve Sistare; Louis Weitzman
    Computer-aided-design (CAD) systems are now used to design all kinds of artifacts, from jet fighters to works of art. A major challenge in the design of a CAD system itself is the user interface (UI). Developing the UI to a CAD system raises myriad questions about input devices and techniques, display devices and techniques, and the details of the dialogue that relates the two. But these questions are ancillary to one central question: what is the fundamental nature of the interaction between human and computer in the design process supported by the CAD system? Is the design activity essentially manual, with the computer playing the role of passive tool, like a pen or paintbrush? Or is the computer augmenting the human designer by actively restricting available design choices, or by playing the role of critic or "improver"? Or maybe the interaction paradigm is one of "interactive evolution," in which the computer is responsible for generating design alternatives, with the human merely choosing among choices suggested by the machine. Or perhaps the computer performs the design process completely automatically, with a final acceptance check being the only human contribution? The panelists will describe these different paradigms for human-computer cooperation in a set of related CAD systems and prototypes and discuss the conditions under which each paradigm might be most useful.
    Keywords: Cooperative design, Human-computer interaction, Interaction techniques, Graphical user interfaces, Design automation, Design methodologies, Automated design of graphical displays, Computer-aided design
    Is HCI Education Getting a Passing Grade from Industry? BIBAKPDFHTML 189-190
      Gary Perlman; Arye R. Ephrath; Thomas T. Hewett; John Long; S. Joy Mountford; Jenny Preece
    ACM SIGCHI is expending more and more effort on HCI education, funding a variety of projects, including a curriculum report, an IFIP working group, and a survey of programs. Is SIGCHI directing its resources wisely and effectively? Who are the consumers of HCI education, and who are their employers? What should be the direction of HCI education in the 90's? Panelists from industry and academia will "face off" to debate what industry wants, needs, and is getting from HCI education.
    Keywords: Computer and information science education, Curriculum, Project and people management, Staffing, Training, Human factors, Management, Education
    Designing for Diverse Users: Will Just a Better Interface Do? BIBAKPDF 191-192
      Laura Leventhal; Barbee Teasley; Daryl Stone; Ann-Marie Lancaster; Aaron Marcus; Bonnie Nardi; Jakob Nielsen; Masaaki Kurosu; Rachelle Heller
    An important challenge to user interface designers is meeting the needs of users who differ in gender, culture, age, and/or abilities. At least two strategies have emerged: to design different interfaces for each group or to just design good interfaces. The panel will discuss approaches to and issues related to accommodating diversity.
    Keywords: Diversity, Internationalization, Interface design
    Debating the Media Space Design Space BIBAKPDF 193-194
      Victoria Bellotti; Robert Fish; Robert Kraut; Paul Dourish; Bill Gaver; Annette Adler; Sara Bly; Marilyn Mantei; Gale Moore
    Why do Audio Video (AV) communications infrastructures differ so widely in sane of their key features? What factors led designers and researchers to choose radically different solutions to the same design problems? This panel brings together users, researchers and key designers to expose their rationale and debate some of the issues which are currently being confronted in the development of such technology.
    Keywords: Media spaces, Accessibility, Connections models, Communication, Privacy, Social and technical perspectives, User participation, Iterative design, Design rationale
    Beyond Accuracy, Reliability, and Efficiency: Criteria for a Good Computer System BIBAKPDF 195
      Batya Friedman; Nancy Leveson; Ben Shneiderman; Lucy Suchman; Terry Winograd
    This panel invites the CHI community to examine the select set of criteria that we typically use to judge the quality of systems-in-use in society. In addition to accuracy, reliability, and efficiency, panelists draw on their design and research experiences to offer a diversity of perspectives on what makes a good computer system good. Discussion emphasizes safety, computing in the service of human needs, the artful integration of computer systems into their sites of use, and ethical considerations.
    Keywords: Computer system design, Information systems, Social implications of computers, Standards

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Design in the Workplace

    Scandinavian Design: Users in Product Development BIBAKPDF 199
      Morten Kyng
    This paper presents an approach to user involvement in product development that has grown out of a Scandinavian tradition for cooperation with end-users in design. This tradition emphasizes early and continuing end-user involvement, and has over the last decade been applied successfully in several projects. Most of these projects have, however, been research projects or of the type in-house or contract development, and the claim is often made that this way of involving users is not suited for product development. In this paper I sketch the ideas behind involving users in the design process, and then present and discuss a case of product development in the CSCW area, where more traditional development activities were integrated with intensive cooperation with end-users.
    Keywords: Cooperative design, Participatory design, Product development, Computer supported cooperative work
    Designing Workscape: An Interdisciplinary Experience BIBAKPDF 199
      Joseph M. Ballay
    Workscape is a clean-slate design for an office document management product. It was developed through a unique collaboration among the staffs of Digital and MAYA. From earliest concepts to current refinements and productization, Workscape has benefited from interdisciplinary design methods involving specialists from the fields of human factors, computer science, and visual design. Extensive use of mockups, in a variety of media, proved particularly effective in bridging differences of terminology and methodology between these three disciplines.
    Keywords: Design, Documents, Interdisciplinary

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Accessing and Exploring Information

    An Improved Interface for Tutorial Dialogues: Browsing a Visual Dialogue History BIBAKPDF 200
      Benoit Lemaire; Johanna Moore
    When participating in tutorial dialogues, human tutors freely refer to their own previous explanations. This paper describes the design of a user interface for a tutoring system that enables both the system and the user to refer to the past dialogue. The work is based on the notion that the dialogue history is a source of knowledge that can be manipulated like any other. In particular, we describe an interface that allows students to visualize the dialogue history on the screen, highlight its relevant parts and query and manipulate the dialogue history.
    Keywords: Tutorial interactions, Dialogue history, Information visualization
    Using Aggregation and Dynamic Queries for Exploring Large Data Sets BIBAKPDF 200
      Jade Goldstein; Steven F. Roth
    We have categorized user goals for exploring large data sets into three classes: data manipulation, data analysis, and data visualization. Data manipulation goals, which involve the selection and transformation of data prior to viewing, consist of three main types: scope goals (for selecting the amount of data), focus of attention goals (for selecting relevant attributes), and level of detail goals (for aggregating and decomposing data groups). Using this classification, we evaluate existing data manipulation techniques and integrate two synergistic interface mechanisms, the Aggregate Manipulator and Dynamic Query. We demonstrate how they successfully achieve data manipulation goals for real estate sales data.
    Keywords: Interactive techniques, Data exploration, Data visualization, Large data sets, Graphics presentation, Intelligent interfaces
    An Image Retrieval System Considering Subjective Perception BIBAKPDF 201
      Haruhiko Nishiyama; Sumi Kin; Teruo Yokoyama; Yutaka Matsushita
    The human interface plays an important role in an information retrieval system. Visual information is a good human-machine communication system. This paper proposes an image retrieval scheme based on the assumption that end-users make use of image database systems. When a human being looks at graphical materials such as artistic paintings, he/she memorizes them using two patterns in his/her visual memory: the first pattern is that of looking roughly at the whole image, the second is that of paying attention to specific objects such as a person or a desk.
    Keywords: Image database, Subjective perception, Graphical user interface, Spatial relationship, Image expression model, Visual language

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Supporting Distributed Work

    Montage: Providing Teleproximity for Distributed Groups BIBAKPDF 201
      John C. Tang; Monica Rua
    Montage is a research prototype that explores using video to help collaborators find opportune times to interact with each other and to provide a sense of teleproximity. Montage uses momentary, reciprocal glances among networked workstations to make it easy to peek into someone's office. From a glance, users can quickly start a full-featured desktop video conference. If the person is not there, Montage provides quick access to browse her on-line calendar, send her email, or send her an electronic note that pops up on her screen. Preliminary usage data shows that users did use Montage to have short, lightweight interactions.
    Keywords: Awareness, Remote collaboration, Media spaces, Video, Computer-supported cooperative work
    Courtyard: Integrating Shared Overview on a Large Screen and Per-User Detail on Individual Screens BIBAKPDF 202
      Masayuki Tani; Masato Horita; Kimiya Yamaashi; Koichiro Tanikoshi; Masayasu Futakawa
    The operation of complex real-world systems requires that multiple users cooperate in monitoring and controlling large amounts of information. The Courtyard system supports such cooperative work by integrating an overview on a shared large display and per-user detail on individual displays. Courtyard allows a user to move a mouse pointer between the shared and individual screens as though they were contiguous, and to access per-user detailed information on the user's individual display simply by pointing to an object on the shared display. Courtyard selects the detailed information according to the tasks assigned to the pointing user.
    Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Shared large display, Per-user detail
    Distributed Collaborative Writing: A Comparison of Spoken and Written Modalities for Reviewing and Revising Documents BIBAKPDF 202
      Christine M. Neuwirth; Ravinder Chandhok; Davida Charney; Patricia Wojahn; Loel Kim
    Previous research indicates that voice annotation is valuable for expressing the more complex and social aspects of a collaborative writing task. No direct evidence exists, however, about the effect of voice annotations on the recipients. To test this, we designed an interface intended to alleviate some of the problems associated with voice output and undertook a study with two goals: to compare the nature and quantity of voice and written comments, and to evaluate how writers responded to comments produced in each mode. This study provides direct evidence that the voice modality produces usable annotations and yields user interface insights.
    Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Collaborative writing, Annotations, Voice

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Multimedia in Use

    Marquee: A Tool for Real-Time Video Logging BIBAKPDF 203
      Karon Weber; Alex Poon
    We describe Marquee, a pen-based video logging tool which enables users to correlate their personal notes and keywords with a videotape during recording. We present our observations about coordinating the task of logging in real time and describe the three phases, user-centered approach we took in designing the tool. Our early work explored the functionalities needed by users to successfully create a log. In the second phase we focused on testing our intuitions about logging by conducting user studies with paper mock-ups. In the final phase, we implemented a working prototype system and placed it in a setting to see if it supported people logging in real time.
    Keywords: Video indexing, Video annotation, Gestural interfaces, Penbased computing, User interfaces, User studies, Multimedia
    A Comparison of the Use of Text and Multimedia Interfaces to Provide Information to the Elderly BIBAKPDF 203
      Virginia Z. Ogozalek
    This report describes an experiment in which 64 elderly participants, average age 71, used (1) a text-only or (2) a multimedia computer interface to obtain information-in this case, about prescription drugs. The participants, none of whom had used a computer before, compared the computerized information systems to a more traditional "interface" of words printed on paper. Results indicate that, for this group of elders, who were recruited from a seniors' group at a college, a multimedia presentation was better than a text-only screen or a printed leaflet, on both performance and preference measures.
    Keywords: Multimedia, Elderly users, Health care, Information search and retrieval, Interactive video, User interface, Aging, User study, Computers and medicine

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Expressive Interfaces

    Computers Are Social Actors BIBAKPDF 204
      Clifford Nass; Jonathan Steuer; Ellen R. Tauber
    This paper presents a new experimental paradigm for the study of human-computer interaction. Five experiments provide evidence that individuals' interactions with computers are fundamentally social. The studies show that social responses to computers are not the result of conscious beliefs that computers are human or human-like. Moreover, such behaviors do not result from users' ignorance or from psychological or social dysfunctions, nor from a belief that subjects are interacting with programmers. Rather, social responses to computers are commonplace and easy to generate. The results reported here present numerous and unprecedented hypotheses, unexpected implications for design, new approaches to usability testing, and direct methods for verification.
    Keywords: Anthropomorphism, Agents, Voice, Speech, Social psychology, Gender, Design
    Form-Giving: Expressing the Nonobvious BIBAKPDF 204
      Gerda Smets; Kees Overbeeke; William Gaver
    The design of richly informative interfaces would benefit from an account of how visual forms convey information. In this paper we suggest that the study of form-giving in Industrial Engineering might provide a foundation for such an account. We present three studies of designed synesthesia, in which objects' forms indicate non-visible attributes such as taste or smell. These studies illustrate the rich possibilities for conveying information with form, possibilities which are routinely exploited in industrial design. We believe that similar opportunities exist for interface design, and that further studies of form-giving may help in taking advantage of them. Results of a student exercise expressing computer metaphors in 3D forms will be discussed.
    Keywords: Interface design, Visualization, Form-giving, Affordances, Ecological approaches
    Using a Human Face in an Interface BIBAKPDF 205
      Janet H. Walker; Lee Sproull; R. Subramani
    We investigated subjects' responses to a synthesized talking face displayed on a computer screen in the context of a questionnaire study. Compared to subjects who answered questions presented via text display on a screen, subjects who answered the same questions spoken by a talking face spent more time, made fewer mistakes, and wrote more comments. When we compared responses to two different talking faces, subjects who answered questions spoken by a stern face, compared to subjects who answered questions spoken by a neutral face, spent more time, made fewer mistakes, and wrote more comments. They also liked the experience and the face less. We interpret this study in the light of desires to anthropomorphize computer interface and suggest that incautiously adding human characteristics, like face, voice, and facial expressions, could make the experience for users worse rather than better.
    Keywords: User interface design, Multimodal interfaces, Anthropomorphism, Facial expression, Facial animation, Personable computers

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Multimedia Interfaces

    Designing Presentation in Multimedia Interfaces BIBAKPDF 205
      Alistair Sutcliffe; Peter Faraday
    Current Multimedia interfaces are created primarily by intuition. Development of a method for analysis and design of Multimedia presentation interfaces is described. The study investigates task based information analysis, persistence of information, selective attention and concurrency in presentation. The method gives an agenda of issues, diagrams and techniques for specifications, and guidelines for media selection and presentation scripting. Use of the method is illustrated with an example from a shipboard emergency management system.
    Keywords: Multimedia, Design guidelines, Methodology
    The "Starfire" Video Prototype Project: A Case History BIBAKPDF 206
      Bruce Tognazzini
    Developing a new working computer system can now cost hundreds of millions of dollars, all expended at great risk. Company managers who must take responsibility for making development decisions are loath to do so without being able to see and understand the system they will be "buying." When Sunsoft launched the Starfire project to develop a next-generation interface, we turned to video prototyping, in the form of a short 35 mm film delivered in video. Not only were we thus able to show in mature form many key specifics of our new interface design, but we were able to communicate a strong sense of the resulting overall user experience. This paper describes observations and guidelines we developed during the early stages of the film, and what our experiences were in applying them.
    Keywords: Film, Video, Video prototype, Prototype, Observation, Guideline, Drama, Story, Interaction, Gesture, Stylus, Mouse, Voice recognition, Anthropomorphic agent, Agent, Feedback, Social, Ethics, Privacy, Future

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Active Support for Interaction

    Creating Charts by Demonstration BIBAKPDF 206
      Brad A. Myers; Jade Goldstein; Matthew A. Goldberg
    "Gold" is a new interactive editor that allows a user to draw examples of the desired picture for business graphics and the system automatically produces a visualization. To specify a custom visualization in other systems, code must be written or a bewildering array of dialog boxes and commands must be used. In Gold, as the user is drawing an example of the desired visualization, knowledge of properties of the data and the typical graphics of business charts are used to generalize the example and create a picture for the actual data. The goal is to make designing a complex, composite chart almost as easy as sketching a picture on a napkin.
    Keywords: Data visualization, Demonstrational interfaces, Interactive techniques, Business charts
    Interactive Graphic Design Using Automatic Presentation Knowledge BIBAKPDF 207
      Steven F. Roth; John Kolojejchick; Joe Mattis; Jade Goldstein
    Tools for creating data graphics are complex, require significant graphic expertise, and use predefined graphics that cannot integrate multiple data types. To solve these problems, we applied automatic data presentation capabilities to enable two interactive design tools. SageBrush enables users to assemble graphical sketches from primitives and partial prototypes. SageBook enables users to browse previously created pictures relevant to new data. SAGE, an automatic presentation system, supports these by completing underspecified designs, rendering unique graphic combinations, searching for relevant pictures, and redesigning old pictures to display new data. Our claim is that design interfaces must have automatic graphic knowledge to be effective.
    Keywords: Graphic design, Data visualization, Automatic presentation systems, Intelligent interfaces, Design environments, Interactive techniques
    Repeat and Predict -- Two Keys to Efficient Text Editing BIBAKPDF 207
      Toshiyuki Masui; Ken Nakayama
    We demonstrate a simple and powerful predictive interface technique for text editing tasks. With our technique called the dynamic macro creation, when a user types a special "repeat" key after doing repetitive operations in a text editor, an editing sequence corresponding to one iteration is detected, defined as a macro, and executed at the same time. When we use another special "predict" key in addition to the repeat key, wider range of prediction schemes can be performed depending on the order of using these two keys.
    Keywords: Text editing, Predictive interface, Programming by example, PBE, Programming by demonstration, PBD, Keyboard macro, Dynamic macro creation

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Studies of Communication and Cooperative Work

    Communicating About Communicating: Cross-Disciplinary Design of a Media Space Interface BIBAKPDF 208
      Beverly Harrison; Marilyn Mantei; Garry Beirne; Tracy Narine
    This paper describes benefits and misunderstandings resulting from differing perspectives and methodologies in a cross-disciplinary team. Our team designed and deployed a media space (video communication system). The interface designers were frustrated by the limited user access and rigid schedules necessary for the sociologists. The sociologists saw designers as non-observant researchers using invasive research practices and inconstant measures. In the end, both disciplines helped the other accomplish their goals. The sociologists learned something about evaluating technology and how usability impacts future product acceptance. The designers learned how detailed studies of current work practices and roles can provide design clues.
    Keywords: User interface design, Inter-disciplinary, Sociology, Video, Media space, Videoconferencing
    Informal Workplace Communication: What is It Like and How Might We Support It? BIBAKPDF 208
      Steve Whittaker; David Frohlich; Owen Daly-Jones
    We present new findings about the nature of informal communications, derived from a naturalistic study of people's everyday working activities. We identify why such interactions are so common, and valuable and how they are achieved in the workplace. We also address weaknesses in current systems that support such interactions remotely and identify further requirements for better support. We also discuss the implications of this work for conversational theories.
    Keywords: Informal communication, Audio, Video, CSCW, Workplace activity, Ethnography
    A Room of Our Own: Experiences from a Direct Office Share BIBAKPDF 209
      Annette Adler; Austin Henderson
    For nine months, the authors worked in a "direct office share" -- two offices joined by unswitched audio/video connections. This paper describes that experience. While working together, the authors were engaged in developing an architecture of use for techno-social systems-framework for describing distributed technology and people together at work. The paper therefore also seeks to achieve a second purpose: to present, mostly by demonstrating its use, the beginnings of such an architecture. This description comprises three complementary "sightings" on the direct office share, labeled 1, 1+1, and (1+1)+others. Each sighting captures selected aspects of technology (audio/video connections) in use by the authors at work. This capturing of experience demonstrates by example that multiple sightings provide a powerful form for describing techno-social systems, that current patterns of use both support and interfere with the use of new technology, and that only in a description that encompasses both the technical and social can the use of technology be comprehended.
    Keywords: Audio/video connections, Direct office share, Architecture of use, Technology in use, Descriptions of work

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Tools for Design

    Methods in Search of Methodology -- Combining HCI and Object Orientation BIBAKPDF 209
      Susan McDaniel; Gary M. Olson; Judith S. Olson
    Software design and user interface design and analysis methods are each insufficient methods for ensuring good software development. We propose a combination of object-oriented analysis and design, human computer interaction, and process redesign forged into one methodology. We describe the use of these methods in a project case study and conclude with a synopsis of how the methods worked and lessons we learned.
    Keywords: Object-oriented methods, Human computer interaction, User-centered design, Business process redesign
    Enhancing the Explanatory Power of Usability Heuristics BIBAKPDF 210
      Jakob Nielsen
    Several published sets of usability heuristics were compared with a database of existing usability problems in order to determine what heuristics best explain actual usability problems. Based on a factor analysis of the explanations as well as an analysis of the heuristics providing the broadcast explanatory coverage of the problems, a new set of nine heuristics were derived: visibility of system status, match between system and real world, user control and freedom, consistency and standards, error prevention, recognition rather than recall, flexibility and efficiency of use, aesthetic and minimalist design, and helping users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors.
    Keywords: Discount usability engineering, Heuristic evaluation, Usability problems
    Development and Evaluation of a Model of Behavioral Representation Techniques BIBAKPDF 210
      J. D. Chase; Robert S. Schulman; H. Rex Hartson; Deborah Hix
    A user-centered approach to interactive system development requires a way to represent the behavior of a user interacting with an interface. While a number of behavioral representation techniques exist, not all provide the capabilities necessary to support the interaction development process. We have developed a taxonomical model of behavioral representation techniques. Our model is an epistemological framework for analyzing and comparing existing behavioral representation techniques, as well as developing and evaluating new techniques. We present the model and results of our evaluation demonstrating the model's reliability and utility within the context of behavioral representation techniques.
    Keywords: Usability, Behavioral representation techniques, Interaction development, Model, Empirical evaluation

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Auditory Information Interfaces

    Nonvisual Presentation of Graphical User Interfaces: Contrasting Two Approaches BIBAKPDF 211
      Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Gerhard Weber
    Users who are blind currently have limited access to graphical user interfaces based on MS Windows or X Windows. Past access strategies have used speech synthesizers and braille displays to present text-based interfaces. Providing access to graphical applications creates new human interface design challenges which must be addressed to build intuitive and efficient nonvisual interfaces. Two contrasting designs have been developed and implemented in the projects Mercator and GUIB. These systems differ dramatically in their approaches to providing nonvisual interfaces to GUIs. This paper discusses four main interface design issues for access systems, and describes how the Mercator and GUIB designs have addressed these issues. It is hoped that the exploration of these interfaces will lead to better nonvisual interfaces used in low visibility and visually overloaded environments.
    Keywords: Nonvisual HCI, Blind users, Graphical user interfaces, Auditory interfaces, Tactile interfaces
    The Design and Evaluation of an Auditory-Enhanced ScrollBar BIBAKPDF 211
      Stephen A. Brewster; Peter C. Wright; Alistair D. N. Edwards
    A structured method is described for the analysis of interactions to identify situations where hidden information may exist and where non-speech sound might be used to overcome the associated problems. Interactions are considered in terms of events, status and modes to find any hidden information. This is then categorised in terms of the feedback needed to present it. An auditory-enhanced scrollbar, based on the method described, was then experimentally tested. Timing and error rates were used along with subjective measures of workload. Results from the experiment show a significant reduction in time to complete one task, a decrease in the mental effort required and an overall preference for the auditory-enhanced scrollbar.
    Keywords: Auditory interfaces, Multi-modal interface, Earcons, Sonification, Auditory-enhanced widgets

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Accessing and Using Stored Documents

    Protofoil: Storing and Finding the Information Worker's Paper Documents in an Electronic File Cabinet BIBAKPDF 212
      Ramana Rao; Stuart K. Card; Walter Johnson; Leigh Klotz; Randy Trigg
    Although the document imaging industry has taken off in the last few years, document image filing for the individual information worker is still not widespread or effective. In this paper, we focus on building an electronic filing system for paper documents that supports the ad hoc, multifarious work of information workers. Motivated by interviews with researchers and a survey of descriptive studies of paper document filing, we have focused on minimizing or delaying costs of document filing and supporting a rich variety of methods for assessing and using stored documents. We have implemented a prototype system called Protofoil for storing, retrieving, and manipulating paper documents as electronic images that integrates many user interface -- paper and workstation -- and information retrieval technologies. Protofoil has been tested through use in our laboratory, and has been deployed in a field study at a lawyer's office.
    Keywords: Document imaging, Paper user interface, Information retrieval, Filing of paper documents, Ad hoc information work
    The Marks are on the Knowledge Worker BIBAKPDF 212
      Alison Kidd
    A study of knowledge workers showed that the most important thing about them is they are changed by information. They do not carry much written material with them, rarely consult files, and have cluttered desks. My explanation is that once informed, knowledge workers do not need to retain the information source. However, until informed, they cannot file information because they cannot categorise it. I conclude that the valuable marks are on knowledge workers rather than on paper or file and suggest that they might be better supported by improving the act of informing rather than storing information for them in a "disembodied" form.
    Keywords: Knowledge workers, Information appliances, Writing, Memory

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Social Aspects of Design

    Raison d'Etre: Capturing Design History and Rationale in Multimedia Narratives BIBAKPDF 213
      John M. Carroll; Sherman R. Alpert; John Karat; Mary S. Van Deusen; Mary Beth Rosson
    Raison d'Etre is a hypermedia design history application. It provides access to a database of video clips containing stories and personal perspectives of design team members recorded at various times through the course of a project. The system is intended to provide a simple framework for recording and organizing the informal history and rationale that design teams create and share in the course of their collaboration. This paper describes (1) the scenarios of use we are trying to support, (2) the methods we used collecting and organizing the database, and (3) the status of our prototype.
    Keywords: Documentation, Design history, Collaboration, Multimedia database, Hypermedia
    Facilitating Effective HCI Design Meetings BIBAKPDF 213
      John L. Bennett; John Karat
    Over several years we have participated as facilitators in many Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) design meetings. Our focus has been on developing team results needed to achieve user-centered design of software for computer systems. We describe frameworks for partnerships, stages of meetings, and team conversations that we have found useful. In order to illustrate our general approach, we select one design meeting experience as a case study. We close with observations on how facilitation skills might be developed by design team participants. This is needed in response to an emerging requirement for effective collaborative teamwork in HCI design activities.
    Keywords: Methodologies, Design, Software engineering, Design process, Group work

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Designing Spoken Language Systems

    Interface Techniques for Minimizing Disfluent Input to Spoken Language Systems BIBAKPDF 214
      Sharon Oviatt
    This research examines spontaneous spoken disfluencies during human-computer interaction, presents a predictive model accounting for their occurrence, and outlines interface techniques for minimizing disfluent input. Data were collected during two studies in which people spoke to a highly interactive simulated system. Two factors were associated with an increase in speech disfluency rates: lengthiness of utterance, and lack of structure in the presentation format. In these studies, structural changes to the presentation format eliminated 70% of all disfluent speech. The long-term goal of this research is to provide empirical guidance for the design of robust spoken language technology.
    Keywords: Speech disfluency, Predictive modeling, Interface design, Spoken language systems, Robust processing
    An Object-Oriented Approach to Dialogue Management in Spoken Language Systems BIBAKPDF 214
      Randall Sparks; Lori Meiskey; Hans Brunner
    We describe an object-oriented approach to dialog management for the design of spoken language interface to information services. In this approach, dialog states are abstract objects that encapsulate the information and behavior the system needs to interact successfully with the user at any given point in an extended dialog. An inheritance hierarchy determines the properties of particular dialog states, which are instantiated dynamically during the user-system dialog. Dialog management rules are methods that respond to different types of user inputs in a manner appropriate for the current dialog state. This approach has been used to implement a prototype of a telephone-based information service.
    Keywords: Dialog management, Spoken language system, Object-oriented design, User interface

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Automatic Support in Design and Use

    Automatic Generation of Interactively Consistent Search Dialogs BIBAKPDF 215
      Dan R., Jr. Olsen; Walter Holladay
    The problem of creating search dialogs which are consistent with normal user interface dialogs is posed. The ART user interface tool kit is presented. The features of top-down filtering of interactive events and the modeling of interactor semantics as editing variables are discussed. Two special interactor filters are described which when wrapped around an editing dialog will transform that dialog into one which edits search patterns for the same class of objects.
    Keywords: User interface, Tool-kits, Searching, Automatic transformation
    Automatic Generation of Help from Interface Design Models BIBAKPDF 215
      Roberto Moriyon; Pedro Szekely; Robert Neches
    Model-based interface design can save substantial effort in building help systems for interactive applications by generating help automatically from the model used to implement the interface, and by providing a framework for developers to easily refine the automatically-generated help texts. This paper describes a system that generates hypertext-based help about data presented in application displays, commands to manipulate data, and interaction techniques to invoke commands. The refinement component provides several levels of customization, including programming-by-example techniques to let developers edit directly help windows that the system produces, and the possibility to refine help generation rules.
    Keywords: Automatic help generation, Model-based interface design, Hypertext-based help, Help customization, Help generation rules
    Automating Interface Evaluation BIBAKPDF 216
      Michael D. Byrne; Scott D. Wood; Piyawadee "Noi" Sukaviriya; James D. Foley; David Kieras
    One method for user interface analysis that has proven successful is formal analysis, such as GOMS. These methods have been criticized for being at minimum an additional burden for the system designer. However, if the process of constructing and using formal models could be automated, they could be of even greater value. This paper describes an early version of such a system, called USAGE. Given the application model necessary to drive the UIDE system, USAGE generates an NGOMSL model of the interface which can be "run" on a typical set of user tasks and provide execution and learning time estimates.
    Keywords: GOMS, Usability, User interface design environment, Interface evaluation, Formal models of the user, UIMS

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Evaluation Methods

    The Cost-of-Knowledge Characteristic Function: Display Evaluation for Direct-Walk Dynamic Information Visualizations BIBAKPDF 216
      Stuart K. Card; Peter Pirolli; Jock D. Mackinlay
    In this paper we present a method, the Cost-of-Knowledge Characteristic Function, for characterizing information access from dynamic displays. The paper works out this method for a simple, but important, class of dynamic displays called direct-walk interactive information visualizations, in which information is accessed through a sequence of mouse selections and key selections. The method is used to characterize a simple calendar task for an application of the Information Visualizer, to compute the changes in characterization as the result of possible program variants, and to conduct empirical comparison between different systems with the same function.
    Keywords: Information visualization, Dynamic displays, Methodology, Evaluation, 3D user interfaces, Information Visualizer
    Comparative Usability Evaluation: Critical Incidents and Critical Threads BIBAKPDF 217
      Jurgen Koenemann-Belliveau; John M. Carroll; Mark K. Singley
    Empirical usability evaluations (particularly formative evaluations) hinge on observing and interpreting critical incidents of use. We proposed augmenting critical incident methods by analysis of what we called critical threads: sets of causally related user episodes that, taken together, define major usability themes. This paper extends this work to the comparative usability analysis of a related artifact. We discuss how our earlier claims analysis was used to orient and simplify our current evaluation efforts.
    Keywords: User interfaces, Evaluation methodology, Formative evaluation, Usability evaluation
    Usability Testing in the Field: Bringing the Laboratory to the User BIBAKPDF 217
      David E. Rowley
    Usability testing is not always best accomplished within the confines of a specifically equipped usability laboratory. Logistics and resource constraints sometimes necessitate taking the testing out on the road. This paper describes some of the issues surrounding a field testing program, and gives suggestions about how such an undertaking can be accomplished under strict financial, resource and schedule limitations. A case study is presented to help illustrate the planning and evaluation process, and to provide insights into the types of problems such an endeavor is likely to encounter, as well as some valuable lessons learned along the way.
    Keywords: Usability testing, Formative evaluation, Field testing, Cooperative evaluation


    User Learning and Performance with Marking Menus BIBAKPDF 218
      Gordon Kurtenbach; William Buxton
    A marking menu is designed to allow a user to perform a menu selection by either popping-up a radial (or pie) menu, or by making a straight mark in the direction of the desired menu item without popping-up the menu. This paper reports on a case study of user behavior with marking menus in a real work situation. The study demonstrates that when users become expert, marks are used extensively and are on average 3.5 times faster than using the menu. However, expert users still occasionally switch back to menus to refresh their memory of menu layout.
    Keywords: Marking menus, Pie menus, Gestures, Pen based input, Accelerators, Input devices, Multimedia
    T-Cube: A Fast, Self-Disclosing Pen-Based Alphabet BIBAKPDF 218
      Dan Venolia; Forrest Neiberg
    An interface for entering text to a pen-based computer is described. The technique proposes a new alphabet, where each letter is a flick gesture. These flick gestures are self-disclosing using pie menus. An experiment determined the speeds of executing the flick gestures and the transition speeds between gestures. An assignment of characters to gestures is developed and evaluated. Audio feedback is used to convey whether a gesture was well- or badly-formed. A longitudinal study showed clear progress on a learning curve. The method is compared to soft keyboards, handwriting recognition systems, and unistrokes.
    Keywords: Stylus, Text entry, Pen-based computing, Audio feedback
    Filochat: Handwritten Notes Provide Access to Recorded Conversations BIBAKPDF 219
      Steve Whittaker; Patrick Hyland; Myrtle Wiley
    We present a novel application which integrates handwriting and recorded audio in a semi-portable device. Based on user interviews, it allows people to straightforwardly access particular points in recorded spontaneous speech via handwritten notes, using temporal indexing. Laboratory studies showed objective benefits of combined notes and audio over notes alone. The utility of the access method was shown by improved performance over current audio technology such as dictaphones. We also found perceived benefits of higher quality meeting minutes in field trials. An unforeseen benefit was the use of this device as an audio editing tool. We discuss further technical extensions and user issues in relation to the prototype.
    Keywords: Audio, "Speech-as-data", Retrieval, Handwriting, Notes, Indexing


    A Preliminary Analysis of the Products of HCI Research, using Pro Forma Abstracts BIBAKPDF 219
      William Newman
    A classification scheme for the products of engineering research is described, involving three principal categories: improved modelling techniques, solutions and tools. A set of pro forma abstracts are proposed as a means of identifying the three categories, and are found to cover over 90 percent of the 554 engineering papers sampled. However only 30 percent of papers published at recent CHI and INTERCHI conferences can be thus categorized. The remainder appear mostly to describe radical solutions (solutions not derived from incremental improvements to solutions to the same problem), and experience and/or heuristics gained mostly from studies of radical solutions.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Research methods, Research products, System design, Abstracts, Radical solutions

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Design Evaluation

    Supporting Knowledge-Base Evolution with Incremental Formalization BIBAKPDF 220
      Frank M., III Shipman; Raymond McCall
    Computers require formally represented information to support users but users often cannot provide it. This paper looks at an approach called "incremental formalization", when users express information informally and the system supports them in formalizing it. Incremental formalization requires a system architecture that can integrate formal and informal representations and enable and support moving information upward in formality. The system should include tools to capture naturally available informal information and knowledge-based techniques to suggest possible formalizations of this informal information. The Hyper-Object Substrate, a system with these characteristics, has been applied to a variety of domains.
    Keywords: Formalization, Structure, Hypermedia, Knowledge-based systems, Knowledge representation, Knowledge acquisition
    Seeding, Evolutionary Growth and Reseeding: Supporting the Incremental Development of Design Environments BIBAKPDF 220
      Gerhard Fischer; Ray McCall; Jonathan Ostwald; Brent Reeves; Frank Shipman
    We describe an approach to acquiring information during the creation and use of domain-oriented environments. Our model consists of three phases: seeding, evolutionary growth, and reseeding. A seed for a domain-oriented design environment is created through a participatory design process between environment developers and domain designers by incorporating domain-specific knowledge into a domain-independent architecture for design environments. Evolutionary growth takes place as domain designers use the seeded environment to undertake specific projects. Reseeding is a process that reinvolves the environment developers to help domain designers better organize, formalize, and generalize knowledge added during the use phases.
    Keywords: Design, Design environments, Domain-orientation, Evolution of information spaces, Seeds, Reseeding, Annotation, Incremental formalization, Tacit knowledge, Situated cognition, End-user modifiability, Collaborative design
    Talking Through Design: Requirements and Resistance in Cooperative Prototyping BIBAKPDF 221
      John Bowers; James Pycock
    Some analyses are presented of talk between designers and a potential user in a participatory design session where a prototype application was worked with to determine future requirements. We explore the ways in which design suggestions are formulated and argued for, and how requirements emerge as a negotiated product of interaction. On this basis, we re-examine user participation in design and the relationship between prototyping and user requirements. We conclude by offering a notion (gradients of resistance in design space) to help understanding the interplay of the social and the technical in design.
    Keywords: Requirements, Participatory design, Interaction analysis

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Information Visualization

    The Movable Filter as a User Interface Tool BIBAKPDF 221
      Maureen C. Stone; Ken Fishkin; Eric A. Bier
    Magic Lens filters are a new user interface tool that combine an arbitrarily-shaped region with an operator that changes the view of objects viewed through that region. These tools can be interactively positioned over on-screen applications much as a magnifying glass is moved over a newspaper. This paper describes their advantages in more detail and illustrates them with examples of magic lens filters in use over a variety of applications.
    Keywords: Viewing filter, Lens, Transparent, Visualization, Editing, Macro, Graphics
    Visual Information Seeking: Tight Coupling of Dynamic Query Filters with Starfield Displays BIBAKPDF 222
      Christopher Ahlberg; Ben Shneiderman
    Visual information seeking (VIS) is distinguished from familiar query composition and information retrieval because of its emphasis on rapid filtering, progressive refinement or search parameters, continuous reformulation of goals, and visual scanning to identify results. VIS principles developed: dynamic query filters (query parameters rapidly adjust with sliders, buttons, maps, etc.), starfield displays (two-dimensional scatterplots to structure result sets), and tight coupling (interrelating query components to preserve display invariants and support progressive refinement and an emphasis on using search output to foster search input). A FilmFinder prototype using a movie database demonstrates these principles.
    Keywords: Database query, Dynamic queries, Information seeking, Tight coupling, Starfield displays
    The Table Lens: Merging Graphical and Symbolic Representations in an Interactive Focus+Context Visualization for Tabular Information BIBAKPDF 222
      Ramana Rao; Stuart K. Card
    We present a new visualization, called the Table Lens, for visualizing and making sense of large tables. The visualization uses a focus+context (fisheye) technique that works effectively on tabular information because it allows display of crucial label information and multiple distal focus areas. In addition, a graphical mapping scheme for depicting table contents has been developed for the most widespread kind of tables, the case-by-variables table. The Table Lens fuses symbolic and graphical representations into a single coherent view that can be fluidly adjusted by the user. This fusion and interactivity enables an extremely rich and natural style of direct manipulation exploratory data analysis.
    Keywords: Information visualization, Exploratory data analysis, Graphical representations, Focus+context technique, Fisheye technique, Tables, Spreadsheets, Relational tables

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Access to Organized Data Structures

    Evaluating the Influence of Interface Styles and Multiple Access Paths in Hypertext BIBAKPDF 223
      Pawan R. Vora; Martin G. Helander; Valerie L. Shalin
    In this paper, we investigated usability issues in hypertext. First, we compared usability of graphical and textual interfaces. The results favored a graphical interface with labeled links (GL). However, subjects suggested incorporating multiple pathways to facilitate search. To determine how hypertext designers could establish, a priori, multiple structures, we consulted domain experts. Distinct organizations emerged from experts in different professions. Therefore, we modified the hypertext to incorporate these multiple structures. On subsequent evaluation, contrary to previous evidence, multiple structures enhanced search performance. Based on these experiments, we recommend using a GL interface and multiple semantic organizations to improve hypertext usability.
    Keywords: Hypertext, Usability, Design guidelines, Graphical vs. textual interfaces, Single vs. multiple organizations, Expert organizations
    Multitrees: Enriching and Reusing Hierarchical Structure BIBAKPDF 223
      George W. Furnas; Jeff Zacks
    This paper introduces multitrees, a new type of structure for representing information. Multitrees are a class of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) with the unusual property that they have large easily identifiable substructures that are trees. These subtrees have a natural semantic interpretation providing alternate hierarchical contexts for information, as well as providing a natural model for hierarchical reuse. The numerous trees found within multitrees also afford familiar, tree-based graphical interactions.
    Keywords: Information graphs, Representation, Hierarchies, Reuse, Directed graphs, Hypertext structures, Graphical browsers


    A Keystroke Level Analysis of a Graphics Application: Manual Map Digitizing BIBAKPDF 224
      Peter Haunold; Werner Kuhn
    Manually transforming analog graphic data, such as maps, into digital form is slow and expensive, but widely performed. The work reported here investigates the possibility to apply the Keystroke-Level Model to the modeling and optimization of manual map digitizing tasks. We tested the suitability of the model at a national mapping agency and determined unit tasks with their performance times. The paper describes an experiment to measure performance times under production conditions. Two new keystroke level operators are defined for manual digitizing. The use and suitability of the model are demonstrated by comparing predicted and measured performance times.
    Keywords: Keystroke-level model, Graphics, Map digitizing, Geographic information systems, Interface design optimization
    A GOMS Analysis of the Advanced Automated Cockpit BIBAKPDF 224
      Sharon Irving; Peter Polson; J. E. Irving
    A GOMS analysis of a subset of skills needed to use the Flight Management Computer on advanced, commercial "glass-cockpit" aircraft revealed the existence of just three common methods, as well as inconsistencies in the interface. Novices given low-fidelity, part-task Macintosh computer based training in accordance with this formal modeling effort could carry out similar tasks in a full motion flight simulator, using real aircraft hardware. Their performance was compared with pilots who had just completed professional training as well as with experts. Their performance of all groups reflected difficulties with the interface as revealed by the analysis.
    Keywords: Formal models, GOMS, "Glass-cockpit", Air crew training
    A Validation of the GOMS Model Methodology in the Development of a Specialized, Commercial Software Application BIBAKPDF 225
      Richard Gong; David Kieras
    A formal GOMS model approach was applied to the design and evaluation of the user interface for a specialized, commercial software application. This approach was able to identify significant usability problems embedded in the procedures by which users interact with the interface. A redesign of the interface based on the GOMS approach resulted in a 46% reduction in learning time and a 39% reduction in execution time during a formal evaluation, differences predicted by the GOMS analysis. Corrections to the GOMS time estimation techniques were necessary to obtain accurate (within 9%) predictions of absolute learning and execution times.
    Keywords: GOMS, Analytical methods, Interface design, Usability, User testing, Performance prediction

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Visual Interaction Techniques

    A Taxonomy of See-Through Tools BIBAKPDF 225
      Eric A. Bier; Maureen C. Stone; Ken Fishkin; William Buxton; Thomas Baudel
    The see-through interface is a new interaction paradigm, based on a set of semi-transparent tools that are moved over an application with one hand while the other applies the tools using a traditional cursor. Compared to traditional interactors, these tools save steps, require no permanent screen space, eliminate temporal modes, allow the user to stay focused on the work area, and are easily customized. This paper presents a taxonomy of see-through tools that considers variations in each of the steps they perform. Our taxonomy is illustrated with example tools that perform graphical editing and text editing operations.
    Keywords: User interface, Control panel, Transparent, Multi-hand, Viewing filter, Button, Lens, Menu, Macro
    The Alphaslider: A Compact and Rapid Selector BIBAKPDF 226
      Christopher Ahlberg; Ben Shneiderman
    Research has suggested that rapid, serial, visual presentation of text (RSVP) may be an effective way to scan and search through lists of text strings in search of words, names, etc. The Alphaslider widget employees RSVP as a method for rapidly scanning and searching lists or menus in a graphical user interface environment. The Alphaslider only uses an area less than 7 x 2.5cm2. An experiment was conducted with four Alphaslider designs which showed that novice Alphaslider users could locate one item in a list of 10,000 film titles in 24 seconds on average.
    Keywords: Alphaslider, Widget, Selection technology, Menus, Dynamic queries

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Designing Interaction Objects

    Specification of Interface Interaction Objects BIBAKPDF 226
      David A. Carr
    User Interface Management Systems have significantly reduced the effort required to build a user interface. However, current systems assume a set of standard "widgets" and make no provisions for defining new ones. This forces user interface designers to either do without or laboriously build new widgets with code. The Interface Object Graph is presented as a method for specifying and communicating the design of interaction objects or widgets. Two sample specifications are presented, one for a secure switch and the other for a two dimensional graphical browser.
    Keywords: User interface specification, User interface design
    Recursive Interfaces for Reactive Objects BIBAKPDF 227
      Michael Travers
    LiveWorld is a graphical environment for programming with reactive objects. It offers novice users a world in which graphic objects and program elements are integrated into a single interaction framework. To manage the diversity of object types in LiveWorld, it uses an unusual object system in which the separate categories of classes, objects, and slots are replaced with a single type of entity, the frame, that has a simple and intuitive graphic representation. This unification enables the construction of an integrated interface that achieves elegance, simplicity and power, and can provide conceptual scaffolding for novices to enter into programming.
    Keywords: Programming environments, Objects, Direct manipulation, Visual object-oriented programming, Agents, Rules

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: HCI in the Real World

    The Value of a Baseline in Determining Design Success BIBAKPDF 227
      Brenda Burkhart; Darold Hemphill; Scott Jones
    This paper examines the value of a baseline for usability testing in a software development organization and the specific issues that arose during the implementations of the usability test. Specifically, this testing involved the transitioning of a character-based user interface to a graphical user interface. In order to assess the efficacy of the new design and to determine if performance improvements were achieved with the new interface, a baseline was established to enable a comparative usability assessment. This usability test focused on comparing performance on similar tasks for both interfaces. Results indicated that the new interface was faster than the old interface for similar tasks. Usability goals were established at an arbitrary 50% improvement in task time over the old system. An average of 56% improvement was achieved. Advantages of the comparative design, namely better identification of tasks to target for improvement and establishment of an archive of data, are discussed. In addition, recommendations for reducing the effort involved in staging a comparative usability test are discussed.
    Keywords: Comparative testing, Baseline, CUI, Design principles, GUI, Usability testing, Usability goals
    User Preferences for Task-Specific vs. Generic Application Software BIBAKPDF 228
      Bonnie A. Nardi; Jeff A. Johnson
    We conducted an ethnographic study to investigate the use of generic vs. task-specific application software by people who create and maintain presentation slides. The study was motivated by our beliefs that: 1) some software programs are task-generic, intended for use in a wide variety of tasks, while others are task-specific, intended to support very specific tasks; 2) task-specific software is preferable, but is often not used because of cost, learning effort, or lack of availability; and 3) people who infrequently perform a task tend to use generic tools, while people who frequently perform a task tend to use task-specific tools. Our findings suggest that the truth is more complex.
    Keywords: Task-specificity, Task analysis, Slidemaking, End user computing, Interoperability, Collaborative work
    Surrogate Users: Mediating Between Social and Technical Interaction BIBAKPDF 228
      Deborah Lawrence; Michael E. Atwood; Shelly Dews
    Although human machine interaction is typically studied in the context of one person interacting with a computer, people often interact with computers in support of their communication with other people. Telephone operators are an excellent example of such "surrogate users"; they use workstations to carry out a goal for a customer, such as finding a telephone number. As the customer's intermediary, the operator must construct an accurate and well-specified search, though the information offered may be incomplete or inaccurate. We have examined both the social interaction and the human-computer interaction in such situations using several different types of analysis, first in CPM-GOMS models and more recently in dialogue analysis and analysis of dialogue timelines. Our work has alerted us to the special human performance requirements of surrogate user tasks.
    Keywords: Dialogue analysis, System evaluation, Surrogate users, Database retrieval

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Evaluating Pointing Devices

    Children's Use of Mouse-Based Interfaces to Control Virtual Travel BIBAKPDF 229
      Erik Strommen
    Children's performances using three different mouse interfaces to control point-of-view (POV) navigation in a prototype of a CD-ROM based "virtual forest" were assessed. Results indicate that while children readily understood POV movement and were able to use all three interfaces successfully, each interface was less than optimal for different reasons. An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of each interface in light of the intended usage scenario was conducted, and the least problematic of the three was selected for the system.
    Keywords: Children, Interface, Virtual travel
    The Effect of Reducing Homing Time on the Speed of a Finger-Controlled Isometric Pointing Device BIBAKPDF 229
      Anant Kartik Mithal; Sarah A. Douglas
    This paper examines a new pointing device. Subjects' pointing performance was compared in two tasks. One task required pointing, the other pointing and typing. One group used a keyboard and mouse. The other used a keyboard with integrated joystick under the "J" key. The mouse was faster despite the reduction in homing time shown by the joystick and keyboard combination. We show that the mouse is the faster pointing device; that a finger controlled device complies with Fitts' law; and that for designing faster pointing devices, increasing the Fitts' Law Index of Performance is more important than reducing homing time.
    Keywords: Fitts' law, Pointing devices, Homing time, Keystroke level model, Index of difficulty, Index of performance, Mouse, Joystick
    Two-Handed Input in a Compound Task BIBAKPDF 230
      Paul Kabbash; William Buxton; Abigail Sellen
    Four techniques for performing a compound drawing/color selection task were studied: one unimanual, one bimanual where different hands controlled independent subtasks, and two bimanual, where the action of the right hand depended on that of the left. We call these latter two "asymmetric dependent." Since they closely conform to everyday bimanual tasks, we predict they would give rise to the best performance. One, called Toolglass, did. The reasons and implications for design are discussed. These are contrasted with other kinds of two-handed techniques, and it is shown below how, if designed inappropriately, two hands can be worse than one.
    Keywords: Two-handed input, GUIs, Toolglass, Palette menus, Compound tasks

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Analysis of Programming Environments

    In Search of Design Principles for Programming Environments BIBAKPDF 230
      Stephanie Houde; Royston Sellman
    Software development environments are becoming progressively more advanced in their support for construction of large software applications. However, it is still tedious and time consuming for programmers to build even simple applications. This paper describes an exploratory study which identifies some common problems experienced by programmers working with a range of currently available tools. Eight professional programmers were observed while each built the same simple application using a different software development environment. Problems encountered during the authoring process were noted. Four categories of common problems emerged. Design principles implied by these categories are suggested.
    Keywords: Programming environments, Authoring tools, User-centered design
    Programmable Design Environments: Integrating End-User Programming with Domain-Oriented Assistance BIBAKPDF 231
      Michael Eisenberg; Gerhard Fischer
    Programmable design environments (PDEs) are computational environments that integrate the conceptual frameworks and components of (a) design environments and (b) programmable applications. The integration of these two approaches provides elements (such as software "critics" and "queryable objects") that assist users in learning both the application and its domain; in addition, an interactive "application-enriched" end-user programming environment stresses the values of expressiveness and modifiability. By way of illustration, we present a newly-developed programmable design environment, SchemeChart, for the domain of charting and information displays.
    Keywords: Programmable design environments, End-user programming, Programmable applications, Domain-oriented design environments, Critics

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Cognitive Models

    "Why is a Raven Like a Writing Desk?" Lessons in Interface Consistency and Analogical Reasoning from Two Cognitive Architectures BIBAKPDF 231
      John Rieman; Clayton Lewis; Richard M. Young; Peter G. Polson
    Users who have worked with just a few pieces of application software on a computer system are often faced with the need to use a new program on the same system. Consistency between program interfaces is intended to make new software easier to learn, but how "consistency" should be defined is not clear. We present a model of analogical reasoning that describes how users rely on interface consistency to induce correct actions in a new situation. Versions of the model are implemented in ACT-R and Soar. The model yields a more principled understanding of design guidelines that recommend consistency.
    Keywords: User models, Consistency, Exploratory learning, Analogy, Metaphor
    A Model of the Acquisition of Menu Knowledge by Exploration BIBAKPDF 232
      Andrew Howes
    This paper reports a mechanism that learns how to use a menu structure by exploration. The model, called Ayn, starts without any knowledge of the menus but when given a goal, explores and tries out options until the goal has been achieved. During this process it constructs a long-term, recognition-oriented, memory of its behavior so that on future occasions it will be able to achieve the same goal without exploration. The mechanism captures three aspects of human behavior: it learns while interacting with the device, it speeds up with practice, and it acquires display-based knowledge.
    Keywords: Exploratory learning, Cognitive models, Working memory, Practice, Menus, Display-based knowledge

    PAPER ABSTRACTS: Interacting in 3-D

    Passive Real-World Interface Props for Neurosurgical Visualization BIBAKPDF 232
      Ken Hinckley; Randy Pausch; John C. Goble; Neal F. Kassell
    We claim that physical manipulation of familiar real-world objects in the user's real environment is an important technique for the design of three-dimensional user interfaces. These real-world passive interface props are manipulated by the user with both hands to specify spatial relationships between interface objects. We present neurosurgical planning as a driving application and demonstrate the utility of a head prop, a cutting plane prop, and a trajectory selection prop in this domain. Our informal evaluations have shown that with a cursory introduction, neurosurgeons who have never seen the interface can understand and use it without training.
    Keywords: Three-dimensional interaction, Gesture input, Two-handed interaction, Haptic input, Neurosurgery, Visualization
    The "Silk Cursor": Investigating Transparency for 3D Target Acquisition BIBAKPDF 233
      Shumin Zhai; William Buxton; Paul Milgram
    This study investigates dynamic 3D target acquisition. The focus is on the relative effect of specific perceptual cues. A novel technique is introduced and we report on an experiment that evaluates its effectiveness. There are two aspects to the new technique. First, in contrast to normal practice, the tracking symbol is a volume rather than a point. Second, the surface of this volume is semi-transparent, thereby affording occlusion cues during target acquisition.
       The experiment shows that the volume/occlusion cures were effective in both monocular and stereographic conditions. For some tasks where stereographic presentation is unavailable or infeasible, the new technique offers an effective alternative.
    Keywords: 3D interface, Interaction technique, Target acquisition, Virtual reality, Fitts' law, Input, Depth perception
    Direct and Intuitive Input Device for 3-D Shape Deformation BIBAKPDF 233
      Tamotsu Murakami; Naomasa Nakajima
    Standard input devices such as a mouse and a keyboard in present computer-aided design systems do not provide users with direct and intuitive facilities for highly 3-D shape manipulation. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new interface system for 3-D shape manipulation by adopting a real elastic object as an input device. By deforming the device with bare hands with a tactile feedback, users can manipulate a 3-D shape modeled and displayed on a computer screen quite directly and intuitively. A prototype with a cubical input device made of electrically conductive polyurethane foam is also presented.
    Keywords: Human interface, Computer graphics, Input device, Computer-aided design, Free-form deformation


    The Coming of Age of Software Design BIBAPDF 237
      Mitchell Kapor
    The recognition of software design as a profession is long overdue. For too long the act of conceiving a new program, that is, seething its distinctive behavior and appearance apart from the mechanism of its implementation, has been unrecognized as a distinct professional activity of paramount importance.
       Software design is in the early stages of coming into its own. It is not an area of research, nor is it a branch of science or a field of engineering. Rather, it is a design discipline within the domain of computing.
       This talk will make the case for these propositions through reflection on personal experience as well as the history of other design professions.
    Constructing New Interface Frameworks BIBAKPDF 239-240
      S. Joy Mountford
    The design frameworks used successfully in the past by the interface community are largely becoming outmoded. Given current trends toward more personal, portable, media-based products the CHI community needs to revise their design frameworks to help shape a new cycle of interaction design. This talk will use media-based examples to show how the past has been influenced and present some new interface frameworks to help guide future interface design directions.
    Keywords: Design, Design methodology, Future interfaces; Design, Design methodology, Future interfaces

    SHORT PAPERS: Design in the Workplace

    Keeping Viewers in the Picture: Real-World Usability Procedures in the Development of a Television Control Interface BIBAKPDF 243-244
      Alison Black; Oliver Bayley; Colin Burns; Ilkka Kuuluvainen; John Stoddard
    This paper describes practical techniques used to ensure user oriented design of a TV control interface. Key issues were the early involvement of usability specialists, the use of different techniques throughout the design process to ensure the whole project team had direct contact with users, and ensuring usability principles were communicated effectively. The paper emphasizes the importance of usability procedures in the design of consumer products, and of taking usability 'out of the lab' to the environments in which products will be used.
    Keywords: Consumer products, Television, Design methods, Usability, Observation, Scenarios, User testing
    A Comparison of Methods for Teaching Information Systems Design BIBAKPDF 245-246
      Penny Collings; David Walker; Frank Hicks; Anne McMahon; Errol Martin
    For some years now, we have been experimenting at the University of Canberra with a range of different approaches to the teaching of information systems design, and in particular the problem of providing a realistic context for the development of user requirements. Three alternative strategies of teaching information systems design, involving traditional written problem specifications, staff role-playing users, and behavioural simulations in which students play both user and IT professional roles are compared, and their areas of applicability identified.
    Keywords: Design process, HCI education, Behavioural simulation, Role-playing

    SHORT PAPERS: Multimedia in Use

    Graphical Interfaces for Young Children in a Software-Based Mathematics Curriculum BIBAKPDF 247-248
      Joe Berkovitz
    In designing a software-based elementary mathematics curriculum, we have created a family of graphical interfaces for manipulating mathematical objects. This case study describes part of our design, highlighting some issues of interest to the HCI community. We designed a small but flexible set of general interface mechanisms, adapting them to various instructional contexts. A design goal was to meet the needs of both young and adult users without reinventing familiar styles of interaction. User testing then helped us identify a parsimonious set of adaptations needed for children. Among other results this led to a significantly improved form of marquee selection.
    Keywords: User interfaces, Ergonomics, Interaction styles, Computer uses in education, Children, Direct manipulation, Graphics editors, Marquee selection
    ScienceWorks Modeler: Scaffolding the Doing of Science BIBAKPDF 249-250
      Shari L. Jackson; Jiannchuan Tony Hu; Elliot Soloway
    At the heart of a working science literacy is the ability to create models that explain real-world phenomena. However, constructing, simulating, verifying and validating models poses a serious challenge for students. Just as professional computational scientists rely on technology in their model creation activities, we are developing the ScienceWorks Modeler to provide comparable technological support for students and teachers. With the Modeler, students can easily construct dynamic, photo-realistic, visualizable models, and compare predictions made by their computational models with actual data collected in the field. Students build their models using an easy-to-use object-oriented visual language -- not traditional programming.
    Keywords: Model, Simulation, Science, Visualization

    SHORT PAPERS: Modeling I/O

    Device Comparisons for Goal-Directed Drawing Tasks BIBAKPDF 251-252
      Shawna Meyer; Oryx Cohen; Erik Nilsen
    This study compares five input devices (mouse, mousepen, trackball, stylus, and touchscreen) on a series of goal directed tasks using a drawing program. Striking performance differences are found for the touchscreen when compared with a previous study using a standard, isolated, laboratory task. The study also looks at the impact of device to screen mapping (absolute vs. relative) and device orientation (horizontal vs. vertical). Performance and preference data point towards an advantage for horizontal relative input devices.
    Keywords: Input devices, Input tasks
    Issues and Experience in Designing Two-Handed Interaction BIBAKPDF 253-254
      Stephane Chatty
    Considering that direct manipulation interfaces using a pointing device could be more efficient with the addition of a second pointing device, we are designing and implementing two-handed interfaces for air traffic controllers. This paper describes the interaction styles we imagined for such interfaces, and some issues raised by their implementation.
    Keywords: Two-handed interaction, Interaction style, Multimodal interaction, Air-traffic control
    Passive Force Feedback for Velocity Control BIBAKPDF 255-256
      Mark Paton; Colin Ware
    This paper introduces the Bungee Bat as a 3D passive force feedback device for velocity control for exploring 3D graphical environments. A qualitative study was carried out to compare a freehand velocity control device with the Bungee Bat for several navigation tasks in a graphical world consisting of a digital terrain map.
    Keywords: Input device, Force feedback, Haptics, Human performance
    Design of a Virtual Rigid Surface: Haptic/Audio Registration BIBAKPDF 257-258
      Louis B. Rosenberg
    Few design parameters have been developed for the display of virtual percepts. This is particularly true for complex virtual constructs that include haptic information displayed through a force reflecting interface. This study looks at a fundamental virtual percept for haptic display, the representation of a virtual rigid surface, and empirically derives a design parameter for the registration of the haptic and audio perceptual content. Results of subject testing have revealed that a delay as high as 100 ms can exist between the presentation of haptic and audio sensations in display of a virtual rigid surface before users notice any perceptual distortion.
    Keywords: Haptic display, Force reflection, Virtual reality, Design for perception, Audio registration, Force reflecting joystick
    Anthropomorphic Model for Hand Gesture Interface BIBAKPDF 259-260
      Annelies Braffort; Christophe Collet; Daniel Teil
    This paper presents an anthropomorphic computer model of the human hand, with the aim of improving the results of hand gesture recognition algorithms. Cinematic knowledge allows us to filter the data provided by gesture transducers and to reconstruct the hand, even when all the respective position values of its different components are not known. Moreover, such a model provides a representation of the hand which is independent of the transducers used to capture gestures.
    Keywords: Gesture interface, Gesture production, Gesture recognition, Anthropomorphic model, Filtering, Reconstruction
    A System for Application-Independent Time-Critical Rendering BIBAKPDF 261-262
      Rich Gossweiler; Randy Pausch
    We are developing a rendering system which supports automatic, application-independent time-critical rendering for 3D graphics. When the scenes being generated overload the rendering engine, a rendering scheduler employs perception-based techniques to reduce the scene complexity at run-time. Perception-based degradation mechanisms are used because they are based on characteristics of the human, not characteristics of the application. Since the human is the one element guaranteed to exist across all interactive applications, this rendering system is application-independent.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, Virtual environments, Time-critical rendering, Rendering scheduler, Image degradation, Real-time, Application-independence, Interactive graphics

    SHORT PAPERS: Multimedia Interfaces

    User Interfaces for Hypermedia: How to Find Good Metaphors? BIBAKPDF 263-264
      Kaisa Vaananen; Jens Schmidt
    Users of hypermedia are known to suffer from confusion and loss of overview when navigating within the hyperspace. This is especially serious problem in public information systems where instant acceptance by non-computer-experts must be ensured. Concrete real-world user interface metaphors can help solve these problems by imposing familiar structures and interaction possibilities and visualizing them to the user. This paper gives guidance to the hypermedia user interface designer in the task of selecting an appropriate metaphor.
    Keywords: Hypermedia, User interface metaphors
    A Geographically-Based Multimedia Approach to City Planning BIBAKPDF 265-266
      Michael J. Shiffer
    This paper explores an implementation of a multimedia information system to aid geographically-oriented city planning situations. The implementation provides a method of interacting with city planning analysis tools using direct manipulation graphical interfaces. The technology combines maps, interactive video, text, sound, and other forms of data with analytic tools and an associative information structure using a city map as a central metaphor. This allows immediate navigation amongst chunks of related information during city planning meetings. The technology also makes it possible to link descriptive images, such as digital video and sound, to information that would normally be represented quantitatively.
    Keywords: Geographic, Direct manipulation, Noise, Multimedia, Maps, Implementation, Group, Decision

    SHORT PAPERS: Auditory Information Interfaces

    Multimodal Interfaces: New Solutions to the Problem of Computer Accessibility for the Blind BIBAKPDF 267-268
      Yacine Bellik; Dominique Burger
    This paper examines how multimodal interfaces can improve the accessibility of software application for blind users. The approach, which consists of translating visual interaction forms through non visual modalities, can't be successfully applied to graphical interfaces. Optimising interface for the blind involves rethinking paradigms and building the application interface on another base. Multimodal interfaces open new avenues for research and development into this area. This paper discusses these promising perspectives through a concrete example: a prototype multimodal text editor that has been developed in a research project between INSERM and CNRS.
    Keywords: User interface, Multimodal interface, Non visual interface
    Designing with Auditory Icons: How Well Do We Identify Auditory Cues? BIBAKPDF 269-270
      Elizabeth D. Mynatt
    Despite the increased use of auditory icons in computer interfaces, a methodology for designing with auditory icons has not been demonstrated. This methodology should be based on factors which commonly affect the usability of auditory icons in computer interfaces. One step in this methodology is determining how well people can identify auditory cues. In the first of a series of experiments, subjects were asked to describe a collection of short everyday sounds. The content and accuracy of their identifications offers guidelines for the use of auditory cues.
    Keywords: Auditory interfaces, Auditory icons, Design methodology, Audio, User interfaces

    SHORT PAPERS: Social Aspects of Design

    Communicating HCI Modelling to Practitioners BIBAKWeb PagePDF 271-272
      Simon Buckingham Shum; Anker Helms Jorgensen; Annette Aboulafia; Nick Hammond
    The human-computer interaction (HCI) community is generating a large number of analytic, usability-oriented approaches such as cognitive models and user-centred design representations. However, critical factors for their eventual application are their intelligibility, utility and usability for practitioners. In this paper, we present ongoing research into the transfer of analytic HCI approaches to designers. We outline our research strategy, three empirical studies, and some key results. We then highlight measures which respond to designers' requirements by making modelling product and process accessible to practitioners.
    Keywords: HCI modelling, HCI theory, Design practice
    Using Electronic Group Decision-Making Technology for Usability Walkthroughs: An Initial Qualitative Cost/Benefit Analysis BIBAKPDF 273-274
      Lauren Weisberg Zack
    Today's business climate mandates that all application development methods be cost-effective as well as user-centered. An alternative to costly, traditional Usability laboratory testing is discussed. By employing advanced technologies such as electronic group decision-making tools, development teams may experience a reduction in cycle-time while retaining the ability to focus on end-user performance and preference information in order to improve customer satisfaction.
    Keywords: Usability, Cognitive walkthroughs, Electronic brainstorming, GUI, User interface design team

    SHORT PAPERS: Designing Spoken Language Systems

    Talking vs Taking: Speech Access to Remote Computers BIBAKPDF 275-276
      Nicole Yankelovich
    The telephone also has its share of problems. It seems everywhere we call these days we are greeted by a voice asking us to press 1 for this, 2 for that, and 3 for who knows what. Why are these systems so frustrating to use? Is it their inflexibility? Perhaps it's because people expect to engage in a conversation when they pick up the phone.
    Keywords: Speech user interface, Speech recognition, Electronic calendar, Natural language processing
    Storywriter: A Speech Oriented Editor BIBAKPDF 277-278
      Catalina Danis; Liam Comerford; Eric Janke; Ken Davies; Jackie DeVries; Alex Bertrand
    Repetitive Stress Injury (RSI), a disorder that curtails repetitive movements such as typing and poses a potentially career-ending problem for people who write for a living, motivated our development of the StoryWriter editor. This editor accepts speech and keyboard input for text creation and six types of input for application control functions (speech, keyboard, mouse, foot pedal and two novel techniques, pointer touch and point and speak). The variability of RSI symptomatology dictated that several input methods be integrated seamlessly. The system can also be used efficiently by unimpaired individuals.
    Keywords: Speech recognition, Editing, RSI, Dictation, Pointing

    SHORT PAPERS: HCI Research?

    A Survey on User Expectations for Interface Builders BIBAKPDF 279-280
      M. C. Desmarais; C. Hayne; S. Jagannath; R. Keller
    This study provides many insights into the features that users look for in interface building tools, as well as those that can hinder their use. The results suggest that users are willing to pay a high price for a reliable tool that will combine both fast prototyping and fully operational target interfaces and at the same time provide high functionality. Yet users want a tool that is easy to use and to learn. This is a great challenge for developers of interface builders since there is currently a compromise to make between tools that allow fast and easy prototyping, and toolkits which provide high functionality and good execution speed.
    Keywords: GUI tools, Survey, Evaluation
    Effects of Message Style on Users' Attributions toward Agents BIBAKPDF 281-282
      Susan E. Brennan; Justina O. Ohaeri
    We used a Wizard-of-Oz paradigm to study effects of message style on dialog and on people's mental models of computer agents. People made airline reservations using a simulated reservation agent from which they received one of three message styles: Telegraphic, Fluent, or Anthropomorphic. The agent accepted any kind of language or command input people typed. When people took the initiative, they tended to model their inputs on the computer's messages. They expended more effort in the Anthropomorphic than in the Fluent or Telegraphic conditions. We found no evidence that natural language messages led to higher expectations of intelligence than telegraphic messages.
    Keywords: Natural language interfaces, Error messages, Agents, Anthropomorphism, Mental models
    When Users Do and Don't Rely on Icon Shape BIBAKPDF 283-284
      Jackie Moyes
    It is expected that users learn to associate commands with an icon's shape, and eventually learn to associate its position. The experiment reported suggests that if the icon's shape is hard see as meaningful then subjects rely on position rather than shape in order to identify the appropriate icon. The experiment had four conditions, manipulating the abstractness of icon shape and constancy of icon position. After a training period, conditions changed without warning and the conclusions depend on whether or not performance was disrupted by the change. The effects were large: ranging from zero to four-fold worsening of performance.
    Keywords: Icon design, Position, Representation
    Toward a Deeper Comparison of Methods: A Reaction to Nielsen & Phillips and New Data BIBAKPDF 285-286
      Bonnie E. John
    This paper critiques the design and interpretation of the Nielsen and Phillips INTERCHI'93 study comparing three evaluation techniques. In addition, this paper presents new data illustrating that it is as important to ask what analysts do when using these techniques as it is to ask how well they predict performance.
    Keywords: Heuristic evaluation, GOMS, KLM, User testing, Usability, Inspection techniques

    SHORT PAPERS: Access to Organized Data Structures

    Electronic Proceedings (Eprocs) for IWANNT'93 BIBAKPDFCOM 287-288
      Robert B. Allen
    An electronic proceedings for the 1993 International Workshop on Applications of Neural Networks to Telecommunications (IWANNT) was presented in the SuperBook text browsing system. The proceedings were available on workstations during the workshop and they are now available via the Internet. In the one month following the workshop, 285 logins were recorded from 28 countries. Respondents to an email questionnaire were generally favorable with 87% stating they would like Eprocs to be available for future conferences.
    Keywords: Electronic proceedings, Information retrieval, Information systems, Internet, Hypertext
    Navigational View Builder: A Tool for Building Navigational Views of Information Spaces BIBAKPDF 289-290
      Sougata Mukherjea; James D. Foley
    Overview node and link diagrams are one of the best tools for context and orientation in hypermedia systems. To be really effective these need to show not only the node and link topology but more information about the underlying information space. The Navigational View Builder allows the designer or the user to control the dynamic binding between the visual properties of the overview diagrams and the underlying information. Dynamic binding can also be used for forming fish-eye views. Finally, by combining this method with force-based graph-drawing algorithms, visual clusters of related nodes based on various similarity metrics can be formed.
    Keywords: Hypermedia, Information visualization, Binding

    SHORT PAPERS: Visual Interaction Techniques

    Knurls: Effective 3D Intra-Molecular Manipulation with a 2D Device BIBAKPDF 291-292
      Scott D. Kahn; Gary A. Chappell; Andrew Smellie; Michael Shantz; Steven Teig
    A number of interaction models and techniques have been designed and developed for using a 2D device to explore and/or deliver direct user manipulation of 3D objects presented on a 2D display. While existing approaches work well for rotating and translating self-contained objects, they are not effective enough in supporting dynamic manipulation of intra-object components, such as the atoms and bonds within a 3D molecule. Our explorations of this domain have led to the design and development of manipulation "knurls," which are transient 3D interaction highlights/controls rendered directly on the atoms/bonds of the molecule. In appearance rather like thumbwheels or dials, knurls allow the user to center all of his focus on the object actually being manipulated. Knurls very effectively support the use of 2D control devices for direct 3D intra-molecular manipulations, such as atom translations, bond rotations, and ring flexing. High quality 3D molecule displays give users the 'look' of familiar plastic models; knurls give them the 'feel' of plastic models. The knurls manipulation concept is broader than our domain-specific implementation, and could readily be extended to other domains such as mechanical CAD or CAE.
    Keywords: Computer graphics, Methodology and techniques, Interaction techniques, Software engineering, Tools and techniques, User interfaces, Models and principles, User/machine systems, Human factors, Input/output devices, Input devices, Virtual controllers, I/O devices, Knurls, Mouse, Direct manipulation, Three dimensional graphics, Molecular modeling
    What You See Is What You Get -- But Do You Get What You See? BIBAKPDF 293-294
      Hermina J. M. Tabachneck; Herbert A. Simon
    Visualization can be very powerful. But can we over-visualize? This paper describes three experiments that show that visualization without proper grounding in the underlying knowledge base could be detrimental to understanding. Although we concentrate on graphs, the conclusions should hold for diagrams and icons as well. Visualization needs to be seen as but one aspect of what is needed to understand a concept. The visual aspect of a concept can be extremely helpful and enlightening -- but without thorough connections to its non-visual aspects, such as verbally expressed causal mechanisms, it can be but so many lines on paper.
    Keywords: Visualization, Multiple representations, Graphs, Diagrams, Empirical studies, Cognitive models

    SHORT PAPERS: Designing Interaction Objects

    Alice: A Rapid Prototyping System for Building Virtual Environments BIBAKPDF 295-296
      Matthew Conway; Randy Pausch; Rich Gossweiler; Tommy Burnette
    Alice is a rapid prototyping system used to create three dimensional graphics simulations like those seen in virtual reality applications. Alice uses an interpreted language called Python to implement the semantics of user actions. This interactive development environment allows users to explore many more design options than is possible in a compiled language environment.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, Rapid prototyping, Interpreted languages
    Sage: Creating Reusable, Modularized Interactive Behaviors by Demonstration BIBAKPDF 297-298
      Gurminder Singh; Zhao Cuie
    Sage allows interactive behaviors (or command sequences) used in graphical user interfaces to be stored as templates and reused. These behaviors are specified by demonstration by using Sage's companion system called Druid. A collection of related behaviors can be stored as a library and shared within and across development teams to facilitate faster and bug-free interface development. By providing libraries of interactive behaviors, Sage facilitates the development of behaviorally consistent interfaces within and across applications.
    Keywords: UIMSs, Programming by demonstration, Interactive behaviors, Behavior inferencing, Visual programming

    SHORT PAPERS: Cognitive Models

    Acquisition of Display-Based Skill BIBAKPDF 299-300
      Stephen J. Payne
    Two experiments are reported that track the development of skill and the nature of errors in a menu-traversal task. Three findings challenge models of skill acquisition. First, there is a great deal of transfer from practised to unpractised tasks, suggesting an important role for incidental acquisition of declarative knowledge. Second, working memory load affects error rates and acquisition of declarative knowledge but has no effect on the shape of learning curves. Third, errors in skilled performance are more likely if identical errors have already been made.
    Keywords: Cognitive skills, Menus, Exploratory learning
    A Model-Based Analysis of Errors in Display-Based HCI BIBAKPDF 301-302
      Muneo Kitajima; Peter G. Polson
    This paper describes a model-based analysis of errors in expert use of graphical user interfaces. Two mechanisms, speed-accuracy tradeoffs and attention failures, were simulated by a model consisting of processes for display elaboration, selection of objects to be operated on, and selection of a next action. Both selection processes are performed in a context defined by the elaboration process, simulated by a sampling mechanism which uses knowledge in long-term memory for display comprehension. The model provides a well motivated account of errors made by expert users. Finally, the use of the model in interface evaluation is discussed.
    Keywords: Errors, Action cycle model, Graphical user interface, Display-based human-computer interaction

    SHORT PAPERS: Enhancing Interaction

    DeskSlate: A Shared Workspace for Telephone Partners BIBAKPDF 303-304
      Brid O'Conaill; Erik Geelhoed; Peter Toft
    Research has shown that adding a shared workspace to an audio channel benefits a complex text editing or a graphical task but not a simple summary task. This laboratory based work did not test the additional benefit of having a permanent record of activity (not normally provided by audio alone). DeskSlate is a laboratory prototype which provides the ability to annotate documents or use a shared whiteboard while maintaining voice contact over a single telephone line. When we introduced the system into people's real work environments, shared workspace plus audio provided benefit over a broader range of tasks than was found in the laboratory experiments.
    Keywords: CSCW, Shared electronic workspace, Telephone, Field trials, Laboratory experiments
    Towards the Interactive Office BIBAKPDF 305-306
      Steve Hodges; Gifford Louie
    We describe a prototype system, the Interactive Office, which supports the occupant's daily activities in an office. Discrete sensors embedded in an office detect the occupant's movements whilst a number of actuators allow computer control of the environment. Integrating inputs from many sensors places the user in a context, which, combined with the actuators, can be used to automate simple tasks. Using this system, an occupant need not change their normal actions or directly interact with an interface. We describe the underlying technology for this type of indirect interaction and illustrate the potential of augmenting an office to support a user's daily tasks.
    Keywords: Context based interaction, Ubiquitous computing, Computer augmented environments, Office automation
    A Groupware Environment for Complete Meetings BIBAKPDF 307-308
      Ted O'Grady; Saul Greenberg
    Meetings have different phases: a pre-meeting setup phase, a during meeting phase and a post-meeting teardown phase. Additionally, meetings are individual, each requiring a different set of tools and applications. We are developing a prototype groupware environment that addresses the different phases of meetings as well as providing for customizable meetings.
    Keywords: Groupware, CSCW, Desktop conferencing
    TeleCSILE: Facilitating Collaboration Between Teachers in Different Schools BIBAKPDF 309-310
      Peter Rowley
    CSILE is a Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environment designed to support a learning model in which students explicitly set group learning goals and teachers focus on facilitating expert pursuit of those goals. We constructed TeleCSILE to support reflective collaboration between teachers in different schools via low-cost e-mail links, facilitating their elaboration of a practical model for implementing this desired, but difficult to achieve, shift in their classrooms. We report on the design considerations behind TeleCSILE and conclude with a user interface case study that illustrates the impact of translating a collaborative facility into a distributed context.
    Keywords: Computer conferencing, Group and organization interfaces, Evaluation/methodology & organizational design, Computer uses in education, Design (cognitively based design of educational software), Computer-supported cooperative learning
    Synthesis of Sign Language Gestures BIBAKPDF 311-312
      Sylvie Gibet
    Communication with the hearing-impaired can be improved by an interface that is capable of translating natural language into animated sign-language. This short-paper presents a model that simulates natural hand-arm movements. A simple command, specified in terms of successive target end-points is translated through the control model into a complete movement trajectory. The main issues of this model are:
  • - the synthesized gestures are very natural,
  • - the command is very efficient since it straightforwardly translates sign
       language specification into joint angles or positions.
    Keywords: Natural movement synthesis, Sign language communication, Gesture animation, Computer animation
  • Gestural Human-Machine Interaction for People with Severe Speech and Motor Impairment Due to Cerebral Palsy BIBAKPDF 313-314
      David M. Roy; Marilyn Panayi; Roman Erenshteyn; Richard Foulds; Robert Fawcus
    The objective of the research is to develop a new method of human-machine interaction that reflects and harnesses the abilities of people with severe speech and motor impairment due to cerebral palsy (SSMICP). Human-human interaction within the framework of drama and mime was used to elicit 120 gestures from twelve students with SSMICP. 27 dynamic arm gestures were monitored using biomechanical and bioelectric sensors. Neural networks are being used to analyze the data and to realize the gestural human-machine interface. Preliminary results show that two visually similar gestures can be differentiated by neural networks.
    Keywords: Gesture recognition, Disability, Cerebral palsy, Performance art, Electromyogram, EMG, Artificial neural networks

    SHORT PAPERS: Virtual and Visual Environments

    Pad++: Advances in Multiscale Interfaces BIBAKPDF 315-316
      Benjamin B. Bederson; Larry Stead; James D. Hollan
    We have implemented an infinite resolution multimedia sketchpad as a base for exploring a stream-of-consciousness model of computation where information creating, sharing and retrieval becomes so intuitive that the interface becomes invisible. Motivation to pursue this came from work on Pad [4], which can be thought of as a kind of traditional sketchpad or windows environment in the sense that it is a general-purpose substrate for visualizing two dimensional graphics and text. But Pad also supports the radical notion of being infinite in extent and resolution.
    Keywords: Interactive user interfaces, Multiscale interfaces, Multimedia authoring, Information navigation, Hypertext, Information visualization
    An Approach for Designing Virtual Environment Training Systems BIBAKPDF 317-318
      Mark S. Schlager
    We have developed a set of analytic tools to identify and develop virtual environment (VE) simulation training applications. Task selection criteria help identify tasks that might benefit from VE training; VE requirements matrices are used to derive VE training system requirements; and cost-effectiveness factors are used to judge the relative merits of VE and other training delivery technologies. The tools have been applied successfully in aircraft and space maintenance domains, and work is in progress to extend them to nuclear power plant maintenance.
    Keywords: Virtual environment, Training simulation systems, Design requirements, Cost-effectiveness
    VR Management Tools: Beyond Spatial Presence BIBAKPDF 319-320
      John A. Waterworth; Luis Serra
    We have created three types of user-controlled management tool for use in virtual reality environments: the 3DMenu, the M-Cube, and the SuperCube. 3DMenus are equivalent to the menu systems found in two dimensional interactive environments, but have the necessary spatial presence for the immersive 3D world of a VR application. M-Cubes are directly equivalent to 3DMenus but, by using all six available surfaces to present selection alternatives, occupy significantly less space. SuperCubes, in contrast to both these approaches, reflect a move beyond spatial presence by the attachment of meaning to their manipulation; the dimensions of space are also dimensions of information.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, VR, Interface management tools, 3D, Information dimensionality, Menus
    OPOSSUM: A Flexible Schema Visualization and Editing Tool BIBAKPDF 321-322
      Eban M. Haber; Yannis E. Ioannidis; Miron Livny
    In the spirit of interdependence of the different areas of CHI research, we present a description of OPOSSUM, a visualization tool inspired by concepts from heterogeneous databases. OPOSSUM is a tool for visualizing and editing structured data; we use it to view and modify object-oriented database schemes. OPOSSUM is based on a formalism that allows declarative descriptions of the following: 1) a model describing the schema to be visualized, 2) a model describing visualizations, and 3) a mapping between the two models. The formal approach makes OPOSSUM very flexible, and promises solutions to several problems of schema visualization.
    Keywords: Model-based interface tools, Metaphors, Database, Schema visualization
    Analyzing Graphic and Textual Layouts with GOMS: Results of a Preliminary Analysis BIBAKPDF 323-324
      Mei C. Chuah; Bonnie E. John; John Pane
    We combined previous research on GOMS modeling with some simple assumptions about visual search strategies to make zero-parameter predictions of the time necessary to perform a task on four different graphic and textual displays. We compared these predictions to empirical measures of performance time and obtained an absolute average percent difference of 8%. These results indicate that GOMS may be extended to be a useful tool for analyzing different layouts.
    Keywords: GOMS, Cognitive modeling, Graphic layout, Textual layout
    Immersive Environments: A Physical Approach to the Computer Interface BIBAKPDF 325-326
      Allison Druin; Ken Perlin
    Every year we spend a greater proportion of our daily lives, at home, in business, in education, and in entertainment, in front of a computer screen. As networking becomes commonplace, this increasingly includes our activities with other people. We want to aim at a richer interaction.
       How can technology become a seamless extension of our real world physical surroundings? This is a focus of research at the NYU Media Research Laboratory. We are developing new approaches to large-scale physically immersive, multimedia environments. Recently we collaborated with film students and faculty from the NYU Tisch School of the Arts to create three room-sized computer-mediated immersive environments. This short paper will summarize our approach to interdisciplinary research in the context of developing new technologies for immersive environments.
    Keywords: Immersive environments, Physical multimedia, Interdisciplinary research


    Current Issues in Assessing and Improving Documentation Usability BIBAKPDF 329
      Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey
    User documentation, whether in print or "built-in" to the online user interface, is now a vital element of successful computer products. Managers and developers recognize that the common model of documentation as remediation for deficient design must not persist, but they often don't know how to build documentation usability into an ongoing product-development effort.
       Therefore, this meeting is a forum on human factors in computer documentation. With the growth of online user support and the increasing integration of documentation with the user interface, this SIG provides CHI'94 attendees with a specific opportunity to discuss recent developments in documentation usability. Topics include:
  • Addressing documentation usability early in the product design process;
  • Qualitative and quantitative methods for collecting documentation usability
  • Roles and relationships among documentation specialists, user-interface
       designers, and software developers;
  • Schedule and budget issues relating to documentation usability.
    Keywords: Documentation, Documentation usability, Information development, Documentation standards, Usability testing, Product development
  • Usability Lab Tools: One Year Later BIBAKPDF 330
      Paul Weiler; Monty Hammontree
    This Special Interest Group (SIG) is a follow-up to panels from last year's CHI and the Usability Professionals Association conferences. The intent of the SIG is to provide a forum for the exchange of new ideas and technologies in the area of usability laboratory tools. Experts in the area will meet to discuss and demonstrate recent developments in tools and talk about future plans. Topics for discussion include, but are not limited to, event logging, observation logging, video tape analysis, highlight tape production, remote usability testing, and new technologies. Anyone involved or interested in usability testing is invited to attend.
    Keywords: Usability, Tools, Data collection, Laboratory, Testing, Logging, Video, Analysis
    Ergonomic Standards for Software: Update for 1994 BIBAKPDF 331
      Patricia A. Billingsley
    As of January 1993, the member nations of the European Community have been required to adopt minimum health and safety standards for office-based computer systems, including the user interfaces to those systems. This European initiative continues to drive the efforts of many standards committees, both in the United States and abroad, as they attempt to develop reasonable and meaningful ergonomic standards for software user interfaces.
       In this SIG session, a panel of user interface standards experts will describe the latest developments in the national and international arenas, and discuss the impact of emerging ergonomic standards on members of the CHI community and software development in general. The panel will include representatives of the most active standards committees, including CEN TC122/WG5, ISO-IEC JTC1/SC18/WG9, ISO TC159/SC4/WG5, ANSI X3V1.9, HFES-HCI, and IEEE P1201.2. The final half-hour of the session will be set aside for an open discussion with the audience.
    Keywords: Software ergonomics, Software user interface standards, ISO, ANSI, IEEE
    Educating the Next Generation of Information Systems Specialists: Report on a US National Science Foundation Task Force BIBAKPDF 332
      Michael J. Muller; Anita LaSalle; Michael C. Mulder
    We present results from a US National Science Foundation Task Force on Information Engineering. The task force combined academic and industry views on the expertise required to support team work for the design and development of software systems. The information systems specialist who has been "designed" by the task force would be a critical member of such teams. For comment by CHI participants, we present a profile of the knowledge, skills and expertise needed by the new specialist, and draft curricula to educate such specialists.
    Keywords: Information engineering, Systems, Design, Curriculum, Education, Development, Team
    Issues in Human Factors Organization and Practices BIBAKPDF 333
      Barry Beith; Thyra L. Rauch; Thomas D. Wilson
    We invite human factors professionals (and anyone with a vested interest) from development and testing organizations to come together discuss strategies, tactics, and tools for achieving user-centered product development.
       We expect participants to be willing to work together in an environment of openness about their working environment, specific problems that they need to solve, and the solutions they have achieved for past problems.
       Our goals include:
  • Identifying current difficulties in affecting the course of product
  • Outlining alternative solutions, along with the associated benefits, costs,
       difficulties in reaching these solutions, and potential new problems that
       may result.
  • Availability of resources.
  • Political solutions, strategies, and tactics.
  • Success stories, with analyses of what key changes made each solution work.
    Keywords: Human factors, Organization, Process
  • SIGCHI Vision: Linking Research and Practice BIBAKPDF 334
      Vivienne Begg
    This SIG is proposed as a result of the Vision process in which ACM SIGCHI has been engaged. This process is designed to help the leadership of SIGCHI to rethink our mission as an ACM SIG. In order to open the discussion to the membership, an email discussion list, vision.chi, was opened up last year, and this topic, "Linking Research and Practice" was one which emerged as being of importance to the participants. This proposal consists of two parts, the themes which emerged in discussion, and a structure for further discussion in the context of CHI '94. The goal of the SIG is to get some answers to the questions raised in the "Themes".
    Keywords: Research, Practice, Conference, Meeting, Publication, Membership, Quality
    Visual Interaction Design Special Interest Area Annual Meeting BIBAKPDF 335
      Loretta Staples; Andy Cargile
    In the past, our attendees have included graphic and industrial design professionals, educators, and students, as well as those interested in knowing more about or lending support to the area of visual/product design. This year's meeting will focus on the visual design community's presence within the larger CHI organization, with an emphasis on developing an agenda of activities for the coming year.
    Keywords: Design, Graphic design, Visual design, Interaction design, Product design, Industrial design, Special interest group
    Reflective Practitioners: Connecting Research and Practice BIBAKPDF 336
      George Casaday; Cynthia Rainis; Dennis Wixon
    Our purpose is to establish an ongoing community of practitioners who will support each other in applying knowledge gained from research and practice in HCI. Reflective practitioners value dialog with the research community, ideas from published reports of successful practice, individual discussions with other practitioners, and careful evaluation of the results of their own work. They are interested in articulating design rationale as well as in producing design results. They are interested in sharing the results of their practice with others.
       At this meeting, we plan to follow up on the IC'93 workshop, Reflective Practitioners, by welcoming a larger group of participants, identifying our common needs and problems, and developing ideas for an action plan for cooperation. The three main outcomes of this years meeting are to articulate a shared understanding of who we are, what we need, and how we can help each other; to create an e-mail distribution list that we can use to stay in communication between SIGCHI conferences; and to plan activities for the coming year, including organizing the SIG meeting at CHI'95.
    Keywords: HCI, Human computer interaction, Research, Practice
    HCI Challenges in Government Contracting BIBAKPDF 337
      Elizabeth Buie; Ira Winkler; Christopher Norloff; Michael Shafto; Nigel Bevan; Andrew Cohen; Bonnie Hawkins; Deborah Hix
    Governments spend huge resources on custom computer systems, developed by contractors to government specifications under government monitoring. HCI development faces challenges from this environment's constraints and the HCI community's virtual neglect. This SIG will identify common HCI challenges and will explore ways of addressing them. An extended audience discussion will follow brief statements by government clients, contractors, and consultants on HCI issues in U.S. and European government contracts. The SIG will focus on potential solutions to identified challenges.
    Keywords: Government, Military, Contracts, User interfaces, Systems development, Interactive systems, Organizational impacts
    International Usability Testing: How Can We Do It Early, Often, & Cost-Effectively BIBAKPDF 338
      Marta A. Miller; Catherine O'Donnell
    The problem (and focus of this SIG) is: How do you do usability testing, especially using discount methods, when the usability staff is 3000+ miles from the user population?
       SIG participants will be called on to raise and define the issues. A sampling of issues might include:
  • Do you need usability staff in international locations to execute a
       successful usability test? Are there existing labs and universities that
       could be used?
  • Do language and cultural differences between staff and participants negate
       the outcome of usability tests?
  • Are foreign nationals good representatives of users in their home country?
  • How do we get backing from the business to conduct testing in international
  • What ways exist to control costs?
  • What are the logistics involved in taking the staff and equipment to
       international locations?
  • Do testing techniques exist that collect good data without requiring travel
       (e.g., Video-conferencing)?
    Keywords: Evaluation, Usability, Internationalization, User testing
  • New Directions in HCI Education and Research BIBAKPDF 339
      Gary W. Strong
    A workshop entitled "New Directions in Human-Computer Interaction Education and Research" was conducted during February 5th and 6th in Washington DC. It was sponsored by the Interactive Systems Program and the Applications of Advanced Technology Program of the National Science Foundation and by the Software and Intelligent Systems Technology Office of the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The purpose was to identify a relationship between HCI research and HCI education and to make recommendations on how to improve the quality of HCI education. A draft of the report from this workshop on "New Directions in HCI Education and Research" will be presented and opened to discussion by interested parties.
    Keywords: HCI education, HCI research, Funding
    The SIGCHI Identity Visioning Project BIBAKPDF 340
      Michael E. Atwood
    For the past few years, the SIGCHI Extended Executive Committee (EEC) has engaged in a visioning exercise that considered what SIGCHI would become in the near future. This activity identified areas that are important to address now. Currently, these areas consider membership and the process of volunteering, the links between research and practice, electronic publishing, and identity. In this SIG, we focus on identity; other SIGs focus on the other areas.
       During the next 18 months, the EEC will work on projects that will refine our identity as a society and strengthen the common bonds that led us to associate with SIGCHI. We will explore how the EEC and other SIGCHI members can work together to create new programs that are of benefit to the individuals involved, to our SIGCHI society, and to the HCI community at large.
       In this SIG, we will present plans for projects suggested by the EEC, solicit your comments on these projects, ask for your ideas for new projects, and invite your participation on these projects.
    Keywords: SIGCHI, EEC, Visioning, Identity
    East-West Human Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 341
      Eddy Boeve; Steven Pemberton
    This SIG will provide information about EWHCI '94: the fourth East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, to be held in St. Petersburg from 2-6 August 1994.
       The Logistics Team and attendees of the previous conferences will be on hand to answer questions for those interested in attending.
    Keywords: Russia, Conference, HCI
    Usability Professionals Association Meeting BIBAKPDF 342
      Mary Beth Butler
    The Usability Professionals Association (UPA) meets annually at CHI to discuss issues of common concern to people involved with usability. The UPA's emphasis is on practical ideas for implementing usability engineering and testing programs.
       All levels of usability professionals are invited to come share their experience, ask questions, and meet other people facing similar challenges.
       At this year's SIG, we'll be reviewing plans for the UPA annual summer conference; discuss activities to formalize the activities of the UPA, and review issues of common interest raised at CHI '94.
    Keywords: Usability, Usability testing, Usability labs
    War Stories and Experience Designing with Contextual Techniques BIBAKPDF 343
      Karen Holtzblatt
    Field research and ethnographic techniques have increasingly been used to drive product and system development in software development organizations. This SIG gives practitioners and researchers the opportunity to discuss their own experience using ethnographic techniques in the development process. The session will also be of interest to those who wish to introduce such techniques into their organization and to those who have had difficulty using them in the past.
       The discussion will start with practitioners from WordPerfect, Microsoft, and elsewhere presenting their experience. This will be followed by discussion of issues and possible solutions to problems raised by participants.
       We will talk about issues such as: different ways of defining a software development problem and how to define an appropriate data gathering technique for it; how people without special skill can successfully use these techniques; how to ensure the data is reflected in the final design; and how the process can fit to the time scale of a real development process.
    Keywords: Ethnography, Design, Usability
    Electronic Resources in Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKPDFHTML 344
      Gary Perlman; John "Scooter" Morris; Jakob Nielsen; Brian Shackel
    At CHI'91 there was a SIG meeting on Resources in HCI in which the HCI Bibliography [Perl91] and the HILITES database [Shack92] were featured. Since that time, the resources in HCI have expanded dramatically, almost all of which are available online, many of which are available free of charge. The topics of this SIG meeting are:
  • identifying current resources in HCI;
  • identifying as yet unknown resources;
  • identifying useful resources to develop;
  • soliciting input on acceptable formats and how resources should be made
    Keywords: Information networks, Online information services, Electronic publishing, Human-computer interaction, SIGCHI Vision
  • Issues in End User Software Internationalization BIBAKPDF 345
      Tracy M. Jennings
    There has been increasing discussion in the CHI community about internationalizing end user software. One model suggests that feedback from international users should be included before a product is released. One source of feedback would be usability testing. The model also suggests that text translations and date, time, and number format conversions may not be sufficient to internationalize a product; other elements to be considered include images, symbols, color, now and function [1]. The purpose of this meeting is to discuss three issues related to this model.
       One issue is whether this is a good model for internationalization. Are there other models? Are there different models for different products?
       We will also address the assumption of this model that early user feedback and increasing the number of interface components to be internationalized will increase user acceptance and add value to a product. Are there cases where this assumption does not apply?
       Finally, if we assume that early testing is important, what techniques and technologies are available and which are most cost effective? Some testing technologies include remote testing, video conferences, mobile labs, and using existing translation centers.
       I hope that through our discussion we can learn more about how international concerns impact our work.
    Keywords: Internationalization, Usability testing
    SIGCHI Vision: Membership & Volunteers Action Proposal BIBAPDF 346
      Stacey Ashlund; John Bennett
    This report summarizes the possible actions under consideration by the SIGCHI Extended Executive Committee with respect to membership and volunteers as part of an ongoing visioning process. The purpose of this CHI'94 SIG is to gather membership feedback on these actions.
       The charter of the Membership & Volunteers program is as follows:
  • To contribute to the goals and objectives of SIGCHI members.
  • To recruit new members.
  • To ensure the volunteer process is mutually beneficial to the volunteers and
  • Meeting Federal Accessibility/Disability Requirements in Interface Design BIBAKPDF 347
      Gary W. Strong
    IFIP Working Group 13.3, "Human Computer Interaction and People with Disabilities" was formed in 1993 and announces itself with this SIG session devoted to US regulations and interface design. The Americans with Disabilities Act and recent Federal Acquisition Regulations have alerted software developers to the need to accommodate people with disabilities in the design of interfaces. Efforts that have been made will be discussed and assistance will be provided to help those needing to make accommodations to get started.
    Keywords: Accessibility, Disabilities, Americans with Disabilities Act, Federal regulations, Social inclusion, Information highway
    Tools for Working with Guidelines BIBAK --
      Iris Dilli; Peter Gorny; Harald Reiterer; Kaori Ueno; Jean Vanderdonckt
    This SIG will focus on existing and planned tools for helping the designer working with guidelines. Up to now, many discussions have been oriented to the guideline contents and little has been paid to computer-aided activities involving guidelines: learning, understanding, teaching, illustration, documentation, standard compliance, usability assessment, guideline evaluation, computer-aided generation of user-interface explicitly based on guidelines, advice-giving systems, ... Some tools emerge today, but it is not clear enough what type of tool they consist of, what kind of help they provide, for what purpose they are made for. DIADES-II (I. Dilli), EXPOSE (P. Gorny), IDA (H. Reiterer), GuideBook (K. Ueno), and SIERRA (J. Vanderdonckt) have been presented to foster the discussion. This SIG will try to clarify the purposes of such tools. It also will examine the gap existing between the demand and the supply in the area of guideline tools, i.e. what the designer wants to have and what facilities are provided by tools.
    Keywords: Computer-aided software engineering, Guidelines, Human factors, Hypermedia, Usability engineering


    Introduction and Overview of Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 351-352
      Keith A. Butler; Robert J. K. Jacob; Bonnie E. John
    The objective of this special introductory seminar is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. The material will begin with a brief history of the field, followed by presentation and discussion of how good application development methods pull on the interdisciplinary technologies of HCI. The topics will include the psychology of human-computer interaction, psychologically-based design methods and tools, user interface media and tools, and introduction to user interface architecture.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Usability engineering, Human performance engineering, Cognitive modeling, Analysis methods, Interaction styles, Interaction hardware, User interface software, User interface management systems
    Applying Visual Design: Trade Secrets for Elegant Interfaces BIBAPDF 353-354
      Kevin E. Mullet; Darrell K. Sano
    This tutorial describes a number of fundamental techniques applied routinely in communication-oriented visual design. The orientation, process, training, and culture of the visual design disciplines (graphic design, industrial design, interior design, architecture) are essential components of effective interface design. Unfortunately, few software developers or human factors engineers receive any training in these disciplines. This tutorial describes important design rules and techniques internalized by every visual designer through coursework and studio experience. While mastery will indeed require extended practice, the techniques we describe are not difficult to understand and can be immediately applied to real-world problems.
       We draw our background, training, and influence from the rational, functional, information oriented perspective of the Modernist design ethic. Because all graphical user interfaces are communication systems, we believe their design should reflect these same values. Our tutorial is organized not along the traditional subdisciplines of color, typography, or ideation, but along the problems of graphical interface design as experienced in commercial software development. We describe basic design principles (the what and why), common errors, and practical techniques (the how) for each of the six major areas outlined below.
  • Elegance and Simplicity
  • Scale, Contrast, and Proportion
  • Organization and Visual Structure
  • Module and Programme
  • Image and Representation
  • So What About Style?
  • Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Groupware BIBAKPDF 355-356
      Steven Poltrock; Jonathan Grudin
    This course describes the origin and composition of work in CSCW and groupware, then discusses eight significant behavioral and social (as contrasted with technical) challenges to successful development. Recent research prototypes and commercial products are covered, focusing on advances in supporting communication, coordination, and collaboration. Finally, we describe several approaches to addressing the behavioral and social obstacles. Video illustrations of systems and issues are used throughout the tutorial.
    Keywords: Computer-mediated communication, Collaborative work, CSCW, Groupware, Electronic mail, Computer-supported meetings, Desktop conferencing, Video conferencing, Coordination, Workflow, Organizational design, Evaluation
    Converting to Graphical User Interfaces: Design Guidelines for Success BIBAKPDF 357-358
      Arlene F. Aucella
    This tutorial reviews published research, guidelines and case studies on ease-of-use for graphical user interfaces. Many text-based user interfaces are being converted into graphical user interface platforms. This tutorial emphasizes using graphical user interface components without undermining good principles of design.
       Course topics include windows, icons, menus, dialogue boxes and input devices. Usability aspects of commercial graphical interfaces such as Apple Macintosh, Microsoft Windows and OSF Motif are compared and evaluated. In addition, techniques for collecting user feedback and usability data are discussed. A multi-part class exercise gives participants skill in converting a non-graphical menu and forms-based user interface into a pull-down menu and dialogue box interface.
    Keywords: Graphical user interface design, Windows, Scroll bars, Icons, Dialogue boxes, Pull-down menus, Input devices, Usability engineering
    Seductive Interfaces: Satisfying a Mass Audience BIBAKPDF 359-360
      Timothy C. Skelly; Karen Fries; Barry Linnett; Clifford Nass; Byron Reeves
    There are two similar, but equally pressing issues currently facing interface designers -- how to make increasingly complex applications usable and how to design effective interfaces for a broad audience, such as might exist for the coming wave of interactive consumer products. This tutorial questions some assumptions behind current interface design and why conventional interaction techniques are often unsatisfying to users, experienced as well as novice. Also examined are some of the underlying social transactions that occur between human and machine, like those that emerge when voice and moving images are added to the interface. The psychology of media viewing is reviewed for insights that may help bridge the gap between passive viewer and active user.
    Keywords: Human-computer interfaces, User-centered design, Usability testing, Anthropomorphism, Voice, Motion, Speech, Social psychology, Television, Mass-market, Intrinsic motivation
    The Conceptual Model in Graphical User Interface Design BIBAKPDF 361
      Deborah J. Mayhew
    This is a new, advanced level tutorial, intended for the designers and developers of graphical user interface (GUI) applications (e.g., Windows, Motif, Open Look, Macintosh). These GUI platforms, even along with their associated style guides, do not alone ensure usable interfaces. The purpose of this tutorial is to teach concrete principles for designing high quality, consistent user interfaces with the capabilities of these platforms. Principles offered go deeper than simple screen design, and address the design of the underlying conceptual model of an interface. This includes making and following rules for the use of widgets (e.g., radio buttons, list boxes, drop down combo boxes) and rules for the use of window types (e.g., primary windows, dialog boxes, message boxes) and window properties (e.g., modal vs. modeless, resizable vs. non-resizable, movable vs. non-movable, scrollable vs. non-scrollable). It also includes making a good selection of desktop objects (that is, what will be presented as an icon at the desktop level), and good design of the menu bar(s) and pulldowns. Two complete prototype GUIs, based on MS Windows and built with Visual Basic, are used to illustrate and provide examples of the design principles which are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: User interface design, GUI, Conceptual models, Interface components, Windows, Widgets, User objects, Dialog styles, Organization of functionality, Menu bar, Action bar
    Methods for Early Usability Design BIBAKPDF 363-364
      Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey; Judee Humburg; Anne Seeley
    This tutorial applies human factors research techniques to collecting customer data early and "building usability into" the product definition and design processes. User input contributes to designing the whole product, including the user interface and documentation. After an overview of product development models, we discuss appropriate research questions and methods for the investigation, requirements definition, and early design phases. Participants will have extensive hands-on practice in methods, including designing a new product during the tutorial.
    Keywords: Design methodologies, Product life cycle, Product development cycle, User data collection, Customer data collection, User-centered design, Usability, Documentation usability, Documentation design, Functional specifications
    Product Usability: Survival Techniques BIBAKPDF 365-366
      Jared M. Spool; Carolyn Snyder
    Product developers are typically faced with small budgets, tight schedules, and over-committed resources. To deliver high-quality products under these constraints, developers need an understanding of basic design principles, techniques that allow them to work effectively with materials on hand, and a development process that is built around the use of such techniques. This tutorial explains how low-fidelity prototyping and usability testing can be used in a process of iterative refinement in order to develop more usable products.
    Keywords: Design principles, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Prototyping, Low-fidelity prototyping, Process management, Product development, Practical techniques, Style guides
    Methods of Perceptual and Cognitive Research Applied to Interface Design and Testing BIBAKPDF 367-368
      Douglas J. Gillan; Nancy J. Cooke
    This tutorial is organized in six modules -- visual psychophysics and perception, motor control, memory, problem-solving, reading, and multivariate methods, such as, Pathfinder, multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. Each module contains background to help understand the method (an historical introduction to the development of the method and the problems to which researchers originally applied it and a description of one or two famous experiments featuring the method), a description telling how to perform the method, including demonstrations. The description and demonstration will focus on applying the method to user testing. Following the description and demonstration, for selected methods, the class will participate in a practice exercise in which real data will be collected (using class members as test subjects) and analyzed during the session.
    Keywords: User testing, Cognition, Perception
    Groupware for Realtime Collaboration BIBAKPDF 369-370
      Ralph D. Hill; Tom Brinck
    Realtime interaction among synchronous groupware users raises issues of how the users coordinate their actions, how they share information, and how the system architecture supports this human-human interaction. We illustrate and explore these issues with:
  • an overview of different types of synchronous groupware applications,
  • a taxonomy of design issues, with case studies demonstrating alternative
       choices, and
  • a discussion of the implications of architectural choices on these design
       alternatives. We reinforce these lessons with a high-level design exercise that encourages the application of our approach to decomposing the design of synchronous groupware.
    Keywords: CSCW, Synchronous groupware, User interface design, User interface implementation, Group work, Group decision support systems, Electronic meeting rooms
  • GOMS Modeling of User Interfaces using NGOMSL BIBAKPDF 371-372
      David E. Kieras
    This tutorial will present the NGOMSL methodology for constructing and using GOMS models for use in analytical user interface design evaluation. The first half-day will present the basic concepts of GOMS models, the NGOMSL notation, a procedure of conducting the analysis, and obtaining and using usability predictions. The second half-day will be a lab session in which with the help of the instructor, participants will construct and make use of a GOMS model for a suitable subset of a user interface design.
    Keywords: User models, Cognitive models, Interface design, Guidelines
    Global Interface Design BIBAKPDF 373-374
      Tony Fernandes
    Computer software products have become a world-wide commodity. Yet sometimes, little thought is given to how these products should be translated for use in other nations. This is true both in terms of language and culture. This tutorial looks at how this issue might be addressed in a user interface design through language, interaction, visual esthetics, and an understanding of how cultures differ around the world.
    Keywords: International, User interface design, Diversity, Culture; Internationalization, Globalization, Software Localization
    Networking for Collaboration: Video Telephony and Media Conferencing BIBAKPDF 375-376
      Robert S. Fish; Robert E. Kraut
    This tutorial provides a grounding in the fundamentals of video/audio/shared computer application conferencing systems that bring users at a distance into a common media space. It attempts to provide an understanding of both the technologies employed in these systems as well as what is known about their use and utility. An introduction to the concepts and terminology of video, audio, digital compression, transmission networks, and station equipment is provided. What people like and dislike about these systems, and the avenues that are being explored to overcome their shortcomings are discussed. In addition, there is a discussion of how these networks fit within an organizational context and what we know about what occurs in organizations when they are introduced.
    Keywords: Human factors, Computer conferencing and teleconferencing, Multimedia information systems-video, Evaluation/methodology, Synchronous interaction, Collaboration, Groupware, Informal communication, Videophone, Telecommunications networks, ISDN, Digital video compression, Digital audio compression, Hands-free audio, Echo cancellation and suppression, Shared computer applications, Critical mass, Privacy, Media richness
    Introduction to User Interface Systems for HCI Developers and Researchers BIBAKPDF 377-378
      Wilfred J. Hansen
    User interface systems (UIS) combine essential applications for compound documents with a toolkit for building new applications that inter-operate with the others. The essential applications -- word processing, drawing editor, spread sheet, equation editor, image editor, electronic mail management, and so on -- all support embedding of objects to create compound documents and can themselves all be embedded as objects in compound documents. When building new applications, the user draws the screen image with the drawing editor and selects components from among the applications or the objects in the toolkit. The earliest and most complete system at this time is the Andrew User Interface System, which will be used for examples during the tutorial.
       User Interface Systems challenge HCI workers to develop interface conventions that stretch harmoniously across the wide spectrum of applications. However, these same systems aid HCI work by simplifying construction of experimental interfaces and providing tools for evaluation of user behavior across multiple diverse applications.
    Keywords: User interface system, Compound documents, Word processing, Electronic mail, Graphical user interface toolkit, Application builders, User interface management system, Text editing, Andrew user interface system, AUIS, Andrew toolkit, ATK, Evaluation of user behavior, Standards for interactive interfaces, Object linking and embedding, OLE
    Using Metaphor Effectively in User Interface Design BIBAKPDF 379-380
      Adam N. Marx
    What exactly is metaphor, and why is it considered so important in designing a good human-computer interface? This tutorial begins with an overview of the nature of metaphor, from its humble beginnings as a literary device to its current status as a fundamental aspect of human intelligence. Next, we look at why metaphor is considered an important facet of user interface design, and how it assists users in learning and operating a computer system. Finally, we demonstrate techniques for picking appropriate metaphors for given task domains, ensuring that those metaphors are used as effectively as possible in the interface, and indicating when it is advantageous to violate our own interface metaphors.
    Keywords: Metaphor, Analogy, Human-computer interface design, Mental models, Conceptual models, Design methodologies
    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Human Computer Interaction for Persons with Disabilities BIBAKPDF 381-382
      Jon Gunderson
    The American with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 requires employers to provide "reasonable accommodation" to workers with disabilities. One of the most important areas for reasonable accommodation is access to general purpose and specialized computer systems used in workplaces and educational institutions. Providing the means for people with disabilities to access computer systems is often described as "electronic curb cuts and ramps" [1]. Curb cuts and ramps have become a standard for people in wheelchairs to gain independent access to city streets and public buildings. This tutorial will discuss the types, availability and steepness of electronic curb cuts and ramps for physical, sensory and cognitive disabilities.
    Keywords: Disabilities, Handicap, Visual impairment, Blindness, Deaf, Hearing impairment, Physical impairment, Human computer interaction, Usability, Performance
    Integrative Multimedia Design BIBAKPDF 383-384
      Linn Marks; Ben Davis
    Integrative multimedia design [1] focuses on designing the media and the interface so that they will enhance one another. It provides an alternative to current conceptions of software design such as iterative design and concurrent design which are, in large part, artifacts of software design and development in non-multimedia contexts. A framework that can facilitate integrative multimedia design involves focusing on the media segments as the user will experience them in the context of the application: specifically, their visual appearance, temporal and spatial dimensions, perspective, and discourse structure.
    Keywords: Integrative design, Design process, Multimedia, Media, User interface
    Minimizing Organizational Risks of Technological Change BIBAKPDF 385-386
      Susan M. Dray
    The focus of this tutorial is the organizational factors which need to be considered in the design and implementation of technology. There are a number of common stumbling blocks which make technology less likely to succeed in an organizational setting. This tutorial focuses on how to identify and avoid these stumbling blocks, with an emphasis on practical steps for the designer to take.
    Keywords: Organizational factors, Risks, Technology change
    Interface Issues and Interaction Strategies for Information Retrieval Systems BIBAKPDF 387-388
      Scott Henninger; Nick Belkin
    The need for effective information retrieval systems becomes increasingly important as computer-based information repositories grow larger and more diverse. In this tutorial, we will present the key issues involved in the use and design of effective interfaces to information retrieval systems. The process of satisfying information needs is analyzed as a problem solving activity in which users learn and refine their needs as they interact with a repository. Current systems are analyzed in terms of key interface and interaction techniques such as querying, browsing, and relevance feedback. We will discuss the impact of information seeking strategies on the search process and what is needed to more effectively support the search process. Retrieval system evaluation techniques will be discussed in terms of their implications for users. We close by outlining some user-centered design strategies for retrieval systems.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, User interfaces, Databases, Information systems, Interaction strategies
    Model-Based Interface Development BIBAKPDF 389-390
      Angel Puerta; Pedro Szekely
    Model-based interface development is a new paradigm for developing interfaces that offers solutions to the main shortcomings of current tools. This paradigm is based on constructing a declarative description of how an interface should look and behave (model), and using the description to control the execution of an interface. This paper briefly summarizes the main shortcomings of interface development tools used today, discusses the main elements of the model-based approach, and closes with a discussion of the state of the art and the challenges that lie ahead.
    Keywords: Model-based interface development, UIMS, User interface toolkits, Intelligent interfaces
    The Creative Mind and HCI: Innovation Not Duplication! BIBAKPDF 391-392
      Phillip B. Shoemaker; Liam Friedland
    Many professionals are unfamiliar or uncomfortable with the non-linear process of lateral thinking/brainstorming. This tutorial will introduce concepts and processes used by designers for lateral thinking/brainstorming to professionals unfamiliar with these techniques and methodologies. Demonstrate the value of lateral thinking by providing example design cases. Provide an environment in which to try out the techniques through directed exercises in problem solving.
    Keywords: Brainstorming, Development, Scenarios, Idea generation, Role-play, Developers, User interface design, Innovation
    Presenting Information Visually: Visual Design Principles BIBAKPDF 393-394
      Suzanne Watzman
    Today's world is truly a richly visual one, with the advent of highly sophisticated technology, methods and medium to publish... anything, anywhere, at any time. The new tools are available very democratically to vast new audiences. They provide not only an ability to publish but the ability to affect the "packaging" and the presentation of the information. The idea of publishing is familiar, yet the impact of how the messages are presented goes well beyond the initial decisions of font or color or medium. To use the full potential of the medium and its tools, one must understand the impact visual design plays in the effective communication of ideas and information.
       To understand the role of visual design plays for effective communication of ideas and information, one must gain an understanding of both the visual principles and how they work in the context of real-world problems and solutions. Principles and concepts include: graphic and information design, interaction design, typography, visual hierarchy, icons, graphics, illustrations, metaphor, color. In addition, successful solutions include not only the appropriate application of these principles, but a collaborative development process that supports all members of the product design team (visual interaction designers, engineers, managers, HCI specialists, writers, industrial designers, marketing, etc.).
    Keywords: Graphic design, Information design, Visual interaction design, Typography, Information hierarchy, Icons, Graphics, Illustration, Metaphor, Color, Visual interface, User advocate, Consistency, Screen design, Design development process, Visual language, Visual literacy, Visual mapping
    GOMS Analysis for Parallel Activities BIBAKPDF 395-396
      Bonnie E. John; Wayne D. Gray
    GOMS is a family of techniques for analyzing human performance in terms of the Goals, Operators, Methods and Selection rules necessary to perform a task. Traditionally, GOMS has approximated human performance as perceptual, cognitive, and motor activities performed sequentially. However, many tasks require users to perform activities in parallel, e.g., visually searching for information, while listening to a customer, while typing. This tutorial will teach a version of GOMS, CPM-GOMS, that predicts performance on such tasks and saved an industrial organization millions of dollars through the evaluation of alternative system designs.
    Keywords: GOMS, User models, Cognitive models, Analytic methods
    Film Craft in User Interface Design BIBAPDF 397
      Chuck Clanton; Emilie Young
    This tutorial demonstrates how to apply animation and film craft to user interface design. The instructors present the general principles of film craft with particular attention to the practical details that have proven relevant to their user interface designs. Then, these principles are applied to user interface design problems.
       Why should the entertainment industry be looked to, for ideas about user interface design? With mere shadows seen through a narrow window, filmmakers engage us in a world of their making without disturbing our awareness by its technical apparatus. They are masters at using pictures and sounds to communicate, entertain, evoke feelings, and manipulate our sense of space and time. Ninety years of filmmaking and animation have created a rich store of knowledge barely tapped by current computer-human interfaces. Paradoxically, multimedia on graphical workstations whets our appetite for knowledge from a craft that can contribute significantly to the user interface design even of character-based displays.
    Implementing Virtual Reality BIBAKPDF 399-400
      Randy Pausch; Andries van Dam; Steve Bryson; Warren Robinett
    While virtual reality systems seem to hold great promise for facilitating the use of computers, actual virtual reality development is fraught with difficulties. These difficulties include limited hardware, uncertain interface paradigms and the integration of various components and concepts into a high-performance system. This course addresses these and other difficulties. We begin with an introduction to the virtual reality field, both in reference to computer graphics and in terms of the current state of the art. Interface hardware will be surveyed, emphasizing the performance limitations of current products. The human factors impact of the limited interface devices will be discussed on both a theoretical and phenomenological level. After setting this background, the external design of a virtual environment will be discussed from the point of view of how that environment is experienced by the user. The objects that populate a virtual environment will be discussed both in the abstract and through examples. The implications of the interactive user interface on system performance will be a primary focus. The actual implementation of the virtual environment will be addressed, discussing both the software platform and the overall system. The course will end with a discussion of virtual reality development on a budget and lessons learned about how to get a virtual reality project going from start to a useful application.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, Computer graphics, Human factors, Immersive environments, Software development environments
    Managing the Design of the User Interface BIBAKPDF 401-402
      Deborah J. Mayhew
    The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of practical methods and techniques for managing the process of designing good user interfaces. The tutorial is organized around a traditional project life cycle, and presents human factors methods which can be applied at different points in the development process. Methods and techniques presented include not only information gathering, design and evaluation techniques, but also organizational and managerial strategies.
    Keywords: System design, Implementation and use, Analysis methods, Managing human factors in system development, Cost-benefit analysis, Organization of human factors
    Designing Educational Computer Environments for Children BIBAKPDF 403-404
      Allison Druin; Cynthia Solomon
    This full-day, introductory tutorial will contain lectures and a hands-on design session, for educators and other professionals who are, or would like to be, actively engaged in designing multimedia environments for children. Participants will explore the special challenges and global implications of designing educational computer environments for children. Participants will begin this full-day tutorial with an introduction to past, present, and emerging technologies for children. This will be followed by a hands-on design session where elementary school children will join participants in designing and prototyping a new educational computer environment. Participants will leave this tutorial with a historical perspective on what has been done in this field, as well as actual design experience.
    Keywords: Children, Educational theories, Design process, Prototyping, Historical perspective, Interactive textbook
    Enabling Technology for Users with Special Needs BIBAKPDF 405-406
      Alan Edwards; Alistair D. N. Edwards; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
    The field of human-computer interface design profits from understanding potential users and exploring difficult design problems. Addressing the design of enabling technology for users with special needs offers both those advantages. Adapting computer interfaces for access and use by people with various physical and cognitive impairments exposes many basic human-computer interface design issues. Likewise, these efforts will result in computer interfaces which are more attractive and usable by all.
    Keywords: Disability, Human-computer interaction, Rehabilitation engineering, Users with special needs
    Practical Usability Evaluation BIBAKPDF 407-408
      Gary Perlman
    Practical Usability Evaluation is an introduction to cost-effective, low-skill, low-investment methods of usability assessment. The methods include (1) Observational Skills and Video (including user testing with think-aloud protocols), (2) Program Instrumentation, and (3) Questionnaires and Checklists (including interviews and heuristic evaluation). The tutorial features many step-by-step procedures to aid in evaluation plan design.
    Keywords: User interface, Evaluation/methodology, Software engineering, Tools and techniques, User interfaces, Information systems, User/machine systems, Human factors, Benchmark tasks, Sampling issues, Cost-benefit, Observation, Video protocols, Think-aloud, Program instrumentation, Inspection methods, Checklists, Questionnaires, User interface evaluation, Usability
    Contextual Inquiry: Grounding Your Design in User's Work BIBAKPDF 409-410
      Mary Elizabeth Raven; Dennis Wixon
    Contextual Inquiry is a synthesis of ethnographic field research, and participatory design [8] methods that provide designers with grounded and detailed knowledge of user work as a basis for their design. The tutorial provides an understanding of the fundamental principles behind Contextual Inquiry and practical experiences with methods for data gathering and data analysis.
    Keywords: Contextual inquiry, Participatory design, Ethnographic methods, Qualitative research
    Participatory Design Through Games and Other Group Exercises BIBAKPDF 411-412
      Michael J. Muller; Daniel M. Wildman; Ellen A. White
    The tutorial is intended to teach selected methods in participatory design through applied, hands-on exercises, with lecture material used to introduce and supplement the exercises. A single domain will be used to unify the contents of the exercises. The conception of games will be used to unify the analysis and presentation of group design exercises.
    Keywords: Participatory design, Collaborative design, User centered design, Group design, User interface design, Human factors, Task analysis, Games, Theatre
    Usability Inspection Methods BIBAKPDF 413-414
      Jakob Nielsen
    Usability inspection is the generic name for a set of cost-effective ways of evaluating user interfaces to find usability problems. They are fairly informal methods and easy to use.
    Keywords: Usability engineering, Heuristic evaluation, Cognitive walkthroughs, Pluralistic walkthroughs, Feature inspection, Consistency inspection, Standards inspection
    User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction BIBAKPDF 415-416
      Alfred Kobsa
    User modeling has made considerable progress during its existence now of more than a decade. Particularly in the last few years, the need has been recognized in many application areas for software systems to automatically adapt to their current users. As a result, research on user modeling has extended into many disciplines which are concerned with the development of interactive computer systems that are used by heterogeneous user populations. These fields include Intelligent Interfaces, Active and Passive Help Systems, Guidance Systems, Hypertext Systems, Intelligent Information Retrieval, Natural-Language Systems, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, and Cooperative Expert Systems. Applications in office machines, consumer electronics and automobiles are also being envisioned. Several recent empirical evaluations provide support for the usefulness of user-adaptation in the investigated application domains.
    Keywords: User adaptation, User modeling, Adaptive interactive software systems
    Breaking the Chains: How to Design Non-Standard Interaction Environments BIBAKPDF 417-418
      Manfred Tscheligi; Sabine Musil
    This tutorial is intended to give attendees an insight into how to face the challenges of designing non-standard interaction environments. Underlined with a lot of examples, the basic characteristics of such an interaction environment will be explained and a video of an actually implemented system will round the picture off. Basics of metaphor theory will help in explaining the step on how to transport a given problem domain into a suitable representation. After solving a problem on their own, attendees will be presented some tools apart from paper and pencil, that assist in the step of getting the idea for a representation into a visual form that can be discussed and shared with other designers. The advantages and disadvantages of the various tools will be discussed and some examples will be given.
    Keywords: Non-standard user interface, User interface design, Metaphor, Prototyping
    Interactive Learning Environments: Where They've Come From & Where They're Going BIBAKPDF 419-420
      Elliot Soloway; Kate Bielaczyc
    A historical survey of the various teaching and training technologies will be given. The architectures of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems, simulations, intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), microworlds, and interactive learning environments (ILE) will be described. The influence of research in human-computer interaction, education, and cognitive science on teaching and training technologies will be discussed. In addition, the types of learning outcomes and design issues associated with the various technologies will be summarized. Emphasis will be placed on how the 90's computing infrastructure (e.g., high-MIP/GIP computation, high-bandwidth networks) will impact teaching and training and the design of instructional technology, e.g., what is the role of multimedia, computer-aided design systems, ubiquitous access to information, the home information appliance, in learning? Case studies from a wide variety of real instructional systems will be used to illustrate the main points in the tutorial.
    Keywords: Teaching & learning, Technology
    User Interface Tools BIBAKPDF 421-422
      Brad A. Myers; Dan R., Jr. Olsen
    A user interface tool is any software that helps user interface designers or programmers design, implement and test user interfaces and user interface software. Whereas five years ago, user interface tools were primarily research projects, today there are literally hundreds of successful commercial user interface tools. In addition, research into new techniques and tools is extremely active, with one or two sessions at each CHI conference, and an entire separate conference (UIST) devoted to this topic every year. This tutorial provides an overview of both the commercial and research segments of this area.
    Keywords: User interface software, Toolkits, Interface builders, Prototypers, User interface management systems, User interface development environments
    Intelligent Multimedia Interfaces BIBAKPDF 423-424
      Mark T. Maybury
    Multimedia communication is ubiquitous in daily life. When we converse with one another, we utilize a wide array of media to interact, including spoken language, gestures, and drawings. We exploit multiple sensory systems or modalities of communication including vision, audition, and taction. Although humans have a natural facility for managing and exploiting multiple input and output media, computers do not. Consequently, providing machines with the ability to interpret multimedia input and generate coordinated multimedia output would be a valuable facility for a number of key application such as information retrieval and analysis, training, and decision support. This tutorial focuses specifically on those intelligent interfaces that exploit multiple media and modes to facilitate human-computer communication.
    Keywords: Intelligent interfaces, Multimedia and multimodal interfaces, Multimedia parsing and generation, Interaction technology and techniques, Interface components and designs
    Graphical Constraints BIBAKPDF 425-426
      Gerd Szwillus
    This tutorial shows the power and relevance of graphical constraints as major concept for the implementation and specification of highly-interactive, graphical user interfaces. This covers implicit and explicit use, definition, solution algorithms, and conceptual issues. The tutorial enables participants to learn about the techniques involved and introduce them into their work of designing and implementing user interfaces.
    Keywords: Graphical constraints, Constraints, Constraint programming languages, User interface specification, User interface development tools, Editing, Drawing, CAD-systems, Graphics
    Computer Supported Meeting Rooms BIBAKPDF 427
      Lisa Neal
    This tutorial presents an overview of computer supported meeting rooms, covering what exists both commercially and in research groups.
    Keywords: Computer supported meeting rooms, CSCW, Groupware, Brainstorming, Voting, Organizational impact
    Evaluating User Interface Tools BIBAKPDF 429-430
      Rick Kazman; Len Bass
    The evaluation and selection of user interface tools is a continuing problem for builders of interactive systems. Tool evaluations found in the literature tend to concentrate on features, without any consideration of the types of interfaces to be constructed or the life cycle of the systems within which these user interfaces operate. In this tutorial, we present a methodology for the evaluation of user interface tools that is based on a knowledge of the types of interfaces being built and the life cycle expectations. The methodology uses two techniques for gaining this understanding of usage characteristics: benchmarking and software architectural analysis.
       Benchmarking is a technique widely used in the evaluation of other types of tools but rarely used in the user interface world. Software architectural analysis is a newly developed technique for the comparison of systems. It involves a discussion of the various elements of software architecture -- structure, functionality and allocation -- and uses these notions to analyze user interface software architecture.
       We demonstrate the methodology through example evaluations of several well-known tools such as Interviews, Tcl/Tk, Interface Architect, TAE+ and so forth. We also evaluate models of user interface software: "monolithic", Seeheim and PAC.
    Keywords: Tools and techniques, Software architecture

    VIDEOS: Part I: Browsing Navigation

    Visual Information Seeking using the FilmFinder BIBAKPDF 433
      Christopher Ahlberg; Ben Shneiderman
    The FilmFinder allow users to explore a large film database. By applying the dynamic queries approach to filtering information, a continuous starfield display of the films, and tight coupling among the components of the display, the FilmFinder environment encourages incremental and exploratory search.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, Dynamic queries, Video-on-demand
    Note: Color plates on page 484
    The Attribute Explorer BIBAKPDF 435-436
      Lisa Tweedie; Bob Spence; David Williams; Ravinder Bhogal
    "The Attribute Explorer" video demonstrates a graphical interactive tool for visualising the relationships within multi-attribute data sets. Rather than using 2- or 3-dimensional multiple views of the data, each attribute is mapped to a single dimensional representation (interactive histogram). Sections of an attribute's histogram can be selected by a variety of means: once selected, the items are represented on each of the other attribute histograms as colour coded distributions. Trends in the data and interesting sub-populations can be examined and explored further. Full implementation and evaluation of the tool is planned.
    Keywords: Information visualization, Interactive graphics
    Typographic Space BIBAKPDF 437-438
      David Small; Suguru Ishizaki; Muriel Cooper
    This video presents Typographic Space, the system that explores the use of typography in interactive three-dimensional presentations. Previous studies have shown that three-dimensional presentation is effective in visualizing large and complex information space, which is increasingly available to ordinary workspaces. However, issues in typographic design have not yet been explored in this field although typography have been effectively used as a means of visually clarifying information in traditional two-dimensional graphic design. We have implemented an experimental software tool that helps us to investigate the use of interactive three-dimensional stereo graphics as a medium for typographic communication. This study raises design issues that are unique to three-dimensional presentation.
    Keywords: Typography, Information graphics, Visualization, Graphic design
    Dynamaps: Dynamic Queries on a Health Statistics Atlas BIBAKPDF 439-440
      Catherine Plaisant; Vinit Jain
    Dynamic queries are user-controlled animated displays of visual or textual data. On an application developed for the National Center for Health Statistics and running on their ordinary staff equipment, a thematic map of the United States is animated by moving a time slider to illustrate trends of mortality rates. Other sliders filter parts of the maps interactively according to parameters such as demographics. During the filtering possible correlations can be observed as they create color patterns in the "disappearance" of the states. This application has been received with enthusiasm by the user community and will be distributed with selected new datasets.
    Keywords: Animation, Map, Statistics, Graphic, Query, Correlations, Atlas, Time trend, Health
    Hierarchical Visualization with Treemaps: Making Sense of Pro Basketball Data BIBAKPDF 441-442
      David Turo
    Treemaps support visualization of large hierarchical information spaces. The treemap generation algorithm is straightforward and application prototypes have only minimal hardware requirements. Given primary graphical encodings of area, color and enclosure, treemaps are best suited for the tasks of outlier detection, cause-effect analysis and location of specific nodes -- satisfying user-specified criteria -- in their hierarchical context. Distortion effects extend treemap capabilities by emphasizing node relationships in the diagram.
    Keywords: Visualization, Statistics, Hierarchy, Treemap
    SCREAM: Screen-Based Navigation in Voice Messages BIBAKPDF 443-444
      H. W. Lie; P. E. Dybvik; J. Rygh
    The bitmapped color screens commonly found on desktops provide a powerful visualization medium. The telephone, another common desktop apparatus, is on the other hand not very visual. New services offered through the phone system can benefit from using the visualization power of the computer display. The SCREAM project creates a visual environment for navigating the data space of voice messages. Incoming voice messages are analyzed, certain caller characteristics are extracted (e.g. gender), and the system renders and displays images that each represent a message. By looking at the screen, the user instantly gets an overview of incoming messages, and messages can be played back by selecting the corresponding image.
    Keywords: Interface design, Voice mail, Visual navigation, Computer display, Computer-aided telephony

    VIDEOS: Part II -- Techniques for Improved Human-Computer Interaction

    Toolglass and Magic Lenses: The See-Through Interface BIBAKPDF 445-446
      Eric A. Bier; Maureen C. Stone; Ken Pier; Ken Fishkin; Thomas Baudel; Matt Conway; William Buxton; Tony DeRose
    In current interfaces, users select objects, apply operations, and change viewing parameters in distinct steps that require switching attention among several screen areas. Our See-Through Interface system addresses this problem by locating tools on a transparent sheet that can be moved over applications with one hand using a trackball, while the other hand controls a mouse cursor. The user clicks through a tool onto application objects, simultaneously selecting an operation and an operand. Tools may include graphical filters, called Magic Lens filters, that display a customized view of application objects. Compared to traditional interactors, these tools save steps, require no permanent screen space, reduce temporal modes, and apply to multiple applications. In addition, magic lens filters provide rich context-dependent feedback and the ability to view details and context simultaneously. These tools and filters can be combined by overlapping to form operation and viewing macros.
    Keywords: User interface, Multi-hand, Click-through, Lens, Viewing filter, Button, Menu, Control panel, Transparent, Macro
    Interactive Video Actors BIBAKPDF 447-448
      Christian Breiteneder; Simon Gibbs
    This video demonstrates the use of traditional video processing techniques, such as chroma-keying and layering, to integrate video with the user interface. Currently these forms of video processing are usually performed with studio equipment, however as computer support for digital video becomes more common, video processing is also appearing on the desktop.
    Keywords: Digital video, Video widgets, Video layering, Non-linear video
    Speech Dialogue with Facial Displays BIBAKPDF 449-450
      Akikazu Takeuchi; Katashi Nagao
    The human face is an independent communication channel that conveys emotional and conversational signals encoded as facial displays. We are attempting to introduce facial displays into multimodal human computer interaction as a new modality to make computer more communicative and social. As a first step, we developed a multimodal human computer interaction system integrating speech dialogue and facial animation. The video gives an overview of the major research topics involved in this project. They are to understand and manage speech dialogue, to design and animate communicative facial displays, and to combine multiple modalities, that is, speech and facial displays.
    Keywords: User interface design, Multimodal interfaces, Facial expression, Conversational interfaces, Anthropomorphism
    The Chameleon: Spatially Aware Palmtop Computers BIBAKPDF 451-452
      George W. Fitzmaurice; William Buxton
    Using rapid prototyping techniques, the Chameleon system explores a new style of interface concept that combines handheld devices, powerful computation with 3 dimensional graphics and spatial sensing. Our futuristic palmtop acts as an input, output and interaction conduit. It is capable of generating 3D models and views through an understanding of its position and orientation in space. That is, the palmtop is spatially aware. The video demonstrates the Chameleon prototype in action and sample applications. Using the Chameleon system we can investigate how everyday physical objects can be used as the interface to electronic information and computation.
    Keywords: 3 dimensional control and displays, Palmtop computers, Novel interaction techniques
    ICONIC: Speech and Depictive Gestures at the Human-Machine Interface BIBAKPDF 453-454
      David B. Koons; Carlton J. Sparrell
    People often communicate with a complex mixture of speech and gestures. Gestures have many different functions in human communication, some of which have been exploited at the computer interface. A largely ignored function of gestures for communicating with computers is the class of depictive gestures. These gestures are closely associated with the content of speech and complement the user's verbal descriptions. In this class of gestures, the hands describe shape, spatial relations and movements of objects. We have developed Iconic, a prototype interface that allows users to describe the layout of three-dimensional scenes through a free mixture of speech and depictive gestures. Interpretation of this type of gestures requires an integrated approach where a high-level interpreter can simultaneously draw from clues in both the speech and gesture channels. In our system, a user's gestures are not interpreted based on their similarity to some standard form but are only processed to an intermediate feature-based representation. By this approach, gestures can be successfully interpreted in the wider context of information from speech and the graphical domain.
    Keywords: Multi-modal interface, Gestural interface, Depictive gestures

    VIDEOS: Part III -- Programming and Collaboration

    Pursuit: Graphically Representing Programs in a Demonstrational Visual Shell BIBAKPDF 455-456
      Francesmary Modugno; Brad A. Myers
    Pursuit is a programmable direct manipulation interface to a file system that enables users to create programs by demonstration. To construct a program in Pursuit, users execute actions on real data and Pursuit creates a general procedure containing variables, loops and conditionals. During the demonstration, the evolving program is represented in an editable, visual programming language. Unlike other visual programming languages, which explicitly represent operations and leave users to imagine data in their heads, Pursuit's visual language explicitly represents data objects using icons and implicitly represents operations by the changes they cause to data icons. The language also serves as a novel form of feedback between Pursuit and the user.
    Keywords: End-user programming, Programming by demonstration, Visual shell, Visual language
    The Garnet User Interface Development Environment BIBAKPDF 457-458
      Brad A. Myers; Dario Giuse; Andrew Mickish; Brad Vander Zanden; David Kosbie; Richard McDaniel; James Landay; Matthew Goldberg; Rajan Pathasarathy
    The Garnet User Interface Development Environment contains a comprehensive set of tools that make it significantly easier to design and implement highly-interactive, graphical, direct manipulation user interfaces. The toolkit layer of Garnet provides a prototype-instance object system, automatic constraint maintenance, an efficient retained-object graphics output model, a novel input model, two complete widget sets, and complete debugging tools. Garnet also contains a set of interactive user interface editors that aim to make it possible to create the user interface without programming. Instead, the user draws examples of the desired graphics and demonstrates their behaviors. The associated video provides an overview of the entire Garnet system.
    Keywords: User interface management systems, User interface development environments, Toolkits, Interface builders, Demonstrational interfaces
    SASSE: The Collaborative Editor BIBAKPDF 459-460
      Ron Baecker; Geof Glass; Alex Mitchell; Ilona Posner
    Writing is very often a collaborative activity. Despite this, very little is understood about how people write together, and very few systems are available to support this activity. This video presents the results of our studies into collaborative writing, and shows how the results of our work have been applied to the design of SASSE (Synchronous Asynchronous Structured Shared Editor).
    Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Groupware, Collaborative writing, Synchronous and asynchronous writing


    Software Visualization BIBAKPDF 463
      Marc Brown; John Domingue; Blaine Price; John Stasko
    Writing programs is in many respects becoming a more complex human activity. With the advent of life-cycles and methodologies on the one hand and faster CPUs with larger real and virtual memory on the other, much larger software entities are being created. Added to this are the complexities associated with parallel programs. Although burdened with this ever increasing complexity, programmers seem to have missed out on the benefits accrued by advances made in HCI and bit-mapped graphics workstations.
       Research in software visualization, the visualization and animation of data structures, programs, algorithms, and processes, provides a bright hope in addressing these problems. Software visualization systems help students to learn how programs work, assist professional software engineers to debug and understand their code, and provide researchers with insights on how to analyze and improve algorithms. The goal of SV is to give all programmers access to the latest HCI techniques when understanding and debugging their programs. Achieving this goal will not only make the day-to-day life of programmers that much easier but will also enable them to tackle significantly more ambitious and interesting tasks.
    Keywords: Software visualization, Computer graphics, Programming environments, Computing education, Algorithm animation
    A Taxonomic Model for Developing High Impact Formative Usability Evaluation Methods BIBAPDF 464
      Deborah Hix; H. Rex Hartson; Jakob Nielsen
    Numerous methods are emerging for formative usability evaluation, including heuristic evaluation, iterative refinement, and other approaches to usability engineering. But these methods have well-known limitations. Many are applicable only to a narrow range of interface types and have not been tried on innovative, non-routine interfaces. Almost all methods are time consuming and personnel intensive.
       Key to breaking down the pervasive usability barriers that exist in interactive systems is vastly improved methodologies for developing such systems. Evaluation of human performance and preference lies at the heart of such methodologies. Thus, there is a need to develop a new generation of high impact methods for formative usability evaluation. By high impact, we mean effective, low cost, and easy to use, and that apply to a broader variety of interface types. Until now, development of such methods has been ad hoc a worst and based on expert experience at best, without a model as a framework for method development
       In order to bring more science into the development of formative usability evaluation methods, a goal of this one day workshop was to produce this missing epistemological ingredient: a multi-dimensional taxonomical model of usability evaluation methods. This model is to serve as a structure for discussion, comparison, definition, research, development, and evaluation of usability evaluation methods. In this workshop we were not looking for new methods, per se, but rather for a taxonomical model by which existing methods can be classified and upon which development of new methods can be based.
    The Future of Speech and Audio in the Interface BIBAKPDF 465
      Barry Arons; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
    This workshop will explore current and future applications, research areas, and interaction techniques that use audio in the user interface. The emphasis of the meeting will be on a "CHI perspective" of using speech and sound, in appropriate interactive contexts, where the audio channel can be exploited for the user's benefit. The workshop will encompass user interface areas including: speech input and output, non-speech audio, data sonification, spatial audio, and access to audio databases. The workshop will not address topics such as computer music, hardware/systems support for audio, or signal processing as these areas are better addressed in other forums.
    Keywords: Auditory interfaces, Sonification, Sound, Acoustic displays, Auditory perception, Speech interfaces
    Designing the Teaching of HCI BIBAPDF 466
      Clark N. Quinn; Jonas Lowgren; Jean Gasen; Peter Gorny
    The theme of this 1.5 day (Sunday and Monday morning) workshop is to focus on the link between pedagogical theory and successful instruction in HCI by providing a forum for collaborative work on teaching techniques. We address active HCI teachers in academia and industry and emphasize the notion of working together at the workshop rather than merely talking about the issues of interest.
       The goals of the workshop are to:
  • facilitate exchange of teaching ideas and techniques;
  • provide a forum of teacher colleagues for trying out and refining teaching
  • support reflection about teaching techniques in terms of teaching and
       learning theories;
  • encourage continued collaboration between HCI teachers across the world.
  • Using Scenarios to Elicit User Requirements BIBAKPDF 467
      Steve Fickas; W. Lewis Johnson; John Karat; Colin Potts
    Designers could apply scenarios in requirements analysis more effectively if they knew more about their benefits and limitations in real projects. This workshop will explore these issues. By the end of the workshop participants will have drawn up a list of detailed issues about scenarios that will drive ongoing research into requirements analysis, interactive systems design, and participatory design. Some of these issues will be framed in terms of assumptions and hypotheses that could be tested by empirical methods. Others will be stated in terms of open-ended prescriptive guidelines that further practice should refine.
    Keywords: Scenarios, User-centered design, User requirements
    Analyzing and Communicating Usability Data: Now that You Have the Data What Do You Do? BIBAPDF 468
      Nandini Nayak; Debbie Mrazek
    This workshop seeks to bring together practitioners and researchers who have used "discount" methods or ethnographic techniques to successfully influence the interface design process. The objective is to compile a set of analysis and communication tactics and tools that will help usability professionals communicate usability data effectively.
    The Challenges of 3D Interaction BIBAKPDF 469
      Andries van Dam; Kenneth P. Herndon; Michael Gleicher
    The primary goal of this workshop is to help define principles and techniques for the design, implementation and evaluation of future 3D user interfaces. These interfaces must address many challenges arising from such sources as users' perceptual and cognitive skills and abilities, limitations of currently available input and output devices, the nature of 3D tasks and the variety of implementation strategies and development environments.
    Keywords: Interactive 3D graphics, Perception and cognition, 3D user interfaces, 3D interaction techniques
    Pattern Recognition in HCI: A Viable Approach? BIBAKPDF 470
      Janet Finlay; Alan Dix; George Bolt
    The workshop brings together HCI researchers with their problems and pattern recognition researchers with their methods in order to open the way for better communication. During the workshop (and beyond) researchers are experimenting with different methods on real problems, in order to ascertain the scope and limitations of the methods for HCI.
    Keywords: Pattern recognition, Neural networks, Inductive learning, Statistics, User modelling, Evaluation, Task analysis
    Design Rationale: Mutual Opportunities for Research and Practice BIBAPDF 471
      Alistair Sutcliffe; John M. Carroll; Allan MacLean
    The objective of the workshop is to identify opportunities for practitioners to improve their practice and for researchers to develop new techniques. The intention is to create a two way flow of information to help researchers improve current rationale methods in response to industrial requirements, to exchange experience in use of rationales in case studies, and to stimulate research towards new methods and improved practice.
    New Uses and Abuses of Interaction History: Help Form the Research Agenda BIBAKPDF 472
      Will Hill; Loren Terveen
    Recording human-computer interaction for the purposes of reusing commands, undoing actions, recovering from crashes, constructing keyboard macros, and observing users has been with us since the earliest command shells and text editors. For much of that time it remained a sleepy "back water" technology area except for a continuing increase in work-monitoring and associated incidents breaching user privacy. However, with the drastic fall of costs for digital storage, processing and telecommunications, all that is now rapidly changing. Digital records of activity are common at work, market-place and home. While new interaction history techniques such as design capture, automatic change bars, readwear, interface agents, digital audio recording, hot lists, version management, viewer histories, automatic biography, usability studies, active badges, wireless personal communicators, position-sensing and caller-id are enriching the experience of interfaces, the same techniques are enabling new and more invasive abuses. This one-day interdisciplinary workshop will gather 20 practitioners and researchers from the fields of human-computer interaction design, research, ethics and law to produce their "Top Ten" list of research questions concerning uses and abuses of interaction history for the CHI community to address in the coming years. There will be no presentations, but homework will be collected and redistributed via email prior to the workshop. The day will blend open discussions with directed small-group works.
    Keywords: Interaction history, Design capture, Interface agents, Digital audio, User modeling, Active badges, Usability, Privacy, Ethics, Law