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Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Adjunct Proceedings

Fullname:Proceedings of INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing SystemsCHI93XAdjunct Proceedings of INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Short TalksCHI93YAdjunct Proceedings of INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Doctoral Consortium, Workshops, Research Symposium, Special Interest Groups, Interactive Experience, Tutorials
Note:Bridges Between Worlds
Editors:Stacey Ashlund; Kevin Mullet; Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel; Ted White; Stacey Ashlund; Kevin Mullet; Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel; Ted White; Stacey Ashlund; Kevin Mullet; Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel; Ted White
Location:Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Dates:1993-Apr-24 to 1993-Apr-29
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-574-7 (soft), 0-89791-575-5 (hard); ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608931; Addison-Wesley ISBN 0-201-58883-6; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI93; acmdl: 259964 hcibib: CHI93X; hcibib: CHI93Y
Papers:111; 107; 81
Pages:547; 1-214; 215-243

Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Program

Fullname:Proceedings of INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing SystemsCHI93XAdjunct Proceedings of INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Short TalksCHI93YAdjunct Proceedings of INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Doctoral Consortium, Workshops, Research Symposium, Special Interest Groups, Interactive Experience, Tutorials
Note:Bridges Between Worlds
Editors:Stacey Ashlund; Kevin Mullet; Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel; Ted White; Stacey Ashlund; Kevin Mullet; Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel; Ted White; Stacey Ashlund; Kevin Mullet; Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel; Ted White
Location:Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Dates:1993-Apr-24 to 1993-Apr-29
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-574-7 (soft), 0-89791-575-5 (hard); ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608931; Addison-Wesley ISBN 0-201-58883-6; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI93; acmdl: 259964 hcibib: CHI93X; hcibib: CHI93Y
Papers:111; 107; 81
Pages:547; 1-214; 215-243

Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing SystemsCHI93XAdjunct Proceedings of INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Short TalksCHI93YAdjunct Proceedings of INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Doctoral Consortium, Workshops, Research Symposium, Special Interest Groups, Interactive Experience, Tutorials
Note:Bridges Between Worlds
Editors:Stacey Ashlund; Kevin Mullet; Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel; Ted White; Stacey Ashlund; Kevin Mullet; Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel; Ted White; Stacey Ashlund; Kevin Mullet; Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel; Ted White
Location:Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Dates:1993-Apr-24 to 1993-Apr-29
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-574-7 (soft), 0-89791-575-5 (hard); ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608931; Addison-Wesley ISBN 0-201-58883-6; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI93; acmdl: 259964 hcibib: CHI93X; hcibib: CHI93Y
Papers:111; 107; 81
Pages:547; 1-214; 215-243
  1. Short Papers (Talks): Visual Languages and Virtual Reality
  2. Short Papers (Posters): Designing for Extra-ordinary Users and Uses
  3. Short Papers (Posters): Designers Designing
  4. Short Papers (Posters): Designing with Users
  5. Short Papers (Talks): Multi-Modal User Interfaces
  6. Short Papers (Talks): A Kaleidoscope of HCI
  7. Short Papers (Posters): Interaction Techniques I
  8. Short Papers (Posters): Multimedia and Multiuser Interfaces
  9. Short Papers (Posters): Interaction Techniques II
  10. Short Papers (Talks): Graphical User Interfaces
  11. Short Papers (Talks): Information Access
  12. Short Papers (Posters): Models and Representations
  13. Short Papers (Posters): Help and Information Retrieval
  14. Short Papers (Posters): Evaluating Evaluation
  15. Short Papers (Talks): Design Milieux
  16. Doctoral Consortium
  17. Workshops
  18. Research Symposium
  19. Special Interest Groups (SIGs)
  20. Interactive Experience
  21. Tutorials
  22. Opening Plenary Address
  23. Closing Plenary Address
  24. Perspectives on HCI
  25. Panel
  26. Sharing Design Memory
  27. Interacting in 3 Dimensions
  28. Overviews
  29. Demonstrations
  30. Panel
  31. Understanding Programming
  32. Typing, Writing and Gesture
  33. Evolving Design
  34. Structuring Images for Interaction
  35. Demonstrations
  36. Panel
  37. Skill Development
  38. Voices and Faces
  39. Panel
  40. Usability Assessment Methods
  41. Auditory Interfaces
  42. Overviews
  43. Demonstrations
  44. Panel
  45. Conceptual Analysis of Users and Activity
  46. Demonstration Based Systems
  47. Demonstrations
  48. Panel
  49. Collecting User-Information for System Design
  50. Video Support for Workplace Collaboration
  51. Perspectives and Illusions
  52. Panel
  53. Model-Based UI Development Systems
  54. Meetings and Collaborative Writing
  55. Panel
  56. Automated UI Generation
  57. Searching: Tools and Strategies
  58. Overviews
  59. Demonstrations
  60. Panel
  61. Hands, Menus and Dr. Fitts
  62. Finding and Keeping Information
  63. Demonstrations
  64. Formal Video Programme: Visualisation
  65. Formal Video Programme: Novel Technologies
  66. Formal Video Programme: Speech
  67. Formal Video Programme: Hypermedia and Multimedia
  68. Formal Video Programme: Programming by Example and Demonstration
  69. Formal Video Programme: CSCW
  70. Formal Video Programme: Future Scenarios
Introduction BIB 1
  Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel

Short Papers (Talks): Visual Languages and Virtual Reality

Generation of Visual Language Environments BIBAKPDF 3-4
  Jeffrey D. McWhirter; Gary J. Nutt
In many problem domains visual languages are an important media for user/computer communication. A visual language environment (or editor) is a system that supports the creation and manipulation of instances of a particular visual language. This paper introduces the Escalante system, which facilitates development of, and experimentation with, highly functional environments for graph-based visual languages by supporting their specification and automatic generation.
Keywords: Visual language environments, Rapid prototyping, Graph editors
A Visual Language for Designing and Implementing User Interfaces BIBAPDF 5-6
  Ian Rogers; Jonathan Cunningham; Aaron Sloman
The User Interface Development Environment project (UK SERC/DTI, IED 4/1/1577) is using the Poplog AI toolset to build a development and programming environment to aid the construction of Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs). The second prototype of the project, UIDE-2, contains three main tools from the GUI designer's point of view: the Librarian, the User View, and the Behaviour Editor.
   The Librarian is a suite of tools which store and maintain the various resources used by a user of UIDE-2.
   The User View shows the designer a sketched view of the final UI which simulates the behaviour of the delivery system. The User View is kept up-to-date automatically as the design progresses.
   The Behaviour Editor provides an editor for a visual programming language used by the GUI designer to specify the behaviour of the user interface under design.
   This paper will describe the Behaviour Editor and the visual language (behaviour diagrams) it supports [6].
A Multiparadigmatic Visual Environment for Adaptive Access to Databases BIBAPDF 7-8
  T. Catarci; S. K. Chang; M. F. Costabile; S. Levialdi; G. Santucci
Visual Query Languages (VQLs) are query languages essentially based on the use of visual representations to depict the domain of interest and express the related requests. Systems implementing a visual query language are called Visual Query Systems (VQSs) (a survey is in [1]). In recent years, many VQSs have been proposed in the literature adopting a range of different visual representations and interaction strategies. However, existing VQSs generally restrict the human-computer communication to only one kind of interaction paradigm. On the contrary, the presence of several paradigms, each one with different characteristics and advantages, will help both naive and experienced users to interact with the system. For instance, icons may well evoke the objects present in the database, while relationships among them may be better expressed through the edges of a graph, and collections of instances may be easily arranged into a form. The way in which the query is expressed also depends on the chosen visual representation.
Working Towards Rich & Flexible File Representations BIBAPDF 9-10
  Stephanie Houde; Gitta Salomon
Personal computers provide users with access to ever larger data stores. How can graphical user interfaces better support the management of increasing numbers of files? This paper suggests that we might aid users in recognizing and locating information by improving file representations.
   Today, icons are commonly used to represent files. In recent years, they have become increasingly more expressive. Initially, in command line systems, text labels alone were used to identify files. With the introduction of graphical user interfaces, generic document and application icons were introduced (see fig 1a). Over the years, file icons took on an appearance that reflects the application used to created them (fig 1b). More recently, some applications (e.g. Adobe's Photoshop, Apple's QuickTime MoviePlayer) produce file icons that serve as proxies [2] of the document's contents (Fig. 1c). These proxies are essentially visual miniatures of the document. There are, however, other types of proxies possible. This paper builds on the recognized trend toward information-rich icons. It provides several examples of how systems can emphasize a file's unique characteristics and thereby facilitate the often necessary task of browsing.
Designing in Virtual Reality: Perception-Action Coupling and Form Semantics BIBAKPDF 11-12
  Gerda Smets; W. W. Gaver; C. J. Overbeeke; P. J. Stappers
In this paper, we describe work on a CAD package we are developing for use in virtual reality. Although this research is only preliminary, it demonstrates some advantages of designing in virtual reality. We describe these advantages in terms of ecological approach to perception, focusing on two of the implications of this approach: the role of perception-action coupling in producing true direct manipulation, and the desirability of providing perceptual information about the affordances of objects in the design environment.
Keywords: Virtual reality, CAD, Ecological approaches
Alice and DIVER: A Software Architecture for Building Virtual Environments BIBAKPDF 13-14
  Randy Pausch; Matthew Conway; Robert DeLine; Rich Gossweiler; Steve Miale
We are developing a rapid prototyping system built on an object-oriented, interpreted language which allows small interdisciplinary teams to quickly create and modify three-dimensional interactive simulations. Like other systems, we separate the simulation and presentation frame rates, but unlike existing systems, we do so in such a way that the application-level programmer need not understand the multi-process architecture. The system has been used for building perceptual psychology experiments, for replicating techniques developed by other researchers, and for experimenting with novel three-dimensional interaction techniques.
Keywords: Virtual reality, Virtual environments, Head-mounted display, Rapid prototyping, Graphical simulation, Object oriented programming

Short Papers (Posters): Designing for Extra-ordinary Users and Uses

Computer-Human Interface Technology at Deep Space Network (DSN), Jet Propulsion Laboratory BIBAKPDF 15-16
  Alvin Ellman; Magdi Carlton
The Network Operations Control Center (NOCC) of the DSN is responsible for scheduling the resources of DSN and monitoring all multi-mission spacecraft tracking activities in real time. Operators monitor network performance and identify, isolate and correct network problems. This is done from workstations at JPL connected to over 100 computers worldwide. The old system was failing to meet the users' needs, required modernization and needed redesign to allow for growth. A replacement project was begun in 1988, and the first release of the new system was implemented in 1991. Significantly improving the computer human interface became the dominant theme of the replacement project. However, the project team was faced with problems. There was no standard methodology in place for operability and computer-human interface design, and there was resistance from the users who had little or no experience with the technologies to be employed in the replacement. A "user-centered" design process evolved to address these issues. This paper presents the aspects of the process that had the greatest impact, and its effect on the resulting system.
Keywords: Computer-human interfaces, User-centered design, Control center, Automation
A Baby Babble-Blanket BIBAKPDF 17-18
  Harriet J. Fell; Linda J. Ferrier
The Baby Babble-Blanket capitalizes on early movements to allow young infants to activate a computer for communication. It is a multiple-switch-activated device with speech output allowing severely physically disabled infants, by kicking, batting or rolling on the blanket, to: establish cause and effect skills, explore a babbling repertoire or communicate with customized digitized speech. Our software incorporates a multiple base-line design allowing researchers and clinicians to collect and analyze data on the infant's response to sound output. We present results of field-testing the blanket with two normal and three multiply disabled children.
Keywords: Physically disabled infants, Speech communication, Data collection/analysis
On the Edge of the Creative Process: An Analysis of Human Figure Animation as a Complex Synthesis Task BIBAPDF 19-20
  Zeenat Jetha; Armin Bruderlin; Tom W. Calvert; Sang Mah
The process of animating human figures with a computer is a challenging task, both because the specification, representation and control of human movement is complex, and because animation as a human creative process is not well understood. Over the past six years, we have developed the LifeForms system, a computer application to animate human figures [2]. During this period, users of the system have played an active part in the design cycle: their feedback has lead to a better understanding of the interface for the representation of movement, while observing some of the users has given us insights into how the creative process can be supported by the system.
   In this paper, we discuss new work in progress to analyze the creative process in terms of its hierarchical structure, alternate views and use of knowledge. These components of the creative process were burst explored in a pilot experiment studying how dancers use LifeForms to create a given movement sequence. In this experiment, a videotape showing simple human movement sequences was provided as a design task for the subjects. The objective was to explore the functionality of the interface. However, by strictly replicating movement patterns in LifeForms rather than creating their own, individual sequences, the subjects' performance gave little information on the structure of complex synthesis tasks. Subsequently, a new experiment was designed to more closely explore the creative process. This time, the task involved using simple animated objects (shapes) as the basis for the movement composition assignment. These shapes provide the subjects with a higher level of abstraction than the video sequences in the previous design experiment, thus permitting them to interpret the animated shapes into their very own concrete ideas for movement to be realized with LifeForms.
Adapting Direct Manipulation for Blind Users BIBAPDF 21-22
  Gerhard Weber; F. H. Papenmeier
A new model for graphical input by blind users is investigated and has been implemented twofold as mouse substitutes in the MS Windows environment. A touch tablet can be used to point at windows and icons. So-called routing sensors can be used to point at individual characters.
ERGOLAB: A Screen Usability Evaluation Tool for Children with Cerebral Palsy BIBAKPDF 23-24
  Monique Noirhomme-Fraiture; Clairette Charriere; Jean M. Vanderdonckt; Claudy Bernard
This paper presents experimental tests to conduct with a screen usability evaluation tool named ERGOLAB in order to throw a bridge between the world of the user interface usability and the world of children with cerebral palsy (CWCP): calibrating the interactive media sensibility, adapting the screen space navigation, managing the hidden information. These usability tests range from elementary level to semantically complex one.
Keywords: Analysis and evaluation techniques, Persons with disabilities, Usability, User interface evaluation
Screen Usability Guidelines for Persons with Disabilities BIBAKPDF 25-26
  Monique Noirhomme-Fraiture; Jean M. Vanderdonckt
This paper presents lessons learned from implementing interactive applications for adult persons with moderate mental disabilities. Guidelines for improving screen usability have been drawn from the experience gained in implementing and using such software.
Keywords: Analysis and evaluation techniques, Guidelines, Persons with disabilities, Software ergonomics, Usability testing
COMSPEC: A Software Architecture for Users with Special Needs BIBAKPDF 27-28
  Dag Svanaes
We present research on the development of a software architecture for users with physical impairments. An interactive design tool has been developed to enable us to evaluate the feasibility of the architecture. We have been able to apply the same architecture both within applications and between applications.
Keywords: Users with special needs, Software architecture, Alternate access systems, Object-oriented programming, Visual programming
Program Visualization as a Debugging Tool for Novices BIBAKPDF 29-30
  Peter Brusilovsky
This paper discusses a non-traditional role for program visualization as a tool for novice program debugging. We present some ideas and methods that can increase the possibilities of program visualization as a debugging tool and report some experimental results which support our ideas.
Keywords: Program visualization, Program debugging, Programming environment

Short Papers (Posters): Designers Designing

User Interface Requirements for the Representation of Examples in a User Interface Design Guidance System BIBAKPDF 31-32
  Louis A. Blatt; Anna Zacherl
A common criticism of cognitive engineers/human factors experts is that user interface developers do not practice user centered design. Ironically, the tools (e.g., Smith and Mosier, 1987; Microsoft Style Guide, 1992; HFS100, 1990) produced by cognitive engineers to enable user interface design excellence have been designed with neither the task nor the user in mind. The tools that developers are forced to use are difficult to use in that they require tedious reading and memorization. This study uses a questionnaire and PICTIVE interviews to investigate the task of user interface design. This paper concludes with user interface requirements for systems that support the user interface design process.
Keywords: User interface design, Guidelines, Advisory systems
Teaching Product Designers New Tricks: Inexpensive but Effective Prototyping BIBAKPDF 33-34
  Peter Eisenberg; Anne Falenzer
An inexpensive user interface prototype was used to test the proposed interface of an infusion pump for hospital and home care settings. This case study shows how a prototype became a central part of the early development process. To most of the design team, this was a new approach and an eye-opening experience. In the end, the whole team and higher management embraced the process. In this case, prototyping not only allowed early user interface testing, but also went well beyond to serve as an essential design team communications tool.
Keywords: Rapid prototyping, User interface software, Design process
Expressing Guidelines into an Ergonomical Styleguide for Highly Interactive Applications BIBAKPDF 35-36
  Francois Bodart; Jean M. Vanderdonckt
Various forms of guidelines for user-interface design abound in the current literature, but suffer of many drawbacks (dissemination, incompleteness, lack of qualification, lack of uniformization, outdated, difficulty to use). As an attempt to overcome these inconveniences, a unified view of guidelines is introduced in a corpus ergonomicus, a multipurpose ergonomical styleguide for highly-interactive applications.
Keywords: Corpus ergonomicus, Guidelines, Styleguide, User-interface design, Usability testing
Making It Macintosh: An Interactive Human Interface Instructional Product for Software Developers BIBAPDF 37-38
  Harry J. Saddler
Making It Macintosh: The Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines Companion is an interactive instructional product designed and developed by Apple Computer, Inc. Making It Macintosh uses computer-based animation and interaction to document the Macintosh user interface, illustrate human interface design issues, and provide interface implementation strategies for software developers. This paper describes the product's audience, its goals, its design, and the specific techniques used to present its content to the user.
The CLIM Prototyping Environment (CPE) BIBAPDF 39-40
  Greg Siegle
The CLIM Prototyping environment (CPE) is an interactive graphical object manipulation environment developed at the Institute for the Learning Sciences. The system functions as a user interface management system (UIMS) and can be used as a runtime environment for arbitrary Common Lisp programs. In addition, interfaces may be created within CPE as part of a runtime environment with minimal or no programming. This approach encourages a great deal of high level user interaction with the program and facilitates rapid prototyping. In addition end users are able to easily create multiple interfaces for a single program. The line between creating and using an interface has thereby been minimized.
Formalizing User Interface Requirements BIBAKPDF 41-42
  Kevin Schlueter; Marilyn Mantei
User interface deficiencies often occur in redesigned systems because existing software specification tools do not capture sufficient user interface information. As a preliminary step towards the creation of software design tools that capture user interface information, the authors have identified five general types of user interface information that should be captured in a system redesign. The second step of the process is to create a formalized, programmable notation for representing these five types of user interface information. This is described for three of the types.
Keywords: User interface specification, System redesign
Summarising the Evolution of Design Concepts within a Design Rationale Framework BIBAKPDF 43-44
  Simon Shum; Allan MacLean; Justin Forder; Nick Hammond
A design rationale (DR) is a representation of the reasoning which has been invested in a design [1]. This short paper describes the use of the QOC Design Space Analysis approach to DR [2] to document the evolution of design concepts over the life of a three year project. The goal was the production of a retrospective DR document which filtered, integrated, and indexed discussions from a wide range of sources across the project. Designers' reactions to DR in general, point towards what kind of DR is most needed in development teams, and how DR of different sorts can be integrated with existing forms of design document.
Keywords: Design rationale, Design documentation, Design spaces, QOC
Summarising Task Analysis for Task-Based Design BIBAKPDF 45-46
  M. B. Curry; A. F. Monk; K. Choudhury; P. Seaton; T. F. M. Stewart
Task-based design demands that the designer has a good understanding of the user's job. Our experience of task analyses intended to convey such information is that they are often too detailed. We propose three ways for summarising the results of a user-centred task analysis as: (i) an hierarchical decomposition of the user's top-level work objectives; (ii) a set of scenarios of typical work and (iii) a list of user exceptions. The latter are points where the idealised sequence represented in (i) and (ii) are broken by problems and interruptions. Once these have been produced they can be used to evaluate the suitability of subsequent design decisions.
Keywords: Task analysis, Exceptions, Scenarios, Task-based design

Short Papers (Posters): Designing with Users

Designing the Look BIBAKPDF 47-48
  Daniel Felix; Helmut Krueger
The design of complex public systems needs special care. In the reported study, the design of the screen content (colour, form and placing) was tested, using four different, individually developed screen layouts. 20 subjects were asked which layout appealed most to them, and which design was easiest to understand. A majority of the subjects preferred the most colourful design with strong colour-coding of the functions. The approach of testing this step separately has proven to be valuable, as the further development was facilitated, as no discussion over the general look was needed when testing other aspects. This step seems to us a good addition to other tests to improve acceptance and the usability of systems, especially for public use.
Keywords: Prototyping, Screen design, Acceptance, Usability
Designing a Visual Database for Fashion Designers BIBAKPDF 49-50
  Charlie Hill; Gillian Crampton Smith; Eleanor Curtis; Stephen Kamlish; Mike Scaife
The design and rapid prototyping of a hypermedia tool is described in which interaction design techniques were employed after extensive empirical research into the fashion design process. The tool enables fashion designers to draw on past work when designing new garments, and incorporates a novel approach to casual data entry. The interaction design process is explained from problem analysis through animated walkthroughs to prototype development. Issues are raised for both researchers and developers: problems in the transition from research to design; difficulties in testing usability during conceptual design; the need to make systems emotionally engaging and memorable.
Keywords: Interaction design, Graphic design, User interface, Fashion design, Database applications, Hypermedia, Data entry, Annotation, Design process
A C.A.R.D. Game for Participatory Task Analysis and Redesign: Macroscopic Complement to PICTIVE BIBAKPDF 51-52
  Leslie Gayle Tudor; Michael J. Muller; Tom Dayton
CARD (Collaborative Analysis of Requirements and Design) is a participatory technique for analyzing task flows, and for redesigning task flows, in software systems. It provides a macroscopic complement to the more microscopic design activities that are supported by the PICTIVE technique. CARD uses the metaphor of a card game as the vehicle for communication and collaboration among users, developers, and designers. We report initial results from the use of CARD on two products.
Keywords: Participatory design, Task analysis, PICTIVE, Design, Redesign, Screen, Task flow, Design games, User centered design
Participative Design of Human-Machine Interfaces for Process Control Systems BIBAKPDF 53-54
  S. Ali; J. Heuer; M. Hollender; G. Johannsen
A new method for participatively developing and evaluating Man-Machine Interfaces (MMI) for Supervisory and Control Systems (S&C) of chemical distillation columns is presented. Participation is considered important not only during the design phase, but should be built into the system by making the interface adaptable to the users requirements also during the operation phase. Better building blocks for input and output elements as well as improved models for navigation in picture hierarchies are offering enhanced flexibility to the operator.
Keywords: Participative design, Process control
Translation in Participatory Design: Lessons from a Workshop BIBAKPDF 55-56
  Marian G. Williams; Vivienne Begg
The authors held a workshop called "Translation in Participatory Design" at the Conference on Participatory Design (PDC '92). The goal of the workshop was to elucidate the notion of translation in participatory design. We intended to focus on the special role that can be played by software designers who are also experts in the field for which they are developing software. Our major claim was that some design tasks can be completed successfully or expediently only by a software designer who has worked in the user's field. In the course of the workshop, a more complex and detailed account of the translator role was developed, with attention to how, why, and by whom this role is taken on during design.
Keywords: Participatory design, Translation, Case studies, Metaphor, Workplace mechanization
Using Case Studies in the Iterative Development of a Methodology to Support User-Designer Collaboration BIBAKPDF 57-58
  Susan Harker
This paper describes the use of case studies based on role play and scenarios to test and evaluate a methodology for capturing and specifying user requirements.
Keywords: Requirements, Methods, Users, Developers, Role-play, Scenarios, Prototyping, Iterative development
Using Cluster Analysis to Guide Interface Design for Audiotext Services BIBAPDF 59-60
  Eileen C. Schwab; Amy L. Schwartz
Rapid Order is an audiotext system which lets customers learn about and order telephone services. The system has three main branches: QuickTeach, ordering, and pricing information. In QuickTeach, users can learn why a service might be beneficial to them and how to activate/deactivate the services. Given the multiple intended uses and the large number of services represented, it is important that the Rapid Order menu is as easy to use as possible. The current QuickTeach menu structure classifies the 12 services into four categories: Custom Calling Services, Advanced Custom Calling Services, Linebacker, and Calling Card. This structure might make sense to a user familiar with the development history of these services, but the typical consumer does not think in terms of Custom and Advanced Custom Calling Services. We can facilitate our customer's use of the menu interface if we group together items that are close in the customer's mental similarity space.
   Previous research has successfully used the cluster analysis technique as a way to investigate people's mental similarity space (Lewis, 1991). The purpose of these studies was to derive a menu structure for the Rapid Order audiotext system which best fits with consumers' intuitive categories for the 12 services represented.
Using Video Scenarios to Present Consumer Product Interfaces BIBAPDF 61-62
  Raghu Kolli
In the initial stages of new product development, designers present alternative concepts through sketches, storyboards, interactive prototypes and physical mock-up models. These representations are useful for communication with the design team, the client and for early usability testing with users. In case of highly interactive consumer electronic products (stereo systems, video cameras, fax machines, telephones etc.), LCD displays, buttons, sliders and other user control elements are closely integrated with the three dimensional product form. Hence, an assessment of the product interface necessarily involves the product form as well.

Short Papers (Talks): Multi-Modal User Interfaces

"Kirk Here:" Using Genre Sounds to Monitor Background Activity BIBAPDF 63-64
  Jonathan Cohen
ShareMon, a prototype application, uses sounds, text-to-speech, or graphical messages to notify users about background file sharing events. In file sharing, hosts make files available for users known as guests to access over the network. Once a host sets up file sharing, guests may access the host's machine without the host being aware of it. So, for example, ShareMon notifies the host with a knocking sound when a guest logs on, and notifies the host with a door slamming sound when a guest logs off.
Synthetic Synesthesia: Mixing Sound with Color BIBAKPDF 65-66
  Kristinn R. Thorisson; Karen Donoghue
An interface is described that uses color and spatial relations to provide an intuitive interface for sound manipulation. A simple geometric shape, called the Geometric Sound Mixer (GSM), is used to mix sounds. Timbre is represented as color within the GSM; the relative loudness of these sound sources is represented visually by the color mixture. A dynamic representation of any sound mix can be viewed on the Mix Time Line, where relative moment-to-moment audio levels control the color mix and brightness as the sounds play in real time. Perceptually linear audio and color mixes are achieved using psychophysical functions. The result is an environment that allows for complex manipulations of sound in a highly simplified, structured environment.
Keywords: Sound manipulation, Color, Perception, Psychophysics, Multi-media, User interface design
An Experimental Study of Future 'Natural' Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 67-68
  Christophe Mignot; Claude Valot; Noelle Carbonell
In order to study users' spontaneous formulation of commands in the context of multimodal human-computer interaction (HCI), we conducted a Wizard of Oz experiment on the use of unconstrained speech and 2D-gestures for interacting with standard application software: 8 subjects performed various design and process control tasks during 3 weekly sessions. Some functionalities of the multimodal user interface were simulated by 3 human operators or 'wizards'.
   First analyses bring out the great diversity of subjects' styles and strategies; they also indicate that, in such environments, the addition of spoken natural language to direct manipulation (the manipulation of graphical objects through pointing) improves HCI efficiency and flexibility, whilst command interpretation remains tractable.
Keywords: Multimodal human-computer interaction, Wizard of Oz paradigm, User models, Multimodal natural language interfaces
A Multi-Modal Human-Computer Interaction: Combination of Gesture and Speech Recognition BIBAKPDF 69-70
  Minh Tue Vo; Alex Waibel
Multi-modal interfaces can achieve more natural and effective human-computer interaction by integrating a variety of signals, or modalities, by which humans usually convey information. The integration of multiple input modalities permits greater expressiveness from complementary information sources, and greater reliability due to redundancies across modalities.
   This paper describes a text editor developed at Carnegie Mellon, featuring a multi-modal interface that allows users to manipulate text using a combination of speech and pen-based gestures. The implementation of this multi-modal text editor also illustrates a framework on which more general joint interpretation of multiple modalities can be based.
Keywords: Multiple modalities, Multi-modal interface, Gesture recognition, Word spotting, Semantic-fragment grammar, Neural networks
Mode Preference in a Simple Data-Retrieval Task BIBAPDF 71-72
  Alexander I. Rudnicky
Multi-modal systems allow users to both tailor their input style to the task at hand and to use input strategies that combine several modes in a single transaction. As yet no consistent body of knowledge is available for predicting user behavior in multi-modal environments or to guide the design of multi-modal systems. This is particularly true when interfaces incorporate new technologies such as speech recognition.
An Evaluation of Video Mediated Communication BIBAKPDF 73-74
  Steve Whittaker; Brid O'Conaill
We test a theory of mediated interaction [3] by comparing real meetings held across two videoconferencing systems with face-to-face (FTF) interaction. As predicted, delayed and half-duplex audio, with poor quality visual images reduces interactive properties and produces "lecture-like" conversation. Contrary to our predictions, conversation with high quality audio and image is not identical with FTF. We discuss reasons for this and make recommendations for the design of mediated communication systems.
Keywords: Interpersonal communication, Video, Audio, Evaluation

Short Papers (Talks): A Kaleidoscope of HCI

Learning by Exploration, and Affordance Bugs BIBAPDF 75-76
  Stephen W. Draper; Stephen B. Barton
Modern highly visual interfaces can often be learned largely by exploration, without human or textual instruction. We should take this seriously as a major design aim, because of its advantages when successful, and because it largely succeeds in many cases. For instance, computer naive subjects and have them discover and use many of the features of MacPaint within the first half hour of use, without any instruction. However observation reveals many remaining imperfections -- bugs relative to the aim of supporting learning by exploration (LBE). Thus an aim of evaluation and debugging of such designs is to address those usability problems impeding LBE.
   Not very much has appeared in the literature explicitly about LBE. Shneiderman lists in his analysis of direct manipulation some basic desirable properties (e.g. safety of trying things out, visible feedback). There has been some theoretical work on models of how humans might infer things (Lewis 1988, Lewis & Polson 1990) from observations, and so do LBE. An empirical approach however should begin with the basic phenomena, and then go on to ask what LBE depends on in practice in the sense of what processes seem to be the ones that need more attention and debugging in current designs. This is the approach we follow here.
Pictographic Naming BIBAKPDF 77-78
  Daniel P. Lopresti; Andrew Tomkins
We describe pictographic naming, a new approach to naming for pen-based computers, in which filenames are pictures rather than ASCII strings. Handwriting recognition (HWX) of a name is delayed as long as possible. We show that most file system operations can be accomplished without HWX. Since pictographic names are sets of strokes, they can never be reproduced exactly so name lockup becomes an approximate matching problem. We give efficient algorithms for this problem, and present results for name matching in English and Japanese.
Keywords: Handwriting recognition, Naming paradigms
Interaction is Orthogonal to Graphical Form BIBAKPDF 79-80
  Dag Svanaes
The aim of the work described in this paper is to build an empirically based theory of how people perceive interacting with computers. Through controlled experiments I have been able to identify some commonly used metaphors for describing interaction. I suggest that the interaction aspects of human-computer interaction can be isolated out as a dimension orthogonal to graphical form.
Keywords: Perception, Interaction, Metaphor, Look and feel
Listener Response to Time-Compressed Speech BIBAPDF 81-82
  Eileen C. Schwab; Jenny DeGroot
Time compressed speech is faster than unaltered speech, but its pitch is the same. This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of employing this technology in audiotext applications. Two potential advantages are: 1) Providing information in a shorter time should reduce the duration of phone calls, saving both customer and service-provider time and resources, and 2) Research on advertising indicates that compressed speech is often more engaging for consumers than a normal speaking rate (e.g., MacLachlan & LaBarbera, 1978). A potential disadvantage is that too much compression may sound unpleasant and decrease comprehension. These effects might be more extreme for older customers, or for those who speak English as a second language. Moreover, compression might have different effects on the comprehension of long expository passages and the intelligibility of briefer items such as menu choices.
   Ameritech's Rapid Order and QuickTeach system is an interactive voice response (IVR) system that provides recorded information about custom calling features and takes orders for features. This study investigates callers' responses to temporally compressed versions of the system's announcements. Intelligibility, comprehension, and subjects' attitudes were measured.
Spelling Mistakes: How Well Do Correctors Perform? BIBAKPDF 83-84
  D. G. Hendry; T. R. G. Green
Commercial spelling correctors were tested on mistypings and misspellings. Mistypings were 'corrected' more successfully. Success rates for misspellings covered a fair range, but it is hard to quantify comparisons between correctors, and an accepted evaluation procedure is urgently needed. Improved correction techniques would benefit foreign speakers and poor spellers.
Keywords: Spelling correction, Word processors
Usability Testing on a Shoestring BIBAPDF 85-86
  Marta A. Miller; Catherine O'Donnell
What do you do when your job is to usability test your company's software and you have neither a usability lab nor the $30,000-$50,000 it takes to hire one??? The User Interface group at GE Information Services (GEIS) has developed a methodology that allows us to perform usability tests in-house and on the road that produce acceptable results without all the overhead of a typical lab.
   This methodology, what you might call Low-Overhead Usability Testing, allows all data to be collected in 1-2 days and for as little as $200-500. Low-Overhead Usability Testing can be accomplished with two trained professionals (one test administrator and an observer), a large conference room or computer lab, some paper forms, and 12 participants to act as subjects. Visitors (e.g., Developers and Management) can also be invited to view the testing.

Short Papers (Posters): Interaction Techniques I

Text Correction in Pen-Based Computers: An Empirical Comparison of Methods BIBAKPDF 87-88
  Tedde van Gelderen; Anthony Jameson; Arne L. Duwaer
Three methods for correcting text in pen-based computers were compared in an experiment involving 30 subjects. In spite of simulated virtually perfect character recognition, the two methods involving handwriting proved 25% slower than the method involving a "virtual keyboard". There was essentially no difference between the execution times with the two handwriting methods, which differed in the way of determining when to display the results of symbol recognition: after a certain delay vs. after an explicit request by the user.
Keywords: Pen-based computers, Text editing, Handwriting, Input devices
Lazy Recognition as a Principle of Pen Interfaces BIBAKPDF 89-90
  Masaki Nakagawa; Kimiyoshi Machii; Naoki Kato; Toshio Souya
The pen is suitable for creative work since one can express almost everything and is not bothered by the method to use. Experimental pen-based systems and products have not exploited the 'automated' nature of handwriting. They try to recognize handwriting immediately after each pattern is written with the result of frequent misrecognition and thus interrupt user's thinking. This paper presents lazy recognition scheme which delays the display of recognition until needed. One's thought is better developed by working with one's handwriting. Lazy recognition also provide easier structure to process handwritten patterns. Automatic segmentation of characters and diagrams is described.
Keywords: Pen interface, Writers creative workbench, On-line recognition, Lazy recognition, Pattern segmentation
Extending an Existing User Interface Toolkit to Support Gesture Recognition BIBAKPDF 91-92
  James A. Landay; Brad A. Myers
Gestures are a powerful way to specify both objects and operations with a single mark of a stylus or mouse. We have extended an existing user interface toolkit to support gestures as a standard type of interaction so that researchers can easily explore this technology.
Keywords: Gesture recognition, User interfaces, Pen, Stylus, Toolkits, Direct manipulation, Interaction techniques
A Multimodal Dialogue Controller for Multimodal User Interface Management System Application: A Multimodal Window Manager BIBAKPDF 93-94
  Yacine Bellik; Daniel Teil
This paper presents a multimodal dialogue controller which can be integrated in a MUIMS (Multimodal User Interface Management System). The well-known A.T.N. (Augmented Transition Networks) model [3] is used to represent the multimodal grammar of a user interface. This type of model has been used before to specify monomodal user interfaces [4] [5]. The work presented here shows it is possible to use the A.T.N. model for multimodal user interfaces by adding specific extensions.
Keywords: Multimodal interfaces, User interface management system, Augmented transition networks
A Wizard of Oz Platform for the Study of Multimodal Systems BIBAKPDF 95-96
  Daniel Salber; Joelle Coutaz
The Wizard of Oz (WOz) technique is an experimental evaluation mechanism. It allows the observation of a user operating an apparently fully functioning system whose missing services are supplemented by a hidden wizard. In the absence of generalizable theories and models for the design and evaluation of multimodal systems, the WOz technique is an appropriate approach to the identification of sound design solutions. We show how the WOz technique can be extended to the study of multimodal interfaces and we introduce the Neimo platform as an illustration of our early experience in the development of such platforms.
Keywords: Multimodal interaction, Wizard of Oz, Evaluation techniques

Short Papers (Posters): Multimedia and Multiuser Interfaces

Application of Living Book in Medical Education BIBAKPDF 97-98
  Jorn Nilsson; Dipak Khakhar
A prototype "Living Book" transcribing a textbook on Human Anatomy and Physiology is presented. Other possible uses for the Living Book are discussed.
Keywords: Multimedia design, Living book, Interactive design, Medical applications
Multimedia Environments: Supporting Authors and Users with Real-World Metaphors BIBAKPDF 99-100
  Kaisa Vaananen
This work investigates the processes of constructing and using multimedia information systems within the particular context of supporting real-world metaphors. It is recommended that authoring tools for multimedia environments should integrate mechanisms for both the design and implementation tasks. Furthermore, the tool should provide a set of real-world metaphors that support both the author in structuring the information, and the user in understanding and interacting with that information. By bringing the authoring and interaction processes closer together under a real-world metaphor, the author's task in constructing a usable and engaging multimedia information system should be much simpler. This paper discusses this and illustrates the process by describing a system called ShareME -- Shared Multimedia Environments.
Keywords: Multimedia authoring tools, Navigation, User interface metaphors
Authoring Multimedia in the CMIF Environment BIBAKPDF 101-102
  Lynda Hardman; Guido van Rossum; Dick C. A. Bulterman
We present the user interface to the CMIF authoring environment for constructing and playing multimedia presentations. Within the environment an author constructs a presentation in terms of its structure and additional synchronization constraints, from which the actual timing information is derived.
   The CMIF authoring environment presents three main views of a multimedia presentation: a hierarchy view for manipulating and viewing a presentation's hierarchical structure; a channel view for managing logical resources and specifying and viewing precise timing constraints; and a player for playing the presentation.
Keywords: Multimedia authoring, Hypermedia authoring, Composition, Synchronization
A Multimedia Interface for Knowledge Building and Collaborative Learning BIBAKPDF 103-104
  Christopher M. Hoadley; Sherry Hsi
We describe a multimedia tool developed for scaffolding constructive conversation and sharing information by means of a public kiosk. The Multimedia Forum Kiosk (MFK) provides an environment where users communicate asynchronously with video, audio, and text. Unlike unstructured media such as entail, the interface provides multiple representations of the structure of the discourse which aid in understanding the previous discussion, eliciting and refining new ideas, and developing a sense of community with other users. The software has undergone evaluation, testing, and revision as a tool for an education research community. Preliminary results indicate that users learn the interface unproblematically without training, and that they successfully explore and contribute to the discussions. We introduce the MFK as a tool for collaborative discussion and learning, and discuss several potential uses for the tool, both pedagogical and utilitarian. A more formal testing plan to evaluate the software and interface design is underway.
Keywords: Communication, Computer-supported cooperative work, Discourse, Education, Multimedia
Assessing a Groupware Implementation of a Manual Participatory Design Process BIBAPDF 105-106
  Michael J. Muller; David S. Miller; John G. Smith; Daniel M. Wildman; Ellen A. White; Tom Dayton; Robert W. Root; Aita Salasoo
Our attempt to implement a groupware version of a manual participatory design process (Muller, Miller, Smith, White, and Wildman, 1992) has revealed several constraints that may apply to other groupware systems for collaboration -- especially those that involve skills from outside the computer domain.
Floor Control Policies in Multi-User Applications BIBAKPDF 107-108
  John Boyd
In multi-user applications, there is often the need to decide who controls what, that is, for policies of what is called "floor control". This paper presents several dimensions of floor control policies to demonstrate their diversity. A particular policy, called fair dragging, is given as an example.
Keywords: Software, Software engineering, Tools and techniques, User interfaces, Software, Operating systems, Process management, Concurrency, Mutual exclusion, Scheduling, Software, Systems, Programs and utilities, Window managers, Information systems, Models and principles, User/machine systems, Human factors, Human information processing, Information Systems, Models and principles, Information interfaces and presentation, User interfaces, Input devices and strategies, Interaction styles, User interface management systems, Windowing systems, Information systems, Models and principles, Group and organization interfaces, Evaluation/methodology, Synchronous interaction, Theory and models, Floor control, Synchronous multi-user applications
Teleconferencing Eye Contact Using a Virtual Camera BIBAKPDF 109-110
  Maximilian Ott; John P. Lewis; Ingemar Cox
To preserve eye contact in teleconferencing both the camera and the monitor need to be positioned on the same optical axis which, in practice, is usually not possible. We propose a method to construct the view from a virtual coaxial centered camera given two cameras mounted on either side of the monitor. Stereoscopic analysis of the two camera views provides a partial three-dimensional description of the scene. With this information it is possible to "rotate" one of the views to obtain a centered coaxial view that preserves eye contact.
Keywords: Teleconferencing, Eye contact, Stereo matching, Camera calibration
Anthropomorphism, Agency, & Ethopoeia: Computers as Social Actors BIBAKPDF 111-112
  Clifford Nass; Jonathan Steuer; Ellen Tauber; Heidi Reeder
Attempts to generate anthropomorphic responses to computers have been based on complex, agent-based interfaces. This study provides experimental evidence that minimal social cues can induce computer-literate individuals to use social rules -- praise of others is more valid than praise of self, praise of others is friendlier than praise of self, and criticism of others is less friendly than criticism of self -- to evaluate the performance of computers. We also demonstrate that different voices are treated as distinct agents.
Keywords: Anthropomorphism, Ethopoeia, Agents, Voice, Speech, Social psychology

Short Papers (Posters): Interaction Techniques II

A Taxonomy of Graphical Presentation BIBAKPDF 113-114
  Robert Spence
A taxonomy of graphical presentation is proposed which is based on four mutually orthogonal transformations. It allows a range of presentation techniques to be simply described.
Keywords: Graphical presentation, Taxonomy
Navigation in Pop-Up Menus BIBAPDF 115-116
  David R. Airth
Pop-up menus (sometimes referred to as context menus) are menus that appear over objects in the interface instead of in a static menu area, such as a menu bar. Pop-ups allow users with a mouse to access an object's commands directly on the object, without going to a menu bar. Many popular graphical user interfaces such as the NeXT computer (which relies heavily on pop-up menus), a number of Microsoft Windows applications, and many X-Window applications currently use pop-up menus. A number of studies have investigated the effects of menu's physical structure on users' behavior. Walker, Smelcer and Nilsen (1991) successfully used Fitts' law to predict the mean time to select a menu item with a mouse in a hierarchical menuing system. The present study, however, indicates that users choose the motor behavior with which they are most familiar and not the strategy that minimizes mouse movement. Therefore, Fitts' law will not give accurate predictions of menu selection time since users do not necessarily choose the shortest path to a menu item. Also, the data from this study suggest that the menu search behavior users employ is independent of the menu's physical structure.
Adaptive Bar BIBAKPDF 117-118
  Matjaz Debevc
Adaptive systems offer automatic adaptation of the user interface to the user's knowledge. Such systems check the user's procedures and eventually propose certain changes in the interface or instruct the user in order to help him to reach his goal more easily.
   The following article shows how we designed and implemented an adaptive bar (also called toolbar or speedbar). During the session the user interface suggests the removal or installation of certain icons. It also arranges and resides the icons according to their priority.
Keywords: Adaptive user interface, User interface design, Software ergonomics
Fisheye Videos: Distorting Multiple Videos in Space and Time Domain According to Users' Interests BIBAKPDF 119-120
  Kimiya Yamaashi; Masayuki Tani; Koichiro Tanikoshi
Many applications, such as tele-conference systems and plant control systems need to display a large number of videos. In those applications, displaying multiple video windows overwhelms limited computing resources (e.g., network capacity, processing power) due to the vast amount of information.
   This paper describes a technique allows multiple videos to display in the limited computing resources. This technique distorts multiple videos according to users' interest. Users are not interested in all videos simultaneously. They only look at a part of them in detail and get the global context of other videos. The technique displays videos of interest in more detail by degrading other videos to allow an efficient use of limited computing resources, which we call the Fisheye Videos technique. The technique distorts a video in the space and time domain (e.g., spatial resolution, frame rate) according to users' interests, which are estimated based on the window conditions such as its distance from a focused window and the amount of masked area by other windows.
Keywords: Digital video, CSCW, Tele-conference system, Plant control system, Window system
The FeelMouse: An Interaction Device with Force Feedback BIBAKPDF 121-122
  Franz Penz; Manfred Tscheligi
Force feedback is a valuable possibility to extend the base of human-computer communication from strongly visual to multisensory information exchange. By the integration of force feedback the user is more directly involved in object characteristics which is surface structure and hardness. We present a very cheap and simple solution for a force feedback input device. The force mechanisms is attached to a standard two button mouse. By the software controlled adjustment of a feel value objects get different force sensation behavior.
Keywords: Graphical user interfaces, Input devices, Force feedback
An Evaluation of Four 6 Degree-of-Freedom Input Techniques BIBAPDF 123-124
  Shumin Zhai; Paul Milgram; David Drascic
A great deal of research has been carried out in evaluating two degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) computer input devices [e.g. Buxton 1990]. Relatively little research has been carried out with 6-DOF devices, however. Research currently underway at the University of Toronto aims at systematically investigating a variety of factors involved in the process of manipulating the location and orientation of objects in 3-space. Along with some conceptual discussion, this paper presents our first experiment in this effort.
Relativity Controller: Reflecting User Perspective in Document Spaces BIBAKPDF 125-126
  Eric Justin Gould
As the ease of accessing and generating large quantities of information increases, people's ability to navigate through that information and maintain personal perspective decreases [1]. This paper describes an interface element, the Relativity Controller, that enables users to specify what is important to them and modify the portion of their perceptual space that information takes up, using a variation on fisheye view techniques [2]. This process is described as a generalized tool for annotating documents and for controlling the balance between detail and context in representations of document contents. Peripheral portions of documents are condensed so that salient segments can be expanded and whole document contexts maintained. It will be shown here in its application to video data.
Keywords: User interface, Fisheye views, Personal perspective, Annotation, Information retrieval, Video editing, Relativity

Short Papers (Talks): Graphical User Interfaces

Layer Tool: Support for Progressive Design BIBAPDF 127-128
  Yin Yin Wong
Tools aimed at design professionals are widely available, yet rarely do they support the initial phases of the design process. These tools provide too much fine control and precision to allow for rough ideation. Designers in the initial phase require flexible tools which allow them to easily create and manipulate ideas without having to specify details.
   Others have studied the effect imposed by the computer medium and its tools on the design process. Black [1] proposed that finished-looking drafts produced on the computer curtail exploration of ideas. Graphic designers tend to focus on their initial concept and tweak detailed parameters such as column width or typeface rather than explore alternate designs. They concentrate on finished-looking presentations rather than iterating structural issues. How can we provide tools that better support the earliest design phases? In this paper, I describe a user observation of an architect at work and the interface design of a layer tool inspired from the observation.
Back to the Future: A Graphical Layering System Inspired by Transparent Paper BIBAKPDF 129-130
  Matt Belge; Ishantha Lokuge; David Rivers
Many graphics systems today use transparent layers to help users organize information. However, due to problems in the User Interface design, these systems often confuse users and distract them from the task they are trying to accomplish. Before the advent of desktop computers, people managed similar problems by drawing on sheets of plastic transparent paper (transparencies). Believing that layering is a powerful technique, we re-examined the qualities of these transparencies as a source of inspiration. This gave us some innovative ideas. We built a prototype. Pilot studies performed on the prototype show promising results.
Keywords: Transparency, Layers, Visualization
A Framework for Describing Interactions with Graphical Widgets Using State-Transition Diagrams BIBAPDF 131-132
  Michael Chen
Describing the user interaction and visual feedback provided by a graphical widget is currently done through combining written description with visual interaction snap-shots. This approach is laborious and can be repetitive if all the widgets in a Graphical User Interface (GUI) must be documented. Furthermore, such a description does not necessarily reveal common widget behavior, nor does it directly guide a person in creating a new widget. One needs to infer standard behavior from the existing widget set before a new and consistent widget can be designed.
   This paper proposes a framework for describing the behavior of graphical widgets. It will show how most interactions with widgets fit into a state-transition diagram model with four states. This model provides a new vocabulary to call out functional and visual changes in a uniform way. It also aids in pointing out commonalities and inconsistencies of interactions within a GUI.
Pins, Grooves, & Sockets: A Direct Manipulation Interface to a Graphical Constraint System BIBAPDF 133-134
  David Vronay; James C. Spohrer
Graphical constraint systems have proven to be powerful tools for specifying the behavior of interface objects [BORNING77, SUTHERLAND63, GLEICHER91, LINCAGES92]. However, these systems have been plagued by the lack of a user interface that can allow authors to quickly and easily produce the graphical widgets they desire. This paper reports on a user interface metaphor of pins, grooves, and sockets (PG&S) for dealing with certain types of constraints.
Studying the Movement of High-Tech. Rodentia: Pointing and Dragging BIBAKPDF 135-136
  Oryx Cohen; Shawna Meyer; Erik Nilsen
This study compares seven input devices (mouse, touchscreen, two trackballs, mousepen, touchpad, and joystick) performing a star tracing task. Along with the device comparisons, the difference between moving with the selector button pressed (dragging) or with the button released (pointing) is examined. Recent work has found that dragging is slower and more error prone than pointing when using a mouse, stylus or trackball [1,2,3]. In the present study, 28 subjects used all seven input devices for both dragging and pointing tasks. Highly significant device differences were found for both speed and accuracy (p's <.001). The touchscreen and mouse were the best devices and the joystick and touchpad were the worst. The fastest devices also produced the fewest errors. The main effect for the button position was also significant, (p's <.005) with dragging being slower and more error-prone than pointing. However, there was a significant interaction between input device and button position. For one of the devices, the mousepen, dragging was actually faster and less error prone than pointing. What is different about the mousepen? Some possibilities are considered along with how these results can be applied to the design of input devices and interaction techniques.
Keywords: Human performance modelling, Input devices, Input tasks
Gesturing with Shared Drawing Tools BIBAPDF 137-138
  Catherine G. Wolf; James R. Rhyne
This paper reports on how people used a pen-based shared drawing application in support of their needs for gesturing in a collaborative drawing task.

Short Papers (Talks): Information Access

Dialogue Control in Social Interface Agents BIBAKPDF 139-140
  Kristinn R. Thorisson
Interface agents are computational entities that form a focal point for communication at the interface; social interface agents are familiar with the conventions of personal interaction. This paper outlines a prototype social interface agent, called J. Jr., that integrates various channels of information about the user to control its real-time behavior in the social setting. Information about the user's gaze and hand gestures is provided by a human observer; data about intonation in the user's speech is obtained with automatic frequency analysis. This data is in turn used to control the gaze of the agent's on-screen face, its back-channel paraverbals, and turn-taking behavior. Results show that by choosing the appropriate variables for dialogue control, a relatively convincing social behavior can be achieved in the agent.
Keywords: Social interface agents, Multi-modal dialogue, Real-time interaction
Discerning Bias in Computer Systems BIBAKPDF 141-142
  Batya Friedman; Helen Nissenbaum
From a study of real cases, we have developed a topology of bias in computer systems. This topology provides a basis for describing, analyzing, and remedying bias in actual systems-in-use. Although other discussions have pointed out bias in particular computer systems, we know of no other comparable work that examines this phenomenon generally and offers a framework for understanding it.
Keywords: Computer system design, Computer ethics, Social implications of computers
A Construction Tool for Context-Sensitive Guidance System BIBAKPDF 143-144
  Mayumi Hiyoshi; Hideo Shimazu; Yosuke Takashima
We have designed and experimentally implemented a tool for developing intelligent on-line guidance systems for electronic appliances and software programs. The key to this tool's efficiency is its capability to generate effectively context-sensitive answers to users' queries. Since the guidance system holds the state-transition representation of its target systems and receives all user operational inputs, it can simulate the internal states of the target systems. Any user's query is interpreted as a user goal within a specific context, and an internal planner generates the best plans to meet the goal. The planner's knowledge is defined declaratively for easy extension.
Keywords: Guidance, Adaptation, User interface, Goal/plan
A Compositional, Knowledge-Based Architecture for Intelligent Query User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 145-146
  F. M. T. Brazier; Zs. Ruttkay
The design of a user interface to intelligently intermediate between the user and a DB query system, based on a modular, knowledge-based generic architecture is to be discussed. The main principles concerning the user interface design are: identification of the essential (1) tasks of intelligent intermediation and (2) (meta-)knowledge as the basis of performing these tasks, but also (3) active role for the user in the strategic decisions of the tasks. The resulting user interface architecture is transparent, easily adaptable, and makes it possible to model strategic interaction with the user as well.
Keywords: Intelligent user interface, Co-operative problem solving, Information retrieval, Knowledge-based framework
Searching for Help vs. Having It Handed to You: The Relative Advantages of Index-Accessed Help and Context-Sensitive Help BIBAPDF 147-148
  Rita L. Danielsen; A. Brady Farrand; Susan J. Wolfe
It can be extremely difficult to convince developers that context-sensitive help is worth the cost of implementation. The project may require some form of on-line help; however, implementing index-accessed help seems faster and cheaper. When the same information can be displayed in both ways, how can we argue that the benefits of context-sensitive help outweigh the benefits of index-accessed help?
   Searching through an index or list of contents for the relevant help text takes time and cognitive effort. The same help text can be displayed with a single keystroke, cued by the current screen context. Clearly, the time spent in the index selecting the appropriate topic or keyword increases the time the user takes wandering around the help system. But, how much time does accessing the information through the index add to the task?
   Furthermore, how much is the cognitive cost when the user must search an index or list-of-contents? The user must take his or her focus away from the task in order to choose the appropriate keyword or relevant phrase [1]. Does this interference affect his or her ability to refocus on the task and proceed? The user might become distracted by the search task, and therefore need to spend some time regaining the context of the problem before applying the solution proposed by the on-line help. Is the time to read, digest, and act on the information greater for index-accessed help text than for context-sensitive help text?
Facilitating Interactive Tool Selection by Adaptive Prompting BIBAKPDF 149-150
  Thomas Kuhme; Uwe Malinowski; James D. Foley
In order to reduce the navigation effort for tool selections, a tool prompter is proposed which maintains a working set and offers a small number of corresponding tools which can be perceived at a glance. The presentation is continuously being adapted on the basis of an application model and a user model. The chosen approach allows for a wide range of optional user involvement into the adaptation mechanisms. A prototype of the tool prompter has been implemented.
Keywords: Adaptive user interfaces, Intelligent user interfaces, Application model, User model

Short Papers (Posters): Models and Representations

Representational Issues Related to Communication in Design Teams BIBAPDF 151-152
  Mathilde M. Bekker
Designers of user interfaces require tools that support communication in multi-disciplinary design teams [1,2]. In order to develop such tools a better understanding of communication in design teams is required. To determine what methods or tools would be most useful to designers and what issues play an important role in the use of such tools, we performed an analysis of user interface design practice.
   In this paper, we present an overview of issues related to communication in multi-disciplinary design teams; our findings regarding methods and tools that would be most useful to interface designers are described in [1].
Reasoning with External Representations: Supporting the Stages of Selection, Construction and Use BIBAKPDF 153-154
  Richard Cox; Paul Brna
Diagrammatic and other graphical representations are extensively employed by problem solvers. The stages of selection, construction and use are all crucial. There has been little empirical work on these processes. We describe an environment (switchER) which can be used for solving analytical reasoning problems. switchER has been used to explore a number of hypotheses relating to the significance of representation selection, the time course of problem solving and the effects of prior knowledge and problem characteristics.
Keywords: Analytical problem solving, Knowledge representation, Learning environments, Knowledge and skill acquisition
The Cognitive Dimensions of Mediating Representations BIBAKPDF 155-156
  Charles C. Wood
Cultural-cognitive approaches to HCI require a framework with which to describe "mediating representations" -- the external representations people use in their cognitive activity. Green's "cognitive dimensions" can provide such a framework, and here they are used to consider the properties of mediating representations in idea sketching.
Keywords: Cognitive dimensions, External mediating representations, Distributed cognition
A Mental Model Can Help with Learning to Operate a Complex Device BIBAKPDF 157-158
  Robert M. Fein; Gary M. Olson; Judith S. Olson
Does teaching a mental model for a complex device help? This question was investigated in an experiment that had three conditions: 1) no mental model was taught, 2) an explicit, but abstract, mental model, and 3) a mental model that had a real world story. In all cases the subjects were given high-quality rote instructions ("how-to-do-it" knowledge) for operating the device. The explicit mental model consisted of a description of "how-it-works" knowledge, in addition to the instructions. The story model augmented this information by explaining the inner workings as being analogous to an ecosystem. Subjects were tested on their ability to recall learned tasks and to transfer that knowledge to new ones. The results of the study showed that, as expected, the rote group was at a decided disadvantage on both the recall and transfer tasks. However, the two model conditions were not different. Additionally, it was found that subjects who had a scientific background were able to overcome the disadvantages of the rote condition, perhaps by building a mental model for themselves.
Keywords: Mental models, Transfer, Skill learning
A Speech Compression Proposal for Directory Assistance Operators: GOMS Predictions BIBAKPDF 159-160
  Rory Stuart; Gareth Gabrys
CPM-GOMS modelling has been applied to the new domain of Directory Assistance operators to help in making design decisions in the development of a new workstation. The models help focus designers on areas where the greatest improvements are possible, and also help to evaluate specific proposals. Here we examine CPM-GOMS predictions regarding a proposal to apply speech compression to the customer's initial spoken request and play this processed speech to the operator with the goal of speeding up the transaction. Modelling the proposal produces non-intuitive results, which we describe, and raises workload issues, which we describe and plan to address in future research.
Keywords: Analytic modelling, Interface design, CPM-GOMS, Speech compression, Operator workstations
Model-Based User Interface Design by Example and by Answering Questions BIBAKPDF 161-162
  Martin R. Frank; James D. Foley
Model-based user interface design is based on a description of application objects and operations at a level of abstraction higher than that of code. A good model can be used to assist in designing the user interface, support multiple interfaces, help separate interface and application, describe input sequencing in a simple way, check consistency and completeness of the interface, evaluate its speed-of-use and generate context-specific textual and animated help. However, designers rarely use computer-supported application modelling today and prefer less formal approaches such as using a story board of interface prototypes. One reason is that available tools use special-purpose languages for the model specification. Another reason is that these tools force the designers to specify the application model before they can start working on the visual interface, which is their main area of expertise. We present a novel methodology for concurrent development of the user interface and the application model which overcomes both problems by combining story-boarding and model-based interface design.
Keywords: Story-boarding, User interface management systems, Model-based user interface design
Supporting Implementation of Semantic-Level User Interaction Paradigms BIBAPDF 163-164
  Peter Aberg; Robert Neches
Many computer applications present their users with large information spaces that are difficult to understand and navigate. One class of solutions to this problem relies on allowing users to easily explore the information space, guided by continuous feedback provided by the system. Unfortunately, instantiating such a paradigm for a new application often requires a great deal of effort on the part of the developer. We are currently working on a shell environment that merges a model-based user interface development system with a proven interaction paradigm (a generalization of retrieval by reformulation) to assist developers in this task.
Layered Protocols in User Interfaces for Consumer Equipment BIBAPDF 165-166
  J. H. Eggen; R. Haakma; J. H. D. M. Westerink
A major issue in user interface design is how to structure the interaction between user and system. A formal model for analyzing and designing user-system interaction is expected to be of great help in dealing with this issue and can thus lead to increased usability. In this paper we investigate the usefulness of the Layered Protocols formalism (Taylor, 1988) for the evaluation and design of user interfaces for consumer appliances.
The Task Oriented Modelling (TOM) Approach to the Development of Real-Time Safety-Critical Systems BIBAKPDF 167-168
  Clive Warren
The domains of Air Traffic Control (ATC) and aviation are two areas in which Human Factors has much to offer in terms of the design of computer systems intended to support operator's tasks. The flight-decks of modern commercial aircraft already have many automatic systems aiding pilots in carrying out their tasks. Advances in technology, and increased demands on pilots will result in further automation in the future. With the planned harmonisation of European ATC systems and procedures, ATC workstations of the future will also automate many of the controllers' tasks. Although air travel is statistically one of the safest forms of transport, the number of incidents occurring which are attributed to "Human error" associated with use of automated systems is increasing. The appropriate use of Human Factors expertise during the design process of automated systems will significantly reduce the number of incidents in air travel currently attributed to Human error. One system development method and its supposing tools are described which could be used in the design process to incorporate Human Factors principles in such automated systems.
Keywords: Task oriented modelling, Performance metrics, Safety-critical systems, System development, Air traffic control (ATC), Aviation, Automation

Short Papers (Posters): Help and Information Retrieval

User Tailored Hypermedia Explanations BIBAKPDF 169-170
  Fiorella de Rosis; Nadia De Carolis; Sebastiano Pizzutilo
This paper describes how concepts are explained in an intelligent interface to a statistical package by combining user modelling, natural language generation and hypermedia techniques. The advantage of this approach is to reduce difficulties in user modelling and in interpreting requests of further information. In addition, explicit knowledge representation enables modifying the facility according to results of evaluation studies.
Keywords: Explanations, User models, Natural language generation, Hypermedia
Ask How it Works: An Intelligent Interactive Manual for Devices BIBAKPDF 171-172
  Smadar Kedar; Catherine Baudin; Lawrence Birnbaum; Richard Osgood; Ray Bareiss
We describe Ask How It Works, a prototype interactive intelligent manual for devices, based on novel intelligent training systems called ASK Systems.
Keywords: Intelligent training, Hypermedia, Devices
Sifting Through Hierarchical Information BIBAKPDF 173-174
  Doug Schaffer; Saul Greenberg
Modern computer users must often sift and manage vast amounts of hierarchically structured information. However, conventional interface tools have not kept pace with the information explosion, leaving users with inadequate means to manage their data. This paper promotes ideas of information filtering and fisheye views of hierarchies through the use of dynamic queries. In particular, we present FLEXVIEW, a graphical system for visualizing file systems.
Keywords: Fisheye views, Information filtering, Dynamic queries, Visualization
Design Space of a Generic Interface for Filtering and Displaying Database Query Results BIBAPDF 175-176
  Greg Chwelos; Marilyn Mantei
A generic interface for the interactive execution and presentation of database queries is described. We explore this design space via a set of direct manipulation filters based on the semantics of the data and through an economic set of display formats also based on the data semantics. Together, the filter controllers and the dynamic displays constitute a high bandwidth interface for exploration and visualization of arbitrary database query results.
Information Filtering: A Tool for Communication Between Researchers BIBAPDF 177-178
  Jean-David Sta
The research center of EDF (the French electric power company) is organized in 35 departments and is composed of 1500 researchers. The aim of the project described here is to let researchers know the activity of others departments which is related to their activity. A set of fifty projects from other departments has been sent to each head of department. These projects were selected automatically, according to the contents of the texts describing the projects in each department. Every head of department is returning a questionnaire to tell if the results are relevant or not. The analysis of this questionnaire will tell us how to improve the method.
Vertical Spacing of Computer-Presented Text BIBAPDF 179-180
  Patrick A. Holleran; Kristin G. Bauersfeld
This study investigated readers' reactions to vertical spacing of text presented on a computer screen. Results showed that text width, font size, and several other variables were related to judgments of vertical spacing.
User Acceptance of Complementary Tables of Contents for Access to Online Information BIBAPDF 181-182
  W. T. Hunt; L. Rintjema; T. T. Carey
In previous research, we experimented with restructuring online information with multiple tables of contents [2]. The tables show the different, complementary relationships between units of information, much as hypertext links would do. The additional structure provided by the hierarchical nature of the tables gives conceptual overviews of the information and has potential for assisting user navigation [5]. For online technical information, we found that four complementary tables were needed, organising information by similar user tasks, by similar system objects and functions, and by conceptual prerequisites for under standing ("the following conditions apply to all examples in this chapter") [2].
   We report here on two pilot studies which investigated how users would employ complementary tables of contents to access online information. We were concerned that users might experience difficulty in selecting a table for a particular information-seeking task, and therefore choose to consistently accessing through a single table. However, in both studies the results indicate that users will choose to employ complementary tables in tactical ways, fitting the particular information they are seeking and their own perspective on it.
Item Recognition in Menu Selection: The Effect of Practice BIBAKPDF 183-184
  Victor Kaptelinin
This study examines the role of global and local visual features in menu selection. After being trained to work with a simple menu-driven system, subjects performed two series of tasks with two types of modified menus: "Jumbled" ones (the sequence of items within a menu changed from task to task) and "Dotted" ones (item names were replaced with strings of "bullets"). It was found that menu selection skills were learnt more efficiently under the second condition. The implications of this finding for modern studies of display based competence are discussed.
Keywords: Menu selection, Skill development, D-TAG

Short Papers (Posters): Evaluating Evaluation

Comparing Studies that Compare Usability Assessment Methods: An Unsuccessful Search for Stable Criteria BIBAKPDF 185-186
  Michael J. Muller; Tom Dayton; Robert Root
Four studies that compared inspection methods with usability testing were re-analyzed using six distinct criteria for the superiority of one method to another. Each study's own results were found -- to a greater or lesser extent -- to be in internal conflict when examined across the six criteria. These analyses, added to the well-known contradictions across the studies, argue that any conclusions regarding overall superiority of one method with respect to another are premature. They also lead to questions regarding the selection of criteria.
Keywords: Usability testing, Inspection methods, Comparisons of methods, User centered design
Preliminary Findings on the Effectiveness of Ergonomic Criteria for the Evaluation of Human-Computer Interfaces BIBAKPDF 187-188
  J. M. Christian Bastien; Dominique L. Scapin
The effectiveness of ergonomic criteria for the evaluation of user interfaces was assessed. Two groups of experts evaluated the interface of a musical database application. After an exploration-diagnosis phase, the participants evaluated the same interface states with or without ergonomic criteria. Preliminary results show that in the first phase, the number of usability problems detected and the proportions of usability problems with respect to the size of the aggregates were similar for both groups. In the second phase, the use of criteria increased both the evaluation diagnosis and the proportions of problems with respect to the size of the aggregates.
Keywords: User interface evaluation, Heuristic evaluation, Ergonomic criteria, Standards, Usability problems, Usability expertise, Cost-effective methods
Feature Checklists in HCI: Some Basic Results BIBAPDF 189-190
  Edward A. Edgerton; Stephen W. Draper; Stephen B. Barton
Feature checklists are a method of measuring the usage of commands by exploiting users' memories. The perceived usefulness of commands can also be measured, as can awareness of their existence and functions. Experiments found that their accuracy (validity) was greater than 80% in all cases. Increased visual realism of the presentation may increase this still further. Extensions to bugs and to task descriptions are discussed.
Ongoing Evaluation Studies of Collaborative Work within the Swedish MultiG Research Program BIBAKPDF 191-192
  Bengt Ahlstrom; Hans Marmolin; Thomas Marmolin
The main purpose of the evaluation studies is to make users the focus in an iterative design process by collecting and synthesising information about users needs and capabilities. To obtain this goal the studies are divided into several different phases, concerning traditional to multimodal computer supported collaboration, using methods such as questionnaires, interviews, experimental and design prototype evaluation.
Keywords: Evaluation, User centred design, Computer supported cooperative work
A Rapid Method for Tailored, Multi-Perspective Evaluation of User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 193-194
  Reinoud Hulzebosch; Anthony Jameson
The computer-supported evaluation method FACE can be used for rapid evaluation of user interfaces without restriction to a single perspective or a standardized technique. This paper lists the considerations on which its design is based, describes its use, and reports on a field test.
Keywords: Interface evaluation, Empirical methods
Process Quality Metrics for User Interface Design BIBAKPDF 195-196
  Miriam E. Kotsonis; Darren A. Kall
Human factors engineering input to user interface design involves early product specification and later development support and testing. Such input has most impact and is most cost-effective early in the design cycle; however, this expertise is often used much later in the cycle. To improve human factors utilization, the authors developed metrics to track why a consultation was needed, when in the development cycle the consultation occurred, the basis for the recommendation, acceptance of the recommendation, and impact on development. We instituted an on-line system to gather data on these variables, analyzed results of nine months of data, and used the data to improve the stability and effectiveness of our recommendations.
Keywords: Human factors, Metrics, Design, User interfaces, Quality
Interface Evaluation from Users' Point of View: Three Complementary Measures BIBAKPDF 197-198
  Edo M. Houwing; Marion Wiethoff; Albert G. Arnold
In the context of an European project 'Metrics for Usability Standards in Computing' (MUSiC), metrics, methods and standards are developed for industrial use. A validation study is reported in which metrics of cognitive workload, performance and subjective usability are tested. Subjects were studied working with a menu oriented and with a graphical object-oriented wordprocessor. The hypotheses were that the graphical package would induce a lower level of cognitive workload, and better performance and higher satisfaction. The subjects reported a lower workload, and a higher user satisfaction when using a package with a graphical interface. The lower workload could not be determined objectively, nor were there clear performance differences. Subjects did however show different learning behaviours with the two packages.
   This contribution is relevant for software developers as well as HCI practicers.
Keywords: Usability, Laboratory experiment, Metrics, Guidelines, Mental effort, Workload
Tools for Graphical User Interface Evaluation Using Playback BIBAKPDF 199-200
  Nobuko Kishi
Usability testing during software development poses several problems. One problem is the high cost for conducting usability tests. Another is lack of objectivity in analysis of test results. To solve these problems, we developed a set of tools for detecting unexpected behavior of users in the recorded data of the user operations. These tools record mouse and keyboard operations and compare two operation sequences to detect the differences between them. When one sequences is performed by a possible user and the other sequences is performed by a skilled user or a designer, the detected differences are closely related to users' unexpected behaviors which should be noted by human observers during usability testing, evaluating graphical user interface designs.
   The tools' two main techniques are data gathering in playback mode and multi-step matching of recorded data. A preliminary experiment showed that the tools can automate part of the usability evaluation process by detecting differences often overlooked by human observers.
Keywords: Graphical user interface design, Usability evaluation
Computer Support for Evaluation Studies BIBAKPDF 201-202
  Stewart T. Fleming; Alistair C. Kilgour; Carmel Smith
Questionnaires provide a survey method which allows remote data collection in evaluation or organizational studies. We describe a system called Quest which provides computer based support for administrators and participants in evaluation and data collection methods. The system uses electronic mail and a graphical user interface to enhance the utility of the method for both administrators and participants.
Keywords: Questionnaires, Electronic mail, End-user programming, Automatic user interface design

Short Papers (Talks): Design Milieux

Blind Models as Minimal Artifacts BIBAPDF 203-204
  Richard Mander; Michael Arent
As the use of and the demand for electronic products becomes more diverse, it has become ever more essential to actively involve end-users in the design of the human interface of these products through a process of user studies, iterative design, and user testing [1] [2]. Our work has shown that an important component of human interface design is to conceptualize user scenarios based on observational studies of end-users [3]. These scenarios should be articulated very early on in the design process. From these scenarios, role plays can be developed and carried out with users to gain an initial understanding about what kind of functionality and product form factors might be appropriate for enhancing such aspects of users' lives as entertainment/ recreational factors, work-related productivity, interpersonal communications, human memory enhancement, knowledge acquisition/retention, etc.
Analysis and Design Techniques for User Centred Design BIBAKPDF 205-206
  John Kirby; Heather A. Heathfield
A User Centred Systems Design Methodology is being developed as part of the PEN&PAD (Elderly Care) project. Two techniques for use in the early stages of analysis and design are briefly described. Task Oriented Flow Diagram technique has been developed as a means of representing task analysis and information flows. The diagrams produced provide the basis for a dialogue with users and a starting point for the design process. The use of a storyboarding technique for discussing the resulting early designs with users is also described.
Keywords: User centred systems design, Task analysis, Task oriented flow diagrams, PEN&PAD
The Notion of Task in HCI BIBAPDF 207-208
  Stephen W. Draper
The ISO definition of the usability of an interface is "the effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction with which specified users can achieve specified goals in a particular environment". This at first seems pessimistic to many people, as it implies that there may be no generalisation across users or machines or tasks: that measuring how one combination performs may not tell us anything about how others will perform. But is it pessimistic enough? It expresses what many HCI workers assume, that just as it is clear what a "user" is (distinct users can be identified by their bodies -- if it is the same person then it is the same user), so a task is the same thing to all people in all circumstances. This paper points out that this is not true, examines the extent to which this may be a problem, and how it threatens standard practices of both psychologists and designers in HCI.
Designing User Interfaces -- The Role of Intuition and Imagination (1992)) BIBAPDF 209-210
  Janni Nielsen; Annette Aboulafia
It is argued that too little is known about the cognitive aspects of design. This knowledge is essential if the many guidelines, models and tools that have emerged in the field of user interface design are to have a significant impact on design practice.
   Empirical studies of designers developing user interfaces are reported, showing that the context in which design takes place in an organisational setting is turbulent and the design task often unclear. Investigations of decision making in the design process showed it is one of gradually evolving commitment, where intuition, imagination and unstructured analysis are essential cognitive processes during design work. The usefulness of designer support tools is discussed.
Structuring Design Spaces BIBAKPDF 211-212
  Niels Ole Bernsen
The paper outlines the coarse structure, called CO-SITUE, of the design space in which designer reasoning takes place. It appears that any account of design rationale or of the logic of design reasoning will have to assume a CO-SITUE-like framework. As a frame notation, CO-SITUE has been applied in analysing and recording a medium-scale design project.
Keywords: Design space, Usability, Designer reasoning
Experience with QOC Design Rationale BIBAKPDF 213-214
  Diane McKerlie; Allan MacLean
Design Rationale emphasises working with explicit representations not only of possible design solutions, but also of the reasons and processes behind them. Although the arguments for using Design Rationale are compelling, there is still very little experience of applying the current approaches in practical settings. This paper reports on the use of QOC (Questions, Options and Criteria) Design Rationale to support a hypermedia interface design protect. It illustrates how we have used QOC in our design activities and some of the roles it has served.
Keywords: Designs, Design rationale, Documentation

Doctoral Consortium

Doctoral Consortium Faculty BIB 215
  Thomas R. G. Green; David Gilmore
Structuring Synchronous Multi-User Applications BIBA 215
  John Alfred, Jr. Boyd
Even though there are software systems that are highly interactive and that support multiple users, it seems that it could be much easier for groups of people to do collaborative work via computers. There is a shortage of effective multi-user applications and the problems of designing and building such applications are not well understood. With goals of providing a more general framework for such applications, and eventually of demonstrating that framework, my research is concerned with the structure of applications known as "synchronous groupware". These are characterized by a high degree of interaction among users. To expand the conceptual basis for synchronous groupware, I first identify structural characteristics of groupware applications. I refine the notion of constraints in a number of practical cases which are more easily implemented. Within this, I more clearly distinguish constraints and events, and provide more complete language support for their effective use. I also develop the notion of "floor control", or user-visible concurrency control, as the basis for coordinating user activity, and for providing appropriate feedback to users when such coordination is necessary. Finally, I suggest how the object-oriented programming paradigm might better support the development of synchronous groupware applications via specific programming concepts and language constructs.
Reasoning with External Representations: Supporting the Stages of Selection, Construction and Use BIBA 215
  Richard Cox
Several intelligent educational systems (IES's) have employed graphics or graphical interfaces. However only a few systems have been centrally concerned with graphics and reasoning. As far as I am aware, no system to date has attempted to offer learner support in the construction, selection and use of a range of graphical (and non-graphical) external representations (ER's) during reasoning. I argue that the stages of representation selection, construction and use are important for analytical problem solving. However, there is little evidence that these stages have been the primary focus of previous learning environments. I describe an environment (switchER) which can easily be used for solving analytical reasoning problems. I describe how switchER has been used to explore a number of hypotheses relating to: 1) the significance of representation selection, 2) the time course of problem solving, and 3) the effects of prior knowledge and problem characteristics. The results reported indicate both the importance of the issues and their implications for the design of intelligent support for switchER. The results are also used to inform the design of an intelligent environment that facilitates learning via ER switching.
The Engineering of Co-Operative Case Memory Systems BIBA 215
  Andrew Mark Dearden
The use of formal software engineering notations to describe properties of interactive systems has been advocated as a way of ensuring that usability concerns can be properly represented at all stages of the software engineering process. This thesis extends the use of formal techniques to the engineering of interfaces to one class of Knowledge Based Systems, namely, Co-operative Case Memory Systems (CCMS). We introduce a general analytic model of Case Memory Systems (CMS). This model supports the expression of some general properties which may affect usability. From this analytic model we derive a software engineering model expressed in the Z notation. By combining the software engineering model of a CMS with partial models of interface designs, we can reason about interaction properties of CCMSs. In particular we can consider the way in which a sequence of inputs to a CCMS leads to the identification of cases which are appropriate to the current problem and the support that particular CCMS designs can provide for particular reasoning strategies.
User Interface Management Systems BIBA 216
  Andrew Herbert
My Ph.D. research is centred on producing a user interface system that is easy to use for both end-users and application designers/programmers. This is pursued by shifting functionality that traditionally resides in applications over to Grue itself, and by encouraging individual applications, or "gadgets", to be small and purpose specific. By being small and specific, gadgets are likely to be useful in a range of more complex "application" gadgets built from the simpler ones. Such an approach is possible because documents (arbitrarily sized two-dimensional view planes, one per gadget) can be embedded inside other documents, allowing the workload to be seamlessly spread across a number of gadgets. Grue is based on a persistent prototype-instance object model which makes it easy for end-users to customise the environment, while enabling programmers to freely experiment without the overhead of modifying a formal class structure. Gadgets are inter-connected in a unique directed acyclic graph-based topology, and communicate by sending messages along the arcs of this graph using a relative-path message passing model.
Working Memory Failure in Human-Computer Interaction: Modeling and Testing Simultaneous Demands for Information Storage and Processing BIBA 216
  Brian R. Huguenard
Working memory (WM) limitations are recognized as a major bottleneck in human information processing. This dissertation investigates user-generated errors due to working memory failure in menu driven Phone-Based Interaction (PBI). A computational model of Phone-Based Interaction (PBI USER) was developed and used to generate predictions about the impact of three factors on WM failure: PBI features (i.e., menu structure), individual differences (i.e., WM capacity) and task characteristics (i.e., task format and number of tasks). The computational model is based on a recently-developed theory of capacity constraints in WM (M. A. Just & P. A. Carpenter, 1992, Psychological Review, 99, 122-149). This theory stipulates that the storage and the processing of information generate demands for WM resources. An experiment was conducted with human subjects to test the predictions of PBI USER, and the experimental results provide evidence that both storage and processing demands are important predictors of WM failure in PBI. Our results also indicate that, contrary to general guidelines, deep menu hierarchies (no more than three options per menu) do not reduce WM error rates in PBI.
Ecological Interface Design for Advanced Manufacturing Systems BIBA 216
  Anne-Marie Kinsley
Ecological interface design (EID), recently developed by Vicente and Rasmussen, is a theoretical framework for designing human-computer interfaces in complex, high-technology work domains. It aims to support all three levels of Rasmussen's skills/rules/knowledge taxonomy of behavior; to do so, the interface presents, in a form congruent to perception and action, relationships among system components at all levels of the Rasmussen abstraction hierarchy. This research applies EID to advanced manufacturing systems (AMS); its dual goals are to enlarge the theory and to improve interface design in the particular work domain. The 5 major research components include 1) eliciting the differences between AMS's and continuous processes and their implications for interface design, 2) performing an abstraction hierarchy analysis of a simple example AMS, 3) designing an ecological interface for the example system, 4) designing a conventional interface for the system, and 5) conducting an experimental study to compare the two, focusing on support for problem-solving.
The Process of a Meeting: Behaviors, Technologies and Their Effectiveness BIBA 216
  Robin Lampert
The quality of the results of meetings can be crucial to organizations. The main goals of this work are to understand, 1) which behaviors make meetings (un)productive, 2) some effects of technologies on those behaviors and 3) relevant dimensions of these processes and technologies for theory and system building. First, we need to know what kinds of things people do in meetings. My dissertation focuses on those behaviors that direct the meeting activities. To form a reliable coding scheme of the meeting managing behaviors (MMB) we performed statistical analyses of the way people clustered a large set of meeting episodes taken from videotapes of meetings of real groups (field and laboratory). Then, we coded MMB episodes (e.g., stopping digressions) in meetings with varied technologies and conditions. The next step uses the laboratory groups (where we have reliable measures of output quality) to discover which measures (frequency, duration, distribution of the MMB over time and people, available technologies) correlate with quality. Finally, I will examine the implications of these analyses for meeting process, technology support and theoretical implications including relevant dimensions to explore in future work.
PURSUIT: Programming in the User Interface BIBA 217
  Francesmary Modugno
My thesis explores the design of PURSUIT, a visual shell that enables users to access the functionality of Unix without learning concepts beyond those of the Macintosh. Many visual shells lack the power and functionality of Unix shells. For example, they do not allow users to pipe" the output of one command into another; they lack powerful utilities such as awk; and they are not programmable. Visual shells that do provide this power are difficult to use. This research focuses on developing a direct manipulation interface that overcomes these problems in a way that is consistent with the direct manipulation paradigm. To add power to the interface, the design introduces typed output, a mechanism that enable users to access the functionality of pipes and utilities by combining simple manipulation and text editing commands. The interface also contains a programming by demonstration system that represents the inferred program in a novel visual language. The language represents an operation implicitly by explicitly depicting the changes it causes in the state of data objects. PURSUIT enables users without programming skills to construct, view and edit abstract programs directly in the interface.
Software Architecture Models for Multimodal Interactive Systems BIBA 217
  Laurence Marie Nigay
My doctoral research focuses on software architecture models for interactive systems. I develop a hybrid model, PAC-Amodeus, which combines two approaches: the cooperative agent approach based on the PAC model and the linguistic view first introduced by the Seeheim model. PAC-Amodeus has been successfully applied to various projects. But the challenges associated with the exploitation of PAC-Amodeus urged me to develop a methodology. I defined a set of heuristic rules that helps defining the agents and their relationships. Theses rules gave rise to a software tool called PAC-Expert, an expert system. From the external specification of a system, PAC-Expert generates the software architecture. I then worked on the software architectural aspects of multimodal systems. I have identified specific requirements for multimodal systems and have organized these characteristics into a taxonomy dimension space. Within this classification space, synergistic systems, which are able to combine multiple modalities concurrently, provide the basis for a powerful style of interaction. The implementation of the two systems NoteBook and MATIS have shown that PAC-Amodeus is able to support the most salient properties of synergistic systems: concurrent processing at different levels of abstraction and fusion of data from different modalities.
Modelling and Analysis of Human Work Situations as a Basis for Design of Human-Computer Interfaces BIBA 217
  Else Nygren
Humans process information not only consciously, but also at a low cognitive level without any need for conscious attention. This has implications for task analysis and interface design. We have performed field-studies of reading behaviour in different work situations. A new method has been used which involves a kind of "field-experiment". The form of actual work documents have been manipulated in different ways, and the resulting impact on reading and interpretation have been studied. The results show that many reading tasks in typical work-situations can be described as composed of conscious reading and a number of small task components, called micro tasks, which are processed in parallel without any need for conscious attention. Since they are not processed consciously the reader is often not aware of them. When a work situation is computerized, the conditions for processing these micro-tasks may be radically changed. The processing may now need conscious capacity which is limited. This can explain and suggest solutions to e.g., orientation problems and problems of high cognitive overhead in human-computer interaction.
Supporting Knowledge-Base Evolution Using Multiple Degrees of Formality BIBA 217-218
  Frank M., III Shipman
A number of systems have been built which integrate the knowledge representations of hypermedia and knowledge-based systems. Experiences with such systems have shown users are willing to use the semi-formal mechanisms of such systems leaving much structure implicit rather than use the formal mechanisms provided. The problem remains that it is hard, 1) to encode knowledge in the formal languages required by knowledge-based systems and 2) to provide support with the semi-formal knowledge found in hypermedia systems. Incremental formalization allows users to enter information into the system in a informal or semi-formal representation and to have computer support for the formalization of this information. The Hyper-Object Substrate (HOS) allows for the incremental addition of formalism to any piece of information in the system. HOS actively supports incremental formalization with a set of tools which suggest new formalisations to be added to the information space. These suggestions are based on patterns in the informally and semi-formally represented information and the existing formalized knowledge in the information space. Experiences with HOS show that its flexibility for incrementally adding and formalizing information is useful for the rapid prototyping and modification of semi-formal information spaces.
User's Interaction in Multimedia Environments BIBA 218
  Kaisa Vaananen
Two main problem areas addressed in this work in the field of interaction with multimedia applications are 1) intuitive navigation through the information space by an end-user, and 2) the design and construction of multimedia environments by a multimedia author. This thesis examines the problems of these interaction and construction processes in detail. The main objective is to provide both end-users and authors with tools and user interfaces that allow optimal interaction processes for both creation and acquisition of multimedia information. The main solution is to offer intuitive interface metaphors to visualise the organisation of information and interaction possibilities in the multimedia environments. The design and implementation of a system that supports the model, ShareME -- Shared Multimedia Environments -- is presented. User testing on several multimedia environments built with the ShareME tool will be performed, and the results of the tests are analyzed to gain evidence about validity of the user interface metaphors in the interaction and authoring processes.
DataSheets: An Interactive Environment for Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) BIBA 218
  Nicholas P. Wilde
As a graduate student in HCI with a previous background in a physical science, my goals are simple to state: to create programming and problem-solving environments that allow scientists and other mathematically literate people to solve their problems, and to write their own programs, without having to spend a lot of time learning FORTRAN first. To that end, I am focusing on three different, but connected, areas: methods and methodology for creating easier to use programming environments; alternative computational paradigms that may be a better "fit" to certain types of problems; and better methods of displaying information and data on the screen for a scientist to view and manipulate. I am trying bring these three aims together in the effort to create an environment for exploratory data analysis (EDA), called DataSheets. This environment combines an alternative paradigm for computation (the spreadsheet-like forward constraint mechanism on an x-y grid of cells), with a rich set of interactive graphical primitives for the display of data sets. The programming aspects of the environment (the spreadsheet) and the graphical aspects are linked in a way that allows the user to build interactive data displays and work with them quickly and easily.
Development of a Cultural-Cognitive Approach for HCI and CSCW Using a Study of Collaborative Idea Sketching BIBA 218
  Charles Wood
The thesis develops and explores a "cultural-cognitive approach" (drawing on "distributed cognition" and Russian psychology) to understanding human activity which might inform system design. Rather than focussing primarily on the internal cognitive system (as cognitive psychology) or on the social organisation of activity (as ethnographic approaches) the approach characterises the "mediating representations" and artifacts (products of culture), involved in activity, but in cognitively and socially relevant ways. Internal cognition and social organisation can be remodelled within limits through training, but the system designer has most direct influence over artifacts. Individual cognition is mediated through artifacts, and by collaborators through artifacts, such that acting persons and their supporting artifacts together constitute a system with a radically different structure, character and functionality than the individual cognitive system. The approach is developed and explored in the domain of collaborative idea-sketching, using video-analysis, interviews and a questionnaire study. Green's cognitive dimensions framework provides the foundation for a cognitively relevant characterisation of idea sketches, which shows which properties of idea sketches are important functionally in the cognitive task of organising ideas. Analysis of videos of people engaged in idea sketching, using a multi-levelled transcription scheme to notate and explore drawing and gesturing activity, shows the role that the representations play in the "collaborative mediation" of interlocutors. It turns out that many properties which facilitate communication with another are the same as those which are necessary to communicate with oneself.

Workshops

Reflective Practitioners: Magic to Methodology BIBA 219
  Cynthia Rainis; George Casaday; Rex Hartson
How do you think about design? What methods do you use to understand how you or others design? How do you capture that individual and often intuitive "magic" that skilled HCI designers seem to perform?
   Although a number of data gathering techniques have been tried, the actual process of design remains poorly understood. The goals of this workshop are to discover and share methods and to develop a pooled list of techniques for systematically capturing and documenting HCI design practice and methodology.
   While the focus of this workshop will be on practice rather than theory, we hope participants will reflect the full range of people, both practitioners and researchers, who are trying to understand methods and practice in a systematic way.
Rethinking Theoretical Frameworks for Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 219
  Yvonne Rogers; Liam Bannon; Christian Heath
The major goals of this workshop are to provide a forum where HCI researchers can discuss current concerns over the state of (cognitive) theory, to examine more closely a number of alternative or extended frameworks that have been proposed, and to seek some consensus on the relative strengths and weaknesses of different approaches to particular problems. The recent "turn to the social" will come under scrutiny. Particular emphasis will be placed on work incorporating an analysis of the role of artifacts and other social factors in the accomplishment of work activities.
Multimodal and Multimedia Human-Computer Interfaces BIBA 219
  Klaus-Peter Faehnrich; Karl-Heinz Hanne; Gerard Ligozat
Multimodal interfaces are extending the scope of HCI into new domains through advances such as notepad computers and virtual reality systems. Multimedia and combined interfaces (e.g., gestural interaction systems) are also beginning to attract users.
   The primary goals of this workshop are to define the basic concepts of multimodal and multimedia (MM&MM) HCI, to establish a common framework for continued discussion, to explore existing technology and interaction techniques in order to identify promising directions for the next generation of MM&MM HCI, and to survey existing approaches from the perspectives of new technologies targeting innovative applications.
Human-Computer Interaction Advances Derived from Real-World Experiences BIBA 219
  Michael E. Atwood; Jean McKendree
HCI is an applied science in which advancement depends on the validation of theories and techniques in the solution of real-world problems. The goal of this workshop is to provide a forum in which to share HCI advances derived from real-world settings and to discuss ways to make the transition from the laboratory to the real world more common and more timely. The focus will be not on the exchange of "war stories", but rather, on the description of HCI advances that can be shared with others and on the identification of major problems impeding their migration from laboratory to end-user.
Advances in Teaching the HCI Design Process BIBA 220
  Jenny Preece; Peter Gorny; Tom Hewett; Jean Gasen
Teaching real-world processes, such as computer system design, is made particularly difficult by the young and rapidly evolving nature of the HCI discipline. HCI educators must present design in as meaningful and coherent a way as possible whilst at the same time acknowledging real-world practices.
   In this workshop we will briefly review typical lifecycle oriented software design and then examine two approaches which provide ways of focusing on HCI design concerns. The first combines visualising the conceptual aspects of the design with rapid iterative testing whilst the second focuses on designing for socio-technical issues. We will discuss the advantages of each approach and consider how to teach them to students. The overall aim of this workshop is to advance and innovate teaching of HCI design.
Cost Effective Usability Engineering: Practical Strategies and Techniques BIBA 220
  Nigel Bevan; Anne Schur
The objectives of this workshop are to identify, from the best of current practice, the strategies, techniques, and tools which can be most appropriately applied in different design environments to ensure the usability of a product. The results will be published in a book aimed at helping practitioners apply usability engineering cost-effectively throughout the product lifecycle.
   Some of the questions the workshop will address are: How should users be involved? Which tools or techniques should be selected? How can multiple techniques be combined in an integrated usable package for use throughout the product lifecycle? How should criteria and risks be assessed? How can cost-benefit judgements be made?
Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 220
  John Thomas; Kumiyo Nakakoji; Maddy Brouwer-Janse; Wendy Kellogg; Victor Kaptelinin
Continued progress in fielding truly usable systems will draw upon the ideas of HCI experts across the world to build interfaces that are usable by people of diverse cultural backgrounds.
   The first cross-cultural workshop was held at CHI '92. In this workshop participants will build a conceptual map that lays out cultural differences in HCI. Additional goals are to provide a medium for individual collaborations to emerge and to make concrete suggestions for follow-on activities. Different cultures have different meeting protocols. The "process" as well as the "product" of the workshop will reflect these cultural differences.
Spatial Metaphors for User Interfaces BIBA 220
  Werner Kuhn; Andrew U. Frank
Modern user interfaces are increasingly dependent on the realisation of abstract operations in spatial metaphors. Familiar metaphors such as desktops, navigation, rooms, museums, or perspective walls demonstrate the crucial role of "spatialisation" in HCI. Virtual reality promises user interfaces that rely heavily on human abilities to perform complex motion and perception tasks. Our understanding of the role which spatialisation plays in interaction is, however, still quite limited.
   This workshop will bring together researchers and designers interested in exploiting spatial metaphors for user interfaces. Participants will review the structure and role of spatial metaphors in human cognition, establish the properties of space and spatialisation in existing user interfaces, and identify approaches to exploiting spatialisation in user interface design. Applicants should have some familiarity with work on metaphor in HCI, in cognitive science, or in both areas.
Exploratory Sequential Data Analysis in Practice BIBA 221
  Penelope M. Sanderson; Carolanne Fisher
Exploratory sequential data analysis (ESDA) is a working term coined to cover a loose set of research- and design-oriented data analysis activities based on time-stamped recorded data. The activities include verbal protocol analysis, conversation analysis, interaction analysis, behavioural observational studies, statistical sequential data analysis, and some kinds of cognitive task analysis.
   This workshop will bring together HCI colleagues engaged in ESDA to investigate the varieties of practice that exist and to discuss the development of a principled approach to ESDA. We will explore the conceptual foundations of various techniques and clarify the advantages and disadvantages of each for different research questions and types of data.
   Through problem solving exercises (with real data) led by recognised authorities in the application of ESDA techniques to the HCI domain, participants will develop a more principled approach to empirical questions using ESDA.
Computer-Aided Adaptation of User Interfaces BIBA 221
  David Benyon; Thomas Kuhme; Uwe Malinowski; Piyawadee "Noi" Sukaviriya
The adaptation of human-computer interfaces to the needs of individual users can improve user performance with interactive systems, but only if users can understand and manage the adaptive behaviour. The goal of this workshop is to explore possible dimensions of computer-aided interface adaptation.
   Participants with experience or interest in adaptive systems will address; user involvement (e.g., How much user involvement is appropriate in the adaptation process? How much control over adaptation do users want? How much can they maintain before becoming confused?), understanding adaptive behaviour (e.g., How can the system provide insight into adaptation mechanisms? How can the system help users decide whether a system-proposed adaptation is appropriate for them?), and interfaces to adaptation (e.g., How can higher-level, task-oriented adaptations be supported? How much support can be given for the adaptation of complex interfaces?).
Working with Users Throughout the Product Lifecycle: Nomadic Practice in User Centred Design BIBA 221
  Michael J. Muller
This workshop proposes the concept of "nomadic practice in user centred design" (Nomadic UCD). Nomadic UCD is a set of activities, approaches, technologies, and theoretical perspectives that help practitioners to work with users in the users' own work context. The goal is to analyse, design, develop, test, and deliver products and services that fit into the user's world-view and work-life.
   Although a number of people are tacitly working in this area, we do so within an overall practice that may also include fixed-location laboratory methods, field methods that focus on the developers' world or on the computer artifact, and involvement of the user during the design phase rather than the full development lifecycle. This workshop will focus on the nomadic aspects of UCD practice throughout the product lifecycle.

Research Symposium

Research Symposium Participants BIB 222
  Gary M. Olson

Special Interest Groups (SIGs)

Getting Culturally Diverse Participants for User Interface Design Studies BIBA 223
  Jaclyn R. Schrier
While many HCI designers understand that users from other cultures may have different user interface requirements, few HCI designers have adequate travel funds for ensuring that a culturally diverse sample participates in user interface design activities. The INTERCHI community must find ways to involve participants representing the full cultural diversity of the prospective user population. The goal of this SIG is to start a dialogue where HCI designers can share their ideas and experiences about involving a culturally diverse sample in UI design studies.
Software User Interface Standards: Update for 1993 BIBA 223
  Patricia A. Billingsley
In this SIG, we will discuss the current state of UI standards development and examine the potential impact of this work on the CHI community. Representatives of several standards committees, including CEN TC122/WG5, ISO-IEC JTC1/SC18/WG9, ISO TC159/SC4/WG5, ANSI X3V1.9, HFES-HCI, and IEEE P1201.2, will present summaries of their work-in-progress. All INTERCHI attendees with an interest in standards are invited to participate in the discussion following the presentations.
The Garnet User Interface Development Environment BIBA 223
  Brad A. Myers
Garnet helps to implement highly-interactive, graphical, direct manipulation applications for X Windows in CommonLisp. The system is in the public domain, and there are over 40 projects involving over 100 people actively using Garnet today, including many in Europe. An Usenet newsgroup, comp.windows.garnet, allows discussion of Garnet issues. This meeting will allow developers, users and people interested in the Garnet technology to meet, exchange information, and discuss future directions.
Human Aspects of Software Quality Control BIBA 223
  P. Molzberger
Programmers program the way they think, feel and live. The degree of cooperation of team members is mirrored in the cooperation of their software components. Organisations in which people fight each other by holding back information will tend to design information systems that preserve the existing power structures. Classical methods of quality control -- by rules and tools -- merely shift the symptoms. Given that people always try to re-create their own structures in their software products, what can we do to provide better software quality?
Art Criticism: Picture Analysis of Screen Images BIBA 223
  Frederik Dehlholm
The formal method of picture analysis has proven useful in understanding what pictures communicate. Developed as a tool for art criticism, the method has recently been extended to deal with screen images. The method consists of three stages with a checklist of questions at each stage. A short presentation of the method and its application will be followed by a discussion on the method and its applicability, on how art criticism, CHI and graphic design work together in the making of screen images, and on how the formal analysis method might be incorporated in UIMS tools.
East-West Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 223
  Keith Instone; Blaine Price
This SIG will provide information about the EWHCI'93: The Third East-West International Conference on Human Computer Interaction, to be held in Moscow from 3-6 August 1993. Many aspects of research in the "East," particularly the influence of Russian Psychology on HCI research, are not well known in the "West." Last year's conference, for example, featured a special session on Activity Theory. The logistics team and attendees of the previous conferences will be on hand to answer questions for those interested in attending.
An Agenda for Ethnography BIBA 224
  Dianne Murray; Stella Harding
Ethnography is an approach and set of techniques for the descriptive study of socio-cultural interactions and relations in work contexts. Recently published research and a movement toward including sociologists in design teams has clarified the field's growing importance for the disciplines of HCI and CSCW. This SIG will allow experienced researchers in ethnography, interaction analysis and participant observation to meet for focused discussion. We hope to involve participants from the panel and workshop on ethnographic approaches and to incorporate experiences drawn from both events.
Human Factors Society, Computer Systems Technical Group (CSTG) Meeting BIBA 224
  Martha Crosby
The Human Factors Society, Computer Systems Technical Group (CSTG) is concerned with human aspects of (1) interactive computer systems, especially user interface design issues, (2) the data-processing environment, including personnel selection, training, and procedures, and (3) software development. Membership in the CSTG is open to all, regardless of affiliation with the Human Factors Society.
Cost Effective Usability Engineering BIBA 224
  Nigel Bevan; Anne Schur
This SIG will present to a wider audience of practitioners the issues raised and the conclusions reached at the earlier workshop on this subject. The SIG will provide an overview of the results of the workshop, followed by short talks on experience with specific tools. Substantial time will be allocated to discussion. The SIG will be attended by representatives from the workshop, and others interested in the development and use of tools for cost effective usability engineering. The SIG will be of particular interest to members of the Usability Professionals Association.
Paradigm for Programming Computers BIBA 224
  Mario Schnaffner
A paradigm for programming computers is described. This paradigm derives from conceptual structures, from formulations in the form of automata, and from the abstract functioning of the computer. The approach to be described constitutes a general paradigm for modeling activities that facilitates the automatic production of computer programs. A derived dialect for programming will be indicated and the results of its application reported.
Current Issues in Assessing and Improving Documentation Usability BIBA 224
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey
This SIG provides a forum for discussing recent developments in the human factors of computer documentation. Topics will include addressing documentation usability early in the product design process; achieving consistent usability in multilingual versions; qualitative and quantitative methods for collecting usability data; roles and relationships among documentation specialists, user-interface designers, and software developers; and schedule and budget issues relating to documentation usability.
Technology Transfer Between Eastern and Western Countries BIBA 224
  Gunnar Johannsen
With the recent dramatic changes in Eastern Europe, new possibilities for technology transfer are arising worldwide. The problem, however, is hardly limited to Europe. The difficult challenge of technology transfer will be experienced worldwide, particularly between Eastern and Western countries, and the field of HCI will not be an exception. This SIG will focus on the technical, economic, social, and cultural issues of HCI technologies for different application fields as viewed from the diverse HCI cultures of Eastern and Western Europe, North and Latin America, and Asia.

Interactive Experience

Come, Human, Spin In My Web BIBA 225
  Beverly Reiser; Hans Reiser
Come, Human, Spin In My Web is an interactive installation using sound, video, and computer graphics. It is a metaphorical reality exploring choice-making based on slices of information. We explore how a new human interface can create a wholly new art form. No longer are you a passive receptacle. New technology makes it possible for art to be more like a dialog than an object to be viewed. This is not mere art that you have never before experienced; this is art that has never experienced you.
Ask How It Works BIBA 225
  Smadar Kedar; Lawrence Birnbaum; Catherine Baudin; Richard Osgood; Ray Bariess
Ask How It Works is an interactive manual for devices based on the idea that one of the most effective ways to learn how a device works is through a dialog with an expert. Ask How It Works is based on the Ask system methodology that organises video clips, text, graphics and other media in a hypermedia system, and provides expert answers to questions as well as a set of the most likely follow-up questions. As a result, the user experiences a coherent dialog with an expert, with a group of experts, or even with a group of experts that appear to disagree.
Brand X -- 3D Interaction BIBA 225
  Dan Venolia; Kirk Gould; Mike Kelley
Brand X is an interactive application where users can interact with 3D objects by simple, direct manipulation. The interface does not use explicit modes or commands. A 3D cursor, controlled by an augmented mouse allows direct manipulation of 3D objects. A paper describing this system will also be presented at the conference.
Half-QWERTY BIBA 225
  Edgar Matias; I. Scott MacKenzie; William Buxton
Half-QWERTY is a one-handed typing technique, designed to facilitate the transfer of two-handed typing skill to the one-handed condition. It uses a standard keyboard, or a special half-keyboard with full-size keys. A paper describing this system will also be presented at the conference.
The WALL BIBA 225
  Heather Greer; Zane Vella
The WALL will help build communication links between participants in an evolving interactive environment. As a 'Bridge Between Worlds' the WALL attempts to stimulate commentary and response from participants, and to create a digital forum for participants to interact with each other across boundaries of space and time. The WALL was made possible by the Four Oaks Foundation, a non-profit organisation whose mission is to advance international, cultural, and educational exchange.
SimCityNet BIBA 225
  Don Hopkins
SimCityNet is an animated interactive system simulation game, providing a set of rules and tools for planning and building a complex, dynamic simulated city. Several people on different workstations can participate in the same game, cooperating and coordinating their actions over the network.
Vinculum BIBA 225
  Tracy Miller
Vinculum is an interactive Macintosh-based installation in which the participant wanders through a series of rooms and decaying outdoor spaces until they wind up in the presence of three mysterious women. The women eventually lead the participant to a story gathering box where they can deposit a story or become a voyeur, peering into the dreams and memories of others.
Software Ergonomics Creeps Up to the Public BIBA 225
  Walter Stulzer; Helmut Kruegar; Robert Kruegel-Durband; Lukas Huggenberg
Software Ergonomics Creeps up to the Public is an information and vending system for casual use. To produce a usable and appealing system, basic HCI principles have to be implemented in an imaginative way. Graphic designers make a vital contribution to the project.

Tutorials

Designing Graphical Interfaces: What Every Software Developer Should Know BIBA 226
  Annette Wagner; Bruce "Tog" Tognazzini
Objective: This tutorial will help the participant learn to build an effective design team and develop successful direct manipulation graphical interfaces in the real world. Along the way we will explode some common myths. Participants will gain a better understanding of the fundamentals of graphical interface design and how to apply those fundamentals.
   Content: This tutorial will begin with a discussion of the principles of graphical interfaces and the underlying assumptions about human nature on which they depend. We'll then look at how to relate this higher-level thinking about principles and assumptions back to the real world. In the afternoon, we'll introduce techniques for building an effective design team. We'll then work through the design of one aspect of a software application to demonstrate how to make the best decision possible given the constraints of a commercial product. This tutorial will consist of interactive presentations interspersed with participative case studies and class exercises.
Interactive Multimedia Authoring Platforms BIBA 226
  A. Henry Grebe; Michael J. Burns; Scott D. Weiss
Objective: This tutorial will introduce practical techniques for integrating multiple digital media elements in a single multimedia presentation. Participants will learn about the fundamentals, tools, and methods of multimedia content authoring on a variety of hardware and software platforms.
   Content: This tutorial will provide an overview of multimedia authoring issues and describe common problems and useful techniques. Multimedia content development and software analysis techniques will be demonstrated on the Macintosh with the MacroMind Director authoring environment. Multimedia development issues for PCUs will be introduced using the Authorware Professional authoring tool. Finally, multimedia capabilities for the UNIX workstation environment will be addressed by an introduction to GainMomentum. GainMomentum is an object-based multimedia development and deployment system on Sun workstations, useful for building information systems of varying size and complexity across OSF/Motif, OPEN LOOK, and Microsoft Windows environments.
Enabling Technology for Users with Special Needs BIBA 227
  Alan Edwards; Alistair Edwards; Elizabeth Mynatt
Objective: This tutorial will provide an overview of current practice and research in the field of human-computer interfaces for enabling technology.
   Content: This tutorial will propose that the fields of human-computer interaction and assistive technology can learn from each other and work together to enable all users. We will review recent legislation in the United States requiring equal access to electronic equipment for all people. We will then examine six major forms of disability (mobility impairments, vision impairments, speech impairments, language impairments, hearing impairments, and learning impairments) and survey current technology and research data that can enable people with these disabilities. Finally, we will propose a set of design guidelines for building enabling technology and work together on a group design problem.
Computer Supported Meeting Environments BIBA 227
  Marilyn Mantei; Lisa Neal
Objective: This tutorial will help participants develop a general understanding of existing research and development in computer supported meeting environments (CSME). Participants will gain an understanding of the differences between the various CSME's and be introduced to the software technologies and physical architectures that support each environment.
   Content: This tutorial will survey existing computer supported meeting environments, with an emphasis on the types of meetings each supports and their underlying communication and distributed systems architecture solutions. User interface design problems will be covered in-depth along with the psychological issues associated with building software for groups. The tutorial will present what is known about how groups interact, make decisions, brainstorm, perform work, cooperate, and negotiate while using a CSME. It will conclude with a discussion of the major hurdles in understanding how to design for groups and in building robust software systems. This tutorial will make extensive use of live and videotaped demonstrations of existing CSME software.
The GOMS Model Methodology for User Interface Design and Analysis BIBA 228
  David Kieras
Objective: This tutorial will provide a practical introduction to the GOMS approach to user task modelling and user interface analysis.
   Content: This tutorial will present the basic theoretical concepts behind the GOMS model and the NGOMSL notation. Participants will learn how estimates of task execution time, relative learning time, and transfer can be obtained from a GOMS model. The tutorial will present procedures and heuristics for performing the GOMS-based task analysis and constructing and using a GOMS model to make design decisions about user interface designs. Examples drawn from experience in applying GOMS analysis to actual systems will be provided. The tutorial will include a small analysis project conducted by the participants working in groups with the instructor. Participants will construct a GOMS model for a representative problem, work through the necessary design decisions, and discuss the results.
Contextual Design: Integrating Customer Data into the Design Process BIBA 228
  Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
Objective: This tutorial will outline the use of Contextual Design within a concurrent engineering process. Participants will learn the techniques of work modelling and User Environment design, along with their derivation from customer data and their use in driving the implementation. They will also learn to record the design process so as to maintain a complete trace from final design back to customer data.
   Content: This tutorial will use both lecture and "hands-on" exercise components to present a practical introduction to the steps of the Contextual Design process. It will introduce work models, which represent key aspects of work across multiple customers; User Environment design, in which a user-interface-independent graphical language is used to represent the structure of the product as it supports the customer work; and the subsequent derivation of the user interface and internal implementation.
Introduction and Overview of Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 229
  Keith Butler; Robert J. K. Jacob; Bonnie E. John
Objective: This tutorial will provide a high-level introduction and overview of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) for newcomers to the field. In addition to introducing basic concepts, the course will provide enough structure to help the participant understand how advanced material in the INTERCHI '93 technical programme fits into the overall field.
   Content: This tutorial will include a brief history of the field of HCI, followed by a discussion of the matrix of sub-disciplines and their interrelationships and dependencies. Major topics will include interaction styles and techniques, the psychology of human-computer interaction, an introduction to human interface architecture, and development processes for human-computer interaction. Each topic will be presented from several perspectives, with examples drawn from advanced research, technology under development, and actual applications. Sources for additional information will be provided, along with excerpts from the INTERCHI '93 programme. Each section of the tutorial will be covered by a senior researcher or engineer whose accomplishments are widely recognised in their respective areas.
Managing the Design of the User Interface BIBA 229
  Deborah J. Mayhew
Objective: This tutorial will introduce a practical methodology for achieving high-quality user interfaces in product development organisations. Participants will learn to create organisational structures and processes that foster effective interface design and to plan for and manage the application of human factors techniques. They will learn to focus design efforts and strengthen design decisions by gathering appropriate information prior to design, defining and prioritising objective design goals and criteria, and applying inexpensive evaluation techniques.
   Content: This course is organised around the traditional product lifecycle. It presents an overview of human factors methods that can be applied at different points in the development process. Major topics include organisational and managerial strategies that support high quality user interface design, information gathering methods for preliminary design and specification, and methods and practical techniques for user interface design and evaluation.
Applying Visual Design: Trade Secrets for Elegant Interfaces BIBA 230
  Kevin Mullet; Darrell Sano
Objective: This tutorial is designed to increase the participant's awareness of visual and aesthetic issues and provide practical techniques (not guidelines) for achieving elegant user interfaces, information displays, and data visualisations. The emphasis is on avoiding a number of mistakes seen repeatedly in commercial products.
   Content: This tutorial will focus on the core competencies or "tricks of the trade" that all visual designers internalise as part of their basic training. The tutorial is organised not along the traditional graphic design specialisations, such as typography or colour, but according to the design goals and familiar problems of real-world product development. Specific content areas will include elegance and simplicity; scale, contrast and proportion; organisation and visual structure; module and programme; image and representation; and style. The communication-oriented design aesthetic seen in graphic design, industrial design, and architecture can be applied very successfully to graphical user interfaces, data displays, and multimedia. Design rules provided will be illustrated with extensive visual examples drawn from the international design communities as well as from the HCI domain.
Using Metaphor Effectively in User Interface Design BIBA 230
  Adam Marx
Objective: This tutorial will provide participants with a clearer understanding of the role of metaphor in user interface design and will introduce techniques for creating and applying user interface metaphors with maximum effectiveness. What exactly is metaphor, and why is it considered so important in the design of effective user interfaces? This tutorial will address these questions.
   Content: This tutorial will begin with an overview of the nature of metaphor, from its humble beginnings as a literary device to its current status as a fundamental aspect of human intelligence. Next, we will look at how metaphor assists users in learning and operating a computer system and why it is such an important facet of user interface design. Finally, we will demonstrate techniques for selecting an appropriate metaphor within a given task domain, ensuring that the chosen metaphor is used as effectively as possible in the human-computer interface, and for determining when it is advantageous to violate our own interface metaphor.
User Interface Prototyping Paradigms in the 90's BIBA 231
  Daniel Rosenberg
Objective: This tutorial will provide an overview of rapid prototyping techniques and their application to the design of GUI applications and environments. Participants will learn to expand their role in the software development process by using code generation and advanced development tools that do not require traditional programming skills. Mastering this new class of tools can free the HCI professional from relying on the goodwill of software developers to faithfully implement their suggestions and recommendations on UI design.
   Content: This tutorial will include both lecture material and "live" demonstrations featuring the construction of fully executable interface prototypes. The focus will be on new, object-oriented technologies that can be used by non-programmers to generate finished user interface code. The tutorial will include a historical overview of user interface development tools and their relationship to various software development methodologies and usability testing paradigms, a summary of the advantages and disadvantage of various kinds of tools, and a discussion on managing the socio-political aspects of user interface design when showing prototypes to management and customers.
Information Visualisation with Interactive 3D Representations BIBA 231
  Irwin M. Jarrett; Steven Feiner; George Robertson
Objective: This tutorial will provide an overview of the current and future capabilities and limitations of advanced multimedia interfaces for business applications. Participants will learn to appreciate the emerging role of advanced visualisation-based interfaces in the presentation of business information, and will form a preliminary view of how this technology can be applied in their current and future business environments.
   Content: This tutorial will help participants understand the ways in which advanced visualisation techniques can be used to solve complex business data presentation problems. Interface techniques to be discussed include virtual worlds, parallel coordinate representations, interactive 3D graphics, interactive animation, multimedia presentations, and the financial graphic alphabet.
Icon Design BIBA 232
  Paulien Strijland
Objective: This tutorial will outline the motivation, development, and use of icons in user interfaces. Participants will learn when icons can be used to improve interaction with computer applications. They will explore methods for developing icon concepts, learn to distinguish good icons from bad, and gain an understanding of the trade-offs inherent in the development of an effective design.
   Content: This tutorial will address the full process of icon development, from concept generation to graphic design, standards, and usability testing. A series of exercises will allow participants to practice concept generation and receive feedback on their design efforts. The tutorial will begin with a general discussion of the principles of pictorial and verbal information, with an emphasis on their application to the human-computer interface. Case studies from the icon development for the Apple Macintosh System 7 will illustrate problems that typically arise during the interaction between graphic designers and developers. A brief update on the current status of an ISO standard for icons (currently under development) will also be presented, along with an overview of its implications for icon designers. Finally, the tutorial will present several methods for testing icons, and provide an overview of the icon solutions seen in different systems.
A Practical Approach to On-Line Help Systems BIBA 232
  Hans Botman; Michiel Ruzius
Objective: This tutorial will outline an approach for developing effective on-line help facilities. Participants will learn to identify the options required in the help system, to obtain the help information from relevant sources, to determine the accessibility of the help system, and to refine the language used so as to present the information in an unambiguous way.
   Content: This tutorial will focus on the practical problems faced by development teams when designing and implementing on-line help systems. Rather than focusing on what the help system should not do, this tutorial will address what the help system should do, and on how to ensure that the user's needs are satisfied. The tutorial will be centred around content (What information should the help system contain?), procedure (How do users obtain this information?), interaction (How should the information be structured?), and presentation (How should the information be written and displayed?). An overview of widely held views on on-line help systems will be presented, along with background on existing systems (e.g., OS2, Macintosh), and a series of "hands-on" exercises allowing participants to explore the techniques described.
Product Usability Survival Techniques BIBA 233
  Jared M. Spool
Objective: This tutorial will describe practical techniques for delivering more usable products. These techniques will be especially useful to developers faced with small budgets (no money), tight schedules (no time) and over-committed resources (no help).
   Content: This tutorial will focus on several techniques for designing and developing usable products. Usability testing is one of the most important tools available to product developers. We will provide a "live" demonstration of this technique. Participants will learn to design and administer usability tests as we run usability tests with real subjects on a commercially available product. Participants will also learn how to involve users at all stages of product development, how to use low-fidelity prototyping to get quick results, and how to avoid opinion wars and other "project killers." The tutorial will also address the design of measurable usability requirements and the management of usability engineering throughout the development process.
User-Focused Engineering for Product Development BIBA 233
  Gene Lynch; Mark Stempski
Objective: This tutorial will review a user-focused engineering methodology for product development. The key techniques of process mapping and directed dialogue will be presented with examples, demonstrations, and "hands-on" practice. These techniques are presented within a design methodology that will allow participants to effectively select and apply appropriate techniques.
   Content: This tutorial will present the phases, methods, and results of a user-focused engineering methodology for product development. Examples, role playing, and discussion will be used to supplement the lecture. The critical initial phase of gathering customer data will be illustrated, along with methods of competitive assessment, trade-off analysis, task analysis, alpha and beta testing, and product follow-up. The full spectrum of simulation levels will be discussed. The method of directed dialogue will be presented using step-by-step instructions and examples. Finally, all the methods will be placed in the framework of a comprehensive design methodology.
Film Craft in User Interface Design BIBA 234
  Emilie Young; Chuck Clanton
Objective: This tutorial will help participants apply knowledge from the communication crafts of film and animation to user interface design. The tutorial covers general principles but concentrates on the practical details of the craft. Participants will learn to critically evaluate films and use that skill to see user interfaces in a new light.
   Content: This tutorial will introduce classic cinematic techniques that can be exploited in user interface design. With mere shadows seen through a narrow window, filmmakers engage us in a world of their own making without disturbing our awareness by its technical apparatus. They are masters at using pictures and sounds to communicate, entertain, evoke feelings, and manipulate our sense of space and time. Ninety years of filmmaking and animation have created a rich store of knowledge barely tapped by current human-computer interfaces. Multimedia on graphical workstations only whets our appetite for knowledge of a craft that has much to offer even character-based user interfaces. Specific techniques developed over the years will be illustrated by juxtaposing video clips from classic and contemporary films with clips from user interfaces.
Observation and Invention: The Use of Scenarios in Interaction Design BIBA 234
  Bill Verplank; Jane Fulton; Alison Black; Bill Moggridge
Objective: This tutorial will demonstrate the value of scenarios as a creative tool that facilitates the leap from observation to invention. Participants will gain experience in interpreting videos, writing scenarios, and sketching users conceptual models and story-boards.
   Content: This tutorial will include examples from the instructors' work, individual- and group-exercises, and discussions of theoretical and practical issues. Topics to be addressed include design-oriented observations and interviews focusing on expected patterns of use in real settings; recording observations with snapshots, video, and sketches; extracting key design ideas and metaphors; brainstorming to organise ideas; organising scenarios with composite characters which span the range of situations and design approaches; sketching scenario story-boards; and constructing a unified user's conceptual model and corresponding representations for manipulation of the user interface.
Participatory Design Through Games and Other Techniques BIBA 235
  Daniel M. Wildman; Ellen A. White; Michael J. Muller
Objective: This tutorial introduces several innovative participatory design techniques for eliciting creative design solutions through group interaction. These techniques draw upon attributes of games and theatrics to encourage and focus group creativity, and are particularly applicable for design teams composed of diverse product stakeholders, including users.
   Content: This tutorial will provide a guided tour through current participatory design practice as a backdrop to the "games" approach. For each of the games and activities, we present a rationale and procedure, conduct a practice exercise, and discuss uses and variations. The techniques include: the C.A.R.D. game for understanding and critiquing existing systems; BUCKETS for data modelling; METAPHOR, a board game for task analysis and exploration of user interface metaphors; the ICON DESIGN game; PICTIVE, an "equal opportunity" design environment; and INTERFACE THEATRE to facilitate active stakeholder involvement in the review of designs. The exercises are tied together by a common design problem.
Interactive Learning Environments BIBA 235
  Elliot Soloway
Objective: This tutorial will help participants understand the alternative computing technologies available for learning, teaching, and training. The strengths and weaknesses, domain/task applicability, and classroom requirements of each technology will be addressed.
   Content: This tutorial will begin with an historical survey of the various teaching and training technologies. The architectures of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems, simulations, intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), microworlds, and interactive learning environments (ILE) will also be described. In addition, the types of learning outcomes that can be expected from the various technologies will be summarised. Particular emphasis will be placed on the impact on teaching and training of emerging computing infrastructures such as high-MIP/GIP computation and high-bandwidth networks. Case studies from real instructional systems will be used to illustrate the main points in the tutorial.
Design and Evaluation of Virtual Realities BIBA 236
  Edith Ackermann; Marc Davis; Kevin McGee
Objective: This tutorial will provide participants with an opportunity to explore some of the qualities of virtual technologies and the kinds of experiences they afford. The concept of virtual reality has been with us for a long time. New technologies, however, are constantly opening up new modalities of interaction. Through participatory exercises, participants will acquire a set of leverage points for evaluating and designing with virtual technologies.
   Content: This tutorial will review existing (and potential) virtual technologies. The tutorial will include a design session in which the potential uses of these technologies will be explored and elaborated. They will also participate in a design session featuring a set of collaborative exercises focusing on the construction of scenarios for extending and revising existing virtual technologies. The encounter with these technologies will build on the participant's own experiences of virtuality in everyday life. Participants will participate in evocative case examples, group design exercises, and lecture/discussions on virtual technologies.
Usability Evaluation and Inspection Methods BIBA 236
  Jakob Nielsen
Objective: This tutorial will outline the characteristics and cost-benefit trade-offs of a wide range of usability evaluation and inspection methods to help participants select appropriate methods for various stages of the usability engineering lifecycle. Participants will be able to immediately apply the heuristic evaluation method to find usability problems in their current project.
   Content: This tutorial will review a set of highly cost-effective methods for finding usability problems and improving usability that are collectively described as usability inspection. Methods to be covered in this tutorial include heuristic evaluation, feature inspection, consistency inspection, and pluralistic walkthroughs. Other topics include the relation to other inspection methods such as cognitive walkthroughs, the relation of inspection methods to usability testing, and the severity of usability problems. Cost-benefit characteristics of usability inspection methods will be addressed, along with the problem of positioning usability inspection and evaluation methods within the usability engineering lifecycle.
Cost-Benefit and Business Case Analysis of Usability Engineering BIBA 237
  Clare-Marie Karat
Objective: This tutorial will provide participants with an understanding of usability engineering cost-benefit analysis and business case methodologies, experience in computing these results and statistics, and an understanding of how this data can be utilised.
   Content: This tutorial will review the use of cost-benefit analysis to objectively quantify the financial costs involved in human factors work, as well as the tangible benefits derived from the usability activities. The tutorial will provide an overview of cost/benefit and business case methodologies, present case study data on different types of usability engineering projects and techniques, and provide experience in computing the costs and benefits of usability engineering through "hands-on" exercises. The case studies and examples will illustrate how this data can support project development business cases, contribute to decisions by human factors professionals regarding the selection and use of usability engineering technologies, facilitate human factors management decisions, and support business planning and marketing areas.
The Psychology of Software Development BIBA 237
  Bill Curtis
Objective: This tutorial will help participants develop a deeper understanding of the psychological and organisational issues affecting software development. Participants will learn why impressive claims for increased developer productivity are seldom met and will as a result be better able to analyse the potential impacts of new technology on the performance of software engineers. They will develop new insights into the factors that drive the software design process.
   Content: This tutorial will describe the enormous individual differences in productivity among software engineers and their impact on real projects. The cognitive aspects of software design behaviour will be discussed, with an emphasis on the organisation of programming knowledge, the effects of different representational media, and the problem of measuring intellectual artifacts such as software. Management issues to be addressed include the motivational structure of software engineers and the optimum design of teams and organisations for software development.
Using Computers to Support Collaborative Learning BIBA 238
  Claire O'Malley; Timothy Koschmann
Objective: This tutorial will familiarise the broader HCI community with the range and nature of applications of Computer Support for Collaborative Learning (CSCL). Participants will gain an understanding of CSCL: the study of the use of technology in supporting collaborative instruction and the design of collaborative learning environments.
   Content: This tutorial will provide an overview of CSCL. The tutorial will begin with a survey of the leading theories of collaboration in learning. We will then describe a set of CSCL projects that will serve as case-studies for discussion. These projects will be categorised according to the ways in which technology is applied. Four categories of use that will be considered are the distributed classroom, networking within and among classrooms, collaborative learning environments, and computer-augmented communication. Finally, we will summarise the results of past research in CSCL and look at some of the current research issues.
Integrative Multimedia Design BIBA 238
  Ben Davis; Linn Marks
Objective: This tutorial will introduce integrative multimedia design and highlight its contrasts with approaches such as iterative design and concurrent design. The tutorial will present a framework for facilitating integrative design that focuses on the visual and structural aspects of media as they will be seen, heard, or read by users in the context of the interface. Participants will learn to use the framework to facilitate the practice of integrative design in designing, prototyping, and developing end-user multimedia applications.
   Content: This tutorial will describe integrative multimedia design and its focus on designing the media and the interface to complement and enhance one another. Integrative Multimedia Design provides an alternative to current conceptions of design that are, in large part, artifacts of software design and development practice in non-multimedia contexts.
User Interface Tools BIBA 239
  Brad A. Myers; Dan R., Jr. Olsen; Jeffrey G. Bonar
Objective: This tutorial will introduce the basic concepts, principles, and techniques of user interface tools. Participants will learn the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches and be able to evaluate commercial and research tools for appropriateness to their tasks.
   Content: This tutorial will focus on tools. A user interface tool is any software that helps user interface designers or software developers design, implement, and test user interfaces and user interface software. The full spectrum of window managers, toolkits, interface builders, rapid prototyping tools, user interface management systems, and user interface development environments will be described.
Consequences of the European Health and Safety Directive BIBA 239
  Wolfgang Dzida; Marion Wiethoff; Albert G. Arnold
Objective: This tutorial has been prepared in response to a Council Directive of the European Commission (90/270/EEC, 29 May 1990) requiring the principles of software ergonomics to be applied in commercial product development from 1993 onward. The tutorial will provide a strategic and methodological overview of ergonomic quality assurance and conformance testing for international standards.
   Content: This tutorial will offer an interpretation of the strategic and methodological consequences of the Health and Safety Directive. Examples will be used to demonstrate how to elicit essential requirements, to determine verifiable criteria of usability, and to test products (prototypes) for compliance with standards. The specifics of software-ergonomic quality assurance and management will be interpreted with reference to well-known requirements for in-house software quality systems. Since the Directive also requires designers to evaluate attributes of the product (or the context of use) which may induce "mental stress," a strategy will be outlined on how to identify critical stress situations by means of objective and subjective measures. Participants will receive a booklet providing guidelines for compliance in software development organisations.
Designing with Graphical User Interface Standards BIBA 240
  Deborah J. Mayhew
Objective: This tutorial will address the design of high-quality user interfaces based on currently available graphical user interface (GUI) platforms, such as Microsoft Windows and IBM Common User Access (CUA). Participants will learn to appreciate the role, scope, and value of GUI standards, recognise the local design decisions that should be standardised within the development organisation to ensure consistency and quality, and to apply design principles drawn from human factors research to the design of applications based on GUI standards.
   Content: This tutorial will provide basic principles and guidelines for achieving consistency and quality in application user interfaces based on GUI standards. Major topics will include high level conceptual design and the use of metaphors, dialogue design, including direct manipulation, menus, and dialogue boxes, and organisation of functionality. Instruction on specific GUI standards themselves will not be provided and implementation issues will not be addressed.

Opening Plenary Address

CHI for Everyone BIBA --
  Alan F. Newell
CHI research and development often seems to be based on the assumption that the user is an intelligent, motivated, physically able twenty-five year old who is operating in an ideal environment. This lecture questions whether this is an accurate representation of the use of computers in real situations. It is suggested that we should extend our vision to include both extra-ordinary users, such as those with a physical, sensory, or mental disability (or even just natural aging) and extra-ordinary situations, such as excessive workload, high stress level, or environmental disturbance (e.g., smoke and noise). Parallels between ordinary and extraordinary situations will be drawn and the significant advantages of taking the broader view will be described.

Closing Plenary Address

The Multimedia Myth: Of Mice and Men BIBA --
  Michael M. Chanowski
In addition to being difficult to understand and use, many of today's dedicated applications neglect the capacity of the medium for artistry and inspiration. This talk will consider human-machine relations from a "lateral" perspective. Instead of teaching people to become more skilled computer users, with a deeper understanding of the architecture and idiosyncrasies of the machine, the lateral approach focuses on teaching computers to better address the characteristics of the user as a human being. A number of psychological factors affect the user's perception of the machine as friend or foe. This address will examine the consequences of human psychology for software and hardware design, along with the widely-acclaimed potential of multimedia for addressing the problems seen in current-generation systems.

Perspectives on HCI

The Evolving Consumer Market: We Have to Sell It! BIBA --
  Frank P. Carrubba
How are we to adapt the digital technologies available today to meet the evolving wants and needs of consumers in a rapidly changing world, in the emerging European market, and in the global village? What technologies are on the horizon that might interest tomorrow's consumers? These are major challenges confronting all consumer electronics manufacturers. This presentation will offer a personal perspective on these issues and the role of HCI research and development in answering these challenges.
Human-Computer Interaction and Music: Squaring the Circle? BIBA --
  James Alty
Better interface techniques have contributed significantly to the music creation process. No self-respecting composer can now function effectively without their favourite computer-based music editor, sequencer, and synthesiser. Graphical interfaces add a spatial dimension to the compositional process. The aural dimension offered by music has, however, been largely ignored in interface design. The human ear is capable of receiving and interpreting exceedingly complex musical sounds, but this capability has never really been exploited. Why is this, and how might we take advantage of this rich channel of communication?
From Manual Control to Information Management: HCI in the Cockpit BIBA --
  Jean-Claude Wanner
The new generation of "glass cockpit" aircraft cannot be practically flown when all computers fail; some are essential for safety. What, then, is the role of the crew? Who is the boss: the pilot or the computer? How should the interfaces between people and machines be designed to help the crew manage the flight safely? The study of recent incidents and accidents gives the aviation community both some answers to these two fundamental questions and rules to guide design.

Panel

Mixing Oil and Water? Ethnography versus Experimental Psychology in the Study of Computer-Mediated Communication BIBKPDF 3-6
  Andrew Monk; Bonnie Nardi; Nigel Gilbert; Marilyn Mantei; John McCarthy
Keywords: Computer-medialed communication, Ethnography, Ethnomethodology, Experimental methods, Anthropology, Cognitive psychology, Experimental psychology, Sociology

Sharing Design Memory

Preserving Knowledge in Design Projects: What Designers Need to Know BIBAKPDF 7-14
  James D. Herbsleb; Eiji Kuwana
In order to inform the design of technology support and new procedural methods for software design, we analyzed the content of real design meetings in three organizations, focusing in particular on the questions the designers ask of each other. We found that most questions concerned the project requirements, particularly what the software was supposed to do and, somewhat less frequently, scenarios of use. Questions about functions to be performed by software components and how these functions were to be realized were also fairly frequent. Rationales for design decisions were seldom asked about. The implications of this research for design tools and methods are discussed.
Keywords: Design tools, Design methods, Design rationale, User scenarios
From "Folklore" to "Living Design Memory" BIBAKPDF 15-22
  Loren G. Terveen; Peter G. Selfridge; M. David Long
We identify an important type of software design knowledge that we call community specific folklore and show problems with current approaches to managing it. We built a tool that serves as a living design memory for a large software development organization. The tool delivers knowledge to developers effectively and is embedded in organizational practice to ensure that the knowledge it contains evolves as necessary. This work illustrates important lessons in building knowledge management systems, integrating novel technology into organizational practice, and managing research-development partnerships.
Keywords: Organizational interfaces, Organizational design, Knowledge representation, Software productivity
WHERE Did You Put It? Issues in the Design and Use of a Group Memory BIBAKPDF 23-30
  Lucy M. Berlin; Robin Jeffries; Vicki L. O'Day; Andreas Paepcke; Cathleen Wharton
Collaborating teams of knowledge workers need a common repository in which to share information gathered by individuals or developed by the team. This is difficult to achieve in practice, because individual information access strategies break down with group information -- people can generally find things that are on their own messy desks and file systems, but not on other people's.
   The design challenge in a group memory is thus to enable low-effort information sharing without reducing individuals' finding effectiveness. This paper presents the lessons from our design and initial use of a hypertext-based group memory, TeamInfo. We expose the serious cognitive obstacles to a shared information structure, discuss the uses and benefits we have experienced, address the effects of technology limitations, and highlight some unexpected social and work impacts of our group memory.
Keywords: Collaborative work, Information sharing, Information search and retrieval, Group memory, Group conventions

Interacting in 3 Dimensions

Facile 3D Direct Manipulation BIBAKPDF 31-36
  Dan Venolia
An experimental 3D interface is described, including rendering acceleration hardware, a 3D mouse, and 3D interaction techniques. A 3D cursor, controlled by the augmented mouse, allows direct manipulation of 3D objects. Objects are selected by placing the tip of the cursor inside. Objects can be moved in 3D, or simultaneously moved and rotated using a technique called "tail-dragging." A method called "snap-to" helps users align objects. The interface is designed without using explicit modes or commands. Sounds accentuate the interaction. Details of the implementation and informal user observations are described, as well as topics for future work.
Keywords: Interaction, Direct manipulation, Three dimensional graphics, Input devices, Audio output
Fish Tank Virtual Reality BIBAKPDF 37-42
  Colin Ware; Kevin Arthur; Kellogg S. Booth
The defining characteristics of what we call "Fish Tank Virtual Reality" are a stereo image of a three dimensional (3D) scene viewed on a monitor using a perspective projection coupled to the head position of the observer. We discuss some of the relative merits of this mode of viewing as compared to head mounted stereo displays. In addition, we report the experimental investigation of the following variables: 1) whether or not the perspective view is coupled to the actual viewpoint of the observer, 2) whether stereopsis is employed. Experiment 1 involved the subjective comparison of pairs of viewing conditions and the results suggest that head coupling may be more important than stereo in yielding a strong impression of three dimensionality. Experiment 2 involved subjects tracing a path from a leaf of a 3D tree to the correct root (there were two trees intermeshed). The error rates ranged from 22% in the pictorial display, to 1.3% in the head coupled stereo display. The error rates for stereo alone and head coupling alone were 14.7% and 3.2% respectively. We conclude that head coupling is probably more important than stereo in 3D visualization and that head coupling and stereo combined provide an important enhancement to monitor based computer graphics.
Keywords: Virtual reality, Scientific visualization, Head coupled displays, Stereopsis
A Space Based Model for User Interaction in Shared Synthetic Environments BIBAKPDF 43-48
  Lennart E. Fahlen; Olov Stahl; Charles Grant Brown; Christer Carlsson
In a distributed shared synthetic environment with provisions for high quality 3D visualization and interaction, it is possible to implement a powerful variant of a rooms/space metaphor based on the concept of presence or proximity between participants in 3D space. This kind of model can be used as an interface between the user and the computer, for overview and control of applications, file systems, networks and other computer resources, as well as for communication and collaboration with other users in the networked environment. We model proximity with a geometric volume of the immediate surroundings, the aura, of the participant's representation in the synthetic environment. This proximity, or aura, is used to establish presence at meetings, to establish communication channels and to provide interaction.
Keywords: User interaction, 3D, Visualization, Communication, Distribution, Control, Resource sharing, CSCW, Virtual reality

Overviews

HCI in the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University BIBAPDF 49-50
  Bonnie E. John; James H. Morris
People use computers to accomplish tasks. Consequently, understanding human capabilities and tasks is as important to the design of computer systems as understanding computer technologies. The School of Computer Science (SCS) at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) has become home to an interdisciplinary community that performs research on HCI issues, develops systems using HCI methods of design and evaluation, and trains students in the theory and skills necessary to become HCI professionals.
Human Cognition Research Laboratory, The Open University (U.K.) BIBPDF 51-52
  Marc Eisenstadt
The Integrated User-Support Environment (IN-USE) Group at USC/ISI BIBAPDF 53-54
  Robert Neches; Peter Aberg; David Benjamin; Brian Harp; Liyi Hu; Ping Luo; Roberto Moriyon; Pedro Szekely
Integrated user support environments are individual and cooperative-work systems which allow their users to perform a large quantity of their daily work on-line, and which do so by providing access to a comprehensive set of tools that interact smoothly with each other and present a uniform interface to the users. The INtegrated User-Support Environments (IN-USE) Group is developing a framework for facilitating construction of such systems. The framework is oriented toward assisting users who must timeshare between multiple, highly information-intensive data analysis and problem solving tasks. Our fundamental goals are to help developers quickly assemble support environments that offer reasonable default appearance and behavior, and to make it easy to then customize those environments as needed.

Demonstrations

MUSiC Video Analysis and Context Tools for Usability Measurement BIBAKPDF 55
  Miles Macleod; Nigel Bevan
Analysis of interaction between users and a system, based on video-assisted observation, can provide a highly informative and effective means of evaluating usability. To obtain valid and reliable results, the people observed should be representative users performing representative work tasks in appropriate circumstances, and the analysis should be methodical. The MUSiC Performance Measurement Method (PMM) -- developed at NPL as part of the ESPRIT Project MUSiC: Metrics for Usability Standards in Computing -- provides a validated method for making and analysing such video recordings to derive performance-based usability metrics. PMM is supported by the DRUM software tool which greatly speeds up analysis of video, and helps manage evaluations.
Keywords: Usability evaluation, Metrics, Usability engineering, Observation, Video analysis
ADEPT -- Advanced Environment for Prototyping with Task Models BIBAPDF 56
  Peter Johnson; Stephanie Wilson; Panos Markopoulos; James Pycock
ADEPI is a novel design environment for prototyping user interfaces which allows the designer to construct an explicit model of the tasks that the user and computer will perform jointly. ADEPI incorporates task and user modelling components with a rapid prototyping user interface design tool to provide a user-task centred design environment.

Panel

Software for the Usability Lab: A Sampling of Current Tools BIBAPDF 57-60
  Paul Weiler; Richard Cordes; Monty Hammontree; Derek Hoiem; Michael Thompson
This panel brings together usability professionals throughout the computer industry to demonstrate and discuss their usability lab software tools. These tools are specifically designed to improve the data collection and analysis process for usability labs. Their capabilities range from simple to complex and the panel will not only discuss the benefits of using the tools but also share the lessons learned during the design and development process.

Understanding Programming

Do Algorithm Animations Assist Learning? An Empirical Study and Analysis BIBAKPDF 61-66
  John Stasko; Albert Badre; Clayton Lewis
Algorithm animations are dynamic graphical illustrations of computer algorithms, and they are used as teaching aids to help explain how the algorithms work. Although many people believe that algorithm animations are useful this way, no empirical evidence has ever been presented supporting this belief. We have conducted an empirical study of a priority queue algorithm animation, and the study's results indicate that the animation only slightly assisted student understanding. In this article, we analyze those results and hypothesize why algorithm animations may not be as helpful as was initially hoped. We also develop guidelines for making algorithm animations.
Keywords: Software visualization, Algorithm animation, Empirical studies
Reducing the Variability of Programmers' Performance Through Explained Examples BIBAKPDF 67-73
  David F. Redmiles
A software tool called EXPLAINER has been developed for helping programmers perform new tasks by exploring previously worked-out examples. EXPLAINER is based on cognitive principles of learning from examples and problem solving by analogy. The interface is based on the principle of making examples accessible through multiple presentation views and multiple representation perspectives. Empirical evaluation has shown that programmers using EXPLAINER exhibit less variability in their performance compared to programmers using a commercially available, searchable on-line manual. These results are related to other studies of programmers and to current methodologies in software engineering.
Keywords: Software engineering, User interface, Knowledge representation, Semantic networks, Learning, Analogy, Programming plans
Mental Representations of Programs by Novices and Experts BIBAKPDF 74-79
  Vikki Fix; Susan Wiedenbeck; Jean Scholtz
This paper presents five abstract characteristics of the mental representation of computer programs: hierarchical structure, explicit mapping of code to goals, foundation on recognition of recurring patterns, connection of knowledge, and grounding in the program text. An experiment is reported in which expert and novice programmers studied a Pascal program for comprehension and then answered a series of questions about it designed to show these characteristics if they existed in the mental representations formed. Evidence for all of the abstract characteristics was found in the mental representations of expert programmers. Novices' representations generally lacked the characteristics, but there was evidence that they had the beginnings, although poorly developed, of such characteristics.
Keywords: Program comprehension, Mental representation of programs

Typing, Writing and Gesture

Touch-Typing with a Stylus BIBAKPDF 80-87
  David Goldberg; Cate Richardson
One of the attractive features of keyboards is that they support novice as well as expert users. Novice users enter text using "hunt-and-peck," experts use touch-typing. Although it takes time to learn touch-typing, there is a large payoff in faster operation.
   In contrast to keyboards, pen-based computers have only a novice mode for text entry in which users print text to a character recognizer. An electronic pen (or stylus) would be more attractive as an input device if it supported expert users with some analogue of touch-typing.
   We present the design and preliminary analysis of an approach to stylus touch-typing using an alphabet of unistrokes, which are letters specially designed to be used with a stylus. Unistrokes have the following advantages over ordinary printing: they are faster to write, less prone to recognition error, and can be entered in an "eyes-free" manner that requires very little screen real estate.
Keywords: Stylus, Electronic pen, Handwriting, Printing, Recognition, Text entry, Pen-based computing, Shorthand
Half-QWERTY: A One-Handed Keyboard Facilitating Skill Transfer from QWERTY BIBAKPDFWeb Page 88-94
  Edgar Matias; I. Scott MacKenzie; William Buxton
Half-QWERTY is a new one-handed typing technique, designed to facilitate the transfer of two-handed typing skill to the one-handed condition. It is performed on a standard keyboard, or a special half keyboard (with full-sized keys). In an experiment using touch typists, hunt-and-peck typing speeds were surpassed after 3-4 hours of practice. Subjects reached 50% of their two-handed typing speed after about 8 hours. After 10 hours, all subjects typed between 41% and 73% of their two-handed speed, ranging from 23.8 to 42.8 wpm. These results are important in providing access to disabled users, and for the design of compact computers. They also bring into question previous research claiming finger actions of one hand map to the other via spatial congruence rather than mirror image.
Keywords: Input devices, Input tasks, Human performance, One-handed keyboard, QWERTY, Portable computers, Disabled users, Skill transfer
Incremental Recognition in Gesture-Based and Syntax-Directed Diagram Editors BIBAKPDF 95-100
  Rui Zhao
Diagram editing is an attractive application of gestural interfaces and pen-based computers which promise a new input paradigm where users communicate with computers in diagram languages by using gestures. A key problem in building gesture-based diagram editors is the recognition of handsketched diagrams. Existing approaches concentrate either on gesture recognition or on parsing visual languages, there has been a lack of integrated recognition concepts. This paper presents novel concepts and techniques based on an incremental paradigm of gesture recognition and a cooperative communication between modules for pattern recognition and for diagram parsing. These concepts and techniques have been used successfully to build several experimental gesture-based and syntax-directed diagram editors.
Keywords: Gestural interfaces, Pen-based computers, Diagram languages, Incremental recognition, Diagram editors

Evolving Design

Integrating Theoreticians' and Practitioners' Perspectives with Design Rationale BIBAKPDF 101-106
  Victoria Bellotti
QOC design rationale represents argumentation about design alternatives and assessments. It can be used to generate design spaces which capture and integrate information from design discussions and diverse kinds of theoretical analyses. Such design spaces highlight how different theoretical approaches can work together to help solve design problems. This paper describes an example of the generation of a multi-disciplinary QOC design space which shows how designers' deliberations can be augmented with design contributions from a combination of different theoretical HCI approaches.
Keywords: Design rationale, Theoretical modelling, Multi-disciplinary integration, Design
Management of Interface Design in HUMANOID BIBAKPDF 107-114
  Ping Luo; Pedro Szekely; Robert Neches
Today's interface design tools either force designers to handle a tremendous number of design details, or limit their control over design decisions. Neither of these approaches taps the true strengths of either human designers or computers in the design process. This paper presents a human-computer collaborative system that uses a model-based approach for interface design to help designers search the design space effectively and construct executable specifications of application user interfaces. This human-in-the-loop environment focuses human designers on decision making, and utilizes the bookkeeping capabilities of computers for regular and tedious tasks. We describe (a) the underlying modeling technique and an execution environment that allows even incompletely-specified designs to be executed for evaluation and testing purposes, and (b) a tool that decomposes high-level design goals into the necessary implementation steps, and helps designers manage the myriad of details that arise during design.
Keywords: Interface-building tools and techniques, Design processes, Development tools and methods, Rapid prototyping, Interface design representation
The Evolution of an Interface for Choreographers BIBAKPDF 115-122
  Tom W. Calvert; Armin Bruderlin; Sang Mah; Thecla Schiphorst; Chris Welman
This paper describes the evolution of the interface to Life Forms, a compositional tool for the creation of dance choreography, and highlights some of the important lessons we have learned during a six year design and implementation period. The lessons learned can be grouped into two categories: 1) Process, and 2) Architecture of the Interface. Our goal in developing a tool for choreography has been to provide computer-based creative design support for the conception and development of dance. The evolution was driven by feedback from the choreographers and users who were members of the development team, combined with our knowledge of current thinking on design and composition. Although the interface evolved in a relatively unconstrained way, the resulting system has many of the features that theoretical discussion in human interface design has projected as necessary. The Life Forms interface has evolved incrementally with one major discontinuity where adoption of a new compositional primitive required a completely new version.
   The choreography and composition of a dance is a complex synthesis task which has much in common with design. Thus, the lessons learned here are applicable to the development of interfaces to such applications as computer aided design.
Keywords: Composition, Design, User interface, Dance, Complexity, Choreography, Human animation

Structuring Images for Interaction

Human-Machine Perceptual Cooperation BIBAKPDF 123-130
  Francis K. H. Quek; Michael C. Petro
The Human-Machine Perceptual Cooperation (HMPC) paradigm combines a human operator's high level reasoning with machine perception to solve spatio-perceptual intensive problems. HMPC defines two channels of interaction: the focus of attention (FOA) by which the user directs the attention of machine perception, and context. As the user moves the FOA across a display via a pointing device, a smart cursor operates proactively on the data, highlighting objects which satisfy the current context. The FOA permits foveal emphasis, enabling the user to vary motor precision with image clutter. HMPC provides for contexts at four levels of abstraction. This permits the efficiency of the system to degrade gracefully as data quality worsens. We describe a document analysis application to which HMPC is applied. In this project, a human operator works with a machine to convert scanned raster maps into vector format.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Shared perception, Map conversion, Document image analysis, Telerobotics
VideoMAP and VideoSpaceIcon: Tools for Anatomizing Video Content BIBAKPDF 131-136
  Yoshinobu Tonomura; Akihito Akutsu; Kiyotaka Otsuji; Toru Sadakata
A new approach to interacting with stored video is proposed. The approach utilizes VideoMAP and VideoSpaceIcon. VideoMAP is the interface that shows the essential video features in an easy to perceive manner. VideoSpaceIcon represents the temporal and spatial characteristics of a video shot as an intuitive icon. A video indexing method supports both tools. These tools allow the user's creativity to directly interact with the essential features of each video by offering spatial and temporal clues. This paper introduces the basic concept and describes prototype versions of the tools as implemented in a video handling system. VideoMAP and VideoSpaceIcon are effective for video handling functions such as video content analysis, video editing, and various video applications which need an intuitive visual interface.
Keywords: Video handling, Visual interface, Icon, Index, Image processing, Visualization
Automatic Structure Visualization for Video Editing BIBAKPDF 137-141
  Hirotada Ueda; Takafumi Miyatake; Shigeo Sumino; Akio Nagasaka
We developed intelligent functions for the automatic description of video structure, and visualization methods for temporal-spatial video structures obtained by these functions as well as for the functions. The functions offer descriptions of cut separations, motion of the camera and filmed objects, tracks and contour lines of objects, existence of objects, and periods of existence. Furthermore, identical objects are automatically linked. Thus the visualization methods supported by object-links allow users to freely browse and directly manipulate the structure including descriptions and raw video data.
Keywords: Multimedia authoring, Video editing, Motion picture, Video structure, Visualization, Image recognition

Demonstrations

Agentsheets: A Tool for Building Domain-Oriented Visual Programming Environments BIBAPDF 142-143
  Alex Repenning; Lennart E. Fahlen
Visual programming systems are supposed to simplify programming by capitalizing on innate human spatial reasoning skills. I argue that: (i) good visual programming environments should be oriented toward their application domains, and (ii) tools to build domain-oriented environments are needed because building such environments from scratch is very difficult. The demonstration illustrates how the visual programming system builder called Agentsheets addresses these issues and demonstrates several applications built using Agentsheets.
Mondrian: A Teachable Graphical Editor BIBAKPDF 144
  Henry Lieberman; Staffan Romberger; Kerstin Severinson Eklundh
Mondrian is a object-oriented graphical editor that can learn new graphical procedures through programming by demonstration. A user can demonstrate a sequence of graphical editing commands on a concrete example to illustrate how the new procedure should work. An interface agent records the steps of the procedure in a symbolic form, using machine learning techniques, tracking relationships between graphical objects and dependencies among the interface operations. The agent generalizes a program that can then be used on "analogous" examples. The generalization heuristics set it apart from conventional "macros" that can only repeat an exact sequence of steps. The system represents user-defined operations using pictorial "storyboards" of examples. By bringing the power of procedural programming to easy-to-use graphical interfaces, we hope to break down the "Berlin Wall" that currently exists between computer users and computer programmers.
Keywords: Programming by demonstration, Machine learning, Artificial intelligence, Graphical editing, End-user programming, Direct-manipulation interfaces

Panel

Usability Measurement -- Its Practical Value to the Computer Industry BIBAKPDF 145-148
  M. Maguire; A. Dillon; John Brooke; Johan van Gerven; Nigel Bevan; Anna Maria Paci; John Karat; Brian Shackel
This panel will consider the role of usability measurement in the design process. It will address the time needed to perform usability evaluations and compare this process with that of expert assessment. This topic will be discussed in the industrial context of developing computer products within strict timescales. However it will also be seen against the traditional problem of needing to set usability goals and to measure their achievement if usability is to be given the same priority as the more technical software engineering objectives.
Keywords: Usability measurement, Usability metrics, Usability evaluation, Industrial practice

Skill Development

The Growth of Software Skill: A Longitudinal Look at Learning & Performance BIBAKPDF 149-156
  Erik Nilsen; HeeSen Jong; Judith S. Olson; Kevin Biolsi; Henry Rueter; Sharon Mutter
This research follows a group of users over time (16 months) as they progress from novice towards expert in their use of Lotus 1-2-3. Quantitative and qualitative measures of performance are compared with expert users having over three years of experience. The results indicate that the motor aspects of performance are relatively stable over time, while improvement in the cognitive components of the skill are dependent on aspects of the menu structure and how many things must be retrieved from memory, among other things. These results imply extensions to the Keystroke Level Model of skilled performance as well as suggest ways to design the user interfaces so as to speed the acquisition of expertise.
Keywords: Models of the user, User-interface design issues, GOMS, Menu design
Embedding Computer-Based Critics in the Contexts of Design BIBAKPDF 157-164
  Gerhard Fischer; Kumiyo Nakakoji; Jonathan Ostwald; Gerry Stahl; Tamara Sumner
Computational critiquing mechanisms provide an effective form of computer-human interaction supporting the process of design. Critics embedded in domain-oriented design environments can take advantage of additional knowledge residing in these environments to provide less intrusive, more relevant critiques. Three classes of embedded critics have been designed, implemented, and studied: Generic critics use domain knowledge to detect problematic situations in the design construction. Specific critics take advantage of additional knowledge in the partial specification to detect inconsistencies between the design construction and the design specification. Interpretive critics are tied to perspective mechanisms that support designers in examining their artifact from different viewpoints.
Keywords: Generic critics, Specific critics, Interpretive critics, Design environments, Specification, Construction, Domain orientation, Perspectives, Critiquing systems
How to Aid Non-Experts BIBAKPDF 165-171
  Mark Neerincx; Paul de Greef
Aiding functions may be added to a computer system, so that users with insufficient knowledge can perform their tasks. The aiding should be integrated into the task execution of such users. Empirical knowledge is lacking about the conditions for successful aiding. We evaluated the on-line help system of the statistical software package SPSS/PC. It appears that the addition of help facilities to the system worsens the task performance and learning of novices substantially. In our view, the addition of help is harmful, because communication with the system is more complex as a result, whereas the help hardly provides the task support that novices need.
   De Greef et al. [5] provide two design principles that result in consistent communication and aiding in correspondence with users' needs: (i) the design of aiding functions is an integrated part of interface design and (ii) aiding is based upon an expert model of the users' task. We evaluated an interface for the statistical program HOMALS, which was designed according to these principles. As a consequence of the addition of aiding functions, non-expert users perform their tasks better and learn more.
Keywords: Intelligent interfaces, Help, Task analysis, Design, Summative evaluation, Usability testing

Voices and Faces

A Design Space for Multimodal Systems: Concurrent Processing and Data Fusion BIBAKPDF 172-178
  Laurence Nigay; Joelle Coutaz
Multimodal interaction enables the user to employ different modalities such as voice, gesture and typing for communicating with a computer. This paper presents an analysis of the integration of multiple communication modalities within an interactive system. To do so, a software engineering perspective is adopted. First, the notion of "multimodal system" is clarified. We aim at proving that two main features of a multimodal system are the concurrency of processing and the fusion of input/output data. On the basis of these two features, we then propose a design space and a method for classifying multimodal systems. In the last section, we present a software architecture model of multimodal systems which supports these two salient properties: concurrency of processing and data fusion. Two multimodal systems developed in our team, VoicePaint and NoteBook, are used to illustrate the discussion.
Keywords: Modality, Multimodal interaction, Taxonomy, Design space, Software architecture, Data fusion, Concurrency
VoiceNotes: A Speech Interface for a Hand-Held Voice Notetaker BIBAKPDF 179-186
  Lisa J. Stifelman; Barry Arons; Chris Schmandt; Eric A. Hulteen
VoiceNotes is an application for a voice-controlled hand-held computer that allows the creation, management, and retrieval of user-authored voice notes -- small segments of digitized speech containing thoughts, ideas, reminders, or things to do. Iterative design and user testing helped to refine the initial user interface design. VoiceNotes explores the problem of capturing and retrieving spontaneous ideas, the use of speech as data, and the use of speech input and output in the user interface for a hand-held computer without a visual display. In addition, VoiceNotes serves as a step toward new uses of voice technology and interfaces for future portable devices.
Keywords: Speech interfaces, Speech recognition, Non-speech audio, Hand-held computers, Speech as data
Communicative Facial Displays as a New Conversational Modality BIBAKPDF 187-193
  Akikazu Takeuchi; Katashi Nagao
The human face is an independent communication channel that conveys emotional and conversational signals encoded as facial displays. Facial displays can be viewed as communicative signals that help coordinate conversation. We are attempting to introduce facial displays into computer-human interaction as a new modality. This will make the interaction tighter and more efficient while lessening the cognitive load. As the first step, a speech dialogue system was selected to investigate the power of communicative facial displays. We analyzed the conversations between users and the speech dialogue system, to which facial displays had been added. We found that conversation with the system featuring facial displays was more successful than that with a system without facial displays.
Keywords: User interface design, Multimodal interfaces, Facial expression, Conversational interfaces, Anthropomorphism

Panel

Sign Language Interfaces BIBAKPDF 194-197
  Nancy Frishberg; Serena Corazza; Linda Day; Sherman Wilcox; Rolf Schulmeister
This panel will start to build the bridge between behavioral scientists who know deaf communities worldwide, their languages and cultures, and experts in technical disciplines relating to computers and human interfaces.
Keywords: Sign languages, Natural language processing, Computer assisted language learning, Multimedia, Intercultural issues in interface design, Gestural representation, Deaf

Usability Assessment Methods

Iterative Methodology and Designer Training in Human-Computer Interface Design BIBAKPDF 198-205
  Gregg (Skip) Bailey
One of the most promising methods for user interface design is the iterative design methodology. To this point only case study support for this method has been given. There are still many unanswered questions about the effectiveness of this method.
   One difficulty encountered in user interface design is knowing what set of knowledge and skill the designer must possess to ensure good user interface design. Many different people have designed user interfaces for computer systems. These people came from a variety of backgrounds and viewpoints. Two of the most common groups involved in user interface design are human factors specialists and programmers.
   This study investigates these two issues. One factor in this study is the iterative design methodology. An empirical evaluation of this method was conducted. The strengths and weaknesses of this method are discussed. A second factor in this study is a comparison of human factors specialists and programmers in an actual user interface design task.
   The results of this study indicate that iterative design methodology can improve the usability of a product. The amount of the improvement may be constrained by the original design. This study also supports the use of human factors specialists in user interface design. A significant difference between designs produced by human factors specialists and programmers was found.
Keywords: Iterative design methodology, User interface specialists, Programmers
A Mathematical Model of the Finding of Usability Problems BIBAKPDF 206-213
  Jakob Nielsen; Thomas K. Landauer
For 11 studies, we find that the detection of usability problems as a function of number of users tested or heuristic evaluators employed is well modeled as a Poisson process. The model can be used to plan the amount of evaluation required to achieve desired levels of thoroughness or benefits. Results of early tests can provide estimates of the number of problems left to be found and the number of additional evaluations needed to find a given fraction. With quantitative evaluation costs and detection values, the model can estimate the numbers of evaluations at which optimal cost/benefit ratios are obtained and at which marginal utility vanishes. For a "medium" example, we estimate that 16 evaluations would be worth their cost, with maximum benefit/cost ratio at four.
Keywords: Usability problems, Usability engineering, Poisson models, User testing, Heuristic evaluation, Cost-benefit analysis, Iterative design
Estimating the Relative Usability of Two Interfaces: Heuristic, Formal, and Empirical Methods Compared BIBAKPDF 214-221
  Jakob Nielsen; Victoria L. Phillips
Two alternative user interface designs were subjected to user testing to measure user performance in a database query task. User performance was also estimated heuristically in three different ways and by use of formal GOMS modelling. The estimated values for absolute user performance had very high variability, but estimates of the relative advantage of the fastest interface were less variable. Choosing the fastest of the two designs would have a net present value more than 1,000 times the cost of getting the estimates. A software manager would make the correct choice every time in our case study if decisions were based on at least three independent estimates. User testing was 4.9 times as expensive as the cheapest heuristic method but provided better performance estimates.
Keywords: Heuristic evaluation, Heuristic estimation, GOMS, User testing, Usability, User performance, Absolute performance, Relative performance, Cost-benefit estimates

Auditory Interfaces

An Evaluation of Earcons for Use in Auditory Human-Computer Interfaces BIBAKPDF 222-227
  Stephen A. Brewster; Peter C. Wright; Alistair D. N. Edwards
An evaluation of earcons was carried out to see whether they are an effective means of communicating information in sound. An initial experiment showed that earcons were better than unstructured bursts of sound and that musical timbres were more effective than simple tones. A second experiment was then carried out which improved upon some of the weaknesses shown up in Experiment 1 to give a significant improvement in recognition. From the results of these experiments some guidelines were drawn up for use in the creation of earcons. Earcons have been shown to be an effective method for communicating information in a human-computer interface.
Keywords: Auditory interfaces, Earcons, Sonification
Synthesizing Auditory Icons BIBAKPDF 228-235
  William W. Gaver
Auditory icons add valuable functionality to computer interfaces, particularly when they are parameterized to convey dimensional information. They are difficult to create and manipulate, however, because they usually rely on digital sampling techniques. This paper suggests that new synthesis algorithms, controlled along dimensions of events rather than those of the sounds themselves, may solve this problem. Several algorithms, developed from research on auditory event perception, are described in enough detail here to permit their implementation. They produce a variety of impact, bouncing, breaking, scraping, and machine sounds. By controlling them with attributes of relevant computer events, a wide range of parameterized auditory icons may be created.
Keywords: Interface techniques, Multimedia, Auditory interfaces, Sound
Computer Aided Conversation for Severely Physically Impaired Non-Speaking People BIBAKPDF 236-241
  Norman Alm; John Todman; Leona Elder; A. F. Newell
This paper reports the development of a computer-aided conversation prosthesis which is designed for severely physically impaired non-speaking people. The research methodology was to model aspects of conversational structure derived from the field of conversation analysis within a prototype conversational prosthesis. The prototype was evaluated in empirical investigations which also suggested successful strategies for carrying out satisfying conversation using such a system. Two versions have been built and tested, one using an able-bodied operator to test the feasibility of creating conversation from prestored material, the second being used by a physically impaired non-speaking operator. The prototype demonstrated the advantages of this interface design in helping the user to carry out natural sounding and satisfying conversations.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, User study, Interface design, User observation, Dialogue design, Discourse analysis, User interfaces, Retrieval models, Search process, Selection process, Disability, Speech synthesis

Overviews

MicroCentre, Dundee: Ordinary and Extra-Ordinary HCI Research BIBAPDF 242-243
  Alan F. Newell
The main feature of the MicroCentre research group is a concern for users with a very wide range of characteristics. In addition to main-stream HCI research, it contains the largest academic group in the world investigating the application of computer systems for disabled people, and has a particular interest in systems for people with communication impairment.
Human-Computer Interaction Research at Massey University, New Zealand BIBPDF 244-245
  Mark Apperley; Chris Phillips
The MultiG Research Programme -- Distributed Multimedia Applications on Gigabit Networks BIBAPDF 246-247
  Bjorn Pehrson; Yngve Sundblad
The MultiG research programme is an effort conducted in broad cooperation between academia and industry with public support. The main goals are to strengthen the academic infrastructure and industrial competitiveness, to integrate the major research sites in Sweden, and to demonstrate operating prototypes of novel applications and Gigabit networking concepts. The spirit of the program is similar to the spirit of the Gigabit research part of the US NREN effort.

Demonstrations

Flexible, Active Support for Collaboration with ConversationBuilder BIBAKPDF 248
  Simon M. Kaplan; William J. Tolone; Douglas P. Bogia; Theodore A. Phelps
We overview the ConversationBuilder system and its demonstration at INTERCHI 93.
Keywords: Collaboration environment
A Groupware Engine Using UIMS Methodologies BIBAKPDF 249-250
  Lever Wang
This paper presents a groupware engine running under Microsoft's Windows developed using a User Interface Management System (UIMS). This groupware engine will demonstrate some of the important groupware features such as concurrency control, security, view control, and how these features are best implemented using a UIMS. By demonstrating these features in a groupware engine the advantages of applying the UIMS methodology will become self evident, as well as, the need for such a methodology.
Keywords: Groupware, Computer supported cooperative work, User interface management system

Panel

User Involvement in the Design Process: Why, When and How? BIBAKPDF 251-254
  Jared Spool; C. Dennis Allen; Don Ballman; Vivienne Begg; Harold H. Miller-Jacobs; Michael Muller; Jakob Nielsen
For years the CHI community has championed the importance of the user in system development. As many of us develop systems, we find that the concept of user involvement is not so easy to implement. Does one always strive to involve the user in the design process? Are there situations when the users should not be involved? What if the user is reluctant to change? How is user involvement handled when the user claims to know all the answers and wants to design the entire interface his or her way? What if the users, or even potential users are not available? How can user involvement be accomplished under these developmental restrictions?
   User Involvement, therefore, may be a goal -- not a given, and how to effect user involvement is not as straight forward as the text books convey!
   To assist the process of user interface development, many techniques have been developed such as Heuristic Evaluation, Participatory Design, Cognitive Walk Throughs, Task Analysis and Rapid Prototyping. These techniques vary considerably in the extent of user involvement that they require. This panel will attempt to match the technique with the degree of user involvement that the developer is faced with or can achieve.
   The issues discussed in this session are important to the entire user interface community. Developers will be happy to hear that they are not alone; others have similar problems with users. They will learn which of the techniques are best suited for each development situation. Methodologists will gain greater insight into the breadth and depth of working with, and attempting to satisfy various types of users. They may be able to better refine the technologies we now have available to meet the needs of user interface developers.
Keywords: Heuristic evaluation, Human factors, Participatory design, Rapid prototyping, User interface evaluation/methodology, User involvement

Conceptual Analysis of Users and Activity

Exploding the Interface: Experiences of a CSCW Network BIBAKPDF 255-262
  John Bowers; Tom Rodden
The development of human computer interaction has been dominated by the interface both as a design concept and as an artifact of computer systems. However, recently researchers have been re-examining the role of the interface in the user's interaction with the computer. This paper further examines the notion of the interface in light of the experiences of the authors in establishing a network to support cooperative work. The authors argue that the concept of the single interface which provides a focus for interaction with a computer system is no longer tenable and that richer conceptions of the inter-relationships between users and computer systems are needed.
Keywords: Cooperative systems, User interface models, Observational studies, Organisational effects, CSCW
Searching for Unity among Diversity: Exploring the "Interface" Concept BIBAKPDF 263-268
  Kari Kuutti; Liam J. Bannon
Despite widespread interest in the human-computer interaction (HCI) field, there remains much debate as to appropriate conceptual frameworks for the field, and even confusion surrounding the meaning of basic terms in the field. HCI is seen by many as focusing on the design of interfaces to computer systems, yet exactly what is implied by this focus on "interfaces" is unclear. In this paper we show how a better understanding of what is meant by the interface is possible via the concept of abstraction levels. We show how this levels approach can clarify some ambiguities, and also how it can be related to different phases in the evolution of the human-computer interaction field itself. In this context, we are able to account for the recent interest in activity theory as a possible alternative framework for HCI work, while stressing the need for HCI research and design to consider each of the separate, but related, levels.
Keywords: Interface, User interface management systems, Abstraction levels, Activity theory
The Cost Structure of Sensemaking BIBAKPDF 269-276
  Daniel M. Russell; Mark J. Stefik; Peter Pirolli; Stuart K. Card
Making sense of a body of data is a common activity in any kind of analysis. Sensemaking is the process of searching for a representation and encoding data in that representation to answer task-specific questions. Different operations during sensemaking require different cognitive and external resources. Representations are chosen and changed to reduce the cost of operations in an information processing task. The power of these representational shifts is generally under-appreciated as is the relation between sensemaking and information retrieval.
   We analyze sensemaking tasks and develop a model of the cost structure of sensemaking. We discuss implications for the integrated design of user interfaces, representational tools, and information retrieval systems.
Keywords: Sensemaking, Cost structure, Representation search, Representation shift, Learning loop, Information access

Demonstration Based Systems

Prototyping an Intelligent Agent through Wizard of Oz BIBAKPDF 277-284
  David Maulsby; Saul Greenberg; Richard Mander
Turvy is a simulated prototype of an instructible agent. The user teaches it by demonstrating actions and pointing at or talking about relevant data. We formalized our assumptions about what could be implemented, then used the Wizard of Oz to flesh out a design and observe users' reactions as they taught several editing tasks. We found: a) all users invent a similar set of commands to teach the agent; b) users learn the agent's language by copying its speech; c) users teach simple tasks with ease and complex ones with reasonable effort; and d) agents cannot expect users to point to or identify critical features without prompting.
   In conducting this rather complex simulation, we learned some lessons about using the Wizard of Oz to prototype intelligent agents: a) design of the simulation benefits greatly from prior implementation experience; b) the agent's behavior and dialog capabilities must be based on formal models; c) studies of verbal discourse lead directly to an implementable system; d) the designer benefits greatly by becoming the Wizard; and e) qualitative data is more valuable for answering global concerns, while quantitative data validates accounts and answers fine-grained questions.
Keywords: Intelligent agent, Instructible system, Programming by demonstration, Wizard of Oz, Prototyping
A Synergistic Approach to Specifying Simple Number Independent Layouts by Example BIBAKPDF 285-292
  Scott E. Hudson; Chen-Ning Hsi
A grid-based technique to specify simple number independent layouts by example is described. This technique was originally developed to support layout specification for a parallel program visualization system but can be applied to aid other simple graphical layout tasks as well. The technique works by allowing the user to construct an example layout using a grid-based interaction technique. This example can then be generalized into a layout algorithm which can be applied to create layouts of any size. However, rather than simply choosing the "best" generalization, the system described here takes a synergistic approach. New examples from a set of alternative generalizations are presented to the user so that they can guide and control the generalization process. This provides more understanding and control of the generalization process and typically allows a correct generalization to be constructed from only one small example.
Keywords: Layout specification, Programming by example, Grid-based layout, Generalization, End-user customization
Marquise: Creating Complete User Interfaces by Demonstration BIBAKPDF 293-300
  Brad A. Myers; Richard G. McDaniel; David S. Kosbie
Marquise is a new interactive tool that allows virtually all of the user interfaces of graphical editors to be created by demonstration without programming. A "graphical editor" allows the user to create and manipulate graphical objects with a mouse. This is a very large class of programs and includes drawing programs like MacDraw, graph layout editors like MacProject, visual language editors, and many CAD/CAM programs. The primary innovation in Marquise is to allow the designer to demonstrate the overall behavior of the interface. To implement this, the Marquise framework contains knowledge about palettes for creating and specifying properties of objects, and about operations such as selecting, moving, and deleting objects. The interactive tool uses the framework to allow the designer to demonstrate most of the end user's actions without programming, which means that Marquise can be used by non-programmers.
Keywords: User interface software, User interface management systems, Interface builders, Demonstrational interfaces, Garnet

Demonstrations

LogoMedia: A Sound-Enhanced Programming Environment for Monitoring Program Behavior BIBAKPDF 301-302
  Christopher J. DiGiano; Ronald M. Baecker; Russell N. Owen
Even for the programmer, computer software can be a mysterious black box. But what if the programmer were able to give the box a good shake and listen to things rattle inside? Are there tools like the doctor's stethoscope that can help programmers listen to the heartbeat of their software? These are the kinds of questions we decided to explore by building LogoMedia, a sound-enhanced programming environment. LogoMedia supports the ability to associate non-speech audio with program events while the code is being developed. These associations cause subsequent test runs of the program to generate and manipulate sounds which can aid in the comprehension and analysis of the program's behavior.
Keywords: Program auralization, Non-speech audio, Software visualization, Programming environments
A Telewriting System on a LAN Using a Pen-Based Computer as the Terminal BIBPDF 303
  Seiichi Higaki; Hiroshi Taninaka; Shinji Moriya

Panel

Heuristics in Real User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 304-307
  Brad A. Myers; Richard Wolf; Kathy Potosnak; Chris Graham
It is the conventional wisdom in user interface design that direct manipulation is best and that interfaces should be predictable. This tends to argue against having a system "guess" or use heuristics or other AI approaches. However, an increasing number of today's successful software products do use heuristics in their interfaces. The heuristics are used to help guide the user and to perform tasks that would be too difficult to specify by conventional direct manipulation approaches. We believe that user interface designers will increasingly need to consider using heuristic techniques in their interfaces. This panel discusses a number of today's successful products using heuristics and the important HCI design issues such as feedback.
Keywords: Heuristics, Demonstrational interfaces, Artificial intelligence, Agents

Collecting User-Information for System Design

Exploring the Applications of User-Expertise Assessment for Intelligent Interfaces BIBAKPDF 308-313
  Michel C. Desmarais; Jiming Liu
An adaptive user interface relies, to a large extent, upon an adequate user model (e.g., a representation of user-expertise). However, building a user model may be a tedious and time consuming task that will render such an interface unattractive to developers. We thus need an effective means of inferring the user model at low cost. In this paper, we describe a technique for automatically inferring a fine-grain model of a user's knowledge state based on a small number of observations. With this approach, the domain of knowledge to be evaluated is represented as a network of nodes (knowledge units -- KU) and links (implications) induced from empirical user profiles. The user knowledge state is specified as a set of weights attached to the knowledge units that indicate the likelihood of mastery. These weights are updated every time a knowledge unit is reassigned a new weight (e.g., by a question-and-answer process). The updating scheme is based on the Dempster-Shafer algorithm. A User Knowledge Assessment Tool (UKAT) that employs this technique has been implemented. By way of simulations, we explore an entropy-based method of choosing questions, and compare the results with a random sampling method. The experimental results show that the proposed knowledge assessment and questioning methods are useful and efficient in inferring detailed models of user-expertise, but the entropy-based method can induce a bias in some circumstances.
Keywords: User-expertise assessment, Probabilistic reasoning, Evidence aggregation, Entropy, Intelligent interfaces, Adaptive training systems, Knowledge spaces
Planning for Multiple Task Work -- An Analysis of a Medical Reception Worksystem BIBAKPDF 314-320
  Becky Hill; John Long; Walter Smith; Andy Whitefield
This paper presents an investigation of interactive worksystem planning in the multiple task work domain of medical reception. In an observational study of a medical reception worksystem, three different types of plan were identified: the task plan, the procedure plan and the activity plan. These three types of plan were required for effective working in the domain of medical reception, because of the many similar concurrent tasks, the frequency of behaviour switching between tasks and the need for consistency within the worksystem. It is proposed, therefore, that to design effective interactive human-computer worksystems for the domain of medical reception (and possibly for other work domains of a similar nature), the designer must specify the three different types of plan and the relationships between them. The three types of plan in medical reception are discussed in the context of design issues such as the allocation of planning structures.
Keywords: Medical reception, Planning and control, Multiple tasks
The Diary Study: A Workplace-Oriented Research Tool to Guide Laboratory Efforts BIBAKPDF 321-326
  John Rieman
Methods for studying user behavior in HCI can be informally divided into two approaches: experimental psychology in the laboratory and observations in the workplace. The first approach has been faulted for providing results that have little effect on system usability, while the second can often be accused of yielding primarily anecdotal data that do not support general conclusions. This paper describes two similar approaches in another field, the study of animal behavior, and shows how they produce complementary results. To support similar complementary interactions between research approaches in the HCI field, the paper describes the diary study technique, a tool for research in the workplace that achieves a relatively high standard of objectivity. A diary study is reported that focuses on exploratory learning.
Keywords: Diary studies, Methodologies, Participatory design, Situated cognition, Exploratory learning

Video Support for Workplace Collaboration

Turning Away from Talking Heads: The Use of Video-as-Data in Neurosurgery BIBAKPDF 327-334
  Bonnie A. Nardi; Heinrich Schwarz; Allan Kuchinsky; Robert Leichner; Steve Whittaker; Robert Sclabassi
Studies of video as a support for collaborative work have provided little hard evidence of its utility for either task performance or fostering telepresence, i.e. the conveyance of a face-to-face like social presence for remotely located participants. To date, most research on the value of video has concentrated on "talking heads" video in which the video images are of remote participants conferring or performing some task together. In contrast to talking heads video, we studied video-as-data in which video images of the workspace and work objects are the focus of interest, and convey critical information about the work. The use of video-as-data is intended to enhance task performance, rather than to provide telepresence. We studied the use of video during neurosurgery within the operating room and at remote locations away from the operating room. The workspace shown in the video is the surgical field (brain or spine) that the surgeon is operating on. We discuss our findings on the use of live and recorded video, and suggest extensions to video-as-data including its integration with computerized time-based information sources to educate and co-ordinate complex actions among distributed workgroups.
Keywords: Multimedia, Video, Collaborative work, Task coordination, Computers and medicine
One is Not Enough: Multiple Views in a Media Space BIBAKPDF 335-341
  William Gaver; Abigail Sellen; Christian Heath; Paul Luff
Media spaces support collaboration, but the limited access they provide to remote colleagues' activities can undermine their utility. To address this limitation, we built an experimental system in which four switchable cameras were deployed in each of two remote offices, and observed participants using the system to collaborate on two tasks. The new views allowed increased access to task-related artifacts; indeed, users preferred these views to more typical "face-to-face" ones. However, problems of establishing a joint frame of reference were exacerbated by the additional complexity, leading us to speculate about more effective ways to expand access to remote sites.
Keywords: CSCW, Social interaction, Media spaces, Video

Perspectives and Illusions

How Fluent is Your Interface? Designing for International Users BIBAKPDF 342-347
  Patricia Russo; Stephen Boor
To successfully build bridges between worlds, user interface designers must increase their awareness of cross cultural differences, and make changes to the traditional software development process. Creating fluent interfaces for international markets goes beyond translating text and date, time, and number formats. This paper presents and explains a cross-cultural checklist of issues including text, local formats, images, symbols, colors, flow, and product functionality. Suggestions for an effective international product development cycle are provided. The suggested development cycle incorporates international design feedback and usability testing before the initial product is released.
Keywords: User interface design, Internationalization, Localization, Cross-cultural differences
Representation in Virtual Space: Visual Convention in the Graphical User Interface BIBAKPDF 348-354
  Loretta Staples
The graphical user interface (GUI) typically provides a multi-windowed environment within a flat workspace or "desktop." Simultaneously, however, controls for executing commands within this interface are increasingly being rendered three-dimensionally. This paper explores ways in which the space of the GUI desktop might be literally and figuratively deepened through the incorporation of visual devices that have emerged during the history of art -- specifically, perspective and light effects. By enriching the visual vocabulary of the GUI, greater semantic complexity becomes sustainable.
Keywords: User interfaces, Representation, Design, Three-dimensional graphics, Methodology, Art, Art history
Principles, Techniques, and Ethics of Stage Magic and Their Potential Application to Human Interface Design BIBAKPDF 355-362
  Bruce Tognazzini
Magicians have been designing and presenting illusions for 5000 years. They have developed principles, techniques and ethical positions for their craft that this paper argues are applicable to the design of human/computer interfaces. The author presents a number of specific examples from magic and discusses their counterparts in human interface design, in hopes that human interface practitioners and researchers will, having recognized the applicability of magic, go further on their own to explore its domain.
Keywords: HCI design, Illusion, Design, Misdirection, Simulation, Dissimulation, Time, Response time, Magic, Magician, Principle, Technique, Ethics, Anthropomorphism, Characters, Theater

Panel

Perceptual vs. Hardware Performance in Advanced Acoustic Interface Design BIBAKPDF 363-366
  Elizabeth M. Wenzel; William W. Gaver; Scott H. Foster; Haim Levkowitz; Roger Powell
This panel brings together experts in the field of non-speech auditory displays with points of view ranging from long-term basic research in human perception to the timely production of useable tools in commercial systems. The panel will examine issues of perceptual validity and engineering performance from several different perspectives representative of current work in the field, and discuss how such issues can or should impact decisions made during technology development. Panelists' perspectives include: levels of analysis in designing and using auditory interfaces (Gaver), an example of what can be learned about implementation requirements from low-level psychophysical studies (Wenzel), designing integrated systems to encompass sonification in a three-dimensional environment (Foster), issues in the study of information transfer in representational acoustic signals (Levkowitz), and the design of a generalized technology platform for acoustic signal presentation (Powell).
Keywords: Acoustic displays, Multimedia, Auditory perception, User-interface design issues, Human performance issues

Model-Based UI Development Systems

Separations of Concerns in the Chiron-1 User Interface Development and Management System BIBAKPDF 367-374
  Richard N. Taylor; Gregory F. Johnson
The development of user interfaces for large applications is subject to a series of well-known problems including cost, maintainability, and sensitivity to changes in the operating environment. The Chiron user interface development system has been built to address these software engineering concerns. Chiron introduces a series of layers that insulate components of an application from other components that may experience change. To separate application code from user interface code, user interface agents called artists are attached to application abstract data types. Operations on abstract data types within the application implicitly trigger user interface activities. Chiron also provides insulation between the user interface layer and the underlying system, artist code is written in terms of abstract depiction libraries that insulate the code from the specifics of particular windowing systems and toolkits. Concurrency is pervasive in the Chiron architecture. Inside an application there can be multiple execution threads; there is no requirement for a user interface listening/dispatching routine to have exclusive control. Multiple artists can be attached to a single application abstract data type, providing alternative forms of access by a single user or coordinated access and manipulation by multiple users.
Keywords: User interface management systems (UIMS), Modularization of UIMS, Concurrency, Event-based integration, Artists, GUI construction, Design
A Second Generation User Interface Design Environment: The Model and the Runtime Architecture BIBAKPDF 375-382
  Piyawadee "Noi" Sukaviriya; James D. Foley; Todd Griffith
Several obstacles exist in the user interface design process which distract a developer from designing a good user interface. One of the problems is the lack of an application model to keep the designer in perspective with the application. The other problem is having to deal with massive user interface programming to achieve a desired interface and to provide users with correct help information on the interface. In this paper, we discuss an application model which captures information about an application at a high level, and maintains mappings from the application to specifications of a desired interface. The application model is then used to control the dialogues at runtime and can be used by a help component to automatically generate animated and textual help. Specification changes in the application model will automatically result in behavioral changes in the interface.
Keywords: Application model, User interface model, User interface generation, User interface design environment, Automatic help generation
Beyond Interface Builders: Model-Based Interface Tools BIBAKPDF 383-390
  Pedro Szekely; Ping Luo; Robert Neches
Interface builders only support the construction of the menus and dialogue boxes of an application. They do not support the construction of interfaces of many application classes (visualization, simulation, command and control, domain-specific editors) because of the dynamic and complex information that these applications process. HUMANOID is a model-based interface design and construction tool where interfaces are specified by building a declarative description (model) of their presentation and behavior. HUMANOID's modeling language provides simple abstraction, iteration and conditional constructs to model the interface features of these application classes. HUMANOID provides an easy-to-use designer's interface that lets designers build complex interfaces without programming.
Keywords: UIMS, Design process, Interface builders, Model-based interface tools

Meetings and Collaborative Writing

Tivoli: An Electronic Whiteboard for Informal Workgroup Meetings BIBAPDF 391-398
  Elin Ronby Pedersen; Kim McCall; Thomas P. Moran; Frank G. Halasz
This paper describes Tivoli, an electronic whiteboard application designed to support informal workgroup meetings and targeted to run on the Xerox Liveboard, a large screen, pen-based interactive display. Tivoli strives to provide its users with the simplicity, facile use, and easily understood functionality of conventional whiteboards, while at the same time taking advantage of the computational power of the Liveboard to support and augment its users' informal meeting practices. The paper presents the motivations for the design of Tivoli and briefly describes the current version in operation. It then reflects on several issues encountered in designing Tivoli, including the need to reconsider the basic assumptions behind the standard desktop GUI, the use of strokes as the fundamental object in the system, the generalized wipe interface technique, and the use of meta-strokes as gestural commands.
The User-Centred Iterative Design of Collaborative Writing Software BIBAKPDF 399-405
  Ronald M. Baecker; Dimitrios Nastos; Ilona R. Posner; Kelly L. Mawby
This paper presents the user-centred iterative design of software that supports collaborative writing. The design grew out of a study of how people write together that included a survey of writers and a laboratory study of writing teams linked by a variety of communications media. The resulting taxonomy of collaborative writing is summarized in the paper, followed by a list of design requirements for collaborative writing software suggested by the work. The paper describes two designs of the software. The first prototype supports synchronous writing and editing from workstations linked over local area and wide area networks. The second prototype also supports brainstorming, outlining, and document review, as well as asynchronous work. Lessons learned from the user testing and actual usage of the two systems are also presented.
Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Groupware, User-centred design, Iterative design, Behavioural research, Collaborative writing, Writing software, Synchronous and asynchronous writing
Take CoVer: Exploiting Version Support in Cooperative Systems BIBAKPDF 406-413
  Anja Haake; Jorg M. Haake
Current CSCW applications support one or more modes of cooperative work. The selection of and transition between these modes is usually placed on the users. At IPSI we built the SEPIA cooperative hypermedia authoring environment supporting a whole range of situations arising during collaborative work and the smooth transitions between them. While early use of the system shows the benefits of supporting smooth transitions between different collaborative modes, it also reveals some deficits regarding parallel work, management of alternative documents, or reuse of document parts. We propose to integrate version support to overcome these limitations. This leads to a versioned data management and an extended user interface enabling concurrent users to select a certain state of their work, to be aware of related changes, and to cooperate with others either asynchronously or synchronously.
Keywords: CSCW, Versioning, Cooperation modes, Alternative object states, Group awareness, Hypertext

Panel

Comparative Design Review: An Exercise in Parallel Design BIBAPDF 414-417
  Jakob Nielsen; Randy Kerr; Dan Rosenberg; Gitta Salomon; Heather Desurvire; Rolf Molich; Tom Stewart
Three user interface designers were asked to design interfaces for a given problem. These designs were made available to a group of usability specialists for heuristic evaluation. The reviewers will lead off the panel with specific questions to the designers regarding the usability aspects of their designs. The panel will feature a lively discussion of the designers' various approaches and solutions.

Automated UI Generation

Generating User Interfaces from Data Models and Dialogue Net Specifications BIBAKPDF 418-423
  Christian Janssen; Anette Weisbecker; Jurgen Ziegler
A method and a set of supporting tools have been developed for an improved integration of user interface design with software engineering methods and tools. Animated user interfaces for database-oriented applications are generated from an extended data model and a new graphical technique for specifying dialogues. Based on views defined for the data model, an expert system uses explicit design rules derived from existing guidelines for producing the static layout of the user interface. A petri net based technique called dialogue nets is used for specifying the dynamic behaviour. Output is generated for an existing user interface management system. The approach supports rapid prototyping while using the advantages of standard software engineering methods.
Keywords: Automatic user interface design, Dialogue specification, Dialogue nets, User interface management systems
Encapsulating Knowledge for Intelligent Automatic Interaction Objects Selection BIBAKPDF 424-429
  Jean M. Vanderdonckt; Francois Bodart
TRIDENT is a set of interactive tools that automatically generates a user interface for highly-interactive business-oriented applications. It includes an intelligent interaction objects selection based on three differents concepts. First, an object oriented typology classifies abstract interaction objects to allow a presentation independent selection. Second, guidelines are translated into automatic rules to select abstract interaction objects from both an application data model and a dialog model. Third, these guidelines are encapsulated in a decision tree technique to make the reasoning obvious to the user. This approach guarantees a target environment independent user interface. Once this specified, abstract interaction objects are mapped into concrete interaction objects to produce the observable interface.
Keywords: Automatic user interface generation, Decision tree, Intelligent user interface, Interaction objects, Rule-based system
Providing High-Level Control and Expert Assistance in the User Interface Presentation Design BIBAKPDF 430-437
  Won Chul Kim; James D. Foley
Current user interface builders provide only low-level assistance, because they have knowledge of neither the application, nor the principles by which interface elements are combined effectively. We have developed a framework that unites the knowledge components essential for effective user interface presentation design. The framework consists of an application model (both a data model and a control model), a design process model that supports top-down iterative development, and graphic design knowledge that is used both to place dialog box elements such that their application dependent logical relationships are visually reinforced and to control design symmetry and balance. To demonstrate the framework's viability, we have constructed a tool based on encapsulated design knowledge that establishes high-level style preferences and provides expert assistance for the dialog box presentation design and menu structuring.
Keywords: Automatic layout, Knowledge-based tool, Ul design process

Searching: Tools and Strategies

Orienteering in an Information Landscape: How Information Seekers Get from Here to There BIBAKPDF 438-445
  Vicki L. O'Day; Robin Jeffries
We studied the uses of information search results by regular clients of professional intermediaries. The clients in our study engaged in three different types of searches: (1) monitoring a well-known topic or set of variables over time, (2) following an information-gathering plan suggested by a typical approach to the task at hand, and (3) exploring a topic in an undirected fashion. In most cases, a single search evolved into a series of interconnected searches, usually beginning with a high-level overview. We identified a set of common triggers and stop conditions for further search steps. We also observed a set of common operations that clients used to analyze search results. In some settings, the number of search iterations was reduced by restructuring the work done by intermediaries. We discuss the implications of the interconnected search pattern, triggers and stop conditions, common analysis techniques, and intermediary roles for the design of information access systems.
Keywords: Information search, Information use, Intermediaries, Collaborative work
Using Icons to Find Documents: Simplicity is Critical BIBAKPDF 446-453
  Michael D. Byrne
A common task at almost any computer interface is that of searching for documents, which GUIs typically represent with icons. Oddly, little research has been done on the processes underlying icon search. This paper outlines the factors involved in icon search and proposes a model of the process. An experiment was conducted which suggests that the proposed model is sound, and that the most important factor in searching for files is the type of icons used. In general, simple icons (those discriminable based on a few features) seem to help users, while complex icons are no better than simple rectangles.
Keywords: Screen design, Icons, Empirical evaluation, Formal models of the user
Queries-R-Links: Graphical Markup for Text Navigation BIBAKPDF 454-460
  Gene Golovchinsky; Mark Chignell
In this paper we introduce a style of interaction (interactive querying) that combines features of hypertext with Boolean querying, using direct markup of text to launch queries. We describe two experiments that compare the relative ease of expressing Boolean queries as text versus a graphical equivalent. The results of these experiments show that the expression of queries in the graphical format is no more difficult than the textual equivalent. We then describe the Queries-R-Links system that we have developed at the University of Toronto. Queries-R-Links uses the graphical markup method to launch Boolean queries interactively using direct markup of text. This work represents significant progress towards information exploration systems that combine the useful features of information retrieval querying and hypertext browsing.
Keywords: Querying, Text retrieval, Navigation, Hypertext, Pen-based interaction

Overviews

The Applied Ergonomics Group at Philips BIBAPDF 461-462
  Ian McClelland
The Applied Ergonomics (AE) group functions as a specialist support group within Corporate Design (CD). In January 1993 the AE group had 10 ergonomists, serving a staff of over 200 in CD. CD has responsibility for the industrial design of all Philips products. Philips has a diverse product portfolio covering consumer and professional applications, and operates in markets worldwide. Almost all the work of the AE group is for products using embedded software, some of which are called 'computers'.
Information Design Methods and the Applications of Virtual Worlds Technology at WORLDESIGN, Inc. BIBAKPDF 463-464
  Robert Jacobson
Information design is a new professional practice that systematically applies the lessons of human-computer interaction and human factors studies, communication theory, and information science to the presentation of complex data. WORLDESIGN, Inc., an information design studio, practices information design with an emphasis on virtual worlds technology in the service of its corporate, mostly industrial customers.
Keywords: Information design, Virtual worlds technology, Information environments, Industry, Applications, Collaborative design, Craft guilds
The Silicon Graphics Customer Research and Usability Group BIBAPDF 465-466
  Mike Mohageg
Silicon Graphics Computer Systems, Inc. is a leading supplier of visual processing computer systems. Our goal is to pioneer true 3D computing, to define new classes of visual computing, and to provide practical, beneficial, and cost-effective solutions for a variety of industries.
   The Customer Research and Usability Group provides usability consulting services to improve the competitive value and ease of use of products. We have been in existence since June of 1990.

Demonstrations

Filtered Suggestions BIBAPDF 467
  Joris Verrips
MTYP is a program that helps to select texts or macros with very few keystrokes using Filtered Selections. Each newly typed in letter filters suggestions that contain it with a priority for uppercase letters.
From Undo to Multi-User Applications -- The Demo BIBAKPDF 468-469
  Michael Spenke
The object-oriented history mechanism of the GINA application framework and its relevance for multi-user applications are demonstrated. The interaction history of a document is represented as a tree of command objects. Synchronous cooperation is supported by replicating the document state and exchanging command objects. Asynchronous cooperation leads to different branches of the history tree which can later be merged.
Keywords: User interface management systems, CSCW, Command objects, Undo, Dialog history

Panel

Common Elements in Today's Graphical User Interfaces: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly BIBAKPDF 470-473
  A. Brady Farrand; Marc Rochkind; Jean-Marie Chauvet; Bruce "Tog" Tognazzini; David C. Smith
This panel will identify some of the similarities amongst the different familiar graphical user interfaces that make them seem so indistinguishable. This panel will then identify some of the similarities that don't belong in any modern user interface.
Keywords: Graphical user interface design, Common GUI, Design esthetics

Hands, Menus and Dr. Fitts

Human Performance Using Computer Input Devices in the Preferred and Non-Preferred Hands BIBAKPDF 474-481
  Paul Kabbash; I. Scott MacKenzie; William Buxton
Subjects' performance was compared in pointing and dragging tasks using the preferred and non-preferred hands. Tasks were tested using three different input devices: a mouse, a trackball, and a tablet-with-stylus. The trackball had the least degradation across hands in performing the tasks, however it remained inferior to both the mouse and stylus. For small distances and small targets, the preferred hand was superior. However, for larger targets and larger distances, both hands performed about the same. The experiment shows that the non-preferred hand is more than a poor approximation of the preferred hand. The hands are complementary, each having its own strength and weakness. One design implication is that the non-preferred hand is well suited for tasks that do not require precise action, such as scrolling.
Keywords: Hand comparisons, Computer input, Fitts' law
The Limits of Expert Performance Using Hierarchic Marking Menus BIBAKPDF 482-487
  Gordon Kurtenbach; William Buxton
A marking menu allows a user to perform a menu selection by either popping-up a radial (or pie) menu, or by making a straight mark in the direction of the desired menu item without popping-up the menu. A hierarchic marking menu uses hierarchic radial menus and "zig-zag" marks to select from the hierarchy. This paper experimentally investigates the bounds on how many items can be in each level, and how deep the hierarchy can be, before using a marking to select an item becomes too slow or prone to errors.
Keywords: Marking menus, Pie menus, Gestures, Pen based input, Accelerators, Input devices
Lag as a Determinant of Human Performance in Interactive Systems BIBAKPDF 488-493
  I. Scott MacKenzie; Colin Ware
The sources of lag (the delay between input action and output response) and its effects on human performance are discussed. We measured the effects in a study of target acquisition using the classic Fitts' law paradigm with the addition of four lag conditions. At the highest lag tested (225 ms), movement times and error rates increased by 64% and 214% respectively, compared to the zero lag condition. We propose a model according to which lag should have a multiplicative effect on Fitts' index of difficulty. The model accounts for 94% of the variance and is better than alternative models which propose only an additive effect for lag. The implications for the design of virtual reality systems are discussed.
Keywords: Human performance modeling, Lag, Feedback delay, Visual reality, Fitts' law, Speed-accuracy tradeoff

Finding and Keeping Information

Computer Image Retrieval by Features: Suspect Identification BIBAKPDF 494-499
  Eric Lee; Thom Whalen
Correct suspect identification of known offenders by witnesses deteriorates rapidly as more are examined in mugshot albums. Feature approaches, where mugshots are displayed in order of similarity to witnesses' descriptions, attempt to increase identification success by reducing this number. A methodology is proposed for system design and evaluation based on experiments, computer simulations, and four classes of system performance measures: identification performance, retrieval rank, tolerance performance, and feature quality. This was used to develop a system for 640 mugshots of known offenders. In three empirical tests, over 90% of witness searches resulted in suspects retrieved in the first eight mugshots.
Keywords: Computer image retrieval, Information retrieval, Feature retrieval
Empirically-Based Re-Design of a Hypertext Encyclopedia BIBAKPDF 500-506
  Keith Instone; Barbee Mynatt Teasley; Laura Marie Leventhal
This paper reports on the processes used and guidelines discovered in re-designing the user interface of the hypertext encyclopedia, HyperHolmes. The re-design was based on the outcomes of a previous experiment and was evaluated experimentally. Results showed that the new system resulted in superior performance and somewhat different styles of navigation compared to the old system and to paper. The study provides empirical support for design guidelines relating to tiled windows, navigation tools, graphics and hierarchical navigation.
Keywords: Hypertext, Design, Experiment, Empirical results, Usability, Navigation, Electronic encyclopedia
Bridging the Paper and Electronic Worlds: The Paper User Interface BIBAPDF 507-512
  Walter Johnson; Herbert Jellinek; Leigh, Jr. Klotz; Ramana Rao; Stuart Card
Since its invention millenia ago, paper has served as one of our primary communications media. Its inherent physical properties make it easy to use, transport, and store, and cheap to manufacture. Despite these advantages, paper remains a second class citizen in the electronic world. In this paper, we present a new technology for bridging the paper and the electronic worlds. In the new technology, the user interface moves beyond the workstation and onto paper itself. We describe paper user interface technology and its implementation in a particular system called XAX.

Demonstrations

Integrated CSCW Tools within a Shared 3D Virtual Environment BIBAKPDF 513
  Christer Carlsson; Lennart E. Fahlen
With the advance of computer graphics hardware and computer communication technology it is now possible to build personal interactive 3D interfaces. Our research goal is to use this technology to create CSCW environments.
   There are several problems with existing CSCW applications and environments. We specifically address three intimately connected problem areas:
  • awareness (what are other users doing?)
  • focus (where is my attention directed?)
  • interaction metaphors (how do I do something?) Our approach is to let each user be represented by a 3D icon ("body icon" and graphically model the user's input devices in 3D space. Users navigate between applications in 3D space and can meet and collaborate in the environment. There is a direct correspondence between a user's body icon, input devices and the actions taken by the user. We claim that this gives users a more detailed and natural understanding of other users activities than in conventional CSCW systems. By using direct (real world) metaphors in the interaction with applications, it is our hope that the cognitive load on the users is reduced and the awareness and focus effects are increased.
    Keywords: CSCW, Virtual reality, Interactive 3D graphics, User interface
  • The Paper Model for Computer-Based Writing BIBAPDF 514
      Ann Fatton; Staffan Romberger; Kerstin Severinson Eklundh
    When writing or reading on paper, we usually have a robust perception of the text as a spatial object with inherent structure. By a quick visual inspection of a book in our hands, and by flipping the pages for a few seconds, we get a preliminary feel for the size, structure and content of the text material. Not only are we guided by those physical cues in the process of approaching a new text, they also enable us to remember the text by its appearance and spatial arrangement (see e.g. [2]).
       In contrast, during on-screen writing and reading with a word processor, users often lack a global perspective of the text. In fact, the use of word processors has been shown to cause problems for writers in reading and evaluating long documents on the screen. The word processor is usually used on a small screen, showing only a very restricted part of the text at a time. Moreover, when the user makes revisions or shifts position in the text, the location of the text relative to the screen window varies. This contributes to writers lacking an adequate "sense of the text" when writing a long document [1].

    Formal Video Programme: Visualisation

    The Human Guidance of Automated Design BIBAPDF 515
      Lynne Colgan; Robert Spence; Paul Rankin
    This 5-minute video describes the potential of automated design ('optimisation') and identifies associated difficulties which can be overcome by an interface allowing the designer to guide the automated design process. Within the context of electronic circuit design the video then shows a system, called CoCo, for the Control and Observation of Circuit Optimisation. Illustrations focus on graphical interfaces used for (a) describing the circuit, (b) describing the required performance and (c) the human guidance of the automated design of that circuit. Jargon has been suppressed so that workers in related fields can see the implications of the idea.
    Browsing Graphs Using a Fisheye View BIBAPDF 516
      Marc H. Brown; James R. Meehan; Manojit Sarkar
    The accompanying videotape demonstrates a system for viewing large graphs [2]. It's one of many possible implementations of a general framework for graphical fisheye views that we have developed.
       The graph in the video represents direct routes between major cities in the United States. An obvious way to see more detail about an area is to zoom into the graph. However, as the user zooms into an area, less of the graph is visible so the global structure of the graph is lost. This becomes more acute as the user pans the zoomed image.
       An alternate way to browse the graph is to use the graphical fisheye view technique. In a fisheye view, the area of interest is shown with detail while the rest of the structure is shown with successively less detail [1].
    High Interaction Data Visualization Using Seesoft to Visualize Program Change History BIBAKPDF 517
      Joseph L. Steffen; Stephen G. Eick
    A problem in developing large software systems is understanding the source code. This problem is difficult because of the volume of code. The listing for a moderately sized system with 100,000 lines, printed 50 lines per page, would run 2,000 pages. This video shows a new software tool, Seesoft, that applies scientific visualization techniques to visualizing code. The visualization approach is to represent files in a directory in columns and the source code lines as rows of colored pixels. The indentation and length of each row of pixels corresponds to the actual code. The color of each row of pixels is determined by a statistic such as the age, programmer, or type of line, that we obtain from the change management system. The visual impression is that of a miniature picture of the source code with the indentation showing the usual C controls structure and the color showing the spatial distribution of the statistic. A user may adjust the display using direct manipulation techniques to discover interesting patterns in the code. Software engineering concepts such as complexity and bug fix on fix density can be visualized.
       The main interest of this work to the human factors community is the use of graphical user interface for selecting and combining statistics from a database, the effective use of hundreds of colors to display a mass of data, and the reduction of the pint-and-click direct manipulation metaphor to just pointing, e.g. something of interest will occur where ever the mouse points to on the display.
    Keywords: Direct manipulation, Graphical user interface, Scientific visualization
    Exploring Remote Images: A Telepathology Workstation BIBAPDF 518
      Catherine Plaisant; David A. Carr; Hiroaki Hasegawa
    Telemedicine is the practice of medicine over communication links. The physician being consulted and the patient are in two different locations. A first telepathology system has been developed by Corabi Telemetrics. It allows a pathologist to render a diagnosis by examining tissue samples or body fluids under a remotely located microscope.
    QOC in Action: Using Design Rationale to Support Design BIBAPDF 519
      Diane McKerlie; Allan MacLean
    Design Rationale emphasises working with explicit representations not only of possible design solutions, but also of the reasons and processes behind them. Although the arguments for using Design Rationale are compelling, there is still very little experience of supplying the current approaches in practice. To explore its use in a practical setting we have been collaborating with the Open University using QOC (Questions, Options, Criteria) to design hypermedia interfaces for presenting course material (currently text books, course notes, and videos). This video illustrates some of the ways in which we have used QOC to support our activities.

    Formal Video Programme: Novel Technologies

    Touch-Typing with a Stylus BIBAPDF 520
      David Goldberg; Cate Richardson
    Our approach to developing touch-typing for a stylus is based on introducing a special alphabet of unistrokes. Like touch-typing for keyboards, unistrokes have to be learned. Unistrokes have the following advantages over ordinary printing:
  • They are designed somewhat like error correcting codes. When written
       sloppily, they can still be distinguished from one another.
  • Each unistroke is a single pen-down/pen-up motion hence the name unistroke.
       Not only does this mean that recognition cannot have segmentation errors
       (that is, errors in determining which sets of strokes belong to a single
       multi-stroke letter), but it means that letters can unambiguously be written
       one on top of another. Thus unistrokes can be entered in a small box just
       big enough to hold one letter.
  • The unistrokes associated with the most common letters ('e', 'a', 't', 'i',
       'r') are all straight lines, and hence arc fast to write. The unistroke design is being evaluated by having users send several e-mail messages per day using a stylus front-end to the Unix mail program. Based on measurements from this program, it appears that unistrokes may be able to support an entry rate as high as 3.5 letters/sec (touch typing is typically 6-7 letters/sec).
       The video gives the motivation for unistrokes, briefly shows text entry using a conventional pen-based interface [1], discusses the unistroke alphabet and how it was designed to be easy to learn, and then shows a skilled writer using unistrokes.
  • ARGOS: A Display System for Augmenting Reality BIBAKPDF 521
      David Drascic; Julius J. Grodski; Paul Milgram; Ken Ruffo; Peter Wong; Shumin Zhai
    This video describes the development of the ARGOS (Augmented Reality through Graphic Overlays on Stereovideo) system, as a tool for enhancing human-telerobot interaction, and as a more general tool with applications in a variety of areas, including image enhancement, simulation, sensor fusion, and virtual reality.
    Keywords: Stereoscopic displays, 3-D, Virtual reality, Remote manipulation, Teleoperation

    Formal Video Programme: Speech

    Talking to Machines BIBAKPDF 522
      Christopher K. Cowley; Dylan M. Jones
    The film shows how dialogue design and error correction strategies, informed by human factors research, can lead to the development of usable and profitable systems. It starts with a simulation of a truly conversational machine to show the level of performance necessary to compete with human recognition. Template matching recognition is clearly explained so that viewers can see how most devices actually work. The film then shows the Digital Equipment Corporation's DECvoice in a number of voice input and output scenarios which highlight typical design problems and solutions. It concludes with a set of guidelines which will help designers make reasoned decisions about when and how to use speech recognition and avoid the typical problems experienced by users. The film ends with an example of a system which, having been designed with the guidelines in mind, is usable, efficient, and practical within the constraints of contemporary technology.
    Keywords: Speech, Recognition, Interfaces
    The ALFRESCO Interactive System BIBAKPDF 523
      Oliviero Stock
    This work is aimed at building a dialogue system in which natural language is the basic communication channel, but the computer is seen as an active agent that allows a multimedia type interaction. In this way the means of communication are amplified, with the possibility of referring to images and other texts.
       ALFRESCO is an interactive system for a user interested in frescoes. It runs on a SUN 4 connected to a videodisc unit and a touchscreen. The particular videodisc in use includes images about Fourteenth Century Italian frescoes and monuments. The system, beside understanding and using language, shows images and combines film sequences. Images are active in that the user may refer to items by combining pointing with the use of linguistic demonstratives; for example, the user can point to a detail of a fresco and say "can I see another painting representing this^ saint?" Also, the system's linguistic output includes buttons that allow the user to enter in an hypertextual modality. The dialog may cause zooming into details or changing the focus of attention into other frescoes. The overall aim is not only to provide information, but also to promote other masterpieces that may attract the user.
    Keywords: Natural language processing, Artificial intelligence, Multimediality
    Hyperspeech BIBAKPDF 524
      Barry Arons
    Hyperspeech is a speech-only hypermedia application that explores issues of speech user interfaces, navigation, and system architecture in a purely audio environment without a visual display. The system uses speech recognition input and synthetic speech feedback to aid in navigating through a database of digitally recorded speech segments.
    Keywords: Speech user interfaces, Speech applications, Hypermedia, Speech as data, Speech recognition, Speech synthesis, Conversational interfaces

    Formal Video Programme: Hypermedia and Multimedia

    IMPACT: Interactive Motion Picture Authoring System for Creative Talent BIBAPDF 525
      Hirotada Ueda; Takafumi Miyatake; Satoshi Yoshizawa
    We are developing a multimedia authoring system, called IMPACT [1]. It is not easy for non-professional users to get good quality motion pictures and to edit them, for instance, in order to create multimedia presentations that express their concepts. To make this kind of tasks feasible for everyone, image-recognition technology is applied. Visualization of the structure of motion pictures is also very important [2]. A couple of visualization technique are developed for time axis editing.
    Microcosm: An Open Hypermedia System BIBAPDF 526
      Hugh Davis; Wendy Hall; Adrian Pickering; Rob Wilkins
    Microcosm is an open hypermedia system within which it is possible to make and follow links from one multimedia document to another. The open nature of the system gives rise to a number of difficult user interface issues which are demonstrated in the video.
    Multimedia Documents as User Interfaces BIBAPDF 527-528
      M. Cecelia Buchanan; Polle T. Zellweger; Ken Pier
    Previous work has demonstrated the use of documents as user interfaces, in which static document elements, such as words and pictures, become user interface interaction elements, such as menus and buttons [Bier 90]. In this videotape, we demonstrate our extension of this concept to dynamic multimedia documents, allowing user interface designers to create multimedia documents and to specify dynamic interaction elements within them.
       This video was taped from the screen of a Sun Microsystems SPARCstation 2. The audio portions of the multimedia documents were recorded and played back using TiogaVoice and the Etherphone voice management system [Zellweger 88].

    Formal Video Programme: Programming by Example and Demonstration

    Graphical Editing by Example BIBAPDF 529
      David Kurlander
    Graphical editing, like many applications facilitated by computers, often involves repetitive tasks. To reduce repetition, programmers can write procedures to automate these tasks, however most users do not know how to program, and the repetitive tasks that they perform are frequently too specialized for the application programmer to anticipate. End users would benefit from the ability to customize and extend their applications for the tasks they usually perform.
       Programming by example systems and demonstrational interfaces aim to give end users this capability. Such systems are programmed simply by using the applications, rather than through an ancillary extension language. Innovative systems such as Pygmalion, Tinker, SmallStar, Peridot, Metamouse, and Eager have all explored ways of bringing more power to the non-programming end user [1]. The accompanying videotape demonstrates Chimera, a system built to explore new demonstrational techniques in the domains of graphical editing and interface building.
    Guiding Automation with Pixels: A Technique for Programming in the User Interface BIBAPDF 530
      Richard Potter
    The video demonstrates how a user can program Triggers to automate the wrapping of a properly sized rounded rectangle around a preexisting text field in an unmodified copy of MacDraw II. MacDraw II conveniently places a gray bounding box around a selected field. Pixel pattern searches using pieces of this bounding box as the pattern give enough data access to determine the size and location of the text field. Triggers then simulates a series of keystrokes and mouse actions that create the rounded rectangle. Other examples from graphic and text domains are briefly shown.
    Inferring Graphical Constraints with Rockit BIBAPDF 531
      Solange Karsenty; Chris Weikart; James A. Landay
    Graphical constraints define relations among graphical objects that must be maintained by an underlying system. The automatic maintenance of these relations has become important in increasing the functionality of graphical editors and user interface builders. Yet this increase in functionality has also brought the users of these tools the difficult task of specifying the constraints -- generally by writing mathematical equations that define the relations which must hold.
       The purpose of Rockit [2] is to identify the possible graphical constraints between objects in a scene and allow the user to quickly and easily choose and apply the desired constraints. Rockit is embedded in a graphical editor that allows the creation of application objects by direct manipulation. The user creates graphical objects and applies constraints to them. Typical objects include diagrams, circuits, flowcharts, and also standard application widgets. The supported constraints include connectors, aligners, and spacers. In this videotape, we illustrate our system through the construction of a slider.
    Tourmaline: Macrostyles by Example BIBAKPDF 532
      Andrew J. Werth; Brad A. Myers
    Tourmaline is a system that simplifies the formatting of complicated headings and captions in a WYSIWYG word processor. The style systems of typical commercial word processors, although very useful, are too limited when a user needs to format items such as paper headings, which may contain many different styles within a single heading. The style systems of some batch oriented systems give the user more power by providing macro facilities to automatically format text, but these systems are extremely difficult to learn and use. Tourmaline uses demonstrational techniques [2] to combine the ease-of-use of WYSIWYG with the power of batch oriented text formatters. The system allows users to define macrostyles by example. A macrostyle is an abstract representation of a text object that allows different parts of the object to have completely different formatting attributes.
    Keywords: Text formatting, Demonstrational interfaces, Programming by example, Inferences, Heuristics, Microstyles

    Formal Video Programme: CSCW

    The Active Badge System BIBAPDF 533-534
      Andy Hopper; Andy Harter; Tom Blackie
    The Active Badge is used to provide information about where people are [Want et al. 1992, Want and Hopper 1992. It is battery powered, transmits in the infra-red spectrum and is approximately 60x60x8 millimetres. The transmissions take place every 15 seconds and identify the badge. Receivers are linked by wire to a computer and are placed so as to define cells for the coverage required. Normally they correspond to spaces occupied by one or a number of people. The badge has a light-dependent resistor used to reduce power consumption by decreasing the frequency of transmissions when in the dark. This also means that the user can switch the badge off by placing it in a pocket or face down on the table. Not all badge transmissions are picked up by a receiver, but by using simple algorithms in the receiving software the system can be made sufficiently accurate to be very useful. As well as transmitting the Active Badge can receive which makes possible a more secure system by using a one-way authentication function. Two buttons, two visible LEDs and a tone generator are available for simple interactions. Reciprocity of use is ensured by making badge information available to all computer screens in the organisation.

    Formal Video Programme: Future Scenarios

    IMAGINE: A Vision of Health Care in 1997 BIBAPDF 535
      Steve Anderson; Shiz Kobara; Barry Mathis; Ev Shafrir
    IMAGINE is a vision of health care in the year 1997 augmented by a variety of integrated information technologies. The film is not a literal prediction, but rather a projection of where current technologies are headed and what changes they will produce in the fields of medical diagnosis, patient care and hospital administration. Though produced at Hewlett-Packard, IMAGINE represents the capabilities of many companies and is a demonstration of open systems and their integration.
       The film's three scenarios highlight a range of situations. All pose problems in patient treatment or cost control, and in each it is information, delivered when and where it's needed, that provides the solutions.
       All of the medical procedures, information presentations, and interaction techniques were reviewed by experts in the fields concerned. Cardiologists, neurologists, pathologists, nurses and administrators provided abundant critical review to ensure accuracy. While this process was time consuming for such a fast paced film, it was felt to be essential for acceptance by the medical community.