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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X92Y92a92b93X93Y93a93b94-194-2a

Proceedings of ACM CHI'91 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of CHI'91 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Reaching Through Technology
Editors:Scott P. Robertson; Gary M. Olson; Judith S. Olson
Location:New Orleans, Louisiana
Dates:1991-Apr-28 to 1991-May-02
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-383-3 ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608910; Addison-Wesley ISBN 0-201-51278-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI91
Papers:130
Pages:532
  1. Use of Familiar Things in the Design of Interfaces
  2. Walkthroughs
  3. The Use of Video in Remote Group Work
  4. Multimedia Authoring Systems
  5. User Interface Management Systems
  6. Programming by Demonstration
  7. Group Use of Computing
  8. Information Retrieval
  9. Understanding Graphical Interfaces
  10. Use of Familiar Things in the Design of Interfaces
  11. Sound
  12. Group Use of Computing
  13. The Use of Video in Remote Group Work
  14. Understanding Graphical Interfaces
  15. Systems for Training
  16. Practical Design Methods
  17. Programming
  18. Virtual Reality
  19. Understanding Graphical Interfaces
  20. User Interface Design Process and Evaluation
  21. Group Use of Computing
  22. Pointing, Gesture and Handwriting as Input Media
  23. Use of Familiar Things in the Design of Interfaces
  24. Information Visualization
  25. Special Purpose Interfaces
  26. Remote Synchronous Collaboration
  27. The Use of Video in Remote Group Work
  28. Remote Synchronous Collaboration
  29. User Interface Design Process and Evaluation
  30. Practical Design Methods
  31. Pointing, Gesture and Handwriting as Input Media
  32. User Interface Management Systems
  33. Programming by Demonstration
  34. Systems for Training
  35. Virtual Reality
  36. Pointing, Gesture and Handwriting as Input Media
  37. Programming
  38. Special Purpose Interfaces
  39. Systems for Training
  40. User Interface Design Process and Evaluation
  41. Programming by Demonstration
  42. Remote Synchronous Collaboration
  43. User Interface Management Systems
  44. Practical Design Methods
  45. Multimedia Authoring Systems
  46. Sound
  47. The Use of Video in Remote Group Work
  48. Panels
  49. Special Presentations
  50. Demonstrations: Program Development Tools
  51. Demonstrations: Interface Design Issues
  52. Demonstrations: Program Development Tools
  53. Demonstrations: Multimedia Tutoring Systems
  54. Demonstrations: Cooperative Work
  55. Demonstrations: Interface Design Issues
  56. Demonstrations: Multimedia Systems
  57. Demonstrations: Program Development Tools
  58. Demonstrations: Tutoring Systems
  59. Demonstrations: Multimedia Systems
  60. Demonstrations: Cooperative Work
  61. Demonstrations: Tutoring Systems
  62. Demonstrations: Cooperative Work
  63. Videos
  64. Videos: Programming by Demonstration
  65. Videos
  66. Videos: Special Purpose Interfaces
  67. Videos: Information Visualization
  68. Videos
  69. Videos: Special Purpose Interfaces
  70. Videos: Information Visualization
  71. Videos: Pointing, Gesture and Handwriting as Input Media
  72. Videos
  73. Laboratory Overviews
  74. Special Interest Groups
  75. Doctoral Consortium
  76. Interactive Posters
  77. Short Talks
  78. Tutorials
  79. Workshops

Use of Familiar Things in the Design of Interfaces

Bringing Icons to Life BIBAKPDF 1-6
  Ronald Baecker; Ian Small; Richard Mander
Icons are used increasingly in interfaces because they are compact "universal" pictographic representations of computer functionality and processing. Animated icons can bring to life symbols representing complete applications or functions within an application, thereby clarifying their meaning, demonstrating their capabilities, and even explaining their method of use. To test this hypothesis, we carried out an iterative design of a set of animated painting icons that appear in the HyperCard tool palette. The design discipline restricted the animations to 10 to 20 second sequences of 22x20 pixel bit maps. User testing was carried out on two interfaces - one with the static icons, one with the animated icons. The results showed significant benefit from the animations in clarifying the purpose and functionality of the icons.
Keywords: Icons, Interaction techniques, Dialogue methods, Interactive design, Empirical studies, HyperCard

Walkthroughs

Usability Testing of a Graphical Programming System: Things We Missed in a Programming Walkthrough BIBAKPDF 7-12
  Brigham Bell; John Rieman; Clayton Lewis
Traditional programming language design has focussed on efficiency and expressiveness, with minimal attention to the ease with which a programmer can translate task requirements into statements in the language, a characteristic we call "facility." The programming walkthrough is a method for assessing the facility of language design before implementation. We describe the method and its predictions for a graphical programming language, ChemTrains. These predictions are contrasted with protocols of subjects attempting to write their first ChemTrains program. We conclude that the walkthrough is a valuable aid at the design stage, but it is not infallible. Our results also suggest that it may not be enough for programmers to know how to solve a problem; they must also understand why the solution will succeed.
Keywords: Language design, Graphical programming, Usability evaluation, Walkthrough

The Use of Video in Remote Group Work

Two Approaches to Casual Interaction Over Computer and Video Networks BIBAKPDF 13-19
  Alan Borning; Michael Travers
We describe two systems that use interactive computer-controlled video for shared awareness and casual communication. Polyscope lets users monitor a large number of video sources simultaneously. Observers are provided with a window containing a collection of frame-grabbed bitmap images or animations. These images can be used to access additional video services, such as videophone. Vrooms is a follow-on system, which employs a strong spatial metaphor. Users can enter and leave virtual rooms. Once in a virtual room, users can see and be seen by all the other occupants, and have easy access to other video, audio, and text-based communication tools.
Keywords: Group work, Collaboration, Casual interaction, Video, Virtual spaces

Multimedia Authoring Systems

Expressive Richness: A Comparison of Speech and Text as Media for Revision BIBAPDF 21-26
  Barbara L. Chalfonte; Robert S. Fish; Robert E. Kraut
Both theory and data suggest that richer, more informal, and more interactive media should be better suited for handling the more complex, equivocal, and emotional aspects of collaborative tasks. To test this hypothesis, we constructed an experiment in which participants were required to make either written or spoken annotations to a document to help a fictional co-author revise it. We seeded relatively error-free texts with errors of different scope. The results provide strong evidence that a richer -- in the sense of a more expressive -- medium is especially valuable for the more complex, controversial, and social aspects of a collaborative task. Subjects stated that they preferred to use voice to comment on higher-level issues in a document and to use text to deal with lower-level problems of spelling and grammar. When subjects' annotation modalities were restricted, using written annotations led them to comment on more local problems in the text, while using speech led them to comment on higher level concerns. When they did use written annotations to comment on global problems, they were less successful than when they used spoken annotations. Finally, when they offered spoken annotations, they were more likely to add features, such as personal pronouns and explanation, that made their comments more equivocal and socially communicative. These results indicate the uses to which systems that provide voice annotation are likely to be put.

User Interface Management Systems

Applications: A Dimension Space for User Interface Management Systems BIBAKPDF 27-32
  Joelle Coutaz; Sandrine Balbo
This article presents an abstract space of dimensions which characterize the behavior of applications (i.e. functional cores) with regard to UIMS components. These dimensions such as responsiveness, accessibility, and instantiability, constitute a conceptual framework which captures the notion of functional core in terms adequate for UIMS designers. The dimension space may also be viewed as a requirements list for designing new UIMSs as well as a set of criteria for evaluating existing UIMSs.
Keywords: Application interface, UIMS, Classification, Dimension space

Programming by Demonstration

EAGER: Programming Repetitive Tasks by Example BIBAKPDF 33-39
  Allen Cypher
Eager is a Programming by Example system for the HyperCard environment. It constantly monitors the user's activities, and when it detects an iterative pattern, it writes a program to complete the iteration.
   Programming by Example systems create generalized programs from examples provided by the user. They are faced with the problem of how to display these abstract procedures. Eager utilizes a new interface technique, called anticipation, to show how it has generalized: when it detects a repetitive activity, it highlights menus and objects on the screen to indicate what it expects the user to do next. As users continue to perform their activity, they will notice that the objects they are about to select have already been highlighted by the system. When it becomes apparent that Eager knows how to perform the task correctly, they can tell Eager to complete the task for them. The use of anticipation allows Eager to interfere minimally with the users' normal activities.
Keywords: Programming by example, Demonstrational interfaces, User programming, Intelligent interfaces, Adaptive systems, Agents, Programmer assistants, Models of user performance

Group Use of Computing

Flexible User Interface Coupling in a Collaborative System BIBAKPDF 41-48
  Prasun Dewan; Rajiv Choudhary
An important issue in collaborative systems is the kind of sharing or coupling among the various windows displaying a shared workspace. We have developed a flexible coupling model that allows users to control several aspects of the coupling among shared windows including which values in these windows are coupled, when changes to these values are broadcast and received, how "correct" a value must be before it is broadcast or received, which users see the same view of a value, and whether a user can specify coupling parameters for other users. In this paper, we argue that a collaborative system must support flexible coupling, identify some of the issues in the design of systems supporting flexible coupling, describe and illustrate our approach to flexible coupling, and present conclusions and directions for future work.
Keywords: CSCW, Editors, Groupware, Objects, Shared windows, Flexible transactions, User interface, WYSIWIS

Information Retrieval

Designing a Desktop Information System: Observations and Issues BIBAKPDF 49-54
  Thomas Erickson; Gitta Salomon
This paper describes the first phase of a project to create a desktop information system for general users. The approach was to observe the problems, needs, and practices of several groups of information users, and to use these observations to drive the interface design of a prototype. In the first section of the paper, we describe problems which arise in the use of a relevance feedback system for information retrieval. In the second and third sections, we look at the needs and practices of users of both electronic and paper-based information systems. In the final section, we briefly describe the resulting design.
Keywords: Information retrieval, Human interface, User interface, Interactive systems, Design process, Design methodology, Relevance feedback
Intertwining Query Construction and Relevance Evaluation BIBAKPDF 55-62
  Gerhard Fischer; Scott Henninger; David Redmiles
Traditional information access systems generally assume that a well-articulated query exists, and that once an object is found, it can be readily understood. Although this assumption works for retrieving text objects, in more complex domains, such as retrieving software objects for reuse, queries must be incrementally constructed and support is needed for comprehending what is retrieved. Therefore, information access methods need support for query construction and relevance evaluation as an integral part of the location process.
   Two prototype systems are described for supporting this need: CODEFINDER for query construction and EXPLAINER for explanations of program examples. These systems interact to support the processes of locating and comprehending software objects for reuse.
Keywords: Information access, Software reuse, Programming methodologies, Cooperative problem solving, Retrieval, Retrieval by reformulation, Explanation, Situation model versus system model
Information Access in Complex, Poorly Structured Information Spaces BIBAPDF 63-70
  Gerhard Fischer; Curt Stevens
Large information spaces present several problems including information overload. This research effort focuses on the domain of Usenet News, an open access computer-based bulletin board system that distributes messages and software. A conceptual framework is developed that shows the need for (a) flexible organization of information access interfaces and (b) personalized structure to deal with vocabulary mismatches. An operational innovative system building effort (INFOSCOPE) instantiates the framework. In INFOSCOPE, users can evolve the predefined system structure to suit their own semantic interpretations. The approach taken by INFOSCOPE differs from other approaches by requiring less up-front structuring by message senders.

Understanding Graphical Interfaces

New Graphical Reasoning Models for Understanding Graphical Interfaces BIBAKPDF 71-78
  George W. Furnas
This paper aspires to make three points: (1) that certain graphical interfaces are especially easy to learn and use, (2) that special graphical deduction / computation systems are possible, and (3) that perhaps points (1) and (2) are intimately related, i.e., that graphical interfaces may be especially useful because they engage special human graphical reasoning processes.
Keywords: Graphical interfaces, Mental models, User models, Visual reasoning

Use of Familiar Things in the Design of Interfaces

Technology Affordances BIBAKPDF 79-84
  William W. Gaver
Ecological approaches to psychology suggest succinct accounts of easily-used artifacts. Affordances are properties of the world that are compatible with and relevant for people's interactions. When affordances are perceptible, they offer a direct link between perception and action; hidden and false affordances lead to mistakes. Complex actions can be understood in terms of groups of affordances that are sequential in time or nested in space, and in terms of the abilities of different media to reveal them. I illustrate this discussion with several examples of interface techniques, and suggest that the concept of affordances can provide a useful tool for user-centered analyses of technologies.
Keywords: Ecological perspectives, Human interface design, Input/output design, Multi-media

Sound

Effective Sounds in Complex Systems: The ARKola Simulation BIBAKPDF 85-90
  William W. Gaver; Randall B. Smith; Tim O'Shea
We designed an ecology of auditory icons which worked together to convey information about a complex, demanding simulation task, and observed users collaborating on it with and without sound. Our observations suggest that audio cues can provide useful information about processes and problems, and support the perceptual integration of a number of separate processes into one complex one. In addition, they can smooth the transition between division of labour and collaboration by providing a new dimension of reference. These results suggest that auditory icons can play a significant role in future multiprocessing and collaborative systems.
Keywords: User-interface design issues, Multimedia, Auditory output strategies, Interface metaphors, Group work, Observational studies

Group Use of Computing

CSCW: The Convergence of Two Development Contexts BIBAKPDF 91-97
  Jonathan Grudin
CSCW research and groupware development represent converging interests from two contexts of interactive systems development. Issues of group dynamics and organizational impact have primarily been explored in the in-house development of systems for organizations -- systems that support organizational goals. Similar issues are now being encountered by researchers and developers with a product development orientation who are seeking to support small groups. We have not integrated effectively the interests, experiences and approaches arising in these two development contexts. To do so, we have to go beyond what is shared and explore the differences.
Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work, CSCW, Groupware, Interactive systems development, Product development, Internal development, In-house development

The Use of Video in Remote Group Work

Disembodied Conduct: Communication Through Video in a Multi-Media Office Environment BIBAKPDF 99-103
  Christian Heath; Paul Luff
In the following paper we discuss some findings of recent research concerning the organisation of video mediated communication in collaborative work in a dispersed, multi-media office environment. Based on the detailed, naturalistic analysis of video-recordings of individuals collaborating on various tasks through audio-visual links, we describe the ways in which the technology transforms nonverbal and verbal conduct, introducing certain asymmetries into the social interaction between users. It is argued that such communicative asymmetries may facilitate, rather than hinder, certain forms of collaborative work and provide a foundation for the emergence of new forms of sociability in the work place.
   What of the hands? We require, promise, call,
   dismiss, threaten, pray, supplicate, deny, refuse,
   interrogate, admire, number, confess, repent,
   confound, blush, doubt, instruct, admire, number,
   confess, repent, confound, blush, doubt, instruct,
   command, incite, encourage, swear, testify,
   accuse, condemn, absolve, abuse, despise, defy,
   flatter, applaud, bless, humiliate, mock, reconcile,
   recommend, exalt, entertain, congratulate,
   complain, grieve, despair, wonder,
   exclaim, .... There is not a motion that does not
   speak and in an intelligible language without
   discipline, and a public language that everyone
   understands.
   
   
   
   
   
   
    Montaigne 1952 pp. 215-216
Keywords: Multi-media, Video communication, Interaction analysis

Understanding Graphical Interfaces

Building Visual Language Parsers BIBAKPDF 105-112
  Richard Helm; Kim Marriott; Martin Odersky
Notepad computers promise a new input paradigm where users communicate with computers in visual languages composed of handwritten text and diagrams. A key problem to be solved before such an interface can be realized is the efficient and accurate recognition (or parsing) of handwritten input. We present techniques for building visual language parsers based on a new formalism, constrained set grammars. Constrained set grammars provide a high-level and declarative specification of visual languages and support the automatic generation of efficient parsers. These techniques have been used to build parsers for several representative visual languages.
Keywords: Notepad computers, Constraints, Parsing, Visual languages

Systems for Training

Predicting the Learnability of Task-Action Mappings BIBAPDF 113-118
  Andrew Howes; Richard M. Young
Programmable User Models (PUMs) are tools based on psychological theory that enable interface designers to predict the usability of a proposed design. This paper presents a variant in which the PUM, implemented in Soar and incorporating the constraints of Display-based Task-Action Grammars, learns the task-action mapping by being guided by the designer during performance. We show that the more consistent and interactive the interface, the easier it is for the designer to teach the PUM the necessary task-action mapping.

Practical Design Methods

User Interface Evaluation in the Real World: A Comparison of Four Techniques BIBAKPDF 119-124
  Robin Jeffries; James R. Miller; Cathleen Wharton; Kathy M. Uyeda
A user interface (UI) for a software product was evaluated prior to its release by four groups, each applying a different technique: heuristic evaluation, software guidelines, cognitive walkthroughs, and usability testing. Heuristic evaluation by several UI specialists found the most serious problems with the least amount of effort, although they also reported a large number of low-priority problems. The relative advantages of all the techniques are discussed, and suggestions for improvements in the techniques are offered.
Keywords: Evaluation, Guidelines, Usability testing, Cognitive walkthrough

Programming

Expert Problem Solving Strategies for Program Comprehension BIBAKPDF 125-130
  Jurgen Koenemann; Scott P. Robertson
Program comprehension is a complex problem solving process. We report on an experiment that studies expert programmers' comprehension behavior in the context of modifying a complex PASCAL program. Our data suggests that program comprehension is best understood as a goal-oriented, hypotheses-driven problem-solving process. Programmers follow a pragmatic as-needed rather than a systematic strategy, they restrict their understanding to those parts of a program they find relevant for a given task, and they use bottom-up comprehension only for directly relevant code and in cases of missing, insufficient, or failing hypotheses. These findings have important consequences for the design of cognitively adequate computer-aided software engineering tools.
Keywords: Software psychology, Program comprehension, Protocol analysis

Virtual Reality

Dialogue Structures for Virtual Worlds BIBAKPDF 131-136
  J. Bryan Lewis; Lawrence Koved; Daniel T. Ling
We describe a software architecture for virtual worlds, built on a base of multiple processes communicating through a central event-driven user interface management system. The virtual world's behavior is specified by a dialogue composed of modular subdialogues or rule sets. In order to achieve high flexibility, device remappability and reusability, the rule sets should be written as independent modules, each encapsulating its own state. Each should be designed according to its purpose in a conceptual hierarchy: it can transform a specific device into a generic device, or transform a generic device into an interaction technique, or, at the top level, map interaction techniques to actions.
Keywords: User-interface design issues, User interface management systems, Virtual worlds, Virtual reality

Understanding Graphical Interfaces

A Cognitive Model for the Perception and Understanding of Graphs BIBAKPDF 137-144
  Jerry Lohse
Despite the increasing importance of graphics in the design of information systems, we have only a partial understanding of how people perceive and process graphic information. This paper describes a computer program, UCIE, that simulates graphical perception. The goal of the program is to model the underlying perceptual and cognitive processes people use to decode information from a graph. The model predicts reaction time from assumptions about the logical sequence of eye fixations, STM capacity and duration limitations, and the relative level of difficulty to acquire information in each glance. The model summarizes a large body of empirical results and can be the core of an expert advisor for the construction of graphs.
Keywords: User-interface design issues, Graphic presentations, Screen layout, Models of the user, GOMS

User Interface Design Process and Evaluation

Human Factors in Software Development: Models, Techniques, and Outcomes BIBAKPDF 145-151
  Jay Lundell; Mark Notess
We present the results of a survey designed to identify ways that human factors engineers have been successfully involved in software projects. Surveys describing successful and unsuccessful outcomes were returned by 14 human factors engineers and 21 software and documentation engineers at Hewlett Packard. In addition to describing the type of involvement and techniques used, respondents were also asked to define what they considered to be a successful outcome and give their views on what factors contribute to success or failure. The results of this study suggest ways in which the human factors/R&D partnership can be more effective in current development scenarios.
Keywords: Human factors in software development, System design, Organization, Survey

Group Use of Computing

Triggers and Barriers to Customizing Software BIBAKPDF 153-160
  Wendy E. Mackay
One of the properties of a user interface is that it both guides and constrains the patterns of interaction between the user and the software application. Application software is increasingly designed to be "customizable" by the end user, providing specific mechanisms by which users may specify individual preferences about the software and how they will interact with it over multiple sessions. Users may thus encode and preserve their preferred patterns of use. These customizations, together with choices about which applications to use, make up the unique "software environment" for each individual.
   While it is theoretically possible for each user to carefully evaluate and optimize each possible customization option, this study suggests that most people do not. In fact, since time spent customizing is time spent not working, many people do not take advantage of the customization features at all. I studied the customization behavior of 51 users of a Unix software environment, over a period of four months. This paper describes the process by which users decide to customize and examines the factors that influence when and how users make those decisions. These findings have implications for both the design of software and the integration of new software into an organization.
Keywords: Customization, Tailorability, Unix

Pointing, Gesture and Handwriting as Input Media

A Comparison of Input Devices in Elemental Pointing and Dragging Tasks BIBAKPDF 161-166
  I. Scott MacKenzie; Abigail Sellen; William Buxton
An experiment is described comparing three devices (a mouse, a trackball, and a stylus with tablet) in the performance of pointing and dragging tasks. During pointing, movement times were shorter and error rates were lower than during dragging. It is shown that Fitts' law can model both tasks, and that within devices the index of performance is higher when pointing than when dragging. Device differences also appeared. The stylus displayed a higher rate of information processing than the mouse during pointing but not during dragging. The trackball ranked third for both tasks.
Keywords: Input devices, Input tasks, Performance modeling

Use of Familiar Things in the Design of Interfaces

Reaching Through Analogy: A Design Rationale Perspective on Roles of Analogy BIBAKPDF 167-172
  Allan MacLean; Victoria Bellotti; Richard Young; Thomas Moran
A powerful way of reaching through technology is to use analogy to make the technology transparent by exploiting the user's familiarity with other situations. However, analogy has a number of roles in user interface design in addition to the one of helping the user understand the system. In this paper we consider some of these roles and their relationship to our Design Rationale (DR) framework (MacLean et al., 1989). Our goals are to develop the DR framework by exploring the implications of explicitly taking account of analogy, and to articulate an account of the roles of analogy in design by organising them around DR concepts.
Keywords: Analogy, Metaphor, User interface design, Design representation, Design process, Design rationale

Information Visualization

The Perspective Wall: Detail and Context Smoothly Integrated BIBAKPDF 173-179
  Jock D. Mackinlay; George G. Robertson; Stuart K. Card
Tasks that involve large information spaces overwhelm workspaces that do not support efficient use of space and time. For example, case studies indicate that information often contains linear components, which can result in 2D layouts with wide, inefficient aspect ratios. This paper describes a technique called the Perspective Wall for visualizing linear information by smoothly integrating detailed and contextual views. It uses hardware support for 3D interactive animation to fold wide 2D layouts into intuitive 3D visualizations that have a center panel for detail and two perspective panels for context. The resulting visualization supports efficient use of space and time.
Keywords: User-interface design issues, Visual output strategies, Interface metaphors, Graphic presentations, Screen layout, Analysis methods, Analysis of contents of particular domains, Domain specific designs, Information retrieval
The Information Visualizer, An Information Workspace BIBAKPDF 181-188
  Stuart K. Card; George G. Robertson; Jock D. Mackinlay
This paper proposes a concept for the user interface of information retrieval systems called an information workspace. The concept goes beyond the usual notion of an information retrieval system to encompass the cost structure of information from secondary storage to immediate use. As an implementation of the concept, the paper describes an experimental system, called the Information Visualizer, and its rationale. The system is based on (1) the use of 3D/Rooms for increasing the capacity of immediate storage available to the user, (2) the Cognitive Co-processor scheduler-based user interface interaction architecture for coupling the user to information agents, and (3) the use of information visualization for interacting with information structure.
Keywords: Information retrieval, Interface metaphors, Information visualization, Animation, Desktop metaphor, UI theory, 3D graphics, Interactive graphics
Cone Trees: Animated 3D Visualizations of Hierarchical Information BIBAKPDF 189-194
  George G. Robertson; Jock D. Mackinlay; Stuart K. Card
The task of managing and accessing large information spaces is a problem in large scale cognition. Emerging technologies for 3D visualization and interactive animation offer potential solutions to this problem, especially when the structure of the information can be visualized. We describe one of these Information Visualization techniques, called the Cone Tree, which is used for visualizing hierarchical information structures. The hierarchy is presented in 3D to maximize effective use of available screen space and enable visualization of the whole structure. Interactive animation is used to shift some of the user's cognitive load to the human perceptual system.
Keywords: User-interface design issues, Visual output strategies, Interface metaphors, Graphic presentations, Screen layout, Analysis methods, Analysis of contents of particular domains, Domain specific designs, Information retrieval

Special Purpose Interfaces

DETENTE: Practical Support for Practical Action BIBAKPDF 195-202
  David A. Wroblewski; Timothy P. McCandless; William C. Hill
Complex tasks consist of many threads of activity to remember and coordinate. Managing these threads is a significant part of problem solving. Our research attempts to find ways to assist this process. In this paper we present DETENTE, an object-oriented system to embed agendas in complex application interfaces.
Keywords: Agendas, Advertising, Advising, DETENTE, Practical action, Task representation

Remote Synchronous Collaboration

Experiences in the Use of a Media Space BIBAKPDF 203-208
  Marilyn M. Mantei; Ronald M. Baecker; Abigail J. Sellen; William A. S. Buxton; Thomas Milligan; Barry Wellman
A media space is a system that uses integrated video, audio, and computers to allow individuals and groups to work together despite being distributed spatially and temporally. Our media space, CAVECAT (Computer Audio Video Enhanced Collaboration And Telepresence), enables a small number of individuals or groups located in separate offices to engage in collaborative work without leaving their offices. This paper presents and summarizes our experiences during initial use of CAVECAT, including unsolved technological obstacles we have encountered, and the psychological and social impact of the technology. Where possible we discuss relevant findings from the psychological literature, and implications for design of the next-generation media space.
Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Groupware, Media spaces, Desktop videoconferencing

The Use of Video in Remote Group Work

An Experimental Study of Common Ground in Text-Based Communication BIBAKPDF 209-215
  John C. McCarthy; Victoria C. Miles; Andrew F. Monk
An experiment was performed to examine predictions from Clark's contribution theory of discourse. Pairs were asked to use a text-based synchronous messaging system to solve a problem involving the layout of a bank. Contribution theory suggests that in such text-only communication common ground will be difficult to achieve. This was shown to be the case. A parallel system, where participants could use a common report space in addition to the messaging space, significantly reduced these problems. The implications for design are discussed in terms of providing additional channels for communicating the results of discussion separate from the conversation itself.
Keywords: Common ground, Cooperative work, Text-based communication

Remote Synchronous Collaboration

Managing a trois: A Study of a Multi-User Drawing Tool in Distributed Design Work BIBAKPDF 217-224
  Scott L. Minneman; Sara A. Bly
A multi-user drawing tool was used by participants in a distributed design exercise conducted in a multi-media working environment. The goal of the study was to explore how observations from our earlier studies of shared drawing in two-person design activity would hold up when three participants worked together. Additionally, the study provided opportunities to contrast video/audio connections with audio-only connections and to discover new behaviors that emerge in the use of new technologies.
   Participants successfully used the shared drawing system with no observed difficulties attributable to the addition of a third user. Audio-only connections appeared to adequately support this work activity, but details of the participants' interactions in the exercise raised questions that deserve further study. Finally, observations suggest that drawing tools such as the one reported here may offer support for alternative forms of participation in collaborative work.
Keywords: Shared drawing, Collaboration, Group work, Distributed work, Video

User Interface Design Process and Evaluation

PICTIVE - An Exploration in Participatory Design BIBAKPDF 225-231
  Michael J. Muller
This paper describes PICTIVE, an experimental participatory design technique that is intended to enhance user participation in the design process. PICTIVE combines low-tech objects with high(er)-tech video recording. The low-tech objects -- i.e., non-computer representations of system functionality -- are intended to insure that all participants have equal opportunity to contribute their ideas. The video recording makes record-keeping easy, reduces social distance during the design session, and may give rise to informal video "design documents." The session proceeds by a kind of brainstorming, with the low-tech objects used to express each participant's ideas to the others. This paper describes our initial experiences with the PICTIVE technique, informal analyses about why the technique works, and several Bellcore projects and products to which it has been applied.
Keywords: Participatory design, Design process, Users, Software engineering, Prototyping

Practical Design Methods

User Interface Design in the Trenches: Some Tips on Shooting from the Hip BIBAKPDF 232-236
  Robert M. Mulligan; Mark W. Altom; David K. Simkin
The last decade of research and practice in user interface design has given us some good models for designing user interfaces. Getting input from users early and continuously throughout the design process, using rapid prototyping and iterative design techniques, and conducting formal usability testing are now proven methods for assuring good user interfaces. In the real world, however, we often work on projects where it is difficult to put these methods into practice. In this paper we will describe some strategies for making the best possible user interface design decisions given extremely tight schedules, shifting market priorities, and other typical constraints.
Keywords: Design process, Human factors, Organizational issues, Prototyping, User interface

Pointing, Gesture and Handwriting as Input Media

Gesture Recognition Using Recurrent Neural Networks BIBAKPDF 237-242
  Kouichi Murakami; Hitomi Taguchi
A gesture recognition method for Japanese sign language is presented. We have developed a posture recognition system using neural networks which could recognize a finger alphabet of 42 symbols. We then developed a gesture recognition system where each gesture specifies a word. Gesture recognition is more difficult than posture recognition because it has to handle dynamic processes. To deal with dynamic processes we use a recurrent neural network. Here, we describe a gesture recognition method which can recognize continuous gesture. We then discuss the results of our research.
Keywords: Artificial reality, Gesture recognition, Sign language, Neural networks

User Interface Management Systems

Graphical Techniques in a Spreadsheet for Specifying User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 243-249
  Brad A. Myers
Many modern user interface development environments use constraints to connect graphical objects. Constraints are relationships that are declared once and then maintained by the system. Often, systems provide graphical, iconic, or demonstrational techniques for specifying some constraints, but these are incapable of expressing all desired relationships, and it is always necessary to allow the user interface designer to write code to specify complex constraints. The spreadsheet interface described here, called C32, provides the programmer with the full power of writing constraint code in the underlying programming language, but it is significantly easier to use. Unlike other spreadsheets tools for graphics, C32 automatically generates appropriate object references from mouse clicks in graphics windows and uses inferencing and demonstrational techniques to make constructing and copying constraints easier. In addition, C32 also supports monitoring and debugging interfaces by watching values in the spreadsheet while the user interface is running.
Keywords: Constraints, Spreadsheets, User interface development tools

Programming by Demonstration

Text Formatting by Demonstration BIBAKPDF 251-256
  Brad A. Myers
In text formatters such as troff, Scribe, and TEX, users write macro procedures to specify the desired visual appearance. In What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get text formatters, such as MacWrite and Microsoft Word, the formatting is specified by directly manipulating the text. However, some important functionality is lost in these systems since they are not programmable. For example, if the user wants to change the formatting and content of all the chapter headings or page headings, each one must be individually edited. If they had been generated by macros, then editing the macro definition would change them all at once. This paper describes the design for a demonstrational text formatter that allows the user to directly manipulate the formatting of one example, and then the system automatically creates the macro by generalizing the example. This technique makes the formatting for headers, itemized lists, tables, bibliographic references, and many other parts of documents significantly easier to specify and edit.
Keywords: Text formatting, Demonstrational interfaces, Direct manipulation, Programming-by-example, Inferencing

Systems for Training

An Evaluation of Animated Demonstrations for Learning Computer-Based Tasks BIBAKPDF 257-263
  Susan Palmiter; Jay Elkerton
Animated demonstrations are real-time instantiations of computer-based procedures. They appear to be a natural way of helping people learn direct manipulation interfaces, yet we know little about their efficacy. Carefully matched animated demonstrations, procedural textual instructions, and a combination of demonstrations and spoken text were compared. The demonstration groups were faster and more accurate when learning procedural tasks, but seven days later, the text group was faster and as accurate when performing identical and similar tasks. Apparently, the processing of animated demonstrations may not be sufficient for retention and transfer of interface procedures. Even with accompanying text provided, the simplicity of using demonstrations may encourage mimicry and disregard of text.
Keywords: Animated demonstrations, Graphical help, Procedural instructions

Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality on Five Dollars a Day BIBAKPDF 265-270
  Randy Pausch
Virtual reality systems using head-mounted displays and glove input are gaining popularity but their cost prohibits widespread use. We have developed a system using an 80386 IBM-PC (TM), a Polhemus 3Space Isotrak (TM), two Reflection Technology Private Eye (TM) displays, and a Mattel Power Glove (TM). For less than $5,000, we have created an effective vehicle for developing interaction techniques in virtual reality. Our system displays monochrome wire frames of objects with a spatial resolution of 720 by 280, the highest resolution head-mounted system published to date. We have confirmed findings by other researchers that low-latency interaction is significantly more important than high-quality graphics or stereoscopy. We have also found it useful to display reference objects to our user, specifically a ground plane for reference and a vehicle containing the user.
Keywords: Virtual reality, Head-mounted display, Glove input, Computer graphics, Teleoperation, Speech recognition, Hand gesturing, Three-dimensional interaction

Pointing, Gesture and Handwriting as Input Media

Recognizing Handwritten Text BIBAKPDF 271-275
  James A. Pittman
Notebook computers, using stylus input, are currently a hot topic among PC manufacturers. Handwriting recognition may be an important component of such systems, but only if everyday sloppy handwriting can be accommodated. If recognizers require unnaturally neat or boxed character input, such systems may fail in the marketplace. Neural nets have shown excellent performance at handwriting recognition. I present three neural net approaches to recognizing lines of English text: one using 2D image input, one using stroke sequence input, and one using context to combine the outputs of the other two networks. These networks can be combined to form a recognition engine that will handle natural lines of handwritten English text, including handprint, cursive script, and mixtures of both.
Keywords: Character recognition, Neural networks

Programming

A View Matcher for Reusing Smalltalk Classes BIBAKPDF 277-283
  Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll; Christine Sweeney
A prime attraction of object-oriented programming languages is the possibility of reusing code. We examine the support provided by Smalltalk to programmers attempting to incorporate an existing class into a new design, focussing on issues of usage examples, object-specific analysis, how-to-use-it information, and object connections. We then describe a View Matcher for reuse, a tool that documents reusable classes through a set of coordinated views onto concrete usage examples; in three scenarios, we illustrate how the tool addresses the issues raised in our analysis of reuse in Smalltalk.
Keywords: Object-oriented programming, Reuse, Programming tools, Documentation

Special Purpose Interfaces

Models for Evaluating Interaction Protocols in Speech Recognition BIBAKPDF 285-291
  Alexander I. Rudnicky; Alexander G. Hauptmann
Recognition errors complicate the assessment of speech systems. This paper presents a new approach to modeling spoken language interaction protocols, based on finite Markov chains. An interaction protocol, prescribed by the interface design, defines a set of primitive transaction steps and the order of their execution. The efficiency of an interface depends on the interaction protocol as well as the cost of each different transaction step. Markov chains provide a simple and computationally efficient method for modeling errorful systems. They allow for detailed comparisons between different interaction protocols and between different modalities. The method is illustrated by application to example protocols.
Keywords: Speech recognition, Modeling errors, Interface evaluation, User models

Systems for Training

Question Asking as a Tool for Novice Computer Skill Acquisition BIBAKPDF 293-299
  Marc M. Sebrechts; Merryanna L. Swartz
Two experiments examined the utility of a menu-based question-construction help system as part of basic instruction for UNIX. The first experiment indicated that novice or naive users have great difficulty formulating their own questions; a menu-based interface that helps structure questions increased question asking and improved performance during training. A second experiment demonstrated that initial learning benefits more from "procedural" than from "causal" questions. A retention test showed that "correct response" feedback, when coupled with an appropriate problem-solving learning environment, can produce performance comparable to that in the question asking conditions; such feedback, however, did not provide equivalent understanding of the system. These results are discussed in the context of user models of the system and the potential role of constraint in designing question-asking systems.
Keywords: Question asking, Help systems, Computer skill acquisition, User models

User Interface Design Process and Evaluation

A Study of Computer-Supported User Interface Evaluation Using Maximal Repeating Pattern Analysis BIBAKPDF 301-305
  Antonio C. Siochi; Deborah Hix
Maximal repeating pattern (MRP) analysis is a recently developed user interface evaluation technique that uses an algorithm to analyze transcripts of user sessions by detecting repeated user actions. Encouraged by results of an initial study of the MRP technique, we conducted a study in which we evaluated a simple prototype interface using both the MRP technique and observation. Interface problems found by observation were also found by MRP analysis. Although the MRP algorithm produced large amounts of data that an interface evaluator had to analyze, we found that by mapping raw user inputs in the transcripts into more abstract classes via prefiltering, we could perform more useful MRP analyses.
Keywords: Analysis methods, Transcript analysis, Formative evaluation, Prototype evaluation, Usability

Programming by Demonstration

Using Direct Manipulation to Build Algorithm Animations by Demonstration BIBAKPDF 307-314
  John T. Stasko
Dance is a tool that facilitates direct manipulation, demonstrational development of animations for the Tango algorithm animation system. Designers sketch out target actions in a graphical-editing fashion, then Dance automatically generates the code that will carry out those actions. Dance promotes ease-of-design, rapid prototyping, and increased experimentation. It also introduces a methodology that could be used to incorporate demonstrational animation design into areas such as computer assisted instruction and user interface development.
Keywords: Program visualization, Algorithm animation, Direct manipulation

Remote Synchronous Collaboration

VideoWhiteboard: Video Shadows to Support Remote Collaboration BIBAKPDF 315-322
  John C. Tang; Scott L. Minneman
VideoWhiteboard is a prototype tool to support remote shared drawing activity. It provides a whiteboard-sized shared drawing space for collaborators who are located in remote sites. It allows each user to see the drawings and a shadow of the gestures of collaborators at the remote site. The development of VideoWhiteboard is based on empirical studies of collaborative drawing activity, including experiences in using the VideoDraw shared drawing prototype. VideoWhiteboard, enables remote collaborators to work together much as if they were sharing a whiteboard, and in some ways allows them to work together even more closely than if they were in the same room.
Keywords: Collaborative systems, Shared drawing, Gesture, Video, User interface, Design process

User Interface Management Systems

Graphical Toolkit Approach to User Interaction Description BIBAKPDF 323-328
  Kosuke Tatsukawa
This paper proposes a new model which describes the presentation and behaviour of user interfaces. The behaviour of the user interface is specified as an event flow graph consisting of components as its nodes and the paths through which events are sent as its edges. A meta-level function is introduced to describe user interfaces whose constituent components change through user interaction. The reusability of objects is augmented by representing their presentation and behaviour as a connected subgraph of the event flow graph. User interface development systems based on this model can create the user interface under a totally visual environment.
Keywords: Graphic interface, User interface management system, Visual programming

Practical Design Methods

The Use of Guidelines in Interface Design BIBAKPDF 329-333
  Linda Tetzlaff; David R. Schwartz
We studied the use of an evolving interface style book to evaluate the role of such guidelines in the development of style-conforming interface designs. Although the designs were judged to be generally conforming, study participants had significant difficulty in interpreting the guidelines. Our designers were manifestly task oriented and impatient with extraneous material. They depended heavily on the pictorial examples, often to the exclusion of the accompanying text. We conclude that dependency on guidelines should be minimized, and that guidelines should be developed primarily to complement toolkits and interactive examples, focussing on information intrinsically unavailable through those vehicles.
Keywords: Guidelines, User interface design
Assessing the Usability of a User Interface Standard BIBAKPDF 335-341
  Henrik Thovtrup; Jakob Nielsen
User interface standards can be hard to use for developers. In a laboratory experiment, 26 students achieved only 71% compliance with a two page standard; many violations were due to influence from previous experience with non-standard systems. In a study of a real company's standard, developers were only able to find 4 to 12 actual deviations in a sample system, and three real products broke between 7 and 12 of the 22 mandatory rules in the standard. Designers were found to rely heavily on the examples in the standard and their experience with other user interfaces.
Keywords: Standards, Consistency, Examples, System development, Developers, Attitudes

Multimedia Authoring Systems

IMPACT: An Interactive Natural-Motion-Picture Dedicated Multimedia Authoring System BIBAKPDF 343-350
  Hirotada Ueda; Takafumi Miyatake; Satoshi Yoshizawa
A new approach to achieving a natural-motion-picture dedicated multi-media authoring system is proposed. The main point of this approach, discussed in this paper, is that the user's environment or interface is improved to encourage user's creativity, with image processing and recognition technology. According to the discussion, a prototype motion picture authoring system that has several image-processing functions is developed. The newly developed functions include object extraction of the picture, semi-automatic visualization of motion pictures structure, and certain descriptions of the scene. Result of using the prototype shows the appropriateness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Multimedia authoring, User creativity, Motion picture, Visualization, Image processing, Image recognition

Sound

Localization with Non-Individualized Virtual Acoustic Display Cues BIBAKPDF 351-359
  Elizabeth M. Wenzel; Frederic L. Wightman; Doris J. Kistler
A recent development in advanced interface technologies is the virtual acoustic display, a system that presents three-dimensional auditory information over headphones [20]. The utility of such a display depends on the accuracy with which listeners can localize the virtual, or simulated, sound sources. Synthesis of virtual sources involves the digital filtering of stimuli using filters based on acoustic Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) measured in human ear-canals. In practise, measurement of the HRTFs of each potential user of a 3-D display may not be feasible. Thus, a critical research question is whether listeners from the general population can obtain adequate localization cues stimuli based on non-individualized filters.
   In the present study, 16 inexperienced listeners judged the apparent spatial location (azimuth and elevation) of wideband noisebursts that were presented either over loudspeakers in the free-field (an anechoic or non-reverberent environment) or over headphones. The headphone stimuli were synthesized using HRTFs from a representative subject in a previous study [23]. Localization of both free-field and virtual sources was quite accurate for 12 of the subjects, 2 showed poor elevation accuracy in both free-field and headphone conditions, and 2 showed degraded elevation accuracy only with virtual sources. High rates of confusion errors (reversals in judgements of azimuth and elevation) were also observed for some of the subjects and tended to increase for the virtual sources. In general, the data suggest that most listeners can obtain useful directional information from an auditory display without requiring the use of individually-tailored HRTFs, particularly for the dimension of azimuth. However, the high rates of confusion errors remain problematic. Several stimulus characteristics which may help to minimize these errors are discussed.
Keywords: User-interface design issues, Virtual acoustic displays, Auditory perception & localization

The Use of Video in Remote Group Work

Co-Ordinating Activity: An Analysis of Interaction in Computer-Supported Co-Operative Work BIBAKPDF 361-367
  Steve Whittaker; Susan E. Brennan; Herbert H. Clark
We examined mediated communication using a shared electronic Whiteboard with and without the addition of a speech channel. The 3 users were not co-present. There were two major findings: (a) permanent media such as the Whiteboard enable users to construct shared data structures around which to organise their activity, and (b) this permanence allows users to abandon some (but not all) of the turn-taking commonly used in spoken conversation and to organise their activities in a highly parallel manner. With the addition of a speech channel, people still used the Whiteboard to construct shared data structures that make up the CONTENT of these communications, while speech was used for coordinating the PROCESS of communication.
Keywords: Mediated communication, Group work, Media, Shared workspaces, Activity co-ordination

Panels

Should We or Shouldn't We Use Spoken Commands in Voice Interfaces? BIBAPDF 369-372
  Paul Brennan; Gerhard Deffner; Debbie Lawrence; Monica Marics; Eileen Schwab; Marita Franzke
The current usefulness of voice recognition seems suspect given today's level of commercial voice recognition technology. The panel will discuss what improvements are necessary to make voice recognition an acceptable input medium for general consumer applications.
Retrospective on the MCC Human Interface Laboratory BIBAPDF 373-376
  Bill Curtis; Roy Kuntz; Bill Curtis; Jim Hollan; S. Joy Mountford; George Collier
On July 27, 1990 the participants in MCC's Advanced Computer Technology Program decided to terminate MCC's Human Interface Laboratory. This panel will present the technical and organizational lessons learned in the rise and fall of MCC's Human Interface Laboratory.
Modelling User, System and Design: Results of a Scenarios Matrix Exercise BIBAPDF 377-380
  Nick Hammond; Phil Barnard; Joelle Coutaz; Michael Harrison; Allan MacLean; Richard M. Young
This panel will discuss the results of an exercise aimed at investigating how various modelling approaches from Cognitive Science and Software Engineering can be integrated into HCI design. Each panelist will outline their approach and present their approach's performance on two agreed upon design scenarios.
Interface and Narrative Arts: Contributions from Narrative, Drama, and Film BIBAPDF 381-383
  Brenda Laurel; Joseph Bates; Abbe Don; Rachel Strickland
This panel will explore both theoretical and practical contributions from the disciplines of narrative, drama, and film to the field of interface design. Example applications in information retrieval, art, education, simulation, entertainment, and programming will be explored.
A Day in the Life of... BIBAPDF 385-388
  S. Joy Mountford; Dominic Milano; Peter Mitchell; Thecla Shiphorst; Paul Zimmerman
Case studies will be used to show how and where various expressive "artists" do or do not use technology in their work place. The culmination of this panel will be made in the form of a multi-media presentation created by the panelists during the conference.
Participatory Design in Britain and North America: Responses to the "Scandinavian Challenge" BIBAPDF 389-392
  Michael J. Muller; Jeanette L. Blomberg; Kathleen A. Carter; Elizabeth A. Dykstra; Kim Halskov Madsen; Joan Greenbaum
This panel will focus on participatory design work conducted outside Scandinavia. Each panelist will focus on what accommodations were required in participatory design techniques to meet the needs of British and North American environments. Panelists will also discuss accommodations that occurred in these environments in response to experiences with participatory design.
Demonstrational Interfaces: Coming Soon? BIBAPDF 393-396
  Brad A. Myers; Allen Cypher; David Maulsby; David C. Smith; Ben Shneiderman
A "demonstrational interface" watches while the user executes conventional direct manipulation actions, creating a general abstraction from the specific examples. The panel will discuss how demonstrational interfaces can be used, and when and whether they will become more common.
Legal Debate on the Copyright Look and Feel Lawsuits: The Sequel BIBAPDF 397-398
  Pamela Samuelson; Anthony L. Clapes; Michael Jacobs; Michael Lesk; Bruce Warren
This panel will provide an opportunity to hear attorneys and members of the CHI community debate the pros and cons of "strong" copyright protection for user interfaces to computer programs. The lawyer debaters will discuss some of the judicial decisions that have been issued since the first CHI legal debate in 1989.
HCI Theory on Trial BIBAPDF 399-401
  Alistair Sutcliffe; John Carroll; Richard Young; John Long
This panel will examine the potential of artifact theory to deliver usable designs in contention with two rival theories, the HCI conception of engineering, and cognitive modelling. The aim will be to explore how well artifact theory and alternative approaches can deliver good design and the contribution the theory makes to the process and product of design.

Special Presentations

Ethical Issues in the Use of Video: Is it Time to Establish Guidelines? (SIGCHI Discussion Forum) BIBAPDF 403-405
  Wendy E. Mackay
Researchers and designers increasingly use video to obtain information about how people interact with technology. This session provides a forum for discussion: to identify ethical issues, learn from invited guests about existing practice in other fields, and determine whether or not the Human-Computer Interaction community should develop its own set of guidelines for the ethical use of video.
FRIEND21 Project: A Construction of 21st Century Human Interface BIBAPDF 407-414
  Hajime Nonogaki; Hirotada Ueda
FRIEND21 is a Japanese national project to develop the interface architecture for computer machinery for the 21st century information environment. FRIEND21 stands for Future Personalized Information Environment Development. The member companies consist of three different industrial groups: computer manufacturers, home electronics companies, and publishing or printing companies. FRIEND21 is proposing a new design concept for constructing the human interface. This will be implemented using multiple metaphors for people's direct engagement into the environment called Contextual Metaphors and a new software architecture called the Agency Model.

Demonstrations: Program Development Tools

The Views User-Interface System BIBPDF 415-416
  Lon Barfield; Eddy Boeve; Steven Pemberton

Demonstrations: Interface Design Issues

User-Oriented Color Interface Design: Direct Manipulation of Color in Context BIBPDF 417-418
  Penny F. Bauersfeld; Jodi L. Slater

Demonstrations: Program Development Tools

RPP: A System for Prototyping Interfaces BIBPDF 419-420
  Jen-Hsien Chien; Sheng-Tsai Fu; Ellis Horowitz; Christopher Rouff
ERGO-Shell: A UNIX Interface for Task Preparation BIBPDF 421-422
  Wolfgang Dzida; Regine Freitag; Wilhelm Valder

Demonstrations: Multimedia Tutoring Systems

John Cocke: A Retrospective by Friends (An Interactive Media Scrapbook) BIBPDF 423-424
  Nancy Frishberg; Mark R. Laff; Moe R. Desrosiers; W. Randall Koons; J. F. Kelley

Demonstrations: Cooperative Work

Object Lens: Letting End-Users Create Cooperative Work Applications BIBPDF 425-426
  Kum-Yew Lai; Thomas W. Malone

Demonstrations: Interface Design Issues

An Automated Cognitive Walkthrough BIBPDF 427-428
  John Rieman; Susan Davies; D. Charles Hair; Mary Esemplare; Peter Polson; Clayton Lewis

Demonstrations: Multimedia Systems

Computers as Communicators: Designing a Multimedia Interface that Facilitates Cultural Understanding among Sixth Graders BIBPDF 429-430
  Amanda Ropa

Demonstrations: Program Development Tools

Demonstrating a View Matcher for Reusing Smalltalk Classes BIBPDF 431-432
  Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll; Christine Sweeney

Demonstrations: Tutoring Systems

A Graphical Reflection Notation Used in an Intelligent Discovery World Tutoring System BIBPDF 433-434
  Jamie Schultz

Demonstrations: Multimedia Systems

Hypermedia and Echocardiography: An Interface Design for Guided Discovery BIBPDF 435-436
  Marc M. Sebrechts; C. Carl Jaffe; Patrick Lynch

Demonstrations: Cooperative Work

Supporting Personal Networking Through Computer Networking BIBPDF 437-438
  Mildred L. G. Shaw; Brian R. Gaines

Demonstrations: Tutoring Systems

Molehill: An Instructional System for Smalltalk Programming BIBPDF 439-440
  Mark K. Singley

Demonstrations: Cooperative Work

WE-MET (Window Environment-Meeting Enhancement Tools) BIBPDF 441-442
  Catherine G. Wolf; James R. Rhyne; Lorna A. Zorman; Harold L. Ossher

Videos

Documents as User Interfaces BIBPDF 443-444
  Eric A. Bier; Ken Pier

Videos: Programming by Demonstration

EAGER: Programming Repetitive Tasks by Example BIBPDF 445-446
  Allen Cypher

Videos

Guides 3.0 BIBPDF 447-448
  Abbe Don; Tim Oren; Brenda Laurel
COMET: Generating Coordinated Multimedia Explanations BIBPDF 449-450
  Steven K. Feiner; Kathleen R. McKeown

Videos: Special Purpose Interfaces

Editable Graphical Histories: The Video BIBPDF 451-452
  David Kurlander; Steven Feiner
Spoken Language Interfaces: The OM System BIBPDF 453-454
  Jean-Michel Lunati; Alexander I. Rudnicky

Videos: Information Visualization

Rapid Controlled Movement through Virtual 3D Workspaces BIBPDF 455-456
  Jock D. Mackinlay; George G. Robertson; Stuart K. Card

Videos

JANUS: Basic Concepts and Sample Dialog BIBPDF 457-458
  Anders Morch; Andreas Girgensohn

Videos: Special Purpose Interfaces

Scheduling ON-OFF Home Control Devices BIBPDF 459-460
  Catherine Plaisant; Ben Shneiderman

Videos: Information Visualization

Information Visualization Using 3D Interactive Animation BIBPDF 461-462
  George G. Robertson; Jock D. Mackinlay; Stuart K. Card

Videos: Pointing, Gesture and Handwriting as Input Media

The Cue Ball as Part of a Gestural Interface BIBPDF 463
  David D. Thiel

Videos

The Lapidary Graphical Interface Design Tool BIBPDF 465-466
  Brad Vander Zanden; Brad A. Myers

Laboratory Overviews

The University of Toronto Dynamic Graphics Project BIBPDF 467-468
  Ronald Baecker; Marilyn Mantei; William Buxton; Eugene Fiume
Computer Dialogue Laboratory, SRI International BIBPDF 469-470
  Philip R. Cohen
Human Interface at SUN (East) BIBPDF 471-472
  Kate Ehrlich
Apple Computer's Human Interface Group: Advanced Technology Group BIBPDF 473-474
  Kathleen M. Gomoll
Human Computer Interaction Laboratory, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London BIBPDF 475-476
  Peter Johnson
The System Work Group, Computer Science Department, Aarhus University BIBPDF 477-478
  Morten Kyng
Research in HCI and Usability at IBM's User Interface Institute BIBPDF 479-480
  John T. Richards
Human Computer Interaction Division Logica Cambridge Ltd., UK BIBPDF 481-482
  Rod Rivers
HCI Research at the Institute of Systems Science BIBPDF 483-484
  John A. Waterworth; Juzar Motiwalla

Special Interest Groups

User Participation in Large Systems Development BIBPDF 485
  Russell A. Benel
User Interface Standards: Who, What, How, and Why BIBPDF 485
  Pat Billingsley
User Interfaces for Geographic Information Systems BIBPDF 485
  Andrew U. Frank
Midyear Meeting of the Human Factors Society's Computer Systems Technical Group BIBPDF 485
  Georgia Green
Developing Industrial-Strength User Interfaces BIBPDF 485
  Richard Halstead-Nussloch
Phone-Based Interfaces BIBPDF 486
  Richard Halstead-Nussloch
Voice Recognition BIBPDF 486
  Walter Kosinsky
User-Centered Processes and Evaluation in Product Development BIBPDF 486
  Karen H. Kvavik
Rapid Prototyping Tools: 'Let the Voices of the Users Be Heard!' BIBPDF 486
  Harold H. Miller-Jacobs
The Garnet User Interface Development Environment BIBPDF 486
  Brad Myers
Resources in Human-Computer Interaction: What's Out There and How to Use It BIBPDF 486
  Gary Perlman
Software Development Tools Supporting Team Synergy BIBPDF 486
  A Rokberger
Current Issues in Assessing and Improving Documentation Usability BIBPDF 487
  Stephanie Rosenbaum
User Interface Developers' Workshop Report: Seeheim Revisited BIBPDF 487
  Sylvia Sheppard
Special Interest Group for Graphic Designers BIBPDF 487
  Suzanne Watzman
The Design of Recognition-Based User Interfaces BIBPDF 487
  Catherine G. Wolf

Doctoral Consortium

Shared Expertise and the Answer Garden BIBPDF 489
  Mark Ackerman
An Empirically Developed System for the Selection of Computer Input Devices for Users with Physical Disabilities BIBPDF 489
  Sherry Perdue Casali
Application of Head-Mounted Display to Radiotherapy Treatment Planning BIBPDF 489
  James C. Chung
A Text Comprehension Model of Hypertext: A Theory Based Approach to Design and Evaluation BIBPDF 489
  Peter W. Foltz
Deciding Through Doing: The Role of Sketching in Typographic Design BIBPDF 490
  Rachel Hewson
Marking Primitives as the Basis for a New User Interface Paradigm BIBPDF 490
  Gordon Kurtenbach
Analogical Reasoning, Expertise, and the Learning of Computer Software BIBPDF 490
  Adrienne Y. Lee
A Cognitive Model for Understanding Graphical Perception BIBPDF 491
  Jerry Lohse
The Mutual Adoption of Technology and Organization During the Implementation of an Automated Library System BIBPDF 491
  Cynthia Lopata
Perceptual/Motor Issues in Menu Design: Of Mice and Menus, A Study of the Best Laid Plans BIBPDF 491
  Erik Nilsen
Supporting Software Reuse through Examples BIBPDF 492
  David F. Redmiles
Implications of the Differences Between Cognitive Architectures for Human-Computer Interaction: A Comparative Study of Soar and the Construction-Integration Model BIBPDF 492
  Cathleen Wharton

Interactive Posters

BIB 493-496
 

Short Talks

BIB 497-498
 

Tutorials

BIB 499-500
 

Workshops

BIB 501