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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X92Y92a92b93X93Y93a93b94-1

Proceedings of ACM CHI'90 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of CHI'90 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Empowering People
Editors:Jane Carrasco; John Whiteside
Location:Seattle, Washington
Dates:1990-Apr-01 to 1990-Apr-05
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-345-0 ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608900; Addison-Wesley ISBN 0-201-50932-6; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI90
Papers:72
Pages:474
  1. Plenary Address
  2. Eye, Voice and Touch
  3. Constraint Based UI Tools
  4. Panel
  5. UIMS Techniques
  6. Lab Reviews
  7. Panel
  8. UI Models: Extensions & Applications of GOMS
  9. Multi-Media
  10. Panel
  11. Application Areas
  12. End User Modifiable Environment
  13. Panel
  14. Fitts Session
  15. Methodology
  16. Panel
  17. Evolution and Practice in User Interface Engineering
  18. Lab Reviews
  19. Panel
  20. CSCW - Computer Support for Real Time Collaborative Work
  21. Transcending Perspectives
  22. Panel
  23. The Organizational Context of Design
  24. Lab Reviews
  25. Panel
  26. UI Models
  27. Aids to Understanding Programs
  28. Panel
  29. Plenary Address
  30. Special Report
  31. Doctoral Consortium

Plenary Address

Redefining Tomorrow's User Interface BIB 1
  Michael L. Dertouzos

Eye, Voice and Touch

A Gaze-Responsive Self-Disclosing Display BIBAK 3-9
  India Starker; Richard A. Bolt
An information display system is described which uses eye-tracking to monitor user looking about its graphics screen. The system analyzes the user's patterns of eye movements and fixations in real-time to make inferences about what item or collection of items shown holds most relative interest for the user. Material thus identified is zoomed-in for a closer look, and described in more detail via synthesized speech.
Keywords: Eye tracking, Self-disclosing systems
What You Look At is What You Get: Eye Movement-Based Interaction Techniques BIBAK 11-18
  Robert J. K. Jacob
In seeking hitherto-unused methods by which users and computers can communicate, we investigate the usefulness of eye movements as a fast and convenient auxiliary user-to-computer communication mode. The barrier to exploiting this medium has not been eye-tracking technology but the study of interaction techniques that incorporate eye movements into the user-computer dialogue in a natural and unobtrusive way. This paper discusses some of the human factors and technical considerations that arise in trying to use eye movements as an input medium, describes our approach and the first eye movement-based interaction techniques that we have devised and implemented in our laboratory, and reports our experiences and observations on them.
Keywords: Eye movements, Eye tracking, Interaction techniques, Human-computer interaction, Input
Measuring the True Cost of Command Selection: Techniques and Results BIBAK 19-25
  Richard F. Dillon; Jeff D. Eday; Jo W. Tombaugh
A technique that measures the impact of command selection on task time and errors in described. Users were timed while performing a drawing task, then while performing the same task with interpolated command selections. The difference between these times, consisting of both the time to select the command and to resume drawing, is the time cost of command selection. Several interface configurations were evaluated with this method including selected combinations of single mouse, two mice, voice and touch. Touch and voice input resulted in faster command selection times (approximately 1 sec) than any of the mouse conditions (approximately 3 sec).
Keywords: Command selection, User testing, Input devices, Speech recognition, Mouse, Touch screen

Constraint Based UI Tools

Automatic, Look-and-Feel Independent Dialog Creation for Graphical User Interfaces BIBAK 27-34
  Brad Vander Zanden; Brad A. Myers
Jade is a new interactive tool that automatically creates graphical input dialogs such as dialog boxes and menus. Application programmers write a textual specification of a dialog's contents. This specification contains absolutely no graphical information and thus is look-and-feel independent. The graphic artist uses a direct manipulation graphical editor to define the rules, graphical objects, interaction techniques, and decorations that will govern the dialog's look-and-feel, and stores the results in a look and feel database. Jade combines the application programmer's specification with the look-and-feel database to automatically generate a graphical dialog. If necessary, the graphic artist can then edit the resulting dialog using a graphical editor and these edits will be remembered by Jade, even if the original textual specification is modified. By eliminating all graphical references from the dialog's content specification, Jade requires only the absolutely minimum specification from the application programmer. This also allows a dialog box or menu's look and feel to be rapidly and effortlessly changed by simply switching look and feel databases. Finally, Jade permits complex inter-field relationships to be specified in a simple manner.
Keywords: Automatic dialog layout, Look-and-feel independence, Direct manipulation, Graphical specification
Surface Interaction: A Paradigm and Model for Separating Application and Interface BIBAK 35-42
  Roger Took
From the point of view of the application designer, user interface services work by factoring some domain common to a range of applications, and implementing this separately. Existing services, such as window managers, UIMSs, or toolkits, either lack generality, or are limited in their separability. A new interface paradigm, here called surface interaction, separates application and interface by factoring presentation and its manipulation, rather than dialogue or functionality. The surface is thus a medium which can be controlled equally by the user or by the application. This paper outlines Presenter, an implementation of a model for surface interaction.
Keywords: UIMS, Toolkits, Window managers, Interactive graphics, Document processors
Using Constraints to Achieve Stability in Automatic Graph Layout Algorithms BIBAK 43-51
  Karl-Friedrich Bohringer; Frances Newbery Paulisch
Automatic layout algorithms are commonly used when displaying graphs on the screen because they provide a "nice" drawing of the graph without user intervention. There are, however, a couple of disadvantages to automatic layout. Without user intervention, an automatic layout algorithm is only capable of producing an aesthetically pleasing drawing of the graph. User- or application-specified layout constraints (often concerning the semantics of a graph) are difficult or impossible to specify. A second problem is that automatic layout algorithms seldom make use of information in the current layout when calculating the new layout. This can also be frustrating to the user because whenever a new layout is done, the user's orientation in the graph is lost.
   This paper suggests using layout constraints to solve both of these problems. We show how user-specified layout constraints may be easily added to many automatic graph layout algorithms. Additionally, the constraints specified by the current layout are used when calculating the new layout to achieve a more stable layout. This approach allows a continuum between manual and automatic layout by allowing the user to specify how stable the graph's layout should be.
Keywords: Graphical user interfaces, Graph layout algorithms, Layout constraints

Panel

A Snapshot of Natural Language Interfaces BIB 53-55
  Hans Brunner; Kent Wittenburg; Mike Williams; Yukiko Sekine; Sandy Dahlgren; Phil Washco

UIMS Techniques

Propositional Production Systems for Dialog Description BIBAK 57-63
  Dan R., Jr. Olsen
The Propositional Production System (PPS) for describing interactive dialogs is defined. It is shown to be a superset of state machines, window event translation tables and event response systems. It is shown how dialogs can be expanded by means of inheritance and how semantic control information can be uniformly integrated into the dialog model. Optimizations are defined which can tune the executable machine for either minimal space or minimal execution time.
Keywords: Dialog description, User interface management systems
Adaptive Semantic Snapping - A Technique for Semantic Feedback at the Lexical Level BIBA 65-70
  Scott E. Hudson
This paper describes the implementation of semantic snapping - an interaction technique that provides semantic feedback at the lexical level while dragging a graphical object on the screen. Like conventional snapping, or gravity fields, semantic snapping includes a geometric component where objects in close proximity are drawn together or "snap" into position. However, semantic snapping goes further by allowing non-geometric (semantic) properties of objects to place additional constraints on snapping. Semantic snapping also provides more complex lexical feedback which reflects potential semantic consequences of a snap. This paper motivates the use of semantic snapping and describes how this technique has been implemented in a window-based toolkit. This implementation works in an adaptive manner to provide the best interactive response in situations where semantic tests are very time consuming and strain the limits of acceptable performance.
Help by Guided Tasks; Utilizing UIMS Knowledge BIBA 71-78
  Robin Tuck; Dan R. Olsen
A help delivery mechanism integrated with a semantic UIMS is presented. The guided task paradigm is implemented where a user participates in a guided step-by-step demonstration. Help authors create task scripts composed of statements drawn from the semantic definition of the user interface. The help delivery system automatically translates such statements into user instructions which guide the user through the actions necessary to accomplish a task. Any application developed using this UIMS automatically gets this help authoring and presentation facility with no added effort.

Lab Reviews

Human-Computer Interaction Research at the University of Illinois BIB 79-80
  Arthur F. Kramer; Christopher D. Wickens
NTT Human Interface Laboratories BIB 81-82
  Takaya Endo; Hiroshi Ishii
User Interface and Quality Planning Department -- AT&T Bell Laboratories BIB 83-84
  Bruce H. Fetz; Mary Carol Day
Human Computer Interaction Group, University of York, U.K. BIBA 85-86
  Michael Harrison; Andrew Monk
Staff in the Departments of Computer Science and Psychology at the University of York have been cooperating in interdisciplinary research since 1983. The mainstream of York's approach is to apply theory developed in these parent disciplines to HCI design. Our goal is to integrate formal and empirical methods. By formal methods we mean mathematical models that are capable of capturing properties of a user interface. By empirical methods we mean the observation and measurement of user behavior. Integration of these two approaches is achieved by an iterative design process in which formal models are successively refined by testing their predictions against the results of user trials.

Panel

How Can We Make Groupware Practical? BIB 87-89
  Bob Ensor; Terry Crowley; Bob Kraut; Gail Rein; Lee Sproull

UI Models: Extensions & Applications of GOMS

Using a Knowledge Analysis to Predict Conceptual Errors in Text-Editor Usage BIBAK 91-97
  Richard M. Young; Joyce Whittington
The knowledge analysis of a device and a task, when written in an external Instruction Language and translated into rules for a programmable cognitive architecture, enables a designer to predict conceptual errors in device usage. This kind of prediction lies outside the scope of GOMS-based models. The cognitive architecture, which is referred to as a "Programmable User Model" (PUM), incorporates a limited problem-solving capability based upon means-ends analysis and multiple problem spaces. The example presented, concerning a simple text editor, illustrates the application of a PUM and demonstrates that a correct description of local knowledge does not necessarily lead to correct behaviour. This can serve to alert the designer to difficulties with the usability of a proposed interface.
Keywords: User models, Errors, GOMS, PUMs
Designing Minimal Documentation Using a GOMS Model: A Usability Evaluation of an Engineering Approach BIBAK 99-106
  Richard Gong; Jay Elkerton
The Minimal Manual proposed by Carroll, Smith-Kerker, Ford, and Mazur has been demonstrated to improve the performance of novices learning a word processing system. However, little research exists to suggest a practical methodology for implementing the important features of a minimal manual. Using the GOMS model, we incrementally modified a manual to include certain minimal manual features: reduced verbiage, focus on real tasks, and error recovery support. An evaluation of the manuals with novice users demonstrated significant improvements in learning performance when the manual was modified to be task-oriented with explicit procedural steps for accomplishing real tasks.
Keywords: Documentation, GOMS, Procedural instructions, Minimal manual, User's manual
Extensions of GOMS Analyses to Expert Performance Requiring Perception of Dynamic Visual and Auditory Information BIBAK 107-115
  Bonnie E. John
GOMS models of telephone toll and assistance operators (TAOs) are being constructed in an effort to provide theoretical predictions of expert performance on several dedicated workstations. This applied effort has pushed the development of GOMS modeling techniques into the area of speech input and output, and into a task where information is not always available when it is required by the TAO. This paper describes the task, heuristics for constructing the GOMS models, and parameters for making quantitative predictions of performance time.
Keywords: User models, Cognitive models, GOMS, Model human processor

Multi-Media

The Design Space of Input Devices BIBAK 117-124
  Stuart K. Card; Jock D. Mackinlay; George G. Robertson
A bewildering variety of devices for communication from humans to computers now exists on the market. In order to make sense of this variety, and to aid in the design of new input devices, we propose a framework for describing and analyzing input devices. Following Mackinlay's semantic analysis of the design space for graphical presentations, our goal is to provide tools for the generation and test of input device designs. The descriptive tools we have created allow us to describe the semantics of a device and measure its expressiveness. Using these tools, we have built a taxonomy of input devices that goes beyond earlier taxonomies of Buxton & Baecker and Foley, Wallace, & Chan. In this paper, we build on these descriptive tools, and proceed to the use of human performance theories and data for evaluation of the effectiveness of points in this design space. We focus on two figures of merit, footprint and bandwidth, to illustrate this evaluation. The result is the systematic integration of methods for both generating and testing the design space of input devices.
Keywords: Input devices, Semantics, Design knowledge systematization
Stereophonic and Surface Sound Generation for Exploratory Data Analysis BIBAK 125-132
  Stuart Smith; R. Daniel Bergeron; Georges G. Grinstein
The analysis and interpretation of very high dimensional data require the development and use of data presentation techniques that harness human perceptual powers. The University of Lowell's Exploratory Visualization project (Exvis) aims at designing, implementing, and evaluating perceptually-based tools for data presentation using both visual and auditory domains. This paper describes several auditory data presentation techniques, including the generation of stereophonic sound with apparent depth and sound that appears to emanate from a two-dimensional area. Both approaches can produce sound with auditory texture.
Keywords: Exploratory data analysis, Sound perception, Multi-dimensional data perception
Issues in Multimedia Interface Design: Media Integration and Interface Agents BIBAK 133-139
  Brenda Laurel; Tim Oren; Abbe Don
A central challenge in the design of multimedia databases is integrating information from different media sources while reducing the cognitive load imposed on users by the tasks of learning and operating the interface. In light of results from a prototype multimedia project developed at Apple, we believe that an agent-style interface addresses this challenge in several ways. This paper discusses techniques for achieving media integration and details the use of interface agents in facilitating `navigation', enhancing content through point of view, and supporting users in a variety of instrumental and experiential tasks.
Keywords: Multimedia interface, Media integration, Cross-media links, Interface agents, Guides, Point of view, Narrative

Panel

Participatory Design of Computer Systems BIB 141-144
  Jeff Johnson; Pelle Ehn; Jonathan Grudin; Bonnie Nardi; Kari Thoresen; Lucy Suchman

Application Areas

Usable OCR: What are the Minimum Performance Requirements? BIBAK 145-151
  William H. Cushman; Purnendu S. Ojha; Cathleen M. Daniels
Forty-two subjects used a microcomputer and word processing software to type and proofread a 450-word document and then to correct errors in a number of other documents (of the same length) that had been created by OCR simulation [i.e., the documents looked like those typically obtained when using an optical character recognition (OCR) device for text entry]. The "OCR documents" contained both recognition errors (substitution errors, insertion errors, and deletion errors) and unrecognized characters. The percentage of characters requiring correction was varied from document to document. Text entry by OCR was found to be faster than manual entry (i.e., typing) if the OCR device can correctly recognize at least 94% of the individual alphanumeric characters. However, 98% correct recognition and computer-assisted proofreading were required in order to consistently obtain finished documents that had no more residual errors than typed documents.
Keywords: Optical character recognition, OCR, Text entry, Performance requirements, Usability, Error correction, Proofreading, Spelling correction
Spreadsheet-Based Interactive Graphics: From Prototype to Tool BIBAK 153-159
  Nicholas Wilde; Clayton Lewis
The NoPumpG prototype suggested that the spreadsheet model of computation could simplify the creation of some types of interactive graphical application when compared with other approaches. We report here experience in developing an enhanced follow-on system, NoPumpII, and describe three applications developed using it. We conclude that (1) the potential advantages of the spreadsheet model are realized in this application experience, (2) revisions to the prototype design have permitted an increase in the complexity and scale of applications, and (3) there remain limitations in the current design which, if redressed, would further enlarge the scope of application. More generally we conclude that alternative computational models are an important area of exploration for HCI research.
Keywords: Spreadsheet computational model, Programming environments
The Business Instrument Panel: A New Paradigm for Interacting with Financial Data BIBAK 161-166
  C. Torben Thomsen
The business instrument panel uses visualization to present, in a comprehensive and integrated manner, all the important elements found in traditional financial statements. By means of analog representation in a simple computer generated picture, the business instrument panel replaces the four traditional financial statements (balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement, and retained earnings statement). The business instrument panel also embodies a new paradigm for understanding the business world and empowers the user with an unparalleled quick understanding of any firm.
Keywords: Accounting, Finance, Visualization, Model
Tools for Interaction with the Creative Process of Composition BIBAK 167-174
  T. Schiphorst; T. Calvert; C. Lee; C. Welman; S. Gaudet
This paper explores the nature of creative composition particularly as it applies to dance, and describes the development of interactive computer based tools to assist the composer. The hierarchical nature of the composition process calls for an interface which allows the composer the flexibility to move back and forth between alternate views and conceptual levels of abstraction.
   COMPOSE, an interactive system for the composition of dance has been implemented on Silicon Graphics and Apple workstations. The user visually composes in space and in time using menus of postures and sequences. Paths can be edited and an animation of the dance composition allows the final result to be evaluated.
Keywords: Composition, Choreography, Human animation, Dance, Creative process, User interaction

End User Modifiable Environment

User-Tailorable Systems: Pressing the Issues with Buttons BIBAK 175-182
  Allan MacLean; Kathleen Carter; Lennart Lovstrand; Thomas Moran
It is impossible to design systems which are appropriate for all users and all situations. We believe that a useful technique is to have end users tailor their systems to match their personal work practices. This requires not only systems which can be tailored, but a culture within which users feel in control of the system and in which tailoring is the norm. In a two-pronged research project we have worked closely with a group of users to develop a system to support tailoring and to help the users evolve a "tailoring culture". This has resulted in a flexible system based around the use of distributed on-screen Buttons to support a range of tailoring techniques.
Keywords: Tailorability, Modifiability, Customization, User interface design, Office system, Design Process
End-User Modifiability in Design Environments BIBA 183-191
  Gerhard Fischer; Andreas Girgensohn
Convivial systems encourage users to be actively engaged in generating creative extensions to the artifacts given to them. Convivial systems have the potential to break down the counterproductive barrier between programming and using programs.
   Knowledge-based design environments are prototypes for convivial systems. These environments support human problem-domain communication, letting users work within their domains of expertise. One of the design rationales behind design environments is to ease the construction and modification of artifacts designed within the environment. But because design environments are intentionally not general purpose programming environments, situations will arise that require modifications to the design environment itself. The rationale and the techniques for these later modifications are discussed in this paper.
   Our conceptual framework for end-user modifiability is illustrated in the context of JANUS, an environment for architectural design. Evaluating our system building efforts against our objectives shows the subtleties of integrating end-user modifiability in these kinds of systems.
Data Characterization for Intelligent Graphics Presentation BIBA 193-200
  Steven F. Roth; Joe Mattis
An automatic presentation system is an intelligent interface component which receives information from a user or application program and designs a combination of graphics and text that effectively conveys it. It is a facility that assumes the presentation responsibilities for other programs. An important research question has been how information should be specified or described by an application program for it to be presented by an automatic presenter. This paper proposes a taxonomy of information characteristics which would need to be provided to either human or computer designers for them to create presentations reflecting the individual needs of a diverse group of users. The proposed taxonomy of characteristics defines the representational goals for intelligent interfaces which reason about graphical displays.
IShell: A Visual UNIX Shell BIBA 201-207
  Kjell Borg
IShell is a visual user interface for interaction using gestures under the UNIX operating system. A visual script language for building commands -- IScript -- is an integral part of the IShell environment. The user can directly describe and execute pipelined command sequences using gestures. The user is constantly guided by visual cues.

Panel

Real-Time Decision Making BIB 209-212
  Steven M. Jacobs; Randy Boys; William E. Hefley; Christine M. Mitchell

Fitts Session

Powermice and User Performance BIBA 213-220
  Herbert D. Jellinek; Stuart K. Card
Claims of increased pointing speed by users and manufacturers of variable-gain mice ("powermice") have become rife. Yet, there have been no demonstrations of this claim, and theoretical considerations suggest it may not even be true. In this paper, the claim is tested.
   A search of the design spaced of powermice failed to find a design point that improved performance compared to a standard mouse. No setting for the gain for a constant-gain mouse was found that improved performance. No threshold setting for a variable gain mouse was found that improved performance. In fact, even gain and threshold combinations favored by powermouse enthusiasts failed to improve performance. It is suggested that the real source of enthusiasm for powermice is that users are willing to accept reduced pointing speed in return for a smaller desk footprint.
A Comparison of Selection Times from Walking and Pull-Down Menus BIBAK 221-225
  Neff Walker; John B. Smelcer
This paper reports on an experiment that investigated factors which effect selection time from walking menus and bar or pull-down menus. The primary focus was on the use of impenetrable borders and on expanding target areas on the two menus types. The results show that both factors can be used to facilitate menu selection, with the use of borders being most beneficial. In additional, the results suggest that even on large monitors, the time required to access items from a bar menu is less than that required for the best walking menu.
Keywords: Motor movement, Menu selection, Mouse movement
How Does Fitts' Law Fit Pointing and Dragging? BIBAK 227-234
  Douglas J. Gillan; Kritina Holden; Susan Adam; Marianne Rudisill; Laura Magee
Two experiments examined selecting text using a movement sequence of pointing and dragging. Experiment 1 showed that, in the Point-Drag sequence, the pointing time was related to the pointing distance but not to the width of the text to be selected; in contrast, pointing time was related to both the pointing distance and the width of the text in the Point-Click sequence. Experiment 2 demonstrated that both the pointing and dragging times for the Point-Drag sequence were sensitive to the height of the text that was selected. The discussion of the results centers around the application of Fitts' Law to pointing and dragging in a point-drag sequence, proposing that the target for pointing is the leftmost edge of the text to be selected, and the target for dragging is the rightmost edge of the text.
Keywords: Pointing, Dragging, Mouse, Fitts' Law, Movement control, Movement sequence, User models, Text editing

Methodology

Testing a Walkthrough Methodology for Theory-Based Design of Walk-Up-and-Use Interfaces BIBAK 235-242
  Clayton Lewis; Peter Polson; Cathleen Wharton; John Rieman
The value of theoretical analyses in user interface design has been hotly debated. All sides agree that it is difficult to apply current theoretical models within the constraints of real-world development projects. We attack this problem in the context of bringing the theoretical ideas within a model of exploratory learning to bear on the evaluation of alternative interfaces for walk-up-and-use systems. We derived a "cognitive walkthrough" procedure for systematically evaluating features of an interface in the context of the theory. Four people independently applied this procedure to four alternative interfaces for which we have empirical usability data. Consideration of the walkthrough sheds light on the consistency with which such a procedure can be applied as well as the accuracy of the results.
Keywords: Design methodology, Formal models of human computer interaction, Walk-up-and-use systems
Updating an Older Interface BIBAK 243-247
  Marcy Telles
Much of the research in the field of human/computer interface is aimed at the interface designer who begins from scratch. A different set of needs confronts the designer who must update an existing interface without throwing away the good elements of the old design and the knowledge base of experienced users.
   In this paper, the factors that contribute to the need for interface changes are presented, along with the special challenges that make change more difficult than new design. Approaches are suggested for dealing with the problems of updating an interface to make it effective for both old and new users.
Keywords: Software interface, Updating interfaces, Older interface constraints
Heuristic Evaluation of User Interfaces BIBAK 249-256
  Jakob Nielsen; Rolf Molich
Heuristic evaluation is an informal method of usability analysis where a number of evaluators are presented with an interface design and asked to comment on it. Four experiments showed that individual evaluators were mostly quite bad at doing such heuristic evaluations and that they only found between 20 and 51% of the usability problems in the interfaces they evaluated. On the other hand, we could aggregate the evaluation from several evaluators to a single evaluation and such aggregates do rather well, even when they consist of only three to five people.
Keywords: Usability evaluation, Early evaluation, Usability engineering, Practical methods

Panel

Practical Interfaces to Complex Worlds BIB 257-260
  Robert Spence; Mark Apperley; Maddy Brouwer-Janse; Ernest Edmonds; David Kasik; Paul Rankin

Evolution and Practice in User Interface Engineering

The Computer Reaches Out: The Historical Continuity of Interface Design BIBA 261-268
  Jonathan Grudin
This paper examines the evolution of the focus of user interface research and development from the first production of commercial computer systems in the 1950s through the present. The term "user interface" was not needed in the beginning, when most users were engineers and programmers; it may again become inappropriate when more applications are written for groups than for individuals. But there is a continuity to the outward movement of the computer's interface to its external environment, from hardware to software to increasingly higher-level cognitive capabilities and finally to social processes. As the focus shifts, the approaches to design and the skills required of practitioners changes. In this paper five foci or levels of development are identified. Most development today is positioned in the third level and considerable research is directed at the fourth. Some attention is now being given to the fifth: repositioning the interface in the work group or organization itself. Work at the different levels is not entirely independent, so establishing a comprehensive framework may enable us to position existing research and development efforts and plan future work more effectively.
Developmental Scenario Analysis of Smalltalk Programming BIBAK 269-276
  Robert L. Campbell
In order to understand long-term learning and the acquisition of expertise, human-computer interaction needs to take a developmental turn. Adopting a developmental approach means using longitudinal research methods, building developmental sequence models of the acquisition of expertise, and analyzing tasks as scenarios specific to developmental levels. The psychology of programming seems particularly amenable to a developmental approach because of the length of time that it takes to become an expert. We propose a model of seven developmental levels for Smalltalk/V programming, and provide sample scenarios for each level. We conclude that developmentally ordered scenarios convey valuable design information that would be lost in the standard "average user" approach to scenarios.
Keywords: Psychology of programming, Developmental psychology, Object-oriented programming, Task and interaction analysis
Why Good Engineers (Sometimes) Create Bad Interfaces BIBAK 277-282
  Donald R. Gentner; Jonathan Grudin
This paper presents a view of system design that shows how good engineering practice can lead to poor user interfaces. From the engineer's perspective, the ideal interface reflects the underlying mechanism and affords direct access to the control points of the mechanism. The designer of the user interface is often also the designer of the mechanism (or at least is very familiar with the mechanism), and thus has a strong bias toward basing the interface on the engineering model. The user, however, wants to complete a task, and an interface that is based on the task is often more appropriate than one based on the system mechanism. We discuss these issues, and also discuss where to position the user interface between the poles of the engineering model and the task model.
Keywords: User interface, Design, Engineering, Task model

Lab Reviews

Human-Computer Interface Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University BIBAK 283-284
  Robert C. Williges
A description of the staff, facilities, and research focus of the Human-Computer Interface Laboratory at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University is provided. Representative research projects as well as the relationship between this laboratory and the human factors engineering graduate program are also described.
Keywords: Research laboratory review, Human factors engineering, Graduate training
CHI in the Applied Research Divisions at Bellcore BIBA 285-286
  Thomas K. Landauer; Robert E. Kraut
Bellcore has several active research programs relevant to human-computer interaction. This talk describes research conducted in the Cognitive Science and Interpersonal Communications Research Groups. We describe their research on information retrieval and on collaboration and pay particular attention to the styles of research employed in these groups and to the way in which behavioral investigations have guided technical invention.
CHI Systems Incorporated BIB 287-288
  Wayne Zachary
Interactive Systems Research Group - Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering (IAO) BIB 289-290
  Klaus-Peter Fahnrich; Jurgen Ziegler

Panel

Designing for International Use BIB 291-294
  Jakob Nielsen; Elisa M. del Galdo; Robert C. Sprung; Piyawadee "Noi" Sukaviriya

CSCW - Computer Support for Real Time Collaborative Work

User Interface Requirements for Face to Face Groupware BIBAK 295-301
  Mary Elwart-Keys; David Halonen; Marjorie Horton; Robert Kass; Paul Scott
This paper discusses the user interface of the Capture Lab, a computer-supported meeting room that has been in operation since late 1987. One goal of the Capture Lab design is to support meetings of business people (who are often novice computer uses) without requiring an additional person to serve as a computer technician or facilitator. This paper discusses the user interface features a system should have to support face to face meetings. It describes the Capture Lab and how it is used, and presents our approach to satisfying those interface requirements. Finally, we discuss a few of our observations about the Capture Lab's user interface, and how a computer-supported meeting environment affects meetings.
Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Computer-support meetings
Collaboration Awareness in Support of Collaboration Transparency: Requirements for the Next Generation of Shared Window Systems BIBAK 303-311
  J. Chris Lauwers; Keith A. Lantz
Shared window systems enable existing applications to be shared in the context of a real-time teleconference. The development and successful use of several such systems, albeit within limited user communities, testifies to the merits of the basic idea. However, experience to date has suggested a number of areas that have not been adequately addressed, namely: spontaneous interactions, shared workspace management, floor control, and annotation and telepointing. This paper focuses on the ramifications, for the software designer, of various user requirements in these areas. While the recommendations that result are motivated by the desire to enable continued use of collaboration-transparent applications, addressing them involves the development of systems software that is distinctly collaboration-aware.
Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Shared window systems, Desktop teleconferencing
VideoDraw: A Video Interface for Collaborative Drawing BIBAK 313-320
  John C. Tang; Scott L. Minneman
This paper describes VideoDraw, a shared drawing tool, and the process by which it is being designed and developed. VideoDraw is a prototype, videobased, tool that provides a shared "virtual sketchbook" among two or more collaborators. It not only allows the collaborators to see each others' drawings, but also conveys the accompanying hand gestures and the process of creating and using those drawings. Its design stems from studying how people collaborate using shared drawing spaces. Design implications raised by those studies were embodied in a prototype, which was in turn observed in use situations. Continued research studying the use of VideoDraw (in comparison with other collaborative media) will lead to a better understanding of collaborative drawing activity and inform the continued technical development of VideoDraw.
Keywords: Collaborative systems, Design process, Work practice analysis, Gesture, Video, User interface

Transcending Perspectives

Infinite Detail and Emulation in an Ontologically Minimized HCI BIBAK 321-327
  John M. Carroll
By default, we attempt to define practical areas of technological endeavor as "applications." For example, the applied psychology of human-computer interaction has characteristically been defined in terms of the methods and concepts basic psychology can provide. This has not worked well. An alternative approach is to begin from a characterization of current practice, to take seriously the requirements of the domain of endeavor, and to define areas of "science" and "application" as possible and appropriate in that context.
Keywords: Ontology, Theory, Hermeneutics, Interpretation, Task-analysis, Design rationale
Contextual Design: An Emergent View of System Design BIBAK 329-336
  Dennis Wixon; Karen Holtzblatt; Stephen Knox
We offer an introduction to contextual design as an emergent method for building effective systems. Contextual design addresses a number of the inadequacies in previous methods by emphasizing: interview methods conducted in the context of the user's work, codesigning with the user, building an understanding of work in context, and summarizing conclusions through out the research. We contrast this design method to usability engineering and artifact examination.
Keywords: Theory, Design, Methodology
Using Critics to Empower Users BIBAK 337-347
  Gerhard Fischer; Andreas C. Lemke; Thomas Mastaglio; Anders I. Morch
We describe the critiquing approach to building knowledge-based interactive systems. Critiquing supports computer users in their problem solving and learning activities. The challenges for the next generation of knowledge-based systems provide a context for the development of this paradigm. We discuss critics from the perspective of overcoming the problems of high-functionality computer systems, of providing a new class of systems to support learning, of extending applications-oriented construction kits to design environments, and of providing an alternative to traditional autonomous expert systems. One of the critiquing systems we have built -- JANUS, a critic for architectural design -- is used as an example of the key aspects of the critiquing process. We also survey additional critiquing systems developed in our and other research groups.
Keywords: Critics, Critiquing, High-functionality computer systems, Intelligent support systems, Design environments, Cooperative problem solving systems

Panel

Collaboration for Technology Transfer -- or "How Do So Many Promising Ideas Get Lost?" BIB 349-351
  Keith Butler; David Kieras; John Thomas; Chuck Price; Thomas Allen

The Organizational Context of Design

Reflections on Participatory Design: Lessons from the Trillium Experience BIBAK 353-359
  Jeanette L. Blomberg; Austin Henderson
In recent years system engineers, product designers, and human interface designers have become increasingly interested in developing ways of involving users in the design and evolution of computer-based systems. Some have turned for guidance and inspiration to an approach to systems design pioneered in Scandinavia and often referred to as Participatory Design. In this paper we examine the development of a computer-based design tool, Trillium, which on the surface looked like an example of Participatory Design in that users were directly involved in the development of the technology. Our analysis leads us to conclude, however, that Trillium's development departed in critical ways from our current model of Participatory Design and to suggest that the manner in which users are involved in the development effort plays an important role in the success of the endeavor.
Keywords: Systems development, Technology in use
The Organizational Implementation of an Electronic Meeting System: An Analysis of the Innovation Process BIBAK 361-367
  Joey F. George; Joseph S. Valacich; J. F., Jr. Nunamaker
Electronic Meeting Systems (EMS) are slowly moving out of university environments into work organizations. They constitute an innovative method of supporting group meetings. This paper reports on the innovation process in one organization that has recently adopted and implemented an EMS. The paper traces the innovation process through four stages: conception of an idea; proposal; decision to adopt; and implementation. Important factors from the innovation literature are considered as explanators of the innovation process involving EMS in this particular organization.
Keywords: Cooperative work, Implementation, Electronic meeting systems
Design of a Loading Plan Format for an Expert Cargo Loading System BIBAK 369-378
  Ron LeMaster; Ulla Merz
Many computer systems assist users in the performance of tasks by providing metaphors for the tasks themselves. The success of such systems hinge on how accurately and effectively the user interface represents those tasks. In this paper we describe such a representation for the task of loading boxed appliances into truck trailers. This representation was used to provide the format for the loading plans generated by an expert system constructed to plan the loading of such products. These plans tell the warehouse personnel that actually load the trucks just where each product is to be placed in the truck, how it is to be oriented, as well as where extra padding and filler material should be placed.
Keywords: User interface, Expert system, Task representation, Design methodology

Lab Reviews

Research on Human-Computer Interaction at the MRC Applied Psychology Unit BIB 379-380
  Phil Barnard
Boeing Advanced Technology Center BIBK 381-382
  Steven E. Poltrock; Keith Butler
Keywords: User interface design, Rapid prototyping, Cognitive models, Natural language, Decision support, Process management, Expert systems, Knowledge acquisition, Collaborative work
The U S West Intelligent Services Research Laboratory BIB 383-384
  Catherine R. Marshall
Interactive Systems Group BIB 385-386
  Sarah A. Douglas; Gary W. Meyer

Panel

Evaluating Hypermedia Systems BIBAKPDF 387-390
  Gary Perlman; Dennis E. Egan; Kate Ehrlich; Gary Marchionini; Jakob Nielsen; Ben Shneiderman
Hypermedia systems provide online access to complex networks of information with the goal of making it easier to find and use information. To validate the utility of their systems, several researchers and system developers have attempted to collect evaluation data on the usability and effectiveness of their systems and the features in their systems. Because of the potential complexity of hypermedia systems and the information structures they may represent, a variety of evaluation measures and methods have been used. These trade off the need for timely feedback in the development of new technology, the difficulty of controlling one or two variables in systems with dozens or hundreds of components, and the goal of gaining an understanding of hypermedia systems.
   The key issues discussed by the panel include:
   Ecological Evaluation of New Technologies Embedded in Complex Systems: How can the utility of new technologies be evaluated validly when they must be embedded in complex software systems that include a hardware platform, underlying user interface, and a myriad of functions? Are controlled experiments necessary and can they be performed economically? What problems can occur in naturalistic settings?
   Measures of Learnability, Usability and Effectiveness: What performance measures are most useful? How does the choice of measure depend on the maturity of a system? on the tasks to be done with a system?
   Application to Human-Computer System Evaluation in General: What have been some results about hypermedia systems as a result of empirical evaluation? How does the evaluation of hypermedia systems apply to the evaluation of general systems? What guidance can be given to designers and users of hypermedia systems?
Keywords: evaluate, hypertext

UI Models

Designers' Models of the Human-Computer Interface BIBAK 391-398
  Douglas J. Gillan; Sarah D. Breedin
An experiment investigated the organization of declarative knowledge about the human computer interface (HCI). Two groups of experts in user interface design (human factors experts and software experts), and a control group sorted HCI concepts into categories. The data were transformed into measures of dissimilarity and analyzed using (1) hierarchical cluster analysis and (2) Pathfinder, a program that generates network representations of the data. Both expert groups had greater numbers of clusters, more elaborate clusters, and better organized networks than did the controls. The two expert groups differed with respect to the clustering of concepts related to display coding and software. The Pathfinder networks for the two expert groups differed in organization, with human factors experts' networks consisting of highly interrelated subnetworks and software experts networks consisting of central nodes and fewer, less interconnected subnetworks. The networks also differed in the number of concepts linked with such concepts as graphics, natural language, function keys, and speech recognition. The discussion focuses on (1) specific differences in cognitive models between HCI experts and novices and between different types of experts, and (2) the role of cognitive models in HCI design and in communications within a multidisciplinary design team.
Keywords: Human-computer interface (HCI) design, HCI models, Human factors, Software development
Semantic Analysis During Exploratory Learning BIBAK 399-405
  Andrew Howes; Stephen J. Payne
This paper addresses the problem of how a novice computer user, engaged in exploratory learning, accounts for the behaviour of the device. Exploratory learning is the norm for many users who encounter computers in the work place. Exploratory learners must acquire methods from a suboptimal stream of task directed behaviour and its observable effects.
   A candidate model of analysis, EXPL is taken as the baseline for the development of a new model, called Explor, which employs semantic knowledge of the lexical items used in the interface to relate user actions to system responses. The strengths and weaknesses of Explor are illustrated and discussed.
Keywords: Exploratory learning, Analysis-based learning, Procedural semantics
Empowering the Student: Prospects for an Unintelligent Tutoring System BIBAK 407-414
  Mitchell J. Nathan
Computer based instructional systems either direct students so modelling their actions is tractable, or provide them with total autonomy, but give little support to learning and problem solving processes. Instructional principles for empowering the student are emerging whereby more of the responsibility of diagnosis and goal-setting is placed on the student. Critical to this view is providing an environment which makes the ramifications of students' actions clear so students can meaningfully assess their own performance. In the domain of word algebra, the meaning of formal expressions can be reflected in computer animation which depicts the corresponding situation. An unintelligent tutor -- knowing nothing of the problem being solved and possessing no student model -- helps students to understand problems and debug formal expressions.
Keywords: Active learning, Intelligent tutoring systems, Problem comprehension, Discourse processing, Mathematics instruction, Cognitive psychology

Aids to Understanding Programs

Track - A Trace Construction Kit BIBAK 415-422
  Heinz-Dieter Bocker; Jurgen Herczeg
Track is a kit to interactively construct environments that trace the execution of methods and the flow of messages between SMALLTALK-80 objects. It enables the user to set up traces by means of direct manipulation. This is done by placing obstacles between icons representing specific classes and instances much in the way a jumping course is set up. TRACK may be used to generate multiple visualizations of programs which may be concurrently run. It is a browsing and debugging tool as well as an algorithm animation tool. TRACK is tightly integrated with the standard tools of the SMALLTALK-80 programming environment.
Keywords: Visual programming, Program visualization, Construction kits, Tracers, Algorithm animation
Smalltalk Scaffolding: A Case Study of Minimalist Instruction BIBAK 423-429
  Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll; Rachel K. E. Bellamy
A curriculum was developed to introduce users to the Smalltalk object-oriented programming language. Applying the Minimalist model of instruction, we developed a set of example-based learning scenarios aimed at supporting real work, getting started fast, reasoning and improvising, coordinating system and text, supporting error recognition and recovery, and exploiting prior knowledge. We describe our initial curriculum design as well as the significant changes that have taken place as we have observed it in use.
Keywords: Education, Learning, Design, Object-oriented programming
A View Matcher for Learning Smalltalk BIBAK 431-437
  John M. Carroll; Janice A. Singer; Rachel K. E. Bellamy; Sherman R. Alpert
The View Matcher is a structured browser for Smalltalk/V. It presents a set of integrated and dynamic views of a running application, intended to coordinate and rationalize a programmer's early understanding of Smalltalk and its environment. We describe the system through two user scenarios involving exploration of the model-view-controller paradigm.
Keywords: Education, Discovery learning, Object oriented programming, Software environments

Panel

Designers: Meet Your Users BIBA 439-442
  S. Joy Mountford; Penny Bauersfeld; Laurie Vertelney; Kathleen Gomoll; Bruce Tognazzini
Too few interface designers actually use an iterative design process. Too few interface designers actually involve their anticipated users throughout the design of an interface. In order to build better interfaces, we need to build faster and more numerous prototypical interface examples. These prototypes, from early sketches to working systems, should be shown frequently and often to users for their feedback. This panel is a vignette that illustrates an interface design cycle. Our panelists will be given a real world interface design problem, and the audience will follow them through their usual process of design. Users will be involved in the process, to help in interface specification and to provide prototype feedback. We expect that although the panelists involved users throughout their design process, users will still have a good deal more to contribute to the interface design before a product is finalized. On stage we will witness real users, with varied backgrounds, providing comments and feedback on the working prototypes. The issue here is to remind designers that there is never enough user involvement in an interface design. We need to iterate our interface designs, based on users' feedback, more often and continuously if our interfaces are to be effective.

Plenary Address

What Can We Teach about Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 443-449
  Terry Winograd
This paper is the closing address for CHI'90. It addresses the problem of educating computer professionals in the area of human-computer interaction, arguing that standard approaches within computer science need to be augmented and that new models of education can aid us in producing students with broad competence in the design of computer systems for human use.

Special Report

Designing Casual-Use Hypertext: The CHI'89 InfoBooth BIBAK 451-458
  Gitta B. Salomon
An interactive electronic information kiosk was created for the CHI'89 conference. Based on Macintosh technology, the "InfoBooth" included a custom HyperCard interface built by a team at Apple Computer.
   The design was initiated by examining the desires of potential users. Design changes, influenced by the results of informal user testing, were numerous. During the conference, user actions were recorded using an embedded "trace" program to allow for later usage assessment.
   This paper offers a case study for designers of similar systems. Aspects of the pre-conference design evolution are described. The impact of user testing is discussed and findings from the analysis of the trace data are presented.
Keywords: Human interface design, Interactive systems, Navigation, Design process, Graphic design, Hypertext, Hypermedia, User testing, Trace data

Doctoral Consortium

Summary of the CHI'90 Doctoral Consortium BIB 459-460
  Phil Barnard