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CCD Tables of Contents: 13-113-21415-115-2

CCD 2013: 5th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design, Part II: Cultural Differences in Everyday Life

Fullname:CCD 2013: 5th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design, Part II: Cultural Differences in Everyday Life
Note:Volume 21 of HCI International 2013
Editors:P. L. Patrick Rau
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8024
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39137-8 hcibib: CCD13-2; ISBN: 978-3-642-39136-1 (print), 978-3-642-39137-8 (online)
Papers:53
Pages:488
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. CCD 2013-07-21 Volume 2
    1. Cultural Issues in Business and Industry
    2. Culture, Health and Quality of Life
    3. Cross-Cultural and Intercultural Collaboration
    4. Culture and the Smart City
    5. Cultural Differences on the Web

CCD 2013-07-21 Volume 2

Cultural Issues in Business and Industry

Research Facing Interface Design of Android System Industrial Control System BIBAKFull-Text 3-8
  Songfeng Gao; Guixue Yang; Linlin Zhao
This paper focuses on the UI interface in various forms of android system application. Based on comparative analysis for display interface of several typical industrial control system, summarizes the display design requirements for industrial control systems in industrial environments, with a view to the future industrial control system in android system how to carry on display design and interface design. Finally, based on the author's ongoing research project as an example, stage achievements as the research target, this paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of existing system interface design, and give the solutions of existing problems.
Keywords: Android; Industrial control system; Interface design
Developing Customer Experience Ecosystem -- Driving Business Results by Integrating Multiple Touch Points BIBAKFull-Text 9-16
  Frank Y. Guo
Customers interact with brands and products through digital touch points such as websites and mobile apps as well as physical touch points such as brick-and-mortar stores and print materials. However, user experience professionals tend to treat digital and physical touch points separately and only focus on the digital channel. This paper analyzes the negative impact of such separation and proposes ways to re-integrate the touch points to support an effective customer experience ecosystem that drives revenues and customer loyalty.
Keywords: Customer experience; user experience; multi-channel
Consumers' Evaluation and Perception within the Trend of Cultural Creative Design BIBAKFull-Text 17-26
  Chi-Hsien Hsu; Shu-Hsuan Chang; Jung-Yu Lin
During the process of the transformation and innovation of traditional cultural and localized characteristics, we can make old things fashionable through creative design. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness evaluation on cultural creative design of consumers' perception and preference. This study was implemented in two phases. First, we undertook a preliminary survey by means of literature review and opinions from a group of experts, and selected representative product samples and evaluation indices from the three categories: traditional culture, local elements and innovative fashion. The second phase was to give a questionnaire survey to 120 undergraduate and graduate students who voluntarily participated in this study in order to investigate consumers' perception and preference. According to the questionnaire survey and the analysis of the results, "Design Performance" is the most important factor for evaluating cultural creative products.
Keywords: consumer evaluation; consumer perception; cultural creative design
Introducing Human Performance Modeling in Digital Nuclear Power Industry BIBAKFull-Text 27-36
  Xiang Jiang; Qin Gao; Zhizhong Li
Human performance modeling (HPM) can be used to explain and predict human behaviors under certain situations, helping designers in the design stage through evaluating the interface, procedure, staffing, etc. This study discusses the feasibility of introducing HPM methods into digital nuclear power industry through 1) the new characteristics of human-system interaction/human performance in digital main control rooms (MCRs) of nuclear power plants (NPPs), 2) the simulating abilities of available HPMs on their latest progress. Based on the review of the two issues, we conclude that: 1) digitalization of NPPs changes operators' performance through the system, task, environment and human himself. 2) HPM is classified as human reliability modeling and cognitive modeling. The lack of performance data could be an obstacle for applying human reliability modeling in digital MCRs. The unclear underlying mechanism of human-system interaction in digital MCRs constrains the introducing of cognitive modeling.
Keywords: Digitalization; Nuclear power plants; Performance influence factors; Human performance modeling
Exploring Consumers' Responses to Delayed Introduction of a New Mobile Phone BIBAKFull-Text 37-43
  Hsuan-Hsuan Ku
This experiment investigates consumers' responses to postponement of the pre-announced introduction of a new product, and to the manufacturer's stated reasons for the delay(s), drawing upon the concept of trust violation and on attribution theory. A 2 (frequencies) × 3 (reasons) between-subject factorial design tested the hypotheses. Two-way ANOVA analyzed the results, with purchase intention as the dependent variable. The study finds that the influence of the frequency of delays is contingent upon the reasons given. When firms announce that all or some of the causes have an internal organizational origin, while others relate to external influences, the frequency of delays has a negative impact on purchase intentions. If the reasons relate entirely to external factors, there is no significant negative impact.
Keywords: Product-introduction delays; Announced reasons; Trust violation; Attribution; Intention to purchase
The Impact of Workplace Gossip on Organizational Cynicism: Insights from the Employment Relationship Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 44-50
  Chien-Chih Kuo; Chiu-Yi Lu; Ting-Kuei Kuo
This study examined the effects of workplace negative gossip on organizational cynicism. Moreover, we explored the antecedents of workplace negative gossip based on the employment relationship perspective, tested the relationship between abusive supervision, psychological contract breach and workplace negative gossip. The data were collected from 455 employees in Taiwan. Three major findings manifest in the results. First, workplace negative gossip had a significant predictability for organizational cynicism. Compare to interpersonal-related negative gossip, the effects of task-related negative gossip on organizational cynicism were larger. Secondly, employment relationship (abusive supervision and psychological contract breach) had significant predictability for the employees' workplace negative gossip. Thirdly, we found that employment relationship affects organizational cynicism through its impact on workplace negative gossip. In summary, workplace negative gossip mediates the relationship between employment relationship and organizational cynicism.
Keywords: employment relationship; organizational cynicism; workplace negative gossip
A Study of the Effects of Display Atmospherics and Control Mode of 3D Virtual Store on Consumer Behavior in the Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 51-59
  Cheng-Li Liu; Shiaw-Tsyr Uang
Online shopping has become quite popular since its first arrival on the internet. Some research has indicated that the older population is growing rapidly worldwide and is becoming an increasingly important demographic to understand. However, previous studies on cognitive aging have found that certain aspects of human information-processing abilities are negatively correlated with age. This study will discuss the effects of online store atmospherics collocating with control mode applied on 3D virtual store vision displaying for improving usability and acceptability in the elderly. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the cognition and emotion of the elderly on 3D virtual store atmospherics and control mode. It was found that the recognition and presence was positively related to emotion for the elderly, and then, emotion is positively and directly related to customers' behavioral intention. There was the best effect in recognition and presence by the central-cabinet layout.
Keywords: 3D virtual stores; Elderly; Atmospherics; Control mode; Cognition; Emotion
The Difference of User Perception between Similarity and Dissimilarity Judgments BIBAKFull-Text 60-69
  Ming-Xian Sun; Chi-Hsien Hsu; Ming-Chuen Chuang
The similarity and dissimilarity is a corresponding relationship which is the base of cognitive judgments. The main purpose of this paper is to study the user perception by using similarity judgments. In this study, fifteen innovative products are used as the stimuli which divided into three groups: global, creative and local products. A total of 139 student volunteers participated in the various phases of the study. The feature measures are used to collect data under three different experiments: similarity judgment by random, similarity judgment by order, and dissimilarity judgment by random. In addition, the paper proposed an approach to confirm the effectiveness of collecting data. Then, MDS analysis was used to explore the difference of user perception between similarity and dissimilarity judgments. The results provide designers with a valuable reference for designing innovative products.
Keywords: multidimensional scaling; INDSCAL; similarity; dissimilarity; product design
Cloud Computing Adoption Journey within Organizations BIBAKFull-Text 70-78
  Seema Swamy
Cloud computing is slated to create a paradigm shift in computing experience. Cost savings and control over employee access by the IT groups within corporate, government, and educational institutions are some of the major drivers for the adoption of cloud computing. However, there are limitations to the extent to which workflows are moved to the cloud. The major roadblocks to extending the adoption of some of the workflows to the cloud include concerns about control over the (critical) data, compliance across geographies, and security issues. The paper will explore cloud computing life cycle and concerns about cloud computing from interviews with IT decision makers.
Keywords: Cloud computing; security; networking; compliance; technology adoption; green technology
Behavior Study of Traveling Chinese Businesspersons BIBAKFull-Text 79-87
  Yanxia Yang; Grace Deng
China's growing economy has contributed to the emergence of an expanding, thriving class of traveling businesspersons. This paper investigates which factors affect these businesspersons' consumer behavior, as well as the role that each factor plays in their decision-making. In order to obtain a better understanding of consumer behavior in travel and the importance of each factor, a study was conducted in China on a group of frequently traveling businesspersons. The survey revealed that five main factors influenced the choices these businesspersons made. Within these factors, the two major factors were Novelty Seeking and Bandwagon Effect. The results of this study can pave the way for designing innovative goods and services that will enhance the travel experience of the typical businesspersons.
Keywords: Consumer Behavior; Traveling Businesspersons; Business Travel Psychology; Novelty Seeking; China

Culture, Health and Quality of Life

Moderating Effect of Culture on IT and Health Standard: A Country-Level Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 91-100
  Supunmali Ahangama; Danny Chiang Choon Poo
This cross sectional country level study inspects how the relationship between national eHealth initiatives and level of health standards are contingent on culture, education and infrastructure. Resource complementary perspective based on Resource Based View (RBV) and literature on culture and eHealth outcomes are used as the theoretical lens. Publicly available retrospective data from more than 50 countries are utilized to explore the moderating effect. Standard of health was gauged using Life Expectancy Rate (LER) at birth. The results indicates that culture and education moderate the relationship between eHealth spending and health standard. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings and future research are discussed in this paper.
Keywords: culture; eHealth; resource complementary perspective; life expectancy rate
Predicting Mental Health Status on Social Media BIBAKFull-Text 101-110
  Bibo Hao; Lin Li; Ang Li; Tingshao Zhu
The rapid development of social media brings about vast user generated content. Computational cyber-psychology, an interdisciplinary subject area, employs machine learning approaches to explore underlying psychological patterns. Our research aims at identifying users' mental health status through their social media behavior. We collected both users' social media data and mental health data from the most popular Chinese microblog service provider, Sina Weibo. By extracting linguistic and behavior features, and applying machine learning algorithms, we made preliminary exploration to identify users' mental health status automatically, which previously is mainly measured by well-designed psychological questionnaire. Our classification model achieves the accuracy of 72%, and the continuous predicting model achieved correlation of 0.3 with questionnaire based score.
Keywords: microblog; mental health; prediction; automation
Designing a Metal Hydride Actuator with Human-Compatible Softness and High Power-to-Weight Ratio for Future Quality-of-Life Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 111-120
  Shuichi Ino; Mitsuru Sato; Minako Hosono; Chikamune Wada; Shinichi Yoshimura; Kazuhiko Yamashita; Takashi Izumi
Japan faces a rapidly growing elderly population that is unprecedented in the world. As a result, there are emerging needs for quality-of-life technologies, such as rehabilitation equipment, long-term care, and assistive devices. In particular, elderly people who are bedridden due to physical illnesses, such as cerebral stroke or bone fractures caused by a fall, may suffer awkward disuse syndromes (e.g., pressure ulcers, joint contracture, cardiac hypofunction, and mental depression). It is difficult for them to actively participate in rehabilitation exercises by themselves. Thus, to manage these disuse syndromes, we have developed a light and soft actuator device with metal hydride materials. This actuator device has a high power-to-weight ratio, adequate softness for human body support, noiseless motion, and a clean hydrogen energy system. The three apparatuses in which the metal hydride actuator is applied are a joint rehabilitation device for the hand, a seat lifter for a wheelchair or toilet, and a toe exercise apparatus for bedsore prevention.
Keywords: Super-aging society; long-term care; rehabilitation; soft actuator; metal hydride material; power assistance; quality-of-life technology
Design and Assessing the Usability of an Interactive Digital Game in Assisting the Older Adult's Prescriptive Medication Behavior BIBAKFull-Text 121-126
  Dyi-Yih Michael Lin; Liang-Chun Wu
Taking prescriptive medicine has been a major daily routine for many older adults. However, misused medication behavior has been reported as a major safety issue for senior welfare subject to the well-documented decline in cognitive aging. Game-based learning has been demonstrated as an effective media in enhancing cognitive functions but mostly in the fields with young adults as the subject. The present study thus aimed to investigate the usability of digital games in improving the medication behavior for older adults. The results indicated that the older subject who received the game-based learning significantly outperformed the counterpart who received the traditional treatment. Implications for designing appropriate learning media for the older adult's medication behavior were raised.
Keywords: digital games; digital learning; human-computer interaction; cognitive aging; prescriptive medication
Cultural Diversity -- New Challenge to Medical Device Use Safety for International Markets BIBAKFull-Text 127-136
  Long Liu; Uvo Hoelscher; Ziying Yao
Medical device nowadays may be used by user groups with quite different cultural backgrounds. Cultural diversity may influence normal medical device use or even induce risks and hazards. Manufacturers are facing up to a new challenge to consider cultural diversities in design. This paper aims to formulate a systematic framework to handle medical device design for international markets. The standardized requirement specified in risk management standard of ISO 14971 is adopted as a basis. The cultural diversities that may induce risks and hazards are summarized. Medical device design issues that should be adapted are discussed. Many examples on these issues are presented.
Keywords: Cultural diversity; Medical device design; Use safety
Technology-Based Medical Interpretation for Cross-Language Communication: In Person, Telephone, and Videoconference Interpretation and Their Comparative Impact On Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Patient and Doctor BIBAKFull-Text 137-146
  Margaret McLaughlin; Yujung Nam; Win May; Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati; Panayiotis Georgiou; Zheng Ahn
Health care organizations face challenges in providing language services for Limited English proficiency (LEP) clients. Supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, we have been working to develop a technology for proximate simultaneous medical interpretation. In an effort to understand the relative importance of physical proximity, audio cues and visual cues to effective interpretation, we conducted two controlled trials of the comparative impact on patient and provider satisfaction of four conditions which represent the interpretation circumstances with LEP patients and monolingual providers in hospital settings; a certified interpreter present in the consultation room ("In Person"); at a remote location mediated by audio only ("Telephone"); at a remote location mediated by audio and video ("Videoconference"), and no interpreter present ("No Interpreter). In study 1, dyads of a medical student and a standardized patient were randomly assigned to In Person or No Interpreter condition on a rotating basis, producing a total of 25 encounter sessions. In Study 2, four interpretation communication modes including Videoconference and Telephone condition simulated 25 encounters. Repeated measure one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) showed preferences of patients and physicians for four different methods of interpretation. Patients expressed high satisfaction for their doctors regardless of the communication mode. Doctors' perception of the interpretation quality was also as desirable in remote communication as onsite human interpretation. Patients reported significantly greater feelings of being guarded for their privacy and were more satisfied with the interpretation quality in the remote communication via telephone over in-person interpretation.
Keywords: Limited English Proficiency; Medical Interpretation; Controlled Trial
Note: Best paper award
Toward a Virtual Companion for the Elderly: Exploring the Behaviors that Potentially Achieve Rapport in Human Communication BIBAKFull-Text 147-156
  Sayumi Shibusawa; Hung-Hsuan Huang; Yugo Hayashi; Kyoji Kawagoe
The elderly who live alone are increasing rapidly in these years. For their mental health, it is reported useful to maintain their social life with others. This work is aiming to develop a companion agent who can engage long-term relationship with the elderly users. This paper presents our first step to explore the rapport occurred in a human-human communication which is considered to be essential in keeping social relationship with others. We analyzed the corpus collected in a human-human dyadic conversation experiment from three view points, the speaker (potential user), the listener, and the third person who did not participate the conversation. Encouraging results that may provide the hints of agent development were found in the analysis: the attitude of the conversation can have an influence on the speaker's mood, the mood of the speaker can be potentially observed by another person, and the third person can detect speaker's attitude.
Keywords: elderly support; active listening; conversational agent; rapport
Improvement Research of Shoe-Type Measurement Device for a Walking Rehabilitation Support System BIBAKFull-Text 157-164
  Chikamune Wada; Daisuke Takigawa; Futoshi Wada; Kenji Hachisuka; Takafumi Ienaga; Yoshihiko Kimuro
We have developed a shoe-type measurement device which is able to measure gait information such as step length, width and pressure distribution while daily living. We hypothesized that a walking rehabilitation system could be realized by combining shoe-type device and comprehensively display which showed analytical results for gait with real time operation. In this paper, based on the previous researches, real time operation for foot position measurement was realized by improving hardware and software. However, measurement error became larger than that in offline operation. The reason was thought to be time difference in synchronization which was necessary to realize wireless measurement system. By considering time difference, most measurement errors became smaller. In the next research, it would be necessary to decide time difference in any communication condition.
Keywords: gait analysis; wearable device; distance measurement
Influence of Organizational Culture and Communication on the Successful Implementation of Information Technology in Hospitals BIBAKFull-Text 165-174
  Shuyan Xie; Markus Helfert; Artur Lugmayr; Rüdiger Heimgärtner; Andreas Holzinger
In this paper, we report on a case study examining types of organizational culture influencing communication as an important factor in the study of successful IT adoption and implementation in health care. We observed a hospital organization and focused on technological innovations and the accompanying communication factors in the successful implementation of IT. The results demonstrate the importance of the organizational culture as an important factor in establishing well-balanced communication as a primary influence factor in the implementation of new technologies. Based on theoretical and empirical insights, we propose a model describing the relationship of organizational culture, communication, and the level of success in the implementation and adaptation of new IT systems in hospitals.
Keywords: Communication; Empathy; Hospital Culture; Information Technology; Model
The Interaction between Human and the Home Service Robot on a Daily Life Cycle BIBAKFull-Text 175-181
  Hsiu-Ping Yueh; Weijane Lin
The objective of this paper is to explore the perceived roles of home service robots between different cultures. Human preferences on interaction modes and features of a home service robot were investigated in this ongoing study. Results of the study indicated a complicated issue related to the acceptance and reliability of a social robot. And participants from Taiwan and Japan reflected their preferences on communication matters in function, service, interaction, appearance, likability, and trust issues. Participants from both cultures preferred home service robot to provide information over social services, while Taiwanese participants possessed significant preference on scheduling/planning function. For the future needs of home service robots, Taiwanese participants preferred entertainment service robots, and Japanese participants preferred caretaker robots.
Keywords: culture; human robot interaction; communication; home service robots

Cross-Cultural and Intercultural Collaboration

Extending Role of "I" Virtually -- Identity Performance and Their Influence on Individual Behaviour and Team Performance in Globally Distributed Work Virtual Teams BIBAKFull-Text 185-194
  K. B. Akhilesh; C. V. Sindhuja; Simran K. Kahai
The customer driven innovation systems, market pressures, accelerating technologies, limited resources, technical complexities and need for expertise have driven organization beyond boundaries. Globally distributed work force is one of the competitive strategies of any leading organization and synergy among team members is vital to achieve excellence. This paper extends the line of research to identify performance and its role of self-presentation among virtual teams to strengthen trust, task interdependence, task oriented communication and interpersonal relationships. Identifying the role of "Digital Identity in self presentation" and understanding team process from "Psycho-Social dimension" by emphasizing importance on the form of social interaction that takes place, rather than the content or structure itself presents a new perspective. The proposed model emphasizes trade-off between identity consolidation and mobilization of virtual teams. We believe that the proposed framework will increase our understanding the role of individual behavior and team performance in globally distributed virtual teams.
Keywords: globally distributed virtual teams; computer mediated communication; identity performance
Diversity in Unity -- How Industry Policy Shaping UI/UX Research BIBAKFull-Text 195-200
  Chaoyin Chi
Industry policy is usually a tool to promote the growth and efficiency of countries overall economy, in particular, to promote "specific growth of industry". Generally speaking, it allocates the funds, talented people, regulations, and consider how to stimulate the usage from the demand side, and how to accelerate the development of the industry from the supply side. In this paper, the change of the industry policy is described based on the ICT (information and Communications Technology) industrial competitive advantage migration. The goal of the paper is delivering a few points on how industry policy shaping global competitiveness from a technology-driven era to a user-driven era. The differences of the policy focus will be the key discussion.
Keywords: Industry Policy; UI/UX Research; User Experience; Global Competitiveness
The Research on Knowledge Diffusion Based on Small World Network BIBAKFull-Text 201-208
  Xinxin Feng; Baojiang Chen; Huanzhi Zhu
Small world is a sort of network between regular and random network that has the feature of both shorter characteristic path length and higher clustering coefficient, which is an appropriate model for the research of knowledge diffusion. There is simulation in this paper to certificate the validity of small world network in knowledge diffusion. In order to reflect the real world the model is completed by including expert as one influence factor and currency as the other to reflect knowledge transaction. Simulation results show that small world network do exist in knowledge diffusion.
Keywords: Small world; knowledge diffusion; expert
Implement User-Centered Design in Internationally Distributed Design Teams BIBAKFull-Text 209-218
  Limin Fu; Stephanie Chan
With globalization, international business expansion and acquisition, business process outsourcing, distributed design teams become a common practice in many companies and organizations. Many challenges exist for distributed teams. Research conducted in the past looked into communication, project management, and organizational and people management to overcome those challenges. This paper provides a case study, which not only leveraged the findings provided in the previous research, but also looked into the advantages and disadvantages within each user-centered design role in distributed locations. The organizational, project, and role arrangement in distributed teams were discussed with emphasis on how to implement user-centered design in internationally distributed design teams.
Keywords: Distributed Team; Design Management; User-centered Design
Supporting Globally Distributed Work -- Cultural Adaptivity Meets Groupware Tailorability BIBAKFull-Text 219-227
  Axel Hunger; Angela Hirlehei
Computer Supported Cooperation has developed into a quite mature technology over time. Key factors such as awareness and synchronization between cooperating partners and work bench are widely solved. For application in real live, some tools are available, some in use, but the general breakthrough did not happen. Well known "Globalization" is a field where CSCW and similar tools can bring major contribution -- but also new challenges have to be faced as user groups, or teams, will encounter more and more people from different nationalities and cultural background. Therefore, adaptation is needed beyond social behavior where culture becomes a key factor and resulting flexibility of CSCW-tools becomes a must. As a respond to this demand, Tailor-SMaDe (Tailorable Software Modeling and Design) has been developed as web-based synchronous groupware tool that supports globally distributed work. The tool provides high flexibility by allowing users to tailor their collaboration environment. It is implemented as a web-based application, which adds to the advantage that users need only to use their web-browsers to access the application. Tailor-SMaDe is built modularly so as to ease future extension of the groupware. Tailor-SMaDe is intended to be equipped with a culturally-aware expert system that suggests the most optimal configuration of a collaboration environment.
Keywords: tailorable collaboration environment; distributed collaboration; cultural awareness; synchronous groupware; adaptable groupware; adaptive expert system
Mobile Application Development in FLOSS Platform: A Collaborative Network Approach BIBAKFull-Text 228-236
  Qiqi Jiang; Chuan-Hoo Tan; Kwok-Kee Wei
We are deluged by wide variety of mobile applications (thereafter terms as mobile apps) to run on our mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the issue of how mobile applications are developed in academia so far. In order to bridge such gap, we collected data on mobile application development projects from the largest FLOSS (Free and open-source software) platform, i.e., SourceForge, longitudinally. Four key indicators, graph density, reciprocity, modularity, and dyad census asymmetry, which had been drawn from previous social network literatures, were adopted to investigate the collaborative network. We found that the interactive collaboration was especially important for mobile application development process. Developers formed centralized/mutual structure for collaboration instead of several collaborative subdivisions.
Keywords: Open source software; Mobile applications development; social network analysis
Uncovering the Effects of Cultural Intelligence on Cross-Cultural Virtual Collaboration Processes BIBAKFull-Text 237-246
  Ye Li; Asgeir Skulason
People from different countries are increasingly working together with the support of information and communication technologies. Such cross-cultural virtual collaboration is highly challenging due to the geographical separation and cultural diversity among collaborators. This study investigates the effects of an individual capability, cultural intelligence, on cross-cultural virtual collaboration processes in a controlled experiment. Thirty-five cross-cultural virtual dyads were formed and instructed to collaborate in a proposal writing task. Their interaction processes were analyzed with Bales' Interaction Process Analysis. The results suggest that individuals with higher CQ demonstrated more positive reactions and attempted answers in the cross-cultural virtual collaboration after controlling for foreign language proficiency. The increased amounts of the two categories of interaction acts led to improved peer satisfaction. The study links CQ with proximal behavioral outcomes and identifies CQ as a key individual capability that predicts behaviors and affective outcomes in cross-cultural virtual collaboration.
Keywords: Cultural intelligence; cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural collaboration; Bales' interaction process analysis; global virtual team
On Relationship between Self-construal and Individual Behavior in Video-Mediated Multicultural Group Decision Making BIBAKFull-Text 247-256
  Hui Li; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Xiaobo Zhao; Gavriel Salvendy
The study of cultural difference is increasingly becoming important in the research of multicultural group work. Most of the existing literatures have focused on the national level of cultural difference (e.g., individualism or collectivism) to explore individual behavior and group performance. There have been few studies identifying the role of individual level of cultural variability (e.g., self-construal) in multicultural group work. This study investigates the relationship between (a) self-construal and individual participation, and (b) self-construal and individual decision change in video-mediated multicultural group decision making. In a laboratory experiment, forty-five participants coming from fourteen countries formed ten multicultural groups. Each group solved a preference decision-making task using a group videoconferencing system. The results indicated a negative relationship between interdependent self-construal and individual participation in video-mediated group decision making. The relationship between self-construal and decision change was not found. Recommendations on increasing the participation of highly interdependent members are proposed.
Keywords: culture; self-construal; group decision making; video-mediated communication; multicultural group
Trust and Coordination in Offshore Outsourcing: An Account of Intercultural Collaboration in a Danish and Indian IT Context BIBAKFull-Text 257-266
  Thomas Tøth
This paper reports from an empirical study of one of the largest IT and BPO offshore outsourcing endeavors embarked upon by a Danish company. Based on observations of structured, video-mediated handover meetings and follow-up interviews with the involved stakeholders, it presents an account of how the implementation of handover meetings affected Danish employees' perception of their Indian counterparts in terms of work attitude, competence and reliability -- and ultimately how these handover meetings increased the Danish employees' willingness and ability to trust their Indian counterparts. Contemporary research on trust in virtual teams is used to provide a theoretical framing of the empirical findings. The paper furthermore draws on Sabherwal's (2003) categorizations of coordination as being either biased towards organic mutual adjustments or towards a priori structures. Through this perspective the findings suggest that formal coordination can be seen as a catalyst for building trust in virtual teams.
Keywords: Outsourcing; Offshoring; Cross-Cultural Management; Trust; Virtual Teams; Coordination; Intercultural Collaboration

Culture and the Smart City

The Impact of an Actual Visit and Photograph Watching of an Exhibition on Visitor Viewing Experience BIBAKFull-Text 269-278
  Jun-Liang Chen; Si-Jing Chen; Chih-Long Lin
This research regarded the exhibition "Unfold a New Vision: To experience the surprises and awe in indigenous living aesthetics" as the subject to examine the impact of the format of the exhibition on the visitors' satisfaction. The independent variable included the manner of visiting (visiting the exhibition or watching photographs in the exhibition hall) and theme display zone (the entrance, living room, dining room, bedroom, children's room, and the creel (Sanku) lamp). This research asked three major questions regarding each display zone (the feeling and process of visiting, evaluation of the displayed items, and the overall feeling of the display zones). 156 questionnaires were collected for analysis. The result indicated that the scores of four questions regarding the visiting of the display were higher than that of watching the photographs. The questions of "works and fashion" and "intentions of decorating the living place with the displayed items" scored significantly higher in the group of photograph watching. Regarding the feeling of the display zone's theme, there was only one question -- "feel like sleeping" showed to have significant difference. In the section of the evaluation of the displayed items, there were five questions; overall feeling of the exhibition zones, three questions. Among them, the question concerning the interaction of the manner of visiting and the theme zone's theme showed to have significant impact on the question of "exciting". Finally, this research suggests that it is better to include the close-up photographs in the pamphlet of the displayed items in an exhibition. Concerning the materials and styles of the displayed items in the display zones should be consistent to offer visitors marvelous and consistent experiences. In addition, when providing the photographs to people that are unable to visit the exhibition in person, it is better to accompany those photos with music or samples of the displayed items to give them audio and tactile experiences to promote their satisfaction.
Keywords: Visitor's Experience; Exhibition Visit; Photograph Watch
Designing Urban Experience for Beijing in the Context of Smart City BIBAKFull-Text 279-288
  Zhiyong Fu
This paper will explore the urban experience and design opportunities in the context of smart city. Shaping the ecological, balanced and sustainable way of urban lifestyle is becoming new challenge to designer in China. In related research, the development of smart cities and design urban experience will be explored from the integrated perspectives of theories and methodologies. We regard the city as the social network, living community and connected organism by the support of new information and communication technology. Research will focus on understanding the urban interaction pattern between citizen, media and city based on activity theory. The results of this research will help to transform the smart city design from technology driven to people driven; provide new models and case studies for developing the smart service system and shaping new urban experience in Beijing.
Keywords: Urban experience; Activity theory; Interaction Design; Service design; Smart city
A Log Analyzer of Public Transit Guidance Service to Improve a Route Bus Service BIBAKFull-Text 289-295
  Genki Kenjo; Masaki Ito; Takao Kawamura; Kazunori Sugahara
We developed a log analyzer for public transit guidance service, and clarified the pattern of the usage of public transit guidance, and actual demand to the public transit service. In recent years, there is a growing demand for public transit guidance for mobile devices, such as smartphones. Therefore the usage of public transit guidance service strongly reflects the demand to the public transit. It is possible to find potential demand to the railway services and route bus services by observing the access to the public transit guidance service. We developed a log analyzer of public transit guidance service as a Hadoop cluster for Bus-net, a popular public transit guidance service in Tottori Prefecture, Japan, and discussed the way to improve public transit service more convenient with the result of the analysis.
Keywords: public transit guidance service; log analyzer; route bus
Urban Phenomenology: Incorporating Dynamic Frames of Reference in the Design of Urban OS BIBAFull-Text 296-302
  Christopher Grant Kirwan
Urban operating systems must incorporate different frames of reference, ranging from the macro to the individual point of view of the end users, each dimension influencing the organizational structure and behavior of the system. In the attempt to create a holistic, interdisciplinary approach to the complex task of designing urban operating systems, this paper applies the philosophical basis of phenomenology, and its schools of thought, to explore a unified theory and approach of the design of cities as living organisms and real-time technological operating systems, integrating human, environmental and technological dimensions.
Mixed Factorial Analysis of In-Vehicle Information Systems: Age, Driving Behavior, and Task Performance BIBAKFull-Text 303-311
  Yung-Ching Liu; Chin-Heng Ho
This study conducted a driving simulation experiment using an aural, visual, or multi-modality in-vehicle information system (IVIS) to investigate the performance and emergency response of 24 younger (age: M = 23.10 years, SD = 1.54) and 24 older (age: M = 69.21 years, SD = 3.05) drivers in simple and complex road conditions. All drivers assisted by aural or multi-modality IVIS made significantly fewer errors in response to hazard warnings than those who were assisted by the visual modality system. Specifically, drivers exhibited improved performance for response time and the total number of correct turns in complex driving conditions when using multi- or aural modality IVIS; this effect is particularly salient for older drivers. The IVIS improved the safety of older drivers more than that of their younger counterparts, despite their poor vehicle control and slow response time in hazard situations.
Keywords: in-vehicle information system; age; driving simulator; driving performance; display
The Innovative PSS Design of Urban Transportation Based on Sharing Style BIBAKFull-Text 312-321
  Xin Liu; Yankai Zhao
The ever-degrading traffic situation has become one of the major factors that check the sustainable development of cities, as well as threaten people's well-beings. Thus, proceeding from the concept of Sustainable PSS, the design of sharing transport system aims at pursuing a holistic measure to ease the traffic tension and create a new fashion of urban commuting. The design was inspired by 'car-pooling' and fuse public transit with the private one, involving the design of the exterior, the interior, the Internet platform, etc. Harboring the idea of 'Social Innovation', our group creates a new urban transit service system by combining the folk wisdom with professional originality and maximizing the current transportation resources.
Keywords: Product Service System; PSS; Sustainability; Transportation Design; Urban Transportation; Sharing Style; Social Innovation
Study on Aggressive Driving Activities at Crossroads in Beijing BIBAKFull-Text 322-328
  Hua Qin; Huanzhi Zhu; Renwen Huang
The objective of this study is to explore the influence of aggressive driving activities on microscopic traffic flow at crossroads in Beijing. Thus, we performed observations and corresponding statistical analysis to present some of the features. The results indicate that the number of occupying the bus lane and jumping the queue in the period of rush-hour is higher distinctly than those in the period off-peak. And the aggressive behaviors do not only block the microscopic traffic flow, but facilitate the vehicles crossing the crossroads quickly.
Keywords: aggressive driving activities; crossroads
Constructing Interaction Scenarios of High-Building Interior in Fire BIBAKFull-Text 329-335
  Hua Qin; Linghua Ran; Shaohong Cai
Many fires in buildings have indicated that behavior of occupants in period of pre-movement is important for the survival. Pre-movement time and pre-movement behavior are currently referred as most important factors during evacuation. The objective of this study is to identify the factors that influenced pre-evacuation time of occupants during an actual fire evacuation and to quantify the factors. This study proposes three kinds of factors influencing the human behavior in the event of fire in period of the pre-movement, which are fire characteristics, building characteristics, human characteristics. Through simulating fire scenes of building interior, this study will investigate occupants' performance in the period of pre-movement. This paper is part of the study, which is to construct interaction scenarios of building interior in fire.
Keywords: Interaction scenarios; evacuation simulation; human behavior; fire
SoLoMo User Experience Study Using a Pivoted Parallel Coordinates BIBAKFull-Text 336-345
  Xiaohua Sun; Jie Qiu; Lei Zhang
With the development of mobile and location-based technology, SoLoMo is becoming the trend for applications in different fields. However, many of the existing applications only take advantage of a very small part of the rich potentials provided by the SoLoMo framework. We introduce in this paper a pivoted parallel coordinates supporting the study of the complex user experiences in SoLoMo applications. We also present a series of studies and designs we did utilizing this coordinates. Hope the approach and tools introduced in this paper can serve as a means for more designers to better position existing applications and for them to identify novel scenarios that are otherwise buried in the numerous factors involved in SoLoMo.
Keywords: SoLoMo; SNS; LBS; Mobile Application; User Experience; Parallel Coordinates
GeoCity Beijing: Platform of Eco-City Information Visualization and Interactive Narrative Structure BIBAKFull-Text 346-355
  Xingjian Cui; Zhiyong Fu; Shen Li; Junjie Yu
With an aim at resource visualization of eco-city, the present paper puts forward a research framework for narrative structure of cities to enable decision makers and participants of city construction to better understand the relations of elements of eco-city.
Keywords: eco-city; information design; narrative structure; interactive design
Original-Ecology Sounds of Cities' Impression BIBAKFull-Text 356-363
  Lie Zhang; Jin Huang
Sounds appear everywhere. From the natural sound of a primitive society to the mechanical symphony of an industrial society, we are surrounded by sounds. Along with the development of human society, new sounds are produced continually. So the sound history reflects the course of human history. However, due to a lack of awareness to our sound environment, some sounds have faded away while their value not being recognized. Original-Ecology sounds, which are without any processing, trace our ways of living and thinking, and touch on our memories and feelings. Sounds are invisible and intangible. Once gone, the crafts, lifestyle, living conditions and feelings that they used to represent will disappear along with them. Sounds are a part of our cultural heritage and deserve to be studied.
   As an important part of human civilization, cities are associated with the development of human society. Today's effervescent cities generate many new sounds while accelerating the demise of traditional ones. We intend to evoke the lost memories of neglected sounds by creating an interactive, emotional-centered experience. More Than Sound, an on-line social soundscape with three major components: a mobile application, a website and a public sound installation, outlining social scenes and life stories, it does not end up at encouraging people to collect and save sounds around cities; it enables people to form a deeper understanding of their living environment through cities' vivid sound portraits.
Keywords: Original-ecology sounds; soundscape; cities; cultural protection; emotional-centered experience

Cultural Differences on the Web

Comparison of Trust on Group Buying Websites between American and Chinese Young Adults BIBAKFull-Text 367-372
  Na Chen; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Dominik Kolz
This study aimed to investigate the difference of trust and purchasing behaviors of group buying websites between Chinese and American participants. The study consisted of two steps: 1) a pre-questionnaire to test the general trust on group buying websites; 2) an in-lab experiment to test the purchasing probability and trust on specific trust situation. 20 Chinese and 20 American university students were recruited to participate in the study. According to the results, Chinese and American participants showed differences in Personality-Based Trust and Institution-Based Trust. Only in Calculative Trust Situation, Chinese participants showed significantly lower trust level than American participants. There were no significant differences of purchasing probabilities between Chinese and American participants.
Keywords: group buying websites; trust; cross-cultural differences
How to Make Friends in Social Network Service? A Comparison between Chinese and German BIBAKFull-Text 373-382
  Zhe Chen; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Bertram Frank; Faranda Ignazio; Jay Zhou; Seyed Sajed; Yong Xiang
Social network service is very popular all around the world. Global social network service assists Chinese users to have more friends from different countries. Friend-making on social network service is not systematically documented and reported for Chinese. Making friends in social network service and making friends in real life include similar activities such as invitation, knowledge sharing and communication. Almost everything users can do in real life can be done through internet. For example, in social network service E websites such as Facebook users can share a photo with their friends as they do in real life. The difference between making friends in social network service and in real life exits on the way how these activities are done. For example, in real life photo sharing is usually accompanied with a face-to-face talking while in social network service it is mainly the online comments on the photo. Therefore it is interesting to find if Chinese user behavior on social network service is consistent with that in real life.
   Thus it is necessary to design social network service with consideration of Chinese usage pattern. For example, as Chinese tend to have more virtual friend social network service websites can recommend. Social network website can use online activity such as "campus star" to require Chinese user to explore other's home page or use "explore" button to have user randomly go to strangers' homepage. More virtual communication style can be added to increase ease of use. For example voice and video message can be applied in social network service in addition to text message.
   The result indicates that the Chinese participants have more virtual friends than German participants while German users contact their friends more often in real life. There is no big difference between Chinese and German participants on communicating with their friends and sharing information. The result shed light on future research on Chinese friend-making behavior on social network service and user interface design for Chinese.
Keywords: social network service; cultural difference
Smart Mobile Devices in Lifestyles under Transformation: A Comparative Study of Smart Communication among Youth in Hong Kong and Beijing BIBAKFull-Text 383-392
  Albee Xin Chen; Kin Wai Michael Siu
Social and individual lifestyle patterns are undergoing rapid change in the 21st century. The globalisation of the culture, economy and technology requires 'global' design. Globalisation shapes culture and trends in a more integrated way, and Internet technology enables designers to deliver their services and practices without regard for geographical borders. However, diverse regional and local cultures and individual preferences still significantly affect design practice. In China, with its diverse and developing cultures, the trend for smart communication has generated new lifestyle choices, creating marketing opportunities and challenges. We observed the use of smart mobile devices among young people in Hong Kong and Beijing, and compare and discuss the differences in preferences and use scenarios for smart mobile devices in a first to analysing data from users and attempting to trace a new cross-cultural design pattern for smart communication. We conclude that a holistic perspective on smart mobile products and services is needed to solve the problems brought about by the information age in cross-cultural contexts.
Keywords: Chinese lifestyle; Cross-cultural; Smart mobile devices; Smart communication
Incorporating Culture in Website Design: A Comparison of Taiwanese and Australian Website Characteristics BIBAKFull-Text 393-403
  Hsiu Ching Laura Hsieh; Chi-Hsiung Chen; Sin Dai Hong
This paper explores issues related to user interface design and experience, including culturally preferred design elements. A local website audit was conducted to compare and analyze websites in Taiwan and Australia. The web design attributes for effective communication (usability) that are considered include: visual representation, navigation, links, layout and multimedia. Significant differences in culturally preferred design characteristics were found in each of the web design categories. Results from this study can contribute to help web developers and designers develop website designs that are culturally appropriate. Based on the methodology structure in this research, this investigation is the first phase in identifying cultural preferences of two cultures, and future research will evaluate the web experiment design to test if the cultural preferences are incorporated in the web, and to determine if such an approach can improve usability.
Keywords: cultural preference; usability; effective communication
Localization of Web Design: An Investigation of Culturally Preferred Web Attributes in Taiwan and the UK BIBAKFull-Text 404-413
  Hsiu Ching Laura Hsieh; Sin Dai Hong
Cultural diversity makes it unrealistic for designers to rely on intuition or personal experience to develop web interface design under the context of globalization, it is important to explore the cultural requirements and preferences of a target culture if a company wants to develop a website which can appropriately map that target culture. Although there is increased research related to culturally preferred design attributes, there are few studies that systematically examined such preferences across cultures. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate culturally preferred design characteristics in Taiwan and the UK, and the local website audits were conducted to identify the cultural preferences of each culture. Significant differences of culturally preferred design attributes were found across both cultures. Results from this study can contribute to help web developers and designers to develop the design for websites as culturally appropriate.
Keywords: globalization; local website audits
Communication and Social Network Requirements of Chinese Elderly People for Mobile Services BIBAKFull-Text 414-423
  Lu Jia; Pilsung Choe
This paper explores Chinese elderly people's communication and social networking requirements on mobile services. Interviews, observations and questionnaires provided insight into elderly people's requirements. The result of data analysis illustrates the relationship between social, family, personal factors and elderly people's requirements. Personal and family factors are significantly related to elderly people's requirements. Social factor needs to be well-quantified in the further studies.
Keywords: Elderly people; communication requirement; social network requirement; mobile phone
Arabic Website Design: User Evaluation from a Cultural Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 424-431
  Nouf Khashman; Andrew Large
The cultural background of web users may play a key role in the way they interact with and perceive the usability and usefulness of websites. Twenty Arab participants evaluated and compared 2 websites from 2 countries within their culture to identify their preferences and expectations of the design of Arabic websites in order to examine whether these preferences are consistent with their cultural-specific attributes as described and predicted by Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions. The results suggest that these participants showed an overall preference for one website over the other.
Keywords: Web design; User Evaluation; Arab countries; Culture; Hofstede
Two Sites, Two Voices: Linguistic Differences between Facebook Status Updates and Tweets BIBAKFull-Text 432-440
  Han Lin; Lin Qiu
Facebook and Twitter, two of the most popular social networking sites, have different network structures and communication purposes. To examine how their differences affect users' language use, we conducted a comparative analysis on the linguistic pattern of Facebook status updates and tweets. Differences were found in word categories indicating verbal immediacy, emotionality, topic, and colloquialism. Results show that Facebook status updates are more emotional and interpersonal, while tweets are more casual, explicit, and concerned about impression management.
Keywords: Twitter; Facebook; Linguistic feature; LIWC; social media
Do We Need a New Internet for Elderly People? A Cross-Cultural Investigation BIBAKFull-Text 441-450
  Maxie Lutze; Stefan Brandenburg
This paper describes the development of a culturally sensitive instrument for assessing user needs related to Internet usage. The resulting instrument, which encompasses four questionnaires used to obtain empirical data, was validated in a pre-study and experimental study in Germany and South Korea, and provides a quantitative and qualitative differentiation of the Internet needs of different groups. In a computer-based test, it was shown that the questionnaire tool allowed certain aspects of Internet usage to be predicted.
Keywords: Internet inclusion; age differences; cultural differences
Developing a Contextual Network for Indigenous Communities in Mexico BIBAKFull-Text 451-457
  Mario Alberto Moreno Rocha; Carlos Alberto Martínez Sandoval; Cuauhtémoc Rivera Loaiza; Ma. Margarita Vírgen González
This paper presents the development and results of the Contextual Network project, which took place in two impoverished communities in Mexico. The Contextual Network (CN) project is comprised by a contextual study followed by a usability study of a prototype designed to help these communities in underprivileged circumstances. This paper also includes the results of a study about exposing indigenous users to unfamiliar new technologies and the way in which those developments could be appropriately applied to benefit their community.
Keywords: Cross-cultural design; usability; user interfaces; vulnerable communities; Design for social development
A Study of Cross-Culture for a Suitable Information Feeding in Online Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 458-467
  Arunee Ratikan; Mikifumi Shikida
Online Social Networks (OSNs) such as Facebook, Google+, Twitter play a significant role in communication. People use space and services provided by the OSNs to share interests, exchange information and maintain relationship each other. However, there are two issues in the OSNs. First is an information overload problem. The OSNs feed excessive information to social network page (SNP) without recognized user's situation and desire. This problem causes missing important information and makes the user annoy. Second is a culture difference problem. Feeding the information should depend on the culture because culture behavior of each country is different. Hence, information feeding mechanism of the OSNs should realize these issues. In this research, we investigate which features and factors have an impact on the user and should be considered in feeding the information. Furthermore, we study difference of culture between Japan and Thai. We believe our results can alleviate these two problems, when they are applied to the information feeding mechanism. Also in the future the user can get rich communication by serving the relevant information according to the user's situation and desire.
Keywords: Online Social Networks; Information Feeding Mechanism; Information Filtering; Culture differences
A Cross-Cultural Study of User Experience of Video on Demand on Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 468-474
  Na Sun; Dominik Frey; Robert Jin; Hui Huang; Zhe Chen; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
The objective of this study is to investigate the cross-cultural differences of user experience on mobile VOD service between Chinese and German users. The goal was to provide insight for culturally adaptive mobile VOD service design. This study focused on two aspects of user experience, which are content preference and interface preference. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 20 respondents to find out what kind of content users prefer (i.e. content preference), and a user experiment was carried out with 8 participants to explore users' preference of VOD interface on mobile devices (i.e. interface preference). The results indicated that Chinese users spend more time on videos uploaded by individual users than German users. Besides, users from both cultures prefer the interface with more literal description to interface full of pictures. At last, suggestions for VOD service providers in both cultures are provided.
Keywords: Video on demand; user experience; mobile device
A Comparison of Eye Movements When Searching Web Pages between Americans and Koreans BIBAKFull-Text 475-484
  Changwoo Yang
The purpose of this research was to identify the differences and similarities in eye movements between American and Korean participants when searching Web pages of different levels of complexity. Several eye-movement metrics were employed using eye-tracking systems. The results revealed that there was no significant difference between Americans and Koreans in terms of attention to visual elements and areas of the Web pages.
Keywords: cultural differences; eye movement; Web design