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VINCI Tables of Contents: 091011121314

Proceedings of the 2009 International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Visual Information Communication
Editors:Mao Lin Huang; Quang Vinh Nguyen; Kang Zhang
Location:Sydney, Australia
Dates:2009-Sep-24 to 2009-Sep-25
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4419-0311-2 (print), 978-1-4419-0312-9 (online); hcibib: VINCI09
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. The Arts of Visual Layout, Presentation & Exploration
  2. The Design of Visual Attributes, Symbols & Languages
  3. Methods for Visual Analytics & Knowledge Discovery
  4. Systems, Interfaces and Applications of Visualization
  5. Methods for Multimedia Data Recognition & Processing

The Arts of Visual Layout, Presentation & Exploration

The Physical Visualization of Information: Designing Data Sculptures in an Educational Context BIBAKFull-Text 1-23
  Andrew Vande Moere; Stephanie Patel
This paper is a qualitative case study analysis of the issues involved in designing and implementing data sculptures, the physical "embodiment" of data in a tangible presence, shape or form, within the context of an undergraduate design studio. It demonstrates how approaches and theories from the field of data visualization can form a rich contextual resource and motivational tool for teaching principles of creative design. A relatively short, two-week assignment challenged students to investigate and convey a meaningful data-driven insight through a tangible representation. In this paper, we analyze the resulting collection of physical artifacts developed by the students to reveal notable design approaches of embodying abstract information. We present a novel classification of data sculptures based on a semiotic taxonomy (symbolic, iconic, or indexical) and consider the qualities of representational fidelity and narrative formulation, for instance when the unfolding of the data-driven narrative is seen as a process, rather than an outcome. In addition, we investigate how the introduction of digital fabrication techniques influenced the design strategies chosen by the students versus handmade approaches.
Keywords: design; education; data visualization; information aesthetics; data Sculpture; digital fabrication
Visual Analysis of History of World Cup: A Dynamic Network with Dynamic Hierarchy and Geographic Clustering BIBAFull-Text 25-39
  Adel Ahmed; Xiaoyan Fu; Seok-Hee Hong; Quan Hoang Nguyen; Kai Xu
In this paper, we present new visual analysis methods for history of the FIFA World Cup competition data, a social network from Graph Drawing 2006 Competition. Our methods are based on the use of network analysis method, and new visualization methods for dynamic graphs with dynamic hierarchy and geographic clustering. More specifically, we derive a dynamic network with geographic clustering from the history of the FIFA World Cup competition data, based on who-beats-whom relationship. Combined with the centrality analysis (which defines dynamic hierarchy) and the use of the union of graphs (which determines the overall layout topology), we present three new visualization methods for dynamic graphs with dynamic hierarchy and geographic clustering: wheel layout, radial layout and hierarchical layout. Our experimental results show that our visual analysis methods can clearly reveal the overall winner of the World Cup competition history as well as the strong and weak countries. Furthermore, one can analyze and compare the performance of each country for each year along the context with their overall performance. This enables us to confirm the expected and discover the unexpected.
From Tree to Graph -- Experiments with E-Spring Algorithm BIBAKFull-Text 41-63
  Pushpa Kumar; Kang Zhang; Mao Lin Huang
Graph drawing and visualization represent structural information as diagrams of abstract graphs and networks. E-Spring Algorithm, derived from the popular spring embedder model, was proposed to eliminate node overlaps in the drawings of clustered directed acyclic graphs Gc. In this paper, we apply the E-Spring algorithm to general graphs by minimizing edge-node intersections. Initially, a tree structure is extracted from the original graph using the breadth-first search (BFS) algorithm. The extracted tree is then visualized without node overlaps using the E-Spring algorithm, and the remaining non-tree edges are appended to this visualization. A post-processing step that implements edge routing is performed on the obtained visualization to eliminate residual edge-node intersections. This method has been validated by visualizing eBay buyer-seller relationships and Graph Catalog benchmarking data.
Keywords: node overlaps; edge-node intersections; edge routing; graph visualization
Visual Navigation with Schematic Maps BIBAFull-Text 65-84
  Steffen Bogen; Ulrik Brandes; Hendrik Ziezold
A prototypical example of the operational dimensions of visual information communication is the use of schematic maps for visual navigation. The implementation of maps on location-sensitive or handheld devices has changed the preliminaries of common mapping techniques. By an analysis of selected examples, both historic and current, we want to open up the space for innovative map design options. Our approach blends art history and computer science, and is based on a systematic, operational perspective. It may be unexpected, though, that it starts from the way that graphic design supports imaginative navigation on the map, rather than considering its utility for navigation in the physical space directly.
DOI-Wave: A Focus+Context Interaction Technique for Networks Based on Attention-Reactive Interface BIBAKFull-Text 85-94
  Lei Ren; Lin Zhang; Dongxing Teng; Guozhong Dai; Qian Li
This paper presents DOI-Wave, a Focus+Context technique for interactive exploration of networks, whose layout depends dynamically on the user's degree-of-interest (DOI). DOI-Wave uses the hierarchical clustered graph paradigm, in which, the view of a graph is dynamically determined by the selection of a single node as the focus node. The layout algorithm could change the view of graph animatedly, as the selected focus node is changed, according to each node's DOI value computed by a DOI function. The Focus+Context paradigm in DOI-Wave, from user's perspective, makes it easy to understand the relationships between the focus node and the other nodes. And the hierarchical cluster paradigm, which adapts to display space dynamically, leads to simultaneously clear and compact visualization. We have applied DOI-Wave to visualizing and exploring social networks. Evaluation results show DOI-Wave is effective.
Keywords: information visualization; user interface; graph visualization; interaction techniques; Focus+Context; attention-reactive user interface
Multi-dimensional Data Visualization using Concentric Coordinates BIBAKFull-Text 95-118
  Jiawan Zhang; Yuan Wen; Quang Vinh Nguyen; Liangfu Lu; Maolin Huang; Jiadong Yang; Jizhou Sun
This paper proposes a new method called Concentric Coordinate for visualizing multidimensional datasets. To reduce the overlapping and edge crossings among curves, axes are arranged as concentric circles rather than parallel lines that are commonly used in the traditional approach. Edges which represent data items are drawn as segments of curves rather than poly-lines drawn in the classical parallel coordinate approach. Some heuristics are applied in our new method in order to improve the readability of views. The paper demonstrates the advantages of new method. In comparison with the parallel coordinate method, our concentric circle approach can reduce more than 15% of the edge overlaps and crossings by visualizing the same dataset. In our new approach, we further enhance the readability of views by increasing the crossing angle. Finally, a visual interactive network scans detection system called CCScanViewer is developed based on our new visualization method to represent traffic activities in network flows, and the experiments show that the new approach is effective in detecting unusual patterns of network scans, port scans, the hidden scans, DDoS attacks etc.
Keywords: Concentric Coordinates; Multi-dimensional Data Visualization; Crossing Reduction; Security Visualization

The Design of Visual Attributes, Symbols & Languages

Construct Connotation Dictionary of Visual Symbols BIBAKFull-Text 119-134
  Ping Xiao; Ernesto Arroyo; Josep Blat
We present the first version of an electronic dictionary (http://vis.upf.edu/CDVS/dic2.aspx) where designers can find pictures to represent abstract concepts. It aims at the expressiveness and variety of visual expressions for abstract concepts. This dictionary is driven by an automatic knowledge extraction method, which elicits pairs of abstract concept and picture from corpus. The extracted visual symbols look promising. A preliminary experiment was accomplished to test the quality and quantity of these visual symbols. We offer analysis of the experiment results and proposals to improve the knowledge extraction method.
Keywords: visual symbol; abstract concept; connotation; design; knowledge extraction; corpus; clustering; data mining; survey; user experiment; work efficiency
Constructing Confluent Context-sensitive Graph Grammars from Non-confluent Productions for Parsing Efficiency BIBAKFull-Text 135-147
  Yang Zou; Jian ; Xiaoqin Zeng; Xiaoxing Ma; Qiliang Yang
The efficient parsing algorithms are usually confined to confluent graph grammars in context-sensitive formalisms, whereas the confluence condition is not frequently met by graph grammars in practical applications. This paper, based on the Reserved Graph Grammar (RGG) formalism, proposes an extended formalism XRGG which allows imposing constraints characterizing application situations on graph productions. The constraints can make the redexes of the XRGG productions' right graphs mutually exclusive so as to ensure the confluence of the corresponding graph grammar. Then an algorithm is developed to construct a confluent XRGG graph grammar from an RGG grammar with non-confluent productions for tackling identical graph languages. This method can be easily generalized to other context-sensitive graph grammar formalisms, thus making the efficient parsing algorithm of the RGG that depends on confluent graph grammars more widely applicable.
Keywords: Context-sensitive graph grammar; confluence; parsing algorithm; constraint; extended productions
Experimental Color in Computer Icons BIBAKFull-Text 149-158
  Yan-Peng Lim; Peter Charles Woods
Color selection is important as color could adversely affect the entire design if not appropriately applied in icon design. Color is also visually important to make a design more attractive, legible and viewer-friendly. The function of icons in computer display is for direction and navigation. Color and icon are both of equal importance in Graphical User Interface environments. The combination of color and icon makes for a powerful tool that allows information to be pleasantly presented on screen in a manner that is both clear and easy to comprehend. This study divided into Part 1, 2 and 3 comprises three research questions. The objective of this study is to encourage the 73 participants to explore the RGB color model by applying the color for a pair of previous and next icons. The findings from this study show that students still need to be given a systematic list of color combinations for foreground and background color choices.
Keywords: Color; Icon; RGB Color

Methods for Visual Analytics & Knowledge Discovery

Hidden Cluster Detection for Infectious Disease Control and Quarantine Management BIBAKFull-Text 159-172
  Yain-Whar Si; Kan-Ion Leong; Robert P. Biuk-Aghai; Simon Fong
Infectious diseases that are caused by pathogenic microorganisms can spread fast and far, from one person to another, directly or indirectly. Prompt quarantining of the infected from the rest, coupled with contact tracing, has been an effective measure to encounter outbreaks. However, urban life and international travel make containment difficult. Furthermore, the length of incubation periods of some contagious diseases like SARS enable infected passengers to elude health screenings before first symptoms appear and thus to carry the disease further. Detecting and visualizing contact-tracing networks, and immediately identifying the routes of infection, are thus important. We apply information visualization and hidden cluster detection for finding cliques of potentially infected people during incubation. Preemptive control and early quarantine are hence possible by our method. Our prototype Infectious Disease Detection and Quarantine Management System (IDDQMS), which can identify and trace clusters of infection by mining patients' history, is introduced in this paper.
Keywords: Infectious Disease; Cluster Detection; Contact Tracing; SARS; Health Care Information System
Multi-scale Vortex Extraction of Ocean Flow BIBAKFull-Text 173-183
  Cui Xie; Lihua Xing; Cunna Liu; Xiaocong Li
A simple and intuitionistic method of vortices extraction is put forward in this paper. It includes two parts work: the vortex core detection and the vortex hull extraction. The former is based on Sperner's Lemma to label the velocity vector direction of triangle vertices and identifies the fully-labeling triangle cells that are most likely to contain critical points. Combining with triangle subdivision scheme and recording the number and the position of the intersection of a surround streamline with the four axes under the coordinate system originated from the examined vortex core to determine the existence of the swirling flow pattern of vortices. Thus from visual and logical perspective, the actual vortex core regions are verified and the specific swirling range of vortex can be obtained by recording the outmost ring of the intersection points on the swirling streamlines surrounding the examined core. This approach can not only suppress false positives but also make the vortex extraction process easily and efficiently. Furthermore, an interactive vortex-scale factor is used for selective extracting and visualizing the vortex in ocean flow. This method is very flexible for user to perform multi-scale vortex feature analysis. The visualization results of the real ocean investigation data can prove the effectiveness of our method by comparing our results to the method of Jiang's. In addition, it also shows the potential of the interactive visual analysis by the abstraction properties of feature extraction process in physical oceanography and in engineering practice.
Keywords: Vortex detection; feature extraction; ocean flow visualization
A Novel Visualization Method for Detecting DDoS Network Attacks BIBAKFull-Text 185-194
  Jiawan Zhang; Guoqiang Yang; Liangfu Lu; MaoLin Huang; Ming Che
With the rapid growth of networks in size and complexity, netwok administrators today are facing more and more challenges for protecting their networked computers and other devices from all kinds of attacks. Unlike the traditional methods of analyzing textual log data, a visual interactive system called DDoSViewer is proposed in this paper for detecting DDoS kind of network attacks. DDoSViewer is specifically designed for detecting DDoS attacks through the analysis of visual patterns. We will discuss the data sources, visual structures and interactive functions that are used in the proposed visualization system. We will also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the existing visual solutions for DDoS detection. The extraction and analysis of network data, the calculation and display of graphic elements' attributes and the pre-characteristics of DDoS attacks are all included in the new visualization technique. The experiments showed that the new system can detect DDoS attacks effectively.
Keywords: network security; DDoS attacks; information visualization; port scan
A Pool of Topics: Interactive Relational Topic Visualization for Information Discovery BIBAKFull-Text 195-207
  Inessa Seifert; Michael Kruppa
In this paper, we present a novel relational visualization that supports people at information discovery tasks in digital libraries. This visualization displays search query results structured into topics and highlights the intersections between them. The proposed visual representation introduces interactive drag-and-drop operations for manipulation of the generated topics. These operations mirror the human online searching strategies that involve boolean AND, OR, and NOT operators. In doing so, the information seeker can refine (or relax) a search query in an interactive way during a focusing or a defocusing phase. The intersections of topics are made explicitly visible to enable the information seeker to avoid frustrating "no hits" situations.
Keywords: information visualization; boolean operators; information discovery; online search strategies

Systems, Interfaces and Applications of Visualization

DaisyViz: A Model-based User Interfaces Toolkit for Development of Interactive Information Visualization BIBAKFull-Text 209-229
  Lei Ren; Feng Tian; Lin Zhang; Guozhong Dai
Although the increasing hordes of information visualization technologies are recognized both in industry and research community, there are seldom toolkits for non-expert users or end-users to rapidly design and develop domain-specific information visualization applications. Such toolkits should provide support for the unified data structures suited to tree, network, temporal and multi-dimensional data, well-known visualization techniques and interaction techniques, and generic visualization tasks. We built DaisyViz, a model-based user interfaces toolkit, which enables end-users to rapidly develop domain-specific information visualization applications without traditional programming. DaisyViz is based on an interface model called UIMI consisting of three declarative models -- data model, visualization model, and control model. In the development process, users visually construct UIMI which could be used to generate profiles. Those profiles can be parsed by DaisyViz to automatically generate a prototype system. We firstly give the formal definition of UIMI, and then discuss the architecture of DaisyViz. To evaluate DasyViz we built an application in a manufacturing enterprise and performed a user study. The results show DaisyViz is usable and effective.
Keywords: User interface; information visualization; toolkit; multiple coordinated views; model-based interface development
A New Interactive Platform for Visual Analytics of Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 231-244
  Quang Vinh Nguyen; Mao Lin Huang
This paper presents a new interactive platform for visual analytics of large networks and graphs. The platform integrates multiple graph layouts, interactive navigations and clustering algorithms into an effective and flexible analytical visual environment for better understanding of the nature of variety of different networks. This could lead to the discovery and revealing of hidden structures and relationships among the network items as well as the attributes associated with particular focused elements. We provide a number of interactive navigation and exploration methods so that it can provide a flexible and controllable way to archive the preferable view for analytics. We are extending our visual analytics platform into a large and high-resolution display.
Keywords: Information Visualisation; Graph Visualisation; Interaction; Visual Analytics; Network; Visualisation Framework
Strategic paths and memory map: Exploring a building and memorizing knowledge BIBAKFull-Text 245-254
  Sandro Varano; Jean-Claude Bignon
Restoring archaeology and architecture, we propose a 3D navigation mode based on topographic and cognitive paths. During the exploration of a 3D model, the learner can create his own memory map facilitating the appropriation and memorization of knowledge. In this article, we will correlate the exploration and creation activities. The Great Pyramid of Giza is a support to this work.
Keywords: Archaeology and architecture; strategic path; memory map; learning
Information visualization Approach on the University Examination Timetabling Problem BIBAKFull-Text 255-264
  J. Joshua Thomas; Ahamad Tajudin Khader; Bahari Belaton
The university examination timetabling is known to be a highly constrained combinatorial optimization problem. We classify the examination timetabling into preprocessing, during the processing, and post-processing stages. In each of the processes the data places a crucial role to engross into the stages to generate timetables. Major research work on timetabling is to tune the algorithms or focused on the optimal timetable generations and its performance. In this paper, we propose an interactive system based on visualization techniques to guide the optimization process with constraint satisfaction algorithms. Visualization assists the user to learn the data (pre-processing) with that to make a medium between the scheduler and the timetable designers to improve the obtained solutions. To show the usefulness of our ideas, we apply graph visualization (Prefuse) on the pre-processing data that could effectively support a human timetable designer in the analysis of complex timetable generations.
Keywords: Examination timetabling; Graph visualization; Information visualization
Making Traffic Safety Personal: Visualization and Customization of National Traffic Fatalities BIBAKFull-Text 265-282
  Brian N. Hilton; Thomas A. Horan; Benjamin Schooley
Communicating public health issues related to rural and urban road transportation safety is a challenging task. The approach to this task was to utilize an action-design research methodology to design and evaluate several innovative GIS-mashups that visually communicate traffic fatality information from the national to the local level. These web-based mashups (www.saferoadmaps.org) integrate a range of spatial data regarding motor vehicle crashes, transportation policy legislation, and driver behavioral data and present a visual representation of traffic safety across the United States. It was anticipated that these mashups, and related website, would help raise awareness and change fundamental perceptions regarding the magnitude, risk factors, and impacts of motor vehicle crashes and bring both increased safety and awareness to transportation policy makers and private citizens. Preliminary findings from around the world suggest that there is a strong interest in this type of information, particularly as users can customize it to local queries.
Keywords: Visualization Interface; GIS; Mashup; Public Health; Traffic Fatalities; Web 2.0; XML
Visualizing Table Dependency Relations to Reveal Network Characters in Database Applications BIBAKFull-Text 283-297
  Chengying Mao
With the rapid growth of software size and complexity, how to understand and maintain a software system has become a great challenge in its life-cycle, especially from the global perspective. The paper mainly focuses on the comprehension problem of database-based software systems. A framework for visualizing and analyzing table dependency structure of a DB-based application is proposed, and its corresponding prototype tool named DBViewer is implemented. It mainly includes two main functions, i.e., table dependency visualization in database and structure feature metrics. The key methods of building this tool are proposed and some characters of table dependency relations in database are also found via metrics in this paper. Some experiments are performed on five DB-based software systems, and some preliminary rules have been found: (1) the degree distribution of table dependency graph roughly conforms to power law, (2) the average path length of the max connected subgraph is small, and (3) the clustering effect is not so evident and the coefficients are all less than 0.05 in the max connected sub-graph of all table dependency relations.
Keywords: Software Visualization; Complex Network; Pareto Law; Graphviz
Visualized Feature Modeling in Software Product Line BIBAKFull-Text 299-310
  Li Zheng; Chao Zhang; Zhanwei Wu; Yixin Yan
In the research of commonalities and variations of domain modeling, feature modeling is proved to be an effective and widely used method. But how to visualize the feature models in user interfaces remains to be a problem. In studying the data processing domain, we design rendering rules to combine features to user visible engines in GUI XML and UML based Architecture Description Language (ADL). Furthermore, we visualize the process in our IDE tool based on Eclipse.
Keywords: Software Product Line; Feature Modeling; Visualization

Methods for Multimedia Data Recognition & Processing

A Useful Visualization Technique: A Literature Review for Augmented Reality and its Application, limitation & future direction BIBAFull-Text 311-337
  Donggang Yu; Jesse Sheng Jin; Suhuai Luo; Wei Lai; Qingming Huang
Augmented reality (AR), a useful visualization technique, is reviewed based literatures. The AR research methods and applications are surveyed since AR was first developed over forty years ago. Recent and future AR researches are proposed which could help researchers of decide which topics should be developed when they are beginning their own researches in the field.
Novel Blind Steganalysis for JPEG Images BIBAKFull-Text 339-353
  Li Zhuo; Chen Jian; Jiang Xiaoning; Zeng Xianting; Pan Xuezeng
A new blind steganalytic scheme is proposed in this paper for JPEG images. Based on the DCT domain and the decompressed spatial domain, nine statistical models are constructed for a JPEG image. By using the center of mass (COM) of histogram characteristic function (HCF), we calculate the energy distribution for each statistical model in the frequency domain as a part of the feature set. Besides, we select suitable individual elements which hold main information of the statistical models based on DCT domain as the other part of the feature set. Then a 194-dimensional feature vector is obtained for each image. Support vector machines (SVM) are utilized to construct the classifiers. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme provides good detection accuracy on five popular JPEG steganographic algorithms, and outperforms several recently reported similar steganalytic methods, especially when the embedded messages are small.
Keywords: Steganalysis; Blind detection; Statistical model; Feature vector; Support vector machine
A Polarization Restraint Based Fast Motion Estimation Approach to H.264 Stereoscopic Video Coding BIBAKFull-Text 355-364
  Mingjing Ai; Lili Zhao; Yongmei Zhu; Qinping Zhao
An efficient polarization restraint based fast motion estimation algorithm for H.264 stereoscopic video coding is proposed in this paper. For parallel binocular-camera systems, there exists a certain principle called polarization restraint, according to which, for the object in a 3D scene, there is no vertical disparity between its projection point on the left plane and that on the right plane. The Motion Estimation (ME) complexity in the right view channel can be greatly reduced by adopting the algorithm presented in this paper. Experimental results show that, compared with the Full Search Block Match Algorithm (FSBMA), the number of search candidates of the proposed algorithm are only 1/136 of that of the FSBMA with similar decoded video quality. Besides, the computation complexity of the proposed algorithm is lower than that of Diamond Search (DS) and of Three Step Search (TSS) with much better decoded pictures' quality.
Keywords: polarization restraint; stereoscopic video coding; H.264; parallel binocular-camera
Multi-core Parallel of Photon Mapping BIBAKFull-Text 365-374
  Huaiqing He; Tianbao Wang; Qing Xu; Yaoyu Xing
By analyzing the internal parallelism in the rendering stage of photon mapping and by learning the idea of ray tracing in parallel, this paper carries out the photon mapping in parallel in multi-core processors. It solves the problem of load balancing through dynamic scheduling the refined data blocks. The improved algorithm achieves good acceleration ratio using multi-threaded programming language of OpenMP. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm has better performance and improves the rendering speed of the photon map algorithm to a certain extent.
Keywords: multi-core; photon mapping; parallel rendering; dynamic scheduling