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UI4ALL Tables of Contents: 000204069596979899

Proceedings of the 9th ERCIM Workshop on 'User Interfaces for All'

Fullname:Proceedings of the 9th ERCIM Workshop on 'User Interfaces for All' - User-Centered Interaction Paradigms for Universal Access in the Information Society
Note:Universal Access in Ambient Intelligence Environments
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis; Michael Pieper
Location:Konigswinter (Bonn), Germany
Dates:2006-Sep-27 to 2006-Sep-28
Publisher:Springer Verlag
Standard No:ISBN 978-3-540-71024-0; hcibib: UI4ALL06
Links:Springer Proceedings Online | Contents Online | Conference Home Page | ui4all.ics.forth.gr
  1. Part I: Interaction Platforms and Techniques for Ambient Intelligence
  2. Part II: User and Context Awareness
  3. Part III: Inclusive Design and Evaluation
  4. Part IV: Access to Information, Education and Entertainment

Part I: Interaction Platforms and Techniques for Ambient Intelligence

From Human-Computer Interaction to Human-Environment Interaction: Ambient Intelligence and the Disappearing Computer BIBAFull-Text 3-13
  Norbert A. Streitz
In this keynote, I argue for a transition from designing Human-Computer Interaction to Human-Environment Interaction. This is done in the context of ambient intelligence and the disappearing computer, and the resulting challenges for designing interaction in future smart environments. Our approach is based on exploiting the affordances of real objects by augmenting their physical properties with the potential of computer-based support. Combining the best of both worlds requires an integration of real and virtual worlds resulting in hybrid worlds. In this approach, the computer "disappears" and is almost "invisible", but its functionality is ubiquitously available and provides new forms of interaction. The general comments are illustrated with examples from different projects.
Human Computer Confluence BIBAFull-Text 14-27
  Alois Ferscha; Stefan Resmerita; Clemens Holzmann
Pervasive Computing has postulated to invisibly integrate technology into everyday objects in such a way, that these objects turn into smart things. Not only a single object of this kind is supposed to represent the interface among the "physical world" of atoms and the "digital world" of bits, but a whole landscapes of them. The interaction among humans and such landscapes of technology rich artifacts happens to be more confluently, rather than on a per device basis. To address the confluence among humans and computing landscapes we study we study human gesticulation and the manipulation of graspable and movable everyday artifacts as a potentially effective means for the interaction with the physical environment. In detail, we consider gestures in the general sense of a movement or a state (posture) of the human body, as well as a movement or state of any physical object resulting from human manipulation. Further, based on the tangible user interface paradigm, we propose employing intuitive tangible universal controls that translate physical motions into actions for controlling landscapes of smart things. Such intuitive "everyday"-gestures have been collected in a series of user tests, yielding a catalogue of generic body and artifact gesture dynamics. We present a systematic approach to selecting and steering using tangible artifacts by associating a flip-movement to service selection and a turn-movement to parameter steering. An implementation of this approach in a general software framework and several experiments with various fully functional artifacts and devices are described.
A Customizable Camera-Based Human Computer Interaction System Allowing People with Disabilities Autonomous Hands-Free Navigation of Multiple Computing Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 28-42
  Wajeeha Akram; Laura Tiberii; Margrit Betke
Many people suffer from conditions that lead to deterioration of motor control making access to the computer using traditional input devices difficult. In particular, they may loose control of hand movement to the extent that the standard mouse cannot be used as a pointing device. Most current alternatives use markers or specialized hardware, for example, wearable devices, to track and translate a user's movement to pointer movement. These approaches may be perceived as intrusive. Camera-based assistive systems that use visual tracking of features on the user's body often require cumbersome manual adjustment. This paper introduces an enhanced computer vision based strategy where features, for example on a user's face, viewed through an inexpensive USB camera, are tracked and translated to pointer movement. The main contributions of this paper are (1) enhancing a video based interface with a mechanism for mapping feature movement to pointer movement that allows users to navigate to all areas of the screen even with very limited physical movement and (2) providing a customizable, hierarchical navigation framework for human computer interaction (HCI). This framework provides effective use of the vision-based interface system for accessing multiple applications in an autonomous setting. Experiments with several users show the effectiveness of the mapping strategy and its usage within the application framework as a practical tool for desktop users with disabilities.
Keywords: Computer-vision - assistive technology - alternative input devices - video-based human-computer interfaces - autonomous navigation
Interactive TV Design That Blends Seamlessly with Everyday Life BIBAKFull-Text 43-57
  Konstantinos Chorianopoulos
Television use does not require high skill or effort, which is ideal as a paradigm of use for ambient user interfaces. In this paper, universal access in ambient intelligence is modeled after the use of TV in everyday life. Instead of considering television only as a content medium and the focus of user activity, an alternative approach is to consider television use as a secondary function to other activities, such as socializing, domestic chores, leisure pursuits. For this purpose, the requirements for ambient user interactivity with TV are organized in a small set of design principles. The design principles have been selected, analyzed and synthesized from readings in previous works on media and ethnographic studies about television, and everyday life. It is suggested that universal access in ambient intelligence is promoted by considering design principles such as opportunistic interaction, user participation, group interactions, and multiple levels of attention to the user interface. Finally, the principles have been tested in the design of a user interface for interactive music television. This preliminary case suggests that the proposed principles facilitate the design of user interfaces that blend seamlessly with everyday life.
Keywords: Design principles - metaphors - paradigm of use - Ambient ITV - interactive TV - media studies
Hybrid Knowledge Modeling for Ambient Intelligence BIBAKFull-Text 58-77
  Porfírio Filipe; Nuno Mamede
This paper describes our research in enhance everyday devices as a solution to adapt Spoken Dialogue Systems (SDS) within ambient intelligence. In this context, a SDS enables universal access to ambient intelligence for anyone, anywhere at anytime, allowing the access to any device through any media or language. The main problem that we want to address is the spontaneous configuration of SDS to deal with a set of arbitrary plug and play devices. Such problem is resumed as a portability feature and is a critical research issue. We propose a hybrid approach to design ubiquitous domain models to allow the SDS to recognize on-the-fly the available devices and tasks they provide. When a device is activated or deactivated, a broker's knowledge model is updated from device's knowledge model using a knowledge integration process. This process was tested in the home environment represented by a set of devices.
Keywords: Ambient Intelligence - Spoken Dialogue System
Setup Consistent Visual Textures for Haptic Surfaces in a Virtual Reality World BIBAKFull-Text 78-87
  Wanhua Hu; Tao Lin; Kazuo Sakai; Atsumi Imamiya; Masaki Omata
In the real world, interactions with objects are typically multimodal, involving two or more sensory modalities. To simulate the real world in virtual environments, it is thus important to provide multisensory input. Haptics are increasingly being employed as an input channel. However, different modal interfaces are artificially created in a virtual reality world. Does the visual information we provide about surfaces need to be consistent with their haptic representation? In this paper, we present the results of a haptic texture cognition experiment in which subjects judged the haptic size of regular dots. We found that visual texture information that was consistent with haptic information lead to a higher percentage of correct answers and shorter judging times. Furthermore, we found that participants relied on visual information as judgments became more difficult, even though they were asked to make decisions using haptic stimuli only.
Keywords: multimodal human-computer interfaces - virtual reality - haptics - textured surfaces
Alice Through the Inter-face Electronic Mirrors as Human-Computer-Interface BIBAFull-Text 88-98
  Daniel Michelis; Florian Resatsch
This article describes the multi-media installation Magical Mirrors with which the tradition of the mirror, as an interface between real and virtual worlds is carried over into the world of digital mediums. Long before the development of the computer, mirrors were used as a medium for visual simulation and with them virtual worlds have already been simulated for hundreds of years. The ability to capture the real world and reflect it back in a true to life or even distorted way was for a long time the sole privilege of the mirror. Today this ability is emulated via digital media technologies, such as the installation Magical Mirrors.
Elderly Users in Ambient Intelligence: Does an Avatar Improve the Interaction? BIBAFull-Text 99-114
  Amalia Ortiz; María del Puy Carretero; David Oyarzun; Jose Javier Yanguas; Cristina Buiza; M. Feli Gonzalez; Igone Etxeberria
In order to examine the effect of an avatar in natural interaction with elderly users in ambient intelligent environments, we performed an empirical study with elderly people (normal aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's patients) not only on subjective but also on objective measures. The data supports the following: 1) The subjects followed some instructions much better when interacting with the avatar. 2) The presence of the avatar has neither any positive nor negative effect on the recall of elderly people and it has a positive effect only on the subjective measures. 3) We found that elderly people both with and without cognitive impairment are capable of recognizing emotions in the facial expressions of the avatar and 4) they found the experience of having an emotional avatar in the interface a pleasant one. Thus, we conclude that virtual characters could improve the interaction between elderly people and machines, but this would depend greatly on the request task.

Part II: User and Context Awareness

Barriers of Information Access in Small Screen Device Applications: The Relevance of User Characteristics for a Transgenerational Design BIBAKFull-Text 117-136
  Katrin Arning; Martina Ziefle
The proliferation of ubiquitous computing is accompanied by the development of devices, which promise to facilitate the daily living activities of people. However, the question if mobile devices address the usability demands of older users is still unsettled. This paper reports the findings of a series of studies that examined the performance of younger and older adults when using personal data management software applications of a PDA. In order to learn about the ageing impact, the influence of user characteristics like spatial and memory abilities, the subjective technical confidence and computer-expertise on performance outcomes were analysed. Beyond quantitative performance measurements, the major shortcomings in interface design were identified. Results showed that older users reached lower performance outcomes. Even young adults did not reach a perfect performance level, hinting again at shortcomings in the design of PDA applications. Overall, the findings demonstrate the need to include user characteristics in interface design.
Keywords: experimental - older adults - spatial ability - expertise - menu navigation - personal data management applications - PDA
Designing Intelligent Tutors to Adapt Individual Interaction BIBAFull-Text 137-153
  Andrina Granić; Slavomir Stankov; Jelena Nakić
Present-day efforts in designing technologies to serve and adapt to human needs rather than forcing humans to adapt, embrace intelligent user interfaces as one of ambient intelligence key technologies. This paper elaborates on the design of an adaptive individual interaction in a type of computer-based educational system whose operation is supported by intelligent methods, an emulation of human teacher in the process of learning and teaching. In order to design interaction simple and effortless as well as to adjust learning process and teaching material to individual student, a mechanism for monitoring student's interaction and generating related adaptive interface based on student model is developed. Furthermore, a classification of adaptive hypermedia systems with regard to employed adaptation technology is offered.
User Profiles for Adapting Speech Support in the Opera Web Browser to Disabled Users BIBAFull-Text 154-172
  Jan Heim; Erik G. Nilsson; Jan Håvard Skjetne
In this paper we describe results from our work on adapting speech support in the Opera web browser to disabled users, through using available gross categories of equipment feature (screen presentation and program control) to categorize user and usage characteristics in user profiles. Allocation of users to equipment is based on characteristics of user and equipment, rather than on diagnostic categories. We have combined a number of approaches to investigate how users with different kinds of disabilities may benefit from speech support in the Opera web browser, and how the speech support may be adapted to enhance their utility of this support. After an introduction, we present the method used, the user profiles, and how different types of voice support may be adapted to different (combinations of) profiles. The latter includes both general requirements and suggestions for presentation formats and commands (voice or keyboard) for the profiles. The main conclusions from the work are that the voice support in the version of the Opera web browser that was used in the study is most suitable for people who have reading and writing disorders and that further development of voice support should focus on better adaptation for persons with motor disabilities. Most blind and visually impaired people in Norway already have access to specialized support, and do not need the voice support in Opera.
A Context Model for Context-Aware System Design Towards the Ambient Intelligence Vision: Experiences in the eTourism Domain BIBAKFull-Text 173-191
  Federica Paganelli; Gabriele Bianchi; Dino Giuli
The Ambient Intelligence (AmI) vision implies the concept of "smart spaces" populated by intelligent entities. While most implementations focus strictly on local applications of "AmI", we think of an AmI scenario as a federation of instances of local and application AmI domains. In order to deal with distributed context handling in AmI domains, we propose a context model suitable for distributed context acquisition, reasoning and delivery to applications. We propose a hybrid approach, which aims at combining the advantages of object-oriented models for distributed context handling and those of ontology-based models for context reasoning. We have applied this model to the development of a context-aware eTourism application. This application aims at providing tourists with context-aware services supporting communication and knowledge exchange. It integrates already available location-based content delivery services with a context-aware instant messaging service and a provider reputation service. Here we describe main design issues and prototype implementation.
Keywords: context-awareness - context modeling - ontology - eTourism
Applying the MVC Pattern to Generated User Interfaces with a Focus on Audio BIBAFull-Text 192-210
  Dirk Schnelle; Tobias Klug
Mobile users can interact with devices in the environment either by operating them directly or through personal devices carried by the users. This requires an adaption of the user interface to the device used. Declarative markup languages are considered to be a solution for single authoring user interfaces for different devices and modalities. This is a challenging task, since each device has its own characteristics. We present in this paper a novel architecture to support the creation of user interfaces based on a declarative markup language and a UI-independent task model. This architecture is based on the Model-View-Controller pattern (MVC) to generate user interfaces from declarative markup languages. We introduce a clear border between a modality independent task model and UI design. We also show how the development of smart environments can benefit from the workflow engine underlying our architecture.
Scenarios for Personalized Accessible Multimedia Messaging Services BIBAKFull-Text 211-226
  Thorsten Völkel; Gerhard Weber; Philipp Eichelberg
In this paper we present usage scenarios for accessible multimedia messaging services (MMS) including scenarios for public transportation and information services for spas. Results of a survey are presented which was conducted to analyse the interest of potential users in services described by the scenarios. Additionally, the concept of media transformation for the realization of accessible multimedia messaging services and a basic architecture for the server side generation of multimedia messages based on user profiles are introduced. In this context, the problem of coherence of time-dependent media is discussed which occurs when information is presented using alternative media.
Keywords: Accessibility - Personalization - Multimedia Messaging Services - Usage Scenarios

Part III: Inclusive Design and Evaluation

Lessons from Ambient Intelligence Prototypes for Universal Access and the User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 229-243
  Ray Adams; Clive Russell
A cognitive evaluation of a sample of first wave of ambient intelligent prototypes was used to identify key implications for universal access in ambient intelligence environments, using a simple model of cognitive factors (Simplex Two). Emotional aspects of the user experience were the least well developed. A study of user experience, with two intelligent prototypes, one less intelligent and irritating showed a substantial impact of negative emotions on user performance that was independent of age. Surprising, performance changed significantly but ratings of perceived difficulty did not, suggesting caution in their uses. Finally, a case study of the user-participative development of a PDA for use with ambient intelligence confirmed the importance of emotional factors in inclusive design. Clearly, well structured and systematic methodologies (e.g. UUID) can consider the users' emotional experience and inform the construction of ambient intelligence prototypes and systems.
Keywords: cognition - smart systems - prototypes - emotion
Automatic Evaluation of Mobile Web Accessibility BIBAFull-Text 244-260
  Myriam Arrue; Markel Vigo; Julio Abascal
Nowadays there is a growing trend towards using web based applications and web browsers in mobile devices such as cellular phones, PDAs, smart phones, and so on. However, interacting with these web interfaces tends to be a frustrating and unsatisfactory experience due to the existing accessibility barriers. Developing accessible web interfaces for mobile devices is a step towards user satisfaction in these environments. "Mobile Web Best Practices" are being discussed so that developers can have a valid reference when creating these web interfaces. However, since they do not have to be experts in the mobile web field, they need tools which automatically evaluate their applications and give them guidance during the development lifecycle. In this paper, EvalAccess, a polyvalent and flexible evaluation tool, has been transformed into a mobile web accessibility evaluation tool, EvalAccess MOBILE.
A Participatory Evaluation Method of Graphic User Interface Storyboards: FAST AIDE (Function Annotated Storyboards Targeting Applicability, Importance, Design, Elaborations) BIBAKFull-Text 261-272
  Gisela S. Bahr; Beth F. Wheeler Atkinson; Melissa M. Walwanis Nelson
The FAST AIDE (Function Annotated Storyboards Targeting Applicability, Importance, Design, Elaborations) method was developed to capture qualitative and quantitative feedback from highly specialized, expert end-users during the storyboarding stage of new software applications. Unlike traditional approaches, FAST AIDE does not rely on the generation of walk-through scripts or scenarios, but is focused on software features and functionalities. Our rationale is based on the cognitive concept of spreading activation. Spreading activation is hypothesized to occur within knowledge structures similar to organized networks of words or concepts (i.e., nodes). FAST AIDE taps into experiential background of specialized users by utilizing feature dimensions and functionality characteristics to trigger relevant memory. In addition to presenting an approach to knowledge solicitation, FAST AIDE employs a combination data collection questionnaire tool in order to facilitate data evaluation. The paper provides a background and a guide to the implementation of the FAST AIDE method.
Keywords: GUI design - GUI Evaluation Method - GUI mock-up storyboard testing - participatory method - scenario-free - subject matter experts - schema - spreading activation - context memory
Addressing the Challenges of Inclusive Design: A Case Study Approach BIBAKFull-Text 273-286
  Hua Dong; Julia Cassim; Roger Coleman
The challenges for inclusive design include: education of designers; communication of the importance of inclusive design to the public; business rationale for inclusive design to industry; evaluation of the impact of inclusive design.
   We believe that a case study approach to inclusive design would help answer these challenges. Based on a design research methodology and a guide for scientific writing, we have developed a template that allows us to write up inclusive design case studies in a systematic way and eventually to build a case study 'bank'. A matrix is presented to explain how this has helped in addressing the challenges of inclusive design. Two examples drawn from the case study 'bank' are presented to illustrate the approach in detail. The template proves an effective means of structuring the case studies and communicating them in a manner that is relevant to a diverse audience.
Keywords: Inclusive design - case studies - challenges - template - matrix
Defining Acceptable Levels of Accessibility BIBAFull-Text 287-303
  Simeon Keates
This paper examines the issues facing companies when designing products and services for equitable access, particularly in view of the legislated requirements that they have to meet. The concepts of acceptability and accessibility are discussed and a framework proposed for establishing whether a product or service is acceptably accessible. Relevant case studies are referenced, where appropriate, to support the arguments presented.
Combined User Physical, Physiological and Subjective Measures for Assessing User Cost BIBAFull-Text 304-316
  Tao Lin; Atsumi Imamiya; Wanhua Hu; Masaki Omata
New technologies are making it possible to provide an enriched view of interaction for researchers using multimodal information. This preliminary study explores the use of multimodal information streams in evaluating user cost. In the study, easy, medium and difficult versions of a game task were used to vary the levels of the cost to user. Multimodal data streams during the three versions were analyzed, including eye tracking, pupil size, hand movement, heart rate variability (HRV) and subjectively reported data. Three findings indicate the potential value of multimodal information in evaluating usability: First, subjective and physiological measures showed significant sensitivity to task difficulty. Second, different user cost levels appeared to correlate with eye movement patterns, especially with a combined eye-hand measure. Third, HRV showed correlations with saccade speed. These results warrant further investigations and take an initial step toward establishing usability evaluation methods based on multimodal information.
User Interfaces for Persons with Deafblindness BIBAKFull-Text 317-334
  Sara Rutgersson; Mattias Arvola
This paper examines the problems persons with deafblindness encounter when using computers, and what can be done to avoid the problems in the design of a communication tool. A qualitative study was conducted with 12 participants. The results show that a system needs to resolve issues of simplicity, flexibility, and feedback. In our redesign of the communication tool we employ what we call a screen reader use flow with precursor cues, to aid the user in getting an overview of the program and its functions. This is very difficult when using a Braille display. The screen reader use flow with precursor cues is one means to satisfy the demands of both users who use a visual display and users who use a Braille display.
Keywords: Deafblind - accessibility - usability - inclusive design - total communication

Part IV: Access to Information, Education and Entertainment

Display Characteristics Affect Users' Emotional Arousal in 3D Games BIBAFull-Text 337-351
  Tao Lin; Atsumi Imamiya; Wanhua Hu; Masaki Omata
Large computer screens are becoming more and more popular among users, and field of view and physical screen size are important considerations for users and manufacturers. In this study, we investigated the impacts of visual angles and physical screen size on users' emotional arousal using subjective and physiological measures. The results suggest that larger visual angles cause greater galvanic skin responses (GSR), and the GSR data are mirrored in the subjective ratings of emotional arousal. We also found that physical screen size causes significant effects in subjective ratings. This study contributes to our understanding of how users interact with large displays and helps refine the requirements for what constitutes effective and desirable human-computer interaction (HCI).
User Interfaces for Pervasive Games: Experiences of a Formative Multi-method Evaluation and Its Implications for System Development BIBAKFull-Text 352-368
  Carsten Röcker; Carsten Magerkurth; Maral Haar
This paper presents a formative multi-method evaluation on future gaming systems. Following a scenario-driven approach, quantitative and qualitative methods are employed to elicit feedback from different target user populations. Based on the results of the different evaluation parts, a set of design requirements for future home entertainment systems is derived. These requirements are then used to guide the development process of a ubiquitous computing gaming platform. To demonstrate the usefulness of the gaming platform, a sample application is discussed, which is described in the last section of this paper.
Keywords: User Interfaces - Pervasive Games - Evaluation - System Development - Tangible User Interfaces - Human Computer Interaction
Mobile Messenger for the Blind BIBAFull-Text 369-385
  Jaime Sánchez; Fernando Aguayo
An increasing number of studies have used technology to help blind people to integrate more fully into a global world. We present software to use mobile devices by blind users. The software considers a system of instant messenger to favor interaction of blind users with any other user connected to the network. Input/Output implementation modules were emphasized creating a 9-button virtual keyboard and associated Text-to-Speech technology (TTS). The virtual keyboard helps to write into the pocketPC without needing external devices, representing a real challenge for novice blind users. The TTS engine was adapted to blind users by adjusting the engine. Usability evaluation of these modules was iteratively applied to end-users. As a result, the integration of the designed modules into a communication system helped us to create a messenger system specially tailored to people with visual disabilities.
Subway Mobility Assistance Tools for Blind Users BIBAFull-Text 386-404
  Jaime Sánchez; Eduardo Maureira
In this study, we introduce software for blind users that represents a subway system in a desktop computer. A user can organize and prepare a travel with the assistance of the software before riding the subway. After a usability study and cognitive evaluation, we detected the need for creating a mobile solution with similar goals as the desktop application. This software for mobile devices has also the capacity to help the user to solve mobility and orientation problems in real subway stations. In order to design a handheld version it was necessary to consider new features such as travel duration, tickets fare, and the estimated time duration of the travel. Conclusions from the usability study revealed the importance of using interface elements such as the audio-based hierarchy menu, the travel simulation, and the information about the subway network, stations and their surroundings. The cognitive study results revealed important gains in the development of orientation and mobility skills to use the subway system in blind users, which help them to be more integrated to the society.
An Accessible Multimodal Pong Game Space BIBAKFull-Text 405-418
  Anthony Savidis; Apostolos Stamou; Constantine Stephanidis
King Pong is an accessible remake of the classic Pong game, supporting a spatially localized audio environment and force feedback (transforming sound into haptic feedback). It may be played either by one player and the computer as opponent, or by two players. In the two-player mode, the opponents can share the same computer, or alternatively play the game over the network. King Pong also supports recording (logging) and playback of game play activities with time stamps for off-line analysis and evaluation. The game is fully configurable, regarding the auditory grid, the behavior of the force feedback, the graphical appearance and various sound effects. Moreover, different levels of difficulty are supported, affecting speed and the game arena (i.e., circular top-bottom sides). This paper reports the design methodology regarding the spatial auditory grid, as well as the use of force feedback, and discusses issues related to the game-play itself, such as the simulation of an artificial opponent.
Keywords: Universally accessible games - Non-visual interaction - Auditory displays - Spatially localized audio - Force feedback
Web Compliance Management: Barrier-Free Websites Just by Simply Pressing the Button? Accessibility and the Use of Content-Management-Systems BIBAFull-Text 419-426
  Martina Schulz; Michael Pieper
The World Wide Web has become an important instrument of social participation, equal opportunities and self-determination. Especially for disabled people and the elderly, the Internet offers the possibility to take care of their affairs by themselves and to compensate lost mobility to a certain degree. Therefore information on the Internet should be easy to access, easy to use as well as easy to understand. However, disabled people, unpracticed users and the elderly - because of their specific functional limitations and needs - encounter barriers and restrictions in accessing many websites. In order to refresh contents of a website, many software producers have put an effort in developing easy-to-use content-management-systems (CMS) which most recently address the topic of accessibility as well. The central aim of the study presented in this paper was to find out whether certain CMSs in fact do offer a technology which allows for an editor to refresh a barrier-free website without special knowledge in accessibility by simply "pressing the button" of a CMS integrated tool, which claims to automatically offer compliance with standard accessibility guidelines.
Inclusive Design of Ambient Knowledge Transfer BIBAFull-Text 427-446
  Chris Stary; Edith Stary; Stefan Oppl
Inclusive Design of knowledge transfer aims to involve different learners and coaches into the transfer process of knowledge in a way that actively supports learning. In this paper we elaborate some benefits for learners and coaches when applying major principles of Maria Montessori along the transfer process of knowledge. Benefits stem from learners' self control and individualised learning experiences. We motivate the immersion of learners into physical and ambient transfer environments, and reveal first insights from testing those ideas. The results of our work should guide further developments of inclusive knowledge-transfer environments.
Web Mediators for Accessible Browsing BIBAKFull-Text 447-466
  Benjamin N. Waber; John J. Magee; Margrit Betke
We present a highly accurate method for classifying web pages based on link percentage, which is the percentage of text characters that are parts of links normalized by the number of all text characters on a web page. We also present a novel link grouping algorithm using agglomerative hierarchical clustering that groups links in the same spatial neighborhood together while preserving link structure. Grouping allows users with severe disabilities to use a scan-based mechanism to tab through a web page and select items. In experiments, we saw up to a 40-fold reduction in the number of commands needed to click on a link with a scan-based interface. Our classification method consistently outperformed a baseline classifier even when using minimal data to generate article and index clusters, and achieved classification accuracy of 94.0% on web sites with well-formed or slightly malformed HTML, compared with 80.1% accuracy for the baseline classifier.
Keywords: Web mediators - link grouping - web page classification - k-means clustering