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UAIS Tables of Contents: 01020304050607080910111213

Universal Access in the Information Society 8

Editors:Constantine Stephanidis
Dates:2009
Volume:8
Publisher:Springer Verlag
Standard No:ISSN 1615-5289 (print); 1615-5297 (electronic)
Papers:27
Links:Table of Contents
  1. UAIS 2009 Volume 8 Issue 1
  2. UAIS 2009 Volume 8 Issue 2
  3. UAIS 2009 Volume 8 Issue 3
  4. UAIS 2009 Volume 8 Issue 4

UAIS 2009 Volume 8 Issue 1

Editorial

HCI and the older population BIBKFull-Text 1-3
  Gill Whitney; Joy Goodman-Deane; Suzette Keith
Keywords: Older people, Ageing, Research methodology, New technology

Long paper

YouTube and intergenerational communication: the case of Geriatric1927 BIBAKDOI 5-20
  Dave Harley; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
This paper presents a case study of a 79 year old video blogger called 'Geriatric1927', and his use of the video sharing website, YouTube. Analysis of his first eight video blogs, and the subsequent text responses, reveals opportunities of this medium for intergenerational contact, reminiscence, reciprocal learning and co-creation of content, suggesting that older people can be highly motivated to use computers for social contact. The paper concludes by noting the importance of technologies that are socially engaging and meaningful for older people, and pointing to ways in which the social life of YouTube might be better promoted on its interface.
Keywords: Intergenerational communication, YouTube, Video blog, Older people, Social software

Long Paper

Representing older people: towards meaningful images of the user in design scenarios BIBAKDOI 21-32
  Mark Blythe; Andy Dearden
Designing for older people requires the consideration of a range of design problems, which may be related to difficult and sometimes highly personal matters. Issues such as fear, loneliness, dependency, and physical decline may be hard to observe or discuss in interviews. Pastiche scenarios and pastiche personae are techniques that employ characters to create a space for the discussion of new technological developments and user experience. This paper argues that the use of fictional characters can help to overcome restrictive notions of older people by disrupting designers' prior assumptions. In this paper, we reflect on our experiences using pastiche techniques in two separate technology design projects that sought to address the needs of older people. In the first pastiche scenarios were developed by the designers of the system and used as discussion documents with users. In the second pastiche personae were used by groups of users themselves to generate scenarios which were scribed for later use by the design team. We explore how the use of fictional characters and settings can generate new ideas and undercut the potential in scenarios, for weak characterisation of "the user" to permit scenario writers to fit characters to technology rather than vice versa. To assist in future development of pastiche techniques in designing for older people, we provide an array of fictional older characters drawn from literary and popular culture.
Keywords: Pastiche scenarios, Pastiche personae, Experience-centred design, Conceptual design, Participatory design

Long paper

Painting the ideal home: using art to express visions of technologically supported independent living for older people in north-east England BIBAKDOI 33-47
  Paul Vickers; Linda Banwell; Susan Heaford; Fausto J. Sainz de Salces
This paper describes the investigation of the development of future technological products to support older people in everyday living through the agency of a community art group. Recent research has identified a number of challenges facing designers seeking to use traditional participatory design approaches to gather technology requirements data from older people. Here, a project is described that sought to get a group of older people to think creatively about their needs and desires for technological support through the medium of paint. The artistic expression technique described in this article allowed the identification of issues that had also been found by previous research that used a range of different techniques. This indicates that the approach shows promise, as it allows information to be gathered in an environment that is comfortable and familiar using methods already known by the participants and which they find enjoyable. It provides a complement (or possible alternative) to standard protocols and has the potential benefit of extracting even richer information as the primary task for participants is enjoyable in its own right and is not associated with an interrogative process. Furthermore, it is argued that some of the key risks of traditional approaches are lessened or removed by the naturalistic setting of this approach.
Keywords: HCI, Participatory design, Assistive technology, Art, Older people

Long Paper

Involving older people with dementia and their carers in designing computer based support systems: some methodological considerations BIBAKFull-Text 49-58
  Arlene Astell; Norman Alm; Gary Gowans; Maggie Ellis; Richard Dye; Phillip Vaughan
Older people with dementia are a particularly challenging user group to involve in the process of designing interactive systems that could assist them. It may also be difficult to involve family caregivers of people with dementia, as they are most likely to be older themselves and uncertain about technology. Paid care staff, whilst younger, may be unclear about the benefits of technology and lack confidence in their ability to incorporate it into their work. Over the past 7 years, the authors of this paper have worked closely with people with dementia, their families and professional care staff to develop and evaluate a multimedia computer system to support communication between people with dementia and caregivers. To achieve this, a number of user involvement issues were addressed, ranging from legal and ethical considerations of working with people with dementia to the reluctance of hard-pressed staff to add to their workload for a research project. In addition, developing and conducting evaluations and eliciting the views of people with dementia who have working memory impairment plus additional cognitive and social difficulties emerged as a central issue. A variety of approaches were explored within this project, which are described in this paper, including familiarizing the whole team with the unique difficulties posed by dementia, continuous confirmation of participants' consent, and ways to measure enjoyment, engagement, and joint interaction using observation.
Keywords: Dementia, User centred design, Iterative design, Requirements gathering, Evaluation

Communication

Practice, systems and technology for seniors BIBAKFull-Text 59-61
  David Prendergast; Simon Roberts
This paper explores how research teams in Intel's Digital Health Group are using ethnography to identify 'designable moments' -- spaces, times, objects, issues and practices which suggest opportunities for appropriate interventions. It argues that technology innovation should aim to incorporate the views, experiences and practices of users from the start of the design process to support independent living and develop culturally sensitive enhancements that contribute towards wellbeing and a life of quality for local older populations.
Keywords: Ageing, Healthcare, Ethnography, Design

UAIS 2009 Volume 8 Issue 2

Editorial

Vocal interaction: beyond traditional automatic speech recognition BIBDOI 63-64
  Sri Kurniawan; Adam J. Sporka; Susumu Harada

Long Paper

Vocal Telekinesis: towards the development of voice-physical installations BIBAKDOI 65-75
  Sama'a Al Hashimi
Lately, developers have attempted to explore the relationship between voice and visuals by creating various mappings between them. Hardly any developers, however, delved into forming physical mappings between voice and real objects. Programming non-verbal voice to control inanimate objects has yet to be implemented in highly interactive applications. This paper introduces the concept of Vocal Telekinesis to refer to the physical control of inanimate objects via paralinguistic vocal input. It highlights existing applications that could be considered forms of Vocal Telekinesis and presents some practical implementations of this concept. The aim is to expand the scope of interactive media through exploring various voice-physical mappings which will extend beyond the graphical output to include physical feedback such as changes in the size, brightness, speed, direction, and height of real objects.
Keywords: Paralanguage, Vocal control, Vocal Telekinesis, Voice-physical
Supporting the creative drive: investigating paralinguistic voice as a mode of interaction for artists with upper limb disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 77-88
  Dharani Perera; R. T. Jim Eales; Kathy Blashki
For people with upper limb disabilities visual art is an important activity that allows for expression of individuality and independence. They show remarkable endurance, patience and determination to adapt their remaining capabilities to create visual art. There are significant advantages of digital technologies in assisting artists with upper limb disabilities. Paralinguistic voice recognition technologies have proven to be a particularly promising mode of interaction. Despite these benefits, technological support for people with upper limb disabilities to create visual art is scarce. This paper reports on a number of case studies of several artists with upper limb disabilities. These case studies illustrate the struggles they face to be creative and also show the significant advantages of digital technologies in assisting such artists. An investigation into people's ability to use the volume of their voice to control cursor movement to create drawings on the screen is also reported. With motivation, training and practise, use of volume to control drawing tasks shows great promise. It is believed that paralinguistic voice has wider implications beyond assisting artists with upper limb disabilities, such as: an alternative mode of interaction for disabled people to perform tasks other than creating visual art, alternative mode of interaction for hands busy environments and as a voice training system for people with speech impairments.
Keywords: Artists with upper limb disabilities, Case studies, Paralinguistic voice, Interaction design

Short Paper

Use of voice input to enhance cursor control in mainstream gaming applications BIBAKFull-Text 89-96
  Aidan Kehoe; Flaithri Neff; Ian Pitt
There are opportunities for use of voice input to enhance the effectiveness of continuous cursor control in mainstream gaming. This paper describes a program that uses voice input to manipulate the cursor gain parameter within the context of a game. For some use groups the ability to dynamically manipulate this parameter can be important in making games more accessible. The program makes use of readily-available speech technology, and can be used in conjunction with existing games.
Keywords: Games, Voice input, Cursor control parameters

Long Paper

Getting closer: tailored human-computer speech dialog BIBAKFull-Text 97-108
  Florian Metze; Roman Englert; Udo Bub; Felix Burkhardt; Joachim Stegmann
This paper presents an advanced call center, which adapts presentation and interaction strategy to properties of the caller such as age, gender, and emotional state. User studies on interactive voice response (IVR) systems have shown that these properties can be used effectively to "tailor" services to users or user groups who do not maintain personal preferences, e.g., because they do not use the service on a regular basis. The adopted approach to achieve individualization of services, without being able to personalize them, is based on the analysis of a caller's voice. This paper shows how this approach benefits service providers by being able to target entertainment and recommendation options. It also shows how this analysis at the same time benefits the customer, as it can increase accessibility of IVR systems to user segments which have particular expectations or which do not cope well with a "one size fits all" system. The paper summarizes the authors' current work on component technologies, such as emotion detection, age and gender recognition on telephony speech, and presents results of usability and acceptability tests as well as an architecture to integrate these technologies in future multi-modal contact centers. It is envisioned that these will eventually serve customers with an avatar representation of an agent and tailored interaction strategies, matching powerful output capabilities with advanced analysis of the user's input.
Keywords: Speech dialog, Meta information, Individualized service, Adaptation, Usability
Attuning speech-enabled interfaces to user and context for inclusive design: technology, methodology and practice BIBAKDOI 109-122
  Mark A. Neerincx; Anita H. M. Cremers; Judith M. Kessens; David A. van Leeuwen; Khiet P. Truong
This paper presents a methodology to apply speech technology for compensating sensory, motor, cognitive and affective usage difficulties. It distinguishes (1) an analysis of accessibility and technological issues for the identification of context-dependent user needs and corresponding opportunities to include speech in multimodal user interfaces, and (2) an iterative generate-and-test process to refine the interface prototype and its design rationale. Best practices show that such inclusion of speech technology, although still imperfect in itself, can enhance both the functional and affective information and communication technology-experiences of specific user groups, such as persons with reading difficulties, hearing-impaired, intellectually disabled, children and older adults.
Keywords: Universal access, Speech technology, Multimodal interaction, User experience engineering

UAIS 2009 Volume 8 Issue 3

Long Paper

Towards co-design with users who have autism spectrum disorders BIBAKDOI 123-135
  Peter Francis; Sandrine Balbo; Lucy Firth
People with cognitive disorders, such as autism or Asperger's syndrome, face many barriers when being involved in the co-design of information and communications technologies (ICT). Cognitive disorders may require that co-design techniques be modified to fit with individual abilities. Up until recently, with technology design, purpose and use being in the hands of 'experts' there was little opportunity for customisation. However, ICT bring together various threads that make open many new possibilities. Not only are technologies cheaper, more powerful and more available than ever, but now parents, support agencies and people with autism spectrum disorders expect information technologies to be part of their worlds, and they have the capacity to participate in co-design for customisation. However, co-design techniques have not evolved to the extent that they capture this potential democratisation of the ICT. This paper reports on an investigation of the potential to develop a set of guidelines for co-design techniques to enable people with autism spectrum disorders to participate in ICT design.
Keywords: Information and communications technologies, Co-design, Autism spectrum disorders, Digital assistive technologies
e-Document management in situated interactivity: the WIL approach BIBAKDOI 137-153
  Paolo Bottoni; Fernando Ferri; Patrizia Grifoni; Andrea Marcante; Piero Mussio; Marco Padula; Amanda Reggiori
Complex organizations need to manage a large amount of information that their employees produce and use in the form of documents: therefore, information systems are adopted to access these documents in electronic format (e-documents) through Intranet or Internet. These documents are composed, organized and annotated in different ways according to the rules adopted by specific professional communities. Such rules reflect the different and peculiar culture and skills of the communities producing them. The large amount of information available today can be potentially accessed in real time. This has increased the need for syntactic and semantic characterization of documents and for tools that allow their effective access and exploitation on the Net, their easy retrieval and management, their annotation to adapt and personalize them on the base of users' characteristics and diversities. This paper describes the approach adopted for the Web Indexing Language (WIL) system, a system conceived for supporting users interactivity during editing, indexing, and annotating e-documents on the basis of conventions adopted for their production and distribution. In particular, the approach capitalizes on the notion that the document layout reflects the relationships among the different semantic components of the document. The model and the architecture of the WIL system aim at improving e-document indexing, searching, editing and annotating, and at exploiting the description of the logical structure of the document itself to squeeze the information about the document content which are usually grasped by a reader at a glance.
Keywords: HCI, Interactivity, XML, e-Document management
Evaluating choice in universal access: an example from rehabilitation robotics BIBAKFull-Text 155-163
  A. S. White; R. Adams; S. Prior
This paper describes a technique using dimensional analysis that so far has been rarely, if ever, used in studies of universal access. However, this procedure can produce a robust decision support process for inclusive designs. In this paper, it is applied to a case study of a wheelchair robot computer interface with choices in data input methods, addressing disparate requirements of different groups of intended users. The main underlying issue is to combine technical measurements, speed of operation and cost with subjective opinion. It turns out that Braglia's method has greater robustness in determining rank compared to standard techniques. In this, case a simple switch was rated better than a mouse or voice operation for control.
Keywords: Universal access, Decision criteria, Dimensional analysis, Interface, Rehabilitation robot
An empirical study of factors affecting the perceived usability of websites for student Internet users BIBAKFull-Text 165-184
  Robert J. Nathan; Paul H. P. Yeow
This study analysed Student Internet Users' (SIUs') perception of Web usability. Adopting a user testing method, seven Web Usability Factors (WUFs) were tested for their significance in affecting the ease of use of website. Several elements in websites were also tested for their significance in affecting the WUFs. Result shows the most significant WUF is related to the aesthetic appeal of a website, i.e., Use of Colour and Font. However, it was found that most Web developers are not focusing on this important WUF. Elements such as site map, site search, product image catalogue and others were also found to positively affect SIUs' perception of the WUFs. The results presented in this paper can be used as guidelines for designing usable websites for SIUs.
Keywords: Interface design, Web usability guidelines, Ease of use, Perceived usability, Internet users, User testing method, Empirical study
Visualization of math expressions through modality-nonspecific signals BIBAKFull-Text 185-197
  Tatiana G. Evreinova
Acquiring reasonable math skills is essential for the visually disabled pupils and students. Research in electro-tactile pattern perception has shown that involving the resources of visual cortex into acquisition of tactile percepts augments comprehension of the encoded information for users with a sensory limitation. This paper describes matching software designed to facilitate the learning process of 13 electro-tactile patterns (eTPs) denoting eight math numbers and five arithmetic operators. Electro-tactile unit and software were used to shape stabilized monophasic current pulses provided through the pen coated with embedded double-strip ring type electrode. The performance of ten subjects was investigated in terms of the number of repetitions required to memorize and match the eTPs, and in terms of the recognition error committed in the matching phase of the test. The analysis of the data collected indicated that the novice-to-expert transition was significantly above chance when the results obtained in the first and the last test sessions were statistically compared. A permutation puzzle game which was also designed to induce the same ten blindfolded players to mobilize the perceptive skills and deploy individual playing tactics to manipulate the eTPs encoding math numbers and expressions for rebuilding simple arithmetic equations. The results of the use of the proposed gameplay technique are discussed. Upon learning and training, the eTPs could be employed to assign math numbers and arithmetic operators to communicate mathematics content.
Keywords: Math accessibility, Visually challenged people, Modality-nonspecific signals
Towards computer-vision software tools to increase production and accessibility of video description for people with vision loss BIBAKFull-Text 199-218
  Langis Gagnon; Samuel Foucher; Maguelonne Heritier; Marc Lalonde; David Byrns; Claude Chapdelaine; James Turner; Suzanne Mathieu; Denis Laurendeau; Nath Tan Nguyen; Denis Ouellet
This paper presents the status of a R&D project targeting the development of computer-vision tools to assist humans in generating and rendering video description for people with vision loss. Three principal issues are discussed: (1) production practices, (2) needs of people with vision loss, and (3) current system design, core technologies and implementation. The paper provides the main conclusions of consultations with producers of video description regarding their practices and with end-users regarding their needs, as well as an analysis of described productions that lead to propose a video description typology. The current status of a prototype software is also presented (audio-vision manager) that uses many computer-vision technologies (shot transition detection, key-frame identification, key-face recognition, key-text spotting, visual motion, gait/gesture characterization, key-place identification, key-object spotting and image categorization) to automatically extract visual content, associate textual descriptions and add them to the audio track with a synthetic voice. A proof of concept is also briefly described for a first adaptive video description player which allows end users to select various levels of video description.
Keywords: e-Accessibility, Video description, Video indexing, Computer vision

Communication

Linguistic diversity and information poverty in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa BIBAKFull-Text 219-238
  Ranjit Goswami; S. K. De; B. Datta
This communication starts with a fundamental question that drives the actions of most local and global policy-makers: out of two categories of people (not mutually exclusive), the 'have nots' and the 'know nots', which one is more difficult to eradicate (one may pose the question differently -- solving which of these two problems is likely to solve the other). A lot of attention and resources have been deployed and are committed on the challenge of uplifting the 'have nots' to the section of bare minimum 'haves' category. A cause and effect study between these two sections of people essentially show a mutual dependency that eventually leads to a vicious cycle of poverty to information poverty to back again poverty which has historically been difficult to eradicate, and studies have often established education and access to timely information to be a long term sustainable remedy to both these perpetual problems. The role that the Internet can play in this background towards empowering the billions of impoverished across two of the most underdeveloped regions, namely South Asia (SA) and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), home to world's largest number of illiterates and poor people (70% or even more together) is immense. With anywhere, anytime accessibility of rich Internet content, aided by its falling prices and increased connectivity and easy to use features, to parts of rural and even to inaccessible remote areas, online content can effectively act as a low-cost feasible solution not only to provide basic education, but also to deliver meaningful information and content to the millions of primary-level educated people within the underprivileged sections of SA & SSA, thereby enabling them to integrate and exploit various socio-economic opportunities arising from growth in global economies. However, rich linguistic diversity, both in SA and SSA, poses a challenge to that opportunity. Content development to information access to literacy, all leading to socio-economic developments, do face additional difficulties arising from linguistic diversity for SA and SSA, regions already plagued with low level of content generation and access in local languages. A closer examination of the 'sea' of online content reveals that SA scores poorly in local language content development, whereas English is primarily used for Internet usage, though nearly 90% of people of India do not use English as a 2nd or 3rd languages. For SSA, a study reported here qualitatively examines whether linguistic diversity indeed has any negative correlations with gross national income and Internet penetration, and finds that they indeed are inversely related in 80% or more cases. One case-effort is also examined to develop local language content, critical to reap benefits from content for development for SA and SSA, in South Asia, but it was found to be inadequate in proportion to the severity and scale of the problem. It is alarmingly concluded that unless war-footing action is adopted to generate relevant local language content (or effectively supported by software like Google Translation) in the linguistically diverse backward regions of the world, much of the benefits that could have been derived from increased reach of freely available online content would be lost, causing an escalation of information poverty to the 'bottom of the pyramid' section of people in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Keywords: Online content, Utility of information, Medium of content and native language, Information poverty, Information inequality, Linguistic diversity, South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa

UAIS 2009 Volume 8 Issue 4

Editorial

Special issue: Communication by gaze interaction BIBFull-Text 239-240
  Päivi Majaranta; Richard Bates

Long Paper

A geometric approach to remote eye tracking BIBAKFull-Text 241-257
  Arantxa Villanueva; Gintautas Daunys; Dan Witzner Hansen; Martin Böhme; Rafael Cabeza; André Meyer; Erhardt Barth
This paper presents a principled analysis of various combinations of image features to determine their suitability for remote eye tracking. It begins by reviewing the basic theory underlying the connection between eye image and gaze direction. Then a set of approaches is proposed based on different combinations of well-known features and their behaviour is evaluated, taking into account various additional criteria such as free head movement, and minimum hardware and calibration requirements. The paper proposes a final method based on multiple glints and the pupil centre; the method is evaluated experimentally. Future trends in eye tracking technology are also discussed.
Keywords: Gaze estimation, Geometric modelling, Eye model, Eye tracking
Understanding users and their needs BIBAKFull-Text 259-275
  Mick Donegan; Jeffrey D. Morris; Fulvio Corno; Isabella Signorile; Adriano Chió; Valentina Pasian; Alessandro Vignola; Margret Buchholz; Eva Holmqvist
Gaze-control enables people to control a computer by using eye-gaze to select items on screen. Gaze-control is a necessity for people who have lost all motor control of their body and only have control over eye movements. In addition, gaze-control can be the quickest and least tiring option for a far broader group of people with varying disabilities. This paper reports findings from gaze-control user trials involving users from both groups: people who are totally paralyzed, as well as people with a wide range of complex disabilities. The trials conducted involved four different centres supporting people with disabilities in three different European countries. Several gaze-control systems were trialled by a large number of users with varying needs and abilities. The perceived benefits of gaze-control are described, and recommendations for successful assessment and implementation of gaze-control are provided.
Keywords: Gaze-control, Eye tracking, Motor disabilities, Assistive technology
Hands-free interaction with a computer and other technologies BIBAKFull-Text 277-295
  Marcela Fejtová1; Luis Figueiredo; Petr Novák; Olga Stepánková; Ana Gomes
Hands-free interaction with technology is a dream for any person with limitations in the use of his/her arms and hands. This paper describes two new original low-cost hands-free computer peripheries -- I4Control and Magic Key, which use movements of the user's eye or nose as an actuator of a computer cursor. Both systems emulate the PC mouse and thereby mediate direct access to any mouse-controlled computer application. Functionality of the presented systems is compared to that of PC mouse using one of the usability tests recommended by the ISO 9241 methodology. The data obtained as a result of testing a group of ten unimpaired novice users indicated that the users' performance improves over time of usage of the system, but the process is rather slow. The paper describes several easy to use toy-applications intended to improve the user's confidence in working with the considered devices. One of these applications demonstrates that I4Control can be employed to control home appliances or a wheelchair.
Keywords: Mouse emulation and control, Eye tracking, Environment control
Learning gaze typing: what are the obstacles and what progress to expect? BIBAKFull-Text 297-310
  Hirotaka Aoki; John Paulin Hansen; Kenji Itoh
Gaze interaction is a promising input modality for people who are unable to control their fingers and arms. This paper suggests a number of new metrics that can be applied to the analysis of gaze typing interfaces and to the evaluation of user performance. These metrics are derived from a close examination of eight subjects typing text by gazing on a dwell-time activated onscreen keyboard during a seven-day experiment. One of the metrics, termed "Attended keys per character", measures the number of keys that are attended for each typed character. This metric turned out to be particularly well correlated to the actual numbers of errors committed (r = 0.915). In addition to introducing metrics specific for gaze typing, the paper discusses how the metrics could make remote progress monitoring possible and provides some general advice on how to introduce gaze typing for novice users.
Keywords: Gaze typing, Learning process, Dwell time gaze typing system, Gaze metrics
A blueprint for integrated eye-controlled environments BIBAKFull-Text 311-321
  D. Bonino; E. Castellina; F. Corno; A. Gale; A. Garbo; K. Purdy; F. Shi
Eye-based environmental control requires innovative solutions for supporting effective user interaction, for allowing home automation and control, and for making homes more "attentive" to user needs. Several approaches have already been proposed, which can be seen as isolated attempts to address partial issues and specific sub-sets of the general problem. This paper aims at tackling gaze-based home automation as a whole, exploiting state-of-the-art technologies and trying to integrate interaction modalities that are currently supported and that may be supported in the near future. User-home interaction is sought through two, complementary, interaction patterns: direct interaction and mediated interaction. Integration between home appliances and devices and user interfaces is granted by a central point of abstraction and harmonization called House Manager. Innovative points can be identified in the wide flexibility of the approach which allows on one side to integrate virtually all home devices having a communication interface, and, on the other side, combines direct and mediated user interaction exploiting the advantages of both. A discussion of interaction and accessibility issues is also provided, justifying the presented approach from the point of view of human-environment interaction.
Keywords: Environmental control, Eye-based interaction, Domotic systems, Direct interaction, Mediated interaction
Gaze controlled games BIBAKFull-Text 323-337
  Poika Isokoski; Markus Joos; Oleg Spakov; Benoît Martin
The quality and availability of eye tracking equipment has been increasing while costs have been decreasing. These trends increase the possibility of using eye trackers for entertainment purposes. Games that can be controlled solely through movement of the eyes would be accessible to persons with decreased limb mobility or control. On the other hand, use of eye tracking can change the gaming experience for all players, by offering richer input and enabling attention-aware games. Eye tracking is not currently widely supported in gaming, and games specifically developed for use with an eye tracker are rare. This paper reviews past work on eye tracker gaming and charts future development possibilities in different sub-domains within. It argues that based on the user input requirements and gaming contexts, conventional computer games can be classified into groups that offer fundamentally different opportunities for eye tracker input. In addition to the inherent design issues, there are challenges and varying levels of support for eye tracker use in the technical implementations of the games.
Keywords: Computer games, Eye tracking, Taxonomy
Attentive interfaces for users with disabilities: eye gaze for intention and uncertainty estimation BIBAKFull-Text 339-354
  Helmut Prendinger; Aulikki Hyrskykari; Minoru Nakayama; Howell Istance; Nikolaus Bee; Yosiyuki Takahasi
Attentive user interfaces (AUIs) capitalize on the rich information that can be obtained from users' gaze behavior in order to infer relevant aspects of their cognitive state. Not only is eye gaze an excellent clue to states of interest and intention, but also to preference and confidence in comprehension. AUIs are built with the aim of adapting the interface to the user's current information need, and thus reduce workload of interaction. Given those characteristics, it is believed that AUIs can have particular benefits for users with severe disabilities, for whom operating a physical device (like a mouse pointer) might be very strenuous or infeasible. This paper presents three studies that attempt to gauge uncertainty and intention on the part of the user from gaze data, and compare the success of each approach. The paper discusses how the application of the approaches adopted in each study to user interfaces can support users with severe disabilities.
Keywords: Attentive interfaces, Disabilities, Eye gaze