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UAIS Tables of Contents: 01020304050607080910111213

Universal Access in the Information Society 4

Editors:Constantine Stephanidis
Dates:2005/2006
Volume:4
Publisher:Springer Verlag
Standard No:ISSN 1615-5289 (print); 1615-5297 (electronic)
Papers:26
Links:Table of Contents
  1. UAIS 2005 Volume 4 Issue 1
  2. UAIS 2005 Volume 4 Issue 2
  3. UAIS 2006 Volume 4 Issue 3

UAIS 2005 Volume 4 Issue 1

Web and aging: challenges and opportunities BIBFull-Text 1-2
  Panayiotis Zaphiris; Sri Kurniawan; R. Darin Ellis
Strategies for teaching older people to use the World Wide Web BIBAKFull-Text 3-15
  Anna Dickinson; Roos Eisma; Peter Gregor; Audrey Syme; Scott Milne
Information is increasingly displayed digitally, yet less than half of the population of the UK use the Internet. Older people are especially unlikely to be Internet users and the consequent risks of digital exclusion must be addressed. A training course in computers and web use for older adults took place at the University of Dundee, with 15 participants. The course approach was to simplify application interfaces and to ensure that basic skills were learnt before more complicated tasks were presented. As part of this process, there was a focus on learning to use the computer before learners were introduced to the web with its wide variety of content. The course outcomes were positive and the authors report them here in order to reflect upon the experience and help others who set out to provide training for older people in web use.
Keywords: Older users - Computer classes - Web browser design
Introducing computers and the Internet to older users: findings from the Care OnLine project BIBAKFull-Text 16-23
  Zaheer Osman; David Poulson; Colette Nicolle
This paper reports the findings from a two-year pilot project called Care OnLine (COL). The COL project has introduced computers and the Internet into the homes of 50 elderly and vulnerable volunteers and provided shared Internet access at five shared schemes housing older people across the Market Harbrorough district of Leicestershire. A specific web portal was designed that was geared towards older and vulnerable people and provided information about the different services available to them, as well as links to a variety of websites. All the volunteers were provided with training in using computers and the Internet, and were interviewed regarding their experiences. Findings related to their attitudes towards, and experiences of, computers and the Internet are reported. The impact of having access to computers and the Internet on the volunteers lives and some lessons learnt from providing such a scheme are also discussed.
Keywords: Elderly - Attitudes - Computer - Internet - Internet scheme - Training and support
http://www.nihseniorhealth.gov: the process of construction and revision in the development of a model web site for use by older adults BIBAKFull-Text 24-38
  Roger W. Morrell
The NIH (National Institutes of Health) Senior Health Project began as a joint undertaking between the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to accomplish two goals. The first goal was to develop comprehensive research-based guidelines on how to make web sites accessible to older adults. The second goal was the implementation of the guidelines in the construction of a web site for older adults to locate health information. This descriptive article outlines the process of developing the guidelines and the building of the web site, http://www.nihseniorhealth.gov, and includes an overview of what was learned as the project evolved.
Keywords: Aging - Technology - Information web sites - Elder-friendly - Internet - Older adults
Input devices for web browsing: age and hand effects BIBAKFull-Text 39-45
  Tiffany Jastrzembski; Neil Charness; Patricia Holley; Jeffrey Feddon
The work reported in this paper examined performance on a mixed pointing and data entry task using direct and indirect positioning devices for younger, middle-aged, and older adults (n=72) who were experienced mouse users. Participants used both preferred and non-preferred hands to perform an item selection and text entry task simulating a typical web page interaction. Older adults performed more slowly than middle-aged adults who in turn performed more slowly than young adults. Performance efficiency was superior with the mouse for older adults only on the first two trial blocks. Thereafter mouse and light pen yielded equivalent performance. For other age groups, mouse and light pen were equivalent at all points of practice. Contrary to prior research revealing superior performance with a light pen for pure pointing tasks, these results suggest that older adults may initially perform worse with a light pen than a mouse for mixed tasks.
Keywords: Age - Hand - Usability - Input device - Web
Personalization of Web browsing: adaptations to meet the needs of older adults BIBAKFull-Text 46-58
  Vicki L. Hanson; Susan Crayne
Despite difficulties in using the Web, older adults are motivated to use it. This paper reports on work underway to ease Web access for this population. Although Web accessibility standards provide specifications that Web content providers must incorporate if their pages are to be accessible, these standards do not guarantee a good experience for all Web users. This paper will discuss user controls that make a number of dynamic adaptations to page presentation and input that can greatly increase the usability of Web pages for older users. The paper will discuss the authors original work on the topic, lessons learned, and usage patterns. Current extensions to that work are also discussed.
Keywords: Web access - Older adults - Ease of access
Senior users of the internet: lessons from the cybernun study BIBAKFull-Text 59-66
  Deborah J. Smith
This paper presents a study that examined computer use and life satisfaction of senior religious sisters. A sample was obtained of 103 nuns in Upstate New York. Participants self-identified as computer users (CU) or non-users (NU), completed demographic information, the life satisfaction index-Z (LSIZ), the attitudes toward computer use scale (ATCUS), and responded to additional semi-structured questions. No statistically significant differences were found between CU and NU in life satisfaction. A cross-comparative, grounded analysis of the more open-ended responses found interesting differences in perceptions of sisters about computer use. Senior usability concerns were also considered.
Keywords: Religious sisters - Computer use - Usability
User study on older adults' use of the Web and search engines BIBAKFull-Text 67-81
  Anne Aula
Ten older adults were interviewed about the motivational factors behind learning to use computers and the negative and positive aspects related to it. They were then given search tasks and were observed as they used search engines for finding information from the Web. All of the participants completed several search tasks during the search session. Although their performance in the search tasks was adequate, they faced several problems in the interaction. For example, text editing was difficult and understanding the structure of the Web and terminology used caused problems. Based on the observations, an elderly friendly search user interface is proposed.
Keywords: Older adults - World Wide Web - Search engines - User study

UAIS 2005 Volume 4 Issue 2

Special issue on design for a more inclusive world BIBFull-Text 83-84
  Simeon Keates; John Clarkson; Patrick Langdon; Peter Robinson
Movement time for motion-impaired users assisted by force-feedback: effects of movement amplitude, target width, and gravity well width BIBAKFull-Text 85-95
  Faustina Hwang; Simeon Keates; Patrick Langdon; P. John Clarkson
This paper presents a study investigating how the performance of motion-impaired computer users in point and click tasks varies with target distance (A), target width (W), and force-feedback gravity well width (GWW). Six motion-impaired users performed point and click tasks across a range of values for A, W, and GWW. Times were observed to increase with A, and to decrease with W. Times also improved with GWW, and, with the addition of a gravity well, a greater improvement was observed for smaller targets than for bigger ones. It was found that Fitts' Law gave a good description of behaviour for each value of GWW, and that gravity wells reduced the effect of task difficulty on performance. A model based on Fitts' Law is proposed, which incorporates the effect of GWW on movement time. The model accounts for 88.8% of the variance in the observed data.
Keywords: Fitts' Law - Motion-impaired - Force-feedback - Haptic
Interacting with notations: two examples of the use of a transformation system BIBAKFull-Text 96-104
  Silas S. Brown; Peter Robinson
Computers can present data in different ways to fit different tasks and different users experience, abilities and disabilities. Transformation frameworks allow developers and competent end-users to experiment with alternative notations more quickly, and thus discover new presentations appropriate for particular sets of circumstances. This paper illustrates this in two separate contexts: musical notations and interfaces to complex applications software.
Keywords: Transformation - Low vision - Blind - Interfaces - Music
Robotic assistants in therapy and education of children with autism: can a small humanoid robot help encourage social interaction skills? BIBAKFull-Text 105-120
  B. Robins; K. Dautenhahn; R. Te Boekhorst; A. Billard
This article presents a longitudinal study with four children with autism, who were exposed to a humanoid robot over a period of several months. The longitudinal approach allowed the children time to explore the space of robot-human, as well as human-human interaction. Based on the video material documenting the interactions, a quantitative and qualitative analysis was conducted. The quantitative analysis showed an increase in duration of pre-defined behaviours towards the later trials. A qualitative analysis of the video data, observing the children's activities in their interactional context, revealed further aspects of social interaction skills (imitation, turn-taking and role-switch) and communicative competence that the children showed. The results clearly demonstrate the need for, and benefits of, long-term studies in order to reveal the full potential of robots in the therapy and education of children with autism.
Keywords: Autism therapy - Longitudinal study - Robotic assistant - Imitation - Social interaction
The emotional hearing aid: an assistive tool for children with Asperger syndrome BIBAKFull-Text 121-134
  R. el Kaliouby; P. Robinson
People diagnosed along the autistic spectrum often have difficulties interacting with others in natural social environments. The emotional hearing aid is a portable assistive computer-based technology designed to help children with Asperger syndrome read and respond to the facial expressions of people they interact with. The tool implements the two principal elements that constitute ones ability to empathize with others: the ability to identify a persons mental state, a process known as mind-reading or theory of mind, and the ability to react appropriately to it (known as sympathizing). An automated mind-reading system attributes a mental state to a person by observing the behaviour of that person in real-time. Then the reaction advisor suggests to the user of the emotional hearing an appropriate reaction to the recognized mental state. This paper describes progress in the development and validation of the emotional hearing aid on two fronts. First, the implementation of the reaction advisor is described, showing how it takes into account the persistence, intensity and degree of confidence of a mental state inference. Second, the paper presents an experimental evaluation of the automated mind-reading system on six classes of complex mental states. In light of this progress, the paper concludes with a discussion of the challenges that still need to be addressed in developing and validating the emotional hearing aid.
Keywords: Autism - Asperger syndrome - Facial expression analysis - Mind-reading - Dynamic Bayesian Networks
Designing desirability in an augmentative and alternative communication device BIBAKFull-Text 135-145
  Jonathon Allen
This paper discusses work carried in the context of a study addressing the design and development of a wearable communication aid for people who are illiterate and cannot speak. People with such disabilities often depend on electronic augmentative and alternative communication devices for interpersonal communication. A central theme of the paper, however, is that such products, and products intended for people with disabilities more generally, have characteristics that inadequately attend to users needs -- in particular many devices pay insufficient regard to the psychological and sociological impact the devices have upon their users. The paper briefly discusses an empirical case study targeted to design and develop the Portland Communication Aid (PCA). The process of establishing user requirements, and in particular the notion of designer-facilitated participatory design, is discussed. The resulting prototype of the PCA is briefly explained along with a discussion of the importance of product semantics in the design of assistive technology.
Keywords: Disability - Product semantics - Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) - Industrial design
Robots in a domestic setting: a psychological approach BIBAKFull-Text 146-155
  Massimiliano Scopelliti; Maria Vittoria Giuliani; Ferdinando Fornara
The study presented in this paper aims at improving the current understanding of human-robot interaction by adopting a psychological approach. The acceptability of robotic devices in home settings, especially by elderly people, does not depend only on the practical benefits they can provide, but on complex relationships between the cognitive, affective and emotional components of peoples images of robots. This study has investigated the main dimensions of these representations, by comparing the attitudes towards technology in general, and domestic robots in particular, held by people at different stages of the lifespan. The results confirm that age is a critical variable.
Keywords: Human-robot interaction - Affective response - Cognitive representation - Lifespan
The design of smart homes for people with dementia -- user-interface aspects BIBAKFull-Text 156-164
  R. Orpwood; C. Gibbs; T. Adlam; R. Faulkner; D. Meegahawatte
This paper reports on the user requirements analysis, design and evaluation of smart home solutions for people with dementia. In order to be appropriate for people with dementia, smart home technologies should keep interaction with users to a minimum. In the work presented in this paper, discussions with carers, as well as a more formal user-survey, provided a good understanding of the issues that are faced by this group, and useful indications of potential design solutions. This preliminary survey work led to a design approach that used carer emulation, familiarity of appearance, incorporation of verbal prompts and reminders, and careful user-monitoring, to achieve effective devices. This design approach is illustrated through several examples of specific designs. Evaluations of stand-alone systems were carried out prior to smart home installation, and illustrated the complex interface that exists between assistive technology and people with dementia.
Keywords: People with dementia - Smart homes - Needs surveys - User-led design
Collaborative Control of the Manus Manipulator BIBAKFull-Text 165-173
  B. J. F. Driessen; T. K. Ten. Kate; F. Liefhebber; A. H. G. Versluis; J. A. van. Woerden
The Manus manipulator is a wheelchair mounted assistive device for severely motor disabled persons. It is a six degrees of freedom rehabilitation robot (excluding external lift and gripper), the control of which can be improved, especially for users with very limited rest functionality. The approach presented in this paper combines autonomous vision based control with direct user control resulting in a collaborative controller. Results of preliminary user trials show that this technique allows severely disabled persons to manipulate objects more easily.
Keywords: Visual Servoing - Collaborative Control - Manus - Rehabilitation Robotics - Sensor Fusion

UAIS 2006 Volume 4 Issue 3

Special UAIS issue on "User-centered interaction paradigms for universal access in the information society" BIBFull-Text 175-176
  Christian Stary
Augmented reality navigation systems BIBAKFull-Text 177-187
  Wolfgang Narzt; Gustav Pomberger; Alois Ferscha; Dieter Kolb; Reiner Muller; Jan Wieghardt; Horst Hortner; Christopher Lindinger
The augmented reality (AR) research community has been developing a manifold of ideas and concepts to improve the depiction of virtual objects in a real scene. In contrast, current AR applications require the use of unwieldy equipment which discourages their use. In order to essentially ease the perception of digital information and to naturally interact with the pervasive computing landscape, the required AR equipment has to be seamlessly integrated into the user's natural environment. Considering this basic principle, this paper proposes the car as an AR apparatus and presents an innovative visualization paradigm for navigation systems that is anticipated to enhance user interaction.
Keywords: Augmented reality - Navigation systems - Visualization paradigms - User interaction
Text prediction systems: a survey BIBAKFull-Text 188-203
  Nestor Garay-Vitoria; Julio Abascal
Text prediction is one of the most widely used techniques to enhance the communication rate in augmentative and alternative communication. Prediction systems are traditionally used by people with disabilities (e.g. people with motor and speech impairments). However, new applications, such as writing short text messages via mobile phones, have recently appeared. A vast amount of heterogeneous text prediction methods and techniques can be found in literature. Their heterogeneity makes it difficult to understand and compare them, in order to select the most convenient technique for a specific design. This paper presents a survey on text prediction techniques with the intention to provide a systematic view of this field. Prediction applications and related features, such as block size, dictionary structure, prediction method, user interface, etc., are examined. In addition, prediction measurement parameters and published results are compared. A large number of factors that may influence prediction results, including the acceptance of the system by the users, are reviewed, and their influence on the performance and usability of the system is discussed.
Keywords: Text prediction - Word prediction - Anticipative interfaces - Augmentative and alternative communication - Communication speed enhancement
Augmenting interaction and cognition using agent architectures and technology inspired by psychology and social worlds BIBAKFull-Text 204-222
  Steve Goschnick; Connor Graham
Intelligent agents can play a pivotal role in providing both software systems and augmented interfaces, to individual users from all walks of life, to utilise the Internet 24 h a day, 7 days a week (24x7), including interaction with other users, over both wireless and broadband infrastructures. However, traditional approaches to user modelling are not adequate for this purpose, as they mainly account for a generic, approximate, idealised user. New user models are therefore required to be adaptable for each individual and flexible enough to represent the diversity of all users using information technology. Such models should be able to cover all aspects of an individual's life -- those aspects of most interest to the individual user themselves. This paper describes a novel intelligent agent architecture and methodology both called ShadowBoard, based on a complex user model drawn from analytical psychology. An equally novel software tool, called the DigitalFriend based on ShadowBoard, is also introduced. This paper illustrates how aspects of user cognition can be outsourced, using, for example, an internationalised book price quoting agent. The Locales Framework from Computer Supported Co-operative Work is then used to understand the problematic aspects of interaction involved in complex social spaces, identifying specific needs for technology intervention in such social spaces, and to understand how interactions amongst mobile users with different abilities might be technically assisted in such spaces. In this context, the single user-centred multi-agent technology demonstrated in the DigitalFriend is adapted to a multi-user system dubbed ShadowPlaces. The aim of ShadowPlaces is to outsource some of the interaction necessary, for a group of mobile individuals with different abilities to interact cooperatively and effectively in a social world, supported by wireless networks and backed by broadband Internet services. An overview of the user model, the architecture and methodology (ShadowBoard) and the resulting software tool (the DigitalFriend) is presented, and progress on ShadowPlaces -- the multi-user version -- is outlined.
Keywords: User model - User agent - Universal interface
Symbol design: a user-centered method to design pen-based interfaces and extend the functionality of pointer input devices BIBAKFull-Text 223-236
  Margrit Betke; Oleg Gusyatin; Mikhail Urinson
A method called "SymbolDesign" is proposed that can be used to design user-centered interfaces for pen-based input devices. It can also extend the functionality of pointer input devices, such as the traditional computer mouse or the Camera Mouse, a camera-based computer interface. Users can create their own interfaces by choosing single-stroke movement patterns that are convenient to draw with the selected input device, and by mapping them to a desired set of commands. A pattern could be the trace of a moving finger detected with the Camera Mouse or a symbol drawn with an optical pen. The core of the SymbolDesign system is a dynamically created classifier, in the current implementation an artificial neural network. The architecture of the neural network automatically adjusts according to the complexity of the classification task. In experiments, subjects used the SymbolDesign method to design and test the interfaces they created, for example, to browse the web. The experiments demonstrated good recognition accuracy and responsiveness of the user interfaces. The method provided an easily-designed and easily-used computer input mechanism for people without physical limitations, and, with some modifications, has the potential to become a computer access tool for people with severe paralysis.
Keywords: Universal access - Assistive technology - Universal interfaces - User interfaces - Camera interfaces - Pen-based interfaces - Video-based human-computer interfaces - Dynamic neural networks
Acoustic control of mouse pointer BIBAKFull-Text 237-245
  Adam J. Sporka; Sri H. Kurniawan; Pavel Slavik
This paper describes the design and implementation of a system for controlling mouse pointer using non-verbal sounds such as whistling and humming. Two control modes have been implemented -- an orthogonal mode (where the pointer moves with variable speed either horizontally or vertically at any one time) and a melodic mode (where the pointer moves with fixed speed in any direction). A preliminary user study with four users indicates that the orthogonal control was easier to operate and that the humming was less tiring for the users than whistling. The developed system may contribute as an inexpensive, alternative pointing device for people with motor disabilities.
Keywords: Pointing devices - Motor disabilities - Acoustic input - Assistive technologies - Melodic interaction
Motion does matter: an examination of speech-based text entry on the move BIBAKFull-Text 246-257
  Kathleen J. Price; Min Lin; Jinjuan Feng; Rich Goldman; Andrew Sears; Julie A. Jacko
Desktop interaction solutions are often inappropriate for mobile devices due to small screen size and portability needs. Speech recognition can improve interactions by providing a relatively hands-free solution that can be used in various situations. While mobile systems are designed to be transportable, few have examined the effects of motion on mobile interactions. This paper investigates the effect of motion on automatic speech recognition (ASR) input for mobile devices. Speech recognition error rates (RER) have been examined with subjects walking or seated, while performing text input tasks and the effect of ASR enrollment conditions on RER. The obtained results suggest changes in user training of ASR systems for mobile and seated usage.
Keywords: Mobile device - Automatic speech recognition - Speech-based data entry - Motion - Speech recognition errors
Individual differences and behavioral metrics involved in modeling web navigation BIBAKFull-Text 258-269
  Ion Juvina; Herre van Oostendorp
This paper presents an empirical study aiming at investigating individual differences and behavioral metrics involved in modeling web navigation. Factors that have an influence on web navigation behavior were identified with the aid of task analysis, and their relevance in predicting task outcomes (performance, satisfaction, perceived disorientation) was tested with the aid of multiple regression analysis. Several types of navigation metrics were calculated based on web logging data and used as indicators of user characteristics and task outcomes. Results show that spatial-semantic cognitive mechanisms seem to be crucial in adequately performing web navigation tasks. The fact that user characteristics and task outcomes can be estimated with reasonable accuracy based on navigation metrics suggests the possibility of building adaptive navigation support in web applications.
Keywords: Web navigation - Individual differences - Navigation metrics
An approach to usability evaluation of e-learning applications BIBAKFull-Text 270-283
  C. Ardito; M. F. Costabile; M. De Marsico; R. Lanzilotti; S. Levialdi; T. Roselli; V. Rossano
Despite recent advances of electronic technologies in e-learning, a consolidated evaluation methodology for e-learning applications is not available. The evaluation of educational software must consider its usability and more in general its accessibility, as well as its didactic effectiveness. This work is a first step towards the definition of a methodology for evaluating e-learning applications. Specific usability attributes capturing the peculiar features of these applications are identified. A preliminary user study involving a group of e-students, observed during their interaction with an e-learning application in a real situation, is reported. Then, the proposal is put forward to adapt to the e-learning domain a methodology for systematic usability evaluation, called SUE. Specifically, evaluation patterns are proposed that are able to drive the evaluators in the analysis of an e-learning application.
Keywords: E-learning - Learner-centered design - Usability evaluation