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UAIS Tables of Contents: 01020304050607080910111213

Universal Access in the Information Society 1

Editors:Constantine Stephanidis
Publisher:Springer Verlag
Standard No:ISSN 1615-5289 (print); 1615-5297 (electronic)
Links:Table of Contents
  1. UAIS 2001 Volume 1 Issue 1
  2. UAIS 2001 Volume 1 Issue 2
  3. UAIS 2002 Volume 1 Issue 3
  4. UAIS 2002 Volume 1 Issue 4

UAIS 2001 Volume 1 Issue 1

Productivity, satisfaction, and interaction strategies of individuals with spinal cord injuries and traditional users interacting with speech recognition software BIBAKFull-Text 4-15
  Andrew Sears; Clare-Marie Karat; Kwesi Oseitutu; Azfar Karimullah; Jinjuan Feng
Speech recognition is an important technology that is becoming increasingly effective for dictation-oriented activities. While recognition accuracy has increased dramatically in recent years, recent studies confirm that traditional computer users are still faster using a keyboard and mouse and spend more time correcting errors than dictating. Further, as these users become more experienced they frequently adopt multimodal strategies that require the keyboard and mouse when correcting errors. While speech recognition can be a convenient alternative for traditional computer users, it can be a powerful tool for individuals with physical disabilities that limit their ability to use a keyboard and mouse. However, research into the performance, satisfaction, and usage patterns of individuals with physical disabilities has not been reported. In this article, we report on a study that provides initial insights into the efficacy of existing speech recognition systems with respect to individuals with physical disabilities. Our results confirm that productivity does not differ between traditional users and those with physical disabilities. In contrast, numerous differences were observed when users rated their satisfaction with the system and when usage patterns were analyzed.
Keywords: Speech recognition - dictation - spinal cord injuries - usability evaluation - universal access
User diversity and design representation: Towards increased effectiveness in Design for All BIBAKFull-Text 16-30
  C. Stary
This paper addresses user modelling for "Design for All" in a model-based approach to Human-Computer Interaction, paying particular attention to placing user models within organisational role- and task-related contexts. After reviewing a variety of user modelling approaches, and deriving requirements for user modelling related to Design for All, the paper proposes a role-driven individualised approach. Such an approach is based on a model-based representation schema and a unifying notation that keeps the user's models and the contextual information transparent and consistent. Individualisation is achieved by coupling symbolic model specifications with neural networking on synchronisation links between symbolic representation elements. As a result, user modelling for Design for All is achieved not by stereotypical user properties and functional roles, but by accommodating the actual users' behaviour.
Keywords: Design for All - User diversity - Individualisation - Symbolic/subsymbolic (knowledge) representation - User modelling - Adaptation - Model-based design - Modality switching - Context-driven development - Domain modelling - System modelling
Management of access through biometric control: A case study based on automatic signature verification BIBAKFull-Text 31-39
  M. C. Fairhust; S. Ng
The idea of the information society is pervasive and varied and, in this context, universal access is itself a multi-faceted concept. However, the notion of universality presupposes an analysis and understanding of what both unifies and discriminates among different individual members of a community of technology users. This paper addresses these ideas and, in particular, seeks to illustrate some techniques which can support such an analysis in a variety of task domains. Of special interest here is a specific case study which examines the use of biometric processing as a means of managing access in the broadest sense. It is argued that not only is the field of biometric measurement one where understanding similarities and differences is the essence of what is required, but also that this offers the opportunity to establish and explore a variety of practical techniques of very wide significance in the context of universal access.
Keywords: Access management - Feature selection - Biometrics
Universal Access in the Information Society: Methods, Tools, and Interaction Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 40-55
  Constantine Stephanidis; Anthony Savidis
Accessibility and high quality of interaction with products, applications, and services by anyone, anywhere, and at any time are fundamental requirements for universal access in the emerging Information Society. This paper discusses these requirements, and their relation to the concept of automated adaptation of user interfaces. An example application is presented, showing how adaptation can be used to accommodate the requirements of different user categories and contexts of use. This application is then used as a vehicle for discussing a new engineering paradigm appropriate for the development of adaptation-based user interfaces. Finally, the paper investigates issues concerning the interaction technologies required for universal access.
Keywords: Universal Access - Universal Design - User Interface for All - Unified User Interfaces - Adaption - Adaptability - Adaptivity - Non-visual interaction - Switch-based interaction
A review and reappraisal of information technologies within a conceptual framework for individuals with disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 56-76
  Julie A. Jacko; Holly S. Vitense
With over thirty million individuals with disabilities being reported in the United States, and with information systems permeating nearly every aspect of society, there is a growing urgency to ensure that everyone has equal access to technology. To render information technologies universally accessible, researchers must have at their disposal an accurate and reliable user model. Through the use of the conceptual framework presented here, accurate assumptions can be generated from knowledge of an individual's impairments, and functional abilities to influence the creation of a user profile. Ultimately, user profiles serve as a vital attribute of user models applied to the design of technology in an effort to achieve universal access.
Keywords: Disabilities - Conceptual framework - User profile

UAIS 2001 Volume 1 Issue 2

Empowered participation of users with disabilities in universal design BIBAKFull-Text 85-90
  Christian Buhler
This paper provides an introduction to empowered user participation and its relevance for the universal design process. It highlights the benefits of user participation and proposes a way to implement it in projects. The paper is based on the experiences of the European project FORTUNE [3]. As an introduction, some basic considerations of the concepts of design for all and universal design are presented. The value of user participation in general and of users with disabilities in particular is discussed. Experience with the state of the art of user involvement in European Research and Development (R&D) projects is reported. The FORTUNE concept of user participation in projects is introduced as a reference model for participation of users with disabilities, and a set of criteria for the assessment of user participation is provided as a practical tool. A brief overview of methodologies for user participation and potential organisational frameworks is also presented.
Keywords: User participation - User involvement - Universal design - Design for all - Projects - Assistive technology
Accessibility in the built and transport environment The wheelchair user perspective BIBAKFull-Text 91-98
  S. Edwards; S. Walsh; P. Blythe; N. Hamilton; J. Soutter
'Improving Accessibility for those with Impaired Mobility' (I-AIM) is developing a telematic-based device to attach to wheelchairs to provide a navigation aid in the built environment. A technical project such as this must have end-user input from the beginning. In partial fulfilment of this, a user requirements survey was carried out. The survey found that accessibility in the built environment is generally possible for wheelchair users with assistance, which does not fulfil objectives of independence. Accessibility to public transport is regarded as poor. Information communication technologies can offer greater independence and inclusion, but attention must be paid to ergonomics.
Keywords: Accessibility - Wheelchairs - Built environment - Transport environment - Information technology
Keyboards and keying An annotated bibliography of the literature from 1878 to 1999 BIBAKFull-Text 99-160
  Karl H. E. Kroemer
This bibliography covers the period from 1878 through 1999. It contains, in chronological order, a thorough sampling of the literature concerning the design and use of keyboards. The sources are selected and annotated to reflect the status of engineering and technology know-how, and knowledge about ergonomic aspects of the use of the keyboards with, first, mechanical typewriters, then electric typewriters and finally, from the 1960s on, computers. The bibliography illustrates the origin of Sholes' 1878 QWERTY keyboard and its continued use in spite of its many shortcomings, which may be - at least partially - the reason for cumulative trauma disorders in yesteryear's typists and today's keyboarders.
Keywords: Keyboards - Keyboarding - Typing - Ergonomics - Cumulative trauma disorders

UAIS 2002 Volume 1 Issue 3

Design and evaluation of an adaptive virtual guide for Web applications BIBAKFull-Text 163-176
  Luisa Marucci; Fabio Paterno
Most applications accessible through the Web suffer from a noticeable lack of support for adapting to the different information needs that different users may have regarding a certain topic. However, completely automatic adaptive support can still be confusing for users who may not understand the reasons for the dynamic change in the behaviour of an application. In this paper, we present a possible solution to provide adaptive support that does not disorient the user. The solution integrates a virtual January 18, assistant that is able to provide adaptive support in an adaptable application. We discuss an example of the application of this approach involving the support of Web visits to virtual museums. We then present the results of an empirical usability test of such an application.
Keywords: Adaptive user interfaces - Virtual guides - Web interactive agents
Dialoguing with developers and suppliers of adaptive computer technologies: Data and recommendations BIBAKFull-Text 177-196
  Jennison V. Asuncion; Catherine S. Fichten; Myrtis E. Fossey; Maria Barile
The authors report on findings on computer technology needs and concerns of 725 Canadian college and university students with a wide range of disabilities. The vast majority of this sample population uses computers and almost half need an adaptation to use computers effectively. The authors provide information about computer technologies used by students with different disabilities, describe adaptations/adaptive computer technologies that students find useful, report issues faced by users and non-users of computers in postsecondary education, and discuss reasons why students are not using needed adaptations/adaptive technology. Based on these findings, the authors provide recommendations for adaptive computer hardware and software developers and vendors.
Keywords: Postsecondary students with disabilities - Computers - Adaptive technologies - College - University
Macular degeneration and visual icon use: deriving guidelines for improved access BIBAKFull-Text 197-206
  Julie A. Jacko; Armando B. Barreto; Ingrid U. Scott; Josey Y. M. Chu; Holly S. Vitense; Frank T. Conway; W. Bradley Fain
The objective of this study was to derive empirical knowledge of the visual search strategies of computer users who suffer from age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This was accomplished by recording eye movement during the use of feature-enhanced software. The results from this study show that there are differences between users who have AMD and users who are fully sighted (FS). Detailed analyses confirmed the hypotheses that there would be performance differences between the AMD and FS participants, and that specific features of the interface, namely icon size, background color, and the number of icons on a display, would significantly affect the search strategies of users.
Keywords: Visual search - Universal access - Age-related macular degeneration - Eye movement
The impact of Web self-efficacy, age, and Web experience on bookmark manipulation BIBAKFull-Text 207-216
  S. H. Kurniawan; R. D. Ellis; J. C. Allaire
This paper presents a study that examines the impact of age, Web experience, and Web self-efficacy across the adult life span on users' bookmark management behaviors. It was hypothesized that Web self-efficacy would mediate the effect of age and Web experience on bookmark manipulation. Six hundred users, sampled from the Project 2000 and 7th WWW User survey data, were used to examine this model. Using structural equation modeling techniques, it was found that the effect of age on bookmark manipulation was fully mediated by Web self-efficacy. However, the effect of Web experience was not fully mitigated by Web self-efficacy.
Keywords: Web self-efficacy - Aging - Web experience - Bookmark
When accessibility meets usability BIBAKFull-Text 217-222
  James J. Powlik; Arthur I. Karshmer
Making a resource or facility "accessible" to persons with disabilities does not necessarily make it "usable" to all such members of the population. The authors present some valuable lessons learned by National Science Foundation researchers and educators striving to make engaging activities and inviting curricula inclusive of all students, regardless of ability.
Keywords: Disability - Education - Methods - National Science Foundation
Towards a design code of practice for universal access in health telematics BIBAKFull-Text 223-226
  Constantine Stephanidis; Demosthenes Akoumianakis
This paper presents a brief overview of the European Commission funded Thematic Network (Working Group) "Information Society for All"-IS4ALL (IST-1999-14101). IS4ALL aims to establish a wide, interdisciplinary and closely collaborating network of experts to provide the European Health Telematics industry with a comprehensive code of practice on how to appropriate the benefits of universal design. This paper outlines the project's main objectives and technical approach in the context of universal access.
Keywords: Universal access - Accessibility - Usability - IS4ALL - Health telematics

UAIS 2002 Volume 1 Issue 4

Continuous interaction in future computing systems BIBFull-Text 235-236
  Gavin Doherty; Giorgio Faconti; Mieke Massink; Michael Wilson
A reference framework for continuous interaction BIBAKFull-Text 237-251
  M. Massink; G. Faconti
The latest developments in human computer interfaces aim at greater ease of use, and the exploitation of human communication and interaction skills typical of non-computerised environments. This kind of interaction is continuous rather than purely discrete. Continuous interaction implies a tighter coupling between system and user, and raises complicated synchronisation issues where real-time requirements and intrinsic variation of human behaviour play an essential role. In this paper, we propose a human centred layered reference model to reduce the design complexity of systems exhibiting continuous interaction. In the context of the layered model, we discuss the role that formal modelling can play in the design of these systems.
Keywords: Continuous interaction - Reference model - Formal modelling and verification
Continuity in cognition BIBAKFull-Text 252-262
  J. May; M. J. Buehner; D. Duke
Designing for continuous interaction requires designers to consider the way in which human users can perceive and evaluate an artefact's observable behaviour, in order to make inferences about its state, and plan and execute their own continuous behaviour. Understanding the human point of view in continuous interaction requires an understanding of human causal reasoning, of the way in which humans perceive and structure the world, and of human cognition. We present a framework for representing human cognition, and show briefly how it relates to the analysis of structure in continuous interaction, and the ways in which it may be applied in design.
Keywords: Cognition - Design - Models - Interaction - Structure
Assessing continuity and compatibility in augmented reality systems BIBAKFull-Text 263-273
  E. Dubois; L. Nigay; J. Troccaz
Integrating computer-based information into the real world of the user is becoming a crucial challenge for the designers of interactive systems. The Augmented Reality (AR) paradigm illustrates this trend. Information is provided by an AR system to facilitate or to enrich the natural way in which the user interacts with the real environment. We focus on the output of such systems and, in particular, on the smooth integration of additional information in the real environment of the user. We characterize the integration of the computer-provided entities with the real ones using two new properties: compatibility and continuity. After defining the two properties, we provide factors and an analytical method needed for assessing them. We also empirically study the two properties to highlight their impact on interaction. The CASPER system, developed in our teams, is used to illustrate the discussion.
Keywords: Augmented reality - Ergonomic property - Continuity - Compatibility
Continuity of interaction in nomadic interfaces through migration and dynamic utilization of I/O resources BIBAKFull-Text 274-287
  A. Savidis; N. Maou; I. Pachoulakis; C. Stephanidis
The concept of ubiquitous computing reflects an infrastructure in which users are engaged in mobile interaction sessions within environments composed of dynamically varying computational resources. In this paradigm, applications are required to continuously follow end users and provide high-quality interaction while migrating among different computing devices and dynamically utilizing the available input/output (I/O) resources of each device. In the context of such interaction scenarios, the principle of continuity, which emphasizes the uninterrupted sequence of dialogue activities, is put forward as a key design goal. This paper presents an application experiment demonstrating interface migration, distributed I/O control, and dynamic I/O reconfiguration. The adopted dialogue design approach is discussed, along with the identified interaction design requirements, from the perspective of dialogue continuity. Finally, the employed software engineering strategy is presented, elaborating on the way dialogue mobility, distribution, and dynamic I/O control have been accomplished.
Keywords: Nomadic interfaces - Continuous interaction - Interface migration - I/O reconfiguration - Dialogue design
Toward overcoming culture, skill and situation hurdles in Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 288-304
  Paola Carrara; Daniela Fogli; Giuseppe Fresta; Piero Mussio
This paper proposes a new effective strategy for designing and implementing interactive systems overcoming culture, skill and situation hurdles in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). The strategy to identify and reduce these hurdles is developed in the framework of a methodology based on a recently introduced model of HCI, and exploits the technological innovations of XML (Extensible Markup Language). HCI is modelled as a cyclic process in which the user and the interactive system communicate by materializing and interpreting a sequence of messages. The interaction process is formalized by specifying both the physical message appearance and the computational aspect of the interaction. This formalization allows the adoption of notation traditionally adopted by users in their workplaces as the starting point of the interactive system design. In this way, the human-system interaction language takes into account the users' culture. Moreover, the methodology permits user representatives to build a hierarchy of systems progressively adapted to users' situations, skills and habits, according to the work organization in the domain considered. The strategy is proved to be effective by describing how to implement it using BANCO (Browsing Adaptive Network for Changing user Operativity), a feasibility prototype based on XML, which allows the hierarchy implementation and system adaptations. Several examples from an environmental case under study are used throughout the paper to illustrate the methodology and the effectiveness of the technology adopted.
Keywords: End-user computing - User notation - Adaptation - Multimodal interaction - XML