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TEI Tables of Contents: 07080910111213141516

Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction
Editors:Nicolas Villar; Shahram Izadi; Mike Fraser; Steve Benford
Location:Cambridge, United Kingdom
Dates:2009-Feb-18 to 2009-Feb-20
Standard No:ISBN: 1-60558-493-2, 978-1-60558-493-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: TEI09
Links:Conference Home Page | Conference Series Home Page
  1. Keynotes
  2. Embedded artefacts, garments and environments
  3. New perspectives and theories on tangibility
  4. Tangible and embedded interaction -- in the lab and in the wild
  5. Tabletop tangibles and augmented surfaces
  6. Enabling technologies and design techniques


An ecology of tangible interaction BIBAFull-Text 1
  Tom Igoe
Tangible and embedded interaction is a fancy way of saying that we make things. We make tools that people handle, use and abuse. We make displays and devices that fill space draw attention, and (sometimes) deliver information. At the center of all of our work is the practice of making things.
   Despite that fact, many tangible and embedded interaction practitioners aren't trained in a tradition of making things. Much of the research in this field grows out of computer and information sciences, human-computer interaction, and other fields with less tangible practices. If anything, tangible interaction grew out of a perceived lack of physicality in computing. In order to get things made, we've drawn on a number of practices with a deeper knowledge of manufacturing and fabrication: art, performance, industrial design, and the garment industry, to name a few.
   This is a fairly young field, and much of the work still consists of experiments, individual art works, and bespoke items designed for exhibits, special events, or research projects. For the most part, we haven't given much thought to what tangible interaction means at an industrial scale, even though we all have fantasies of a world filled with intelligent, computation-enabled things.
   What we haven't yet considered is what happens to all of those intelligent, computation-enabled things when they've outlived their utility. Part of the reason we haven't considered it much is because and because the practices of fabrication from which we've borrowed haven't given it a lot of thought either. Manufacturing has traditionally been a one-way street.
   In "Shaping Things", Bruce Sterling put forth the idea that we could think of disposal and reuse of goods as an information design problem. Drawing on the work of entrepreneurs like Ray Anderson, many interaction design programs have begin teaching service design, thinking about the things we make not as goods to be bought, but as services to be leased. I'd like to propose that we also think about the end of our things' lives as a tangible interaction design problem. In this talk, I'll look at some assumptions about how we make interactive things individually and at scale, and propose a few places we might begin making changes.
Visualising and physicalising the intangible product: "What happened to that bloke who designed the marble answer machine?" BIBAFull-Text 2
  Durrell Bishop
Designers in early 1980s were experimenting with "What should an electronic product look like?". Yet we still live in a time where it is difficult to use many electronic products. Are physical designers decoratively wallpapering over the functions? I have worked, taught and experimented in design but still remain curious about how to best visualise and physicalise the intangible product.

Embedded artefacts, garments and environments

Comics, robots, fashion and programming: outlining the concept of actDresses BIBAKFull-Text 3-8
  Ylva Fernaeus; Mattias Jacobsson
This paper concerns the design of physical languages for controlling and programming robotic consumer products. For this purpose we explore basic theories of semiotics represented in the two separate fields of comics and fashion, and how these could be used as resources in the development of new physical languages. Based on these theories, the design concept of actDresses is defined, and supplemented by three example scenarios of how the concept can be used for controlling, programming, and predicting the behaviour of robotic systems.
Keywords: physical languages, semiotics, tangible interaction
Paints, paper, and programs: first steps toward the computational sketchbook BIBAKFull-Text 9-12
  Leah Buechley; Sue Hendrix; Mike Eisenberg
This paper describes what we believe to be important initial steps toward realizing a novel computational medium that combines elements of programming, painting, and papercrafts. Briefly, this genre of paper computing allows a user to create functional computational artifacts on painted paper substrates. We introduce a construction kit for paper computing that consists of computational elements -- microcontrollers, sensors, actuators, and power sources -- that are held on paper surfaces by magnetic paint and magnets. Conductive paint applied to these surfaces takes on the role of "wires", connecting the computational elements to one another. These elements can be moved around and from surface to surface, much like magnets on a refrigerator, and the overall result is a tangible medium in which painting, programming, and the affordances of paper blend together. In addition to introducing the kit, we describe example constructions and discuss a variety of potential applications, design projects, and issues for continued research.
Keywords: conductive paint, construction kit, magnetic paint, paper computing, papercrafts
Shutters: a permeable surface for environmental control and communication BIBAKFull-Text 13-18
  Marcelo Coelho; Pattie Maes
Surfaces capable of modulating permeability have long been used in architecture for environmental control, but have remained largely unexplored as information displays. The advent of new shape changing materials and construction techniques promises to change this. In this paper, we describe Shutters: a curtain composed of actuated louvers that can be individually addressed for precise control of ventilation, daylight incidence and information display. We discuss related work, the underlying design principles behind Shutters, engineering details and application scenarios in architecture and fashion. We conclude with a comparative visual study for the use of permeability in kinetic and shadow displays and provide directions for future work.
Keywords: architecture, façade, kinetic, permeability, shape change, soft computation, soft mechanics, textile, transformation
The digital hourglass BIBAKFull-Text 19-20
  Fabian Hemmert; Susann Hamann; Reto Wettach
This paper presents the Digital Hourglass, an alarm clock that focuses on the amount of sleep, rather than wake-up times. It follows a simple approach, lighting one LED for each hour of sleep, and physically resembles the interaction with a conventional hourglass: Tilting the hourglass moves 'time' between its chambers, placing it in an upright position activates it, turning it by 180° snoozes it and placing it horizontally on a surface turns it off.
Keywords: LED, alarm clock, digitalization, hourglass, physical interaction design, sleep, time
Living interfaces: the impatient toaster BIBAKFull-Text 21-22
  Eva Burneleit; Fabian Hemmert; Reto Wettach
This paper introduces the Impatient Toaster, a kitchen appliance designed to motivate its owners to eat more often and in regular intervals: After not using it for a while, it signalizes hunger through nervous movements. This project sought to explore life-like behaviour as a means of increasing user's sympathy for everyday objects. We present a prototype that was informally tested with six participants in a situated user test. The results indicate that sympathy and perceived cuteness can arise from life-like movements that, as we propose, represent an object's will of its own. This work is part of a larger series of experiments in the Living Interfaces project, exploring ways in which reduced life-like movements can be beneficial for Human-Machine Interaction.
Keywords: emotional interaction, interface design, kitchen appliance, living interfaces
Piezing: a garment harvesting energy from the natural motion of the human body BIBAKFull-Text 23-24
  Amanda Parkes; Adam Kumpf; Hiroshi Ishii
Piezing is a garment which harnesses energy from the natural gestures of the human body in motion. Around the joints of the elbows and hips, the garment is embedded with piezoelectric material elements which generate an electric potential in response to applied mechanical stress. The electric potential is then stored as voltage in a centralized small battery and later can be discharged into a device. As a concept, Piezing explores a decentralized and self-reliant energy model for embedded interaction, pushing forward possibilities for mobility.
Keywords: embedded interface, fashion, gestural interface, wearable
Hangsters: tangible peripheral interactive avatars for instant messaging BIBAKFull-Text 25-26
  Nadya Peek; David Pitman; Richard The
We propose a system for both the customisation and the physical representation of instant messaging contacts as hanging tangible avatars which have been outfitted with a personalized skin and set of interactions. Hangsters create an ambient display of a user's online contacts which is simultaneously peripheral and interactive. The user creates a representation of herself in an online avatar creator. The personalised skin is packaged around a standard modular electronic kit and mailed to the recipient. The Hangster then embodies the interactions that would otherwise take place onscreen: on/offline presence and accepting/initializing conversations. The system allows for a more ambient display of a user's contacts while introducing customisable modular electronic toolkits for the tangible avatars.
Keywords: instant messaging, personalization, social grouping, tangible interaction
Embedded electronics in playful products BIBAKFull-Text 27-29
  Dean Brown
This paper explores an approach to digital product design [1] through two prototype products, an augmented bedside table and a portable loud speaker. We discuss our design motivations, user case studies and common themes of simplicity, playfulness and ludic engagement [2].
Keywords: electronics, experience, ludic design, play, users
Asimov's first law/alarm clocks BIBAFull-Text 31-34
  Alice Wang
We live in a complex society where people have embarrassing habits, irrational fears and strange anxieties. Should products be redesigned to cater for these neglected needs?
Shoebox: mixing storage and display of digital images in the home BIBAKFull-Text 35-40
  Richard Banks; Abigail Sellen
This paper describes the rationale and design process for Shoebox, a "digital box" that combines the storage and display of digital images in the home in one unit. By combining these two functions in one, Shoebox attempts to bridge the divide between the location within a home where digital content is typically stored, and the means by which it can be put on display, as well as provide a form factor that encourages co-located sharing of images.
Keywords: archiving, design, display, photo use, tangibility
Pileus internet umbrella: tangible mobile interface of a lovely umbrella BIBAKFull-Text 41-42
  Takashi Matsumoto; Sho Hashimoto
Pileus Internet Umbrella is a tangible mobile interface using familiarity of an umbrella to expand user's real world activities and experiences. It has a large visual screen on the top surface, wireless Internet connection, a camera, and motion and location sensors for embodied interaction. In this paper, we report a design intention for user experiences created by Pileus. Pileus has been experimented with several users and it points out requirements of a design of sociability of the interaction.
Keywords: Pileus, interaction design, media design, tangible, umbrella
Living interfaces: the thrifty faucet BIBAKFull-Text 43-44
  Jonas Togler; Fabian Hemmert; Reto Wettach
In this paper, we present a novel type of persuasive home appliance: A thrifty water faucet. Through a servo motor construction, it is enabled to move and behave in life-like manners and to step into dialogue with the user. For example about water consumption or hygiene. We sought to research the reactions of users to such an appliance, alongside possible implications for the design of future human-machine interfaces.
   This project is part of a larger series of experiments in the Living Interfaces project, exploring ways in which reduced and abstract life-like movements can be beneficial for Human-Machine Interaction.
Keywords: HRI, ambient interface, behavior, gesture, kinetic interaction, posture, sustainability
Living interfaces: the intimate door lock BIBAKFull-Text 45-46
  Miriam Roy; Fabian Hemmert; Reto Wettach
In this paper we introduce a new way to interact intimately with an automated system. The Intimate Door Lock investigates the psychological effects of intimate human-human interaction being applied to man-machine interfaces. The door lock, in our prototype, is installed at the inside of a domestic front door, and remains locked until given a kiss by its owner. In our prototype, the element to be kissed is a camera-augmented mirror, which we intended to use as a means of lowering the inhibition level. This work is part of a larger series of experiments in the Living Interfaces project, exploring ways in which reduced life-like movements can be beneficial for Human-Machine Interaction.
Keywords: emotional design, human-machine-interaction, interface design, intimate interaction, kiss, mirror
Digital management and retrieval of physical documents BIBAKFull-Text 47-54
  Matthew Jervis; Masood Masoodian
Although in today's everyday work environments digital and paper documents co-exist, the systems used to manage them are often completely separate; digital documents are managed using computer systems, while paper documents are organised and managed using manual systems. Since it is unlikely that the widespread use of paper documents will cease to exist in the foreseeable future, digital systems are needed for managing the storage and retrieval of paper documents which better integrate with existing systems for management of digital documents. This paper presents an architecture for a system to digitally manage paper document containers, such as folders, which has been used as the design basis for a prototype system we have developed. This prototype system aims to resolve some of the problems associated with an earlier prototype we have developed to integrate filing of physical folders with digital document management systems.
Keywords: paper document management, physical artefacts, physical documents, physical interfaces, smart filing system, tangible interfaces
Proverbial wallet: tangible interface for financial awareness BIBAKFull-Text 55-56
  John Kestner; Daniel Leithinger; Jaekyung Jung; Michelle Petersen
We propose a tangible interface concept for communicating personal financial information in an ambient and relevant manner. The concept is embodied in a set of wallets that provide the user with haptic feedback about personal financial metrics. We describe how such feedback can inform purchasing decisions and improve general financial awareness.
Keywords: ambient awareness, haptic feedback, personal financial data, tangible user interface
Fragments of a conversation: constructing narratives with tangible illuminated cubes BIBAKFull-Text 57-58
  Lyndl Hall
In this paper, I describe Fragments of a Conversation: an art installation of a set of tangible electronic paper cubes for composing visual narratives. I present my design and fabrication processes, how the cubes simple circuit drives the viewer interaction and related discussion.
Keywords: art, craft, papermaking, storytelling, tangible

New perspectives and theories on tangibility

Sad is heavy and happy is light: population stereotypes of tangible object attributes BIBAKFull-Text 61-68
  Jörn Hurtienne; Christian Stößel; Katharina Weber
Population stereotypes describe ways in which people, often unconsciously, expect user interface elements to function. Thus they can provide powerful rules for designing intuitive interaction. The literature, however, documents only a few population stereotypes and most of them do not tap the full potential of tangible interaction. Here, we try to alleviate this situation by providing a theory and a method to obtain candidate population stereotypes with a special emphasis on physical-to-abstract mappings. Twenty-nine stereotype candidates were derived from the theory and their validity was empirically tested. The results indicate that more than half of them can be recommended as design guidelines right away; the remainder needs further investigation regarding the contexts under which they can be applied.
Keywords: conceptual metaphor, design guidelines, image schemas, population stereotypes, tangible user interfaces
Peripheral tangible interaction by analytic design BIBAKFull-Text 69-76
  Darren Edge; Alan F. Blackwell
Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) are commonly accepted as those in which the configuration of physical objects embodies digital system state, providing "graspable" digital media that can be manipulated in the focus of users' attention. In this paper we offer an alternative perspective on the use of tangibility in interaction, in which meaning is created not through precise manipulations of a computationally-interpreted spatial syntax, but through imprecise interactions with independently meaningful, digitally-augmented physical tokens. Users are free to arrange such tokens around the periphery of their workspace, away from their normal centre of attention, ready to selectively and fluidly engage them in loosely related, dispersed episodes of use. We call this concept "peripheral tangible interaction", and in this paper we describe both our analytic approach to designing a personal desktop TUI supporting such an interaction style, and user responses to its analytically-inspired features during extended deployment in a real office context.
Keywords: analytic design, peripheral interaction, tangible interfaces
Physical manipulation: evaluating the potential for tangible designs BIBAKFull-Text 77-84
  Andrew Manches; Claire O'Malley; Steve Benford
In order to design tangible technologies that are effective in supporting children's learning, it is important to understand what advantages or limitations are afforded by physical manipulation. This paper highlights some of the perceptual and manipulative properties of physical representations with respect to their effect on the problem space and describes how, for certain problem types, these may benefit children's strategies and learning. These arguments are discussed in relation to ongoing research into children's use of physical materials to solve numerical problems, and comparative performance using virtual materials. The paper uses this research to suggest ways in which tangible designs may support learning in this area by building on the advantages of physical manipulation whilst avoiding limiting exploration by constraining the range of actions and possible learning opportunities provided.
Keywords: physical manipulation, problem solving, tangibles
The effect of representation location on interaction in a tangible learning environment BIBAKFull-Text 85-92
  Sara Price; Taciana Pontual Falcão; Jennifer G. Sheridan; George Roussos
Drawing on the 'representation' TUI framework [21], this paper reports a study that investigated the concept of 'representation location' and its effect on interaction and learning. A reacTIVision-based tangible interface was designed and developed to support children learning about the behaviour of light. Children aged eleven years worked with the environment in groups of three. Findings suggest that different representation locations lend themselves to different levels of abstraction and engender different forms and levels of activity, particularly with respect to speed of dynamics and differences in group awareness. Furthermore, the studies illustrated interaction effects according to different physical correspondence metaphors used, particularly with respect to combining familiar physical objects with digital-based table-top representation. The implications of these findings for learning are discussed.
Keywords: children, learning, representation, tangible interface
Running up Blueberry Hill: prototyping whole body interaction in harmony space BIBAKFull-Text 93-98
  Simon Holland; Paul Marshall; Jon Bird; Sheep Dalton; Richard Morris; Nadia Pantidi; Yvonne Rogers; Andy Clark
Musical harmony is considered to be one of the most abstract and technically difficult parts of music. It is generally taught formally via abstract, domain-specific concepts, principles, rules and heuristics. By contrast, when harmony is represented using an existing interactive desktop tool, Harmony Space, a new, parsimonious, but equivalently expressive, unified level of description emerges. This focuses not on abstract concepts, but on concrete locations, objects, areas and trajectories.
   This paper presents a design study of a prototype version of Harmony Space driven by whole body navigation, and characterizes the new opportunities presented for the principled manipulation of chord sequences and bass lines. These include: deeper engagement and directness; rich physical cues for memory and reflection, embodied engagement with rhythmic time constraints; hands which are free for other simultaneous activities (such as playing a traditional instrument); and qualitatively new possibilities for collaborative use.
Keywords: embodiment, harmony space, music, whole body interaction
W41K: digitally augmenting traditional game environments BIBAKFull-Text 99-106
  Steve Hinske; Marc Langheinrich
Augmented game environments use unobtrusively embedded technology to augment traditional games with virtual information and novel interaction capabilities. This article establishes and discusses a set of guidelines for designing and implementing such environments, based on our experiences in creating digital augmentations of existing play environments. We suggest a two-step process comprised of game flow virtualization and physical artifact augmentation to create augmented game environments based on existing table top games. We will then demonstrate how these guidelines can be put to practice by presenting the augmented version of a miniature war game.
Keywords: augmented game environment, design guidelines, digital augmentation, pervasive computing
Easigami: a reconfigurable folded-sheet TUI BIBAKFull-Text 107-112
  Yingdan Huang; Mark D. Gross; Ellen Yi-Luen Do; Mike Eisenberg
Easigami is a novel tangible user interface (TUI) and interactive system intended to help children to learn to fold 3D geometric forms and to explore 2D-3D transformations. We present the design of Easigami's physical interface: a reconfigurable system of thin flat polygon pieces connected by electronically instrumented hinges. Using the Easigami TUI as an input device, we have developed early prototype applications to develop children's visualization and spatial recognition skills. We discuss our experience in integrating traditional craft with computation, which may inform future tangible and graspable user interface design.
Keywords: 2D-3D transformation, folding, interaction design, origami, spatial visualization ability, tangible user interface (TUI)
Articulating tangible interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 113-118
  Alan F. Blackwell; Darren Edge
The majority of Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) consist of rigid objects that are either held in the hands, or arranged relative to each other on a horizontal or vertical surface. In this paper we consider the design space of TUIs that can be created by moving parts of an assembly relative to each other -- creating articulated tangible interfaces. An analytic approach to this design space allows us to identify the potential applications and trade-offs of TUIs that include mechanically articulated parts.
Keywords: kinematic pairs, mechanisms, tangible interfaces
HINTeractions: facilitating informal knowledge exchange in physical and social space BIBAKFull-Text 119-122
  Gonzalo Garcia-Perate; Pragya Agarwal; Duncan Wilson
In this paper, we propose a novel way to harness the informal knowledge that emerges from the actions of people in space. We present the development of an ambient intelligence system that gathers and displays information about people's interactions with public places. The system is designed as a flexible extension to urban furniture that can be deployed in diverse social settings. Data is collected from the interaction of individuals and groups with the system, and is then presented back to the users. To better explain this process, we introduce the term HINT eractions. The term alludes to the knowledge that emerges as we interact with the world around us.
Keywords: ambient displays, ambient information systems, collective intelligence, social interactions, spatial knowledge
Plywood punk: a holistic approach to designing animated artifacts BIBAKFull-Text 123-126
  Peter Schmitt; Susanne Seitinger
Animated artifacts require many different electronic and mechanical components as well as appropriate drive software. This complexity has led to a kit-of-parts thinking in designing robotic assemblies. For example, Dynamixel or Lego Mindstorms provide designers, enthusiasts and children standard components from which they can assemble a multitude of creations. Despite the open-endedness of these kits, the most basic component parts such as servos present a designer with a set of constraints such as form that she cannot control. The underlying logic for these factors derives from mass-production rather than specific design requirements. The resulting black box becomes a factor around which design is created rather than an integral part of the completed artifact. In this paper, we explore the benefits of designing animated artifacts holistically. As an example, we compare the re-design of a servo in plywood and electronic components with a typical RC servo. This juxtaposition demonstrates how form-factors, materials and materiality, tactile and visual qualities and the performative aspects of a design can be reintroduced into design thinking for animated artifacts. From the example, we distill four guidelines for a design approach: (1) iterate, (2) explore material properties, (3) engage the performative aspects of the artifact, (4) cross disciplinary boundaries.
Keywords: design, design methodology, mechatronics, prototyping, robotics
Carnivorous domestic entertainment robots BIBAKFull-Text 127-130
  Aleksandar Zivanovic; James Auger; Jimmy Loizeau
This paper describes a group of objects produced as a collaboration between designers and scientists/engineers. They explore an alternative approach to bringing robots into the domestic environment, exploring both the aesthetics and functionality that may elicit a symbiotic coexistence with humans in their homes. They are all based on the technology of biological fuel cells, which generate electricity by the action of micro-organisms on biological matter. The robots trap animal pests in the domestic environment and use the electricity produced by the fuel cells to lead autonomous existences.
Keywords: autonomous, biological fuel cell, biomimetic, domestic, entertainment, robot
Bimanual tangible interaction with mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 131-136
  Darren Edge; Alan F. Blackwell
In the context of tangibility, mobile phones are rapidly becoming sensor-rich handheld computers with the potential to take better advantage of our physical capabilities and our lifetime of experiences interacting both in and with the world around us. In this paper, we analyse four different ways in which mobiles can be used to represent and control digital information, showing that each resulting interaction style is characterized by a unique coordination of the user's attention and two hands in relation to the mobile device. We present our analysis in terms of a framework that can be used to critically examine future schemes of bimanual interaction with mobile phones.
Keywords: augmented reality, bimanual interaction, mobile interaction, tangible user interfaces

Tangible and embedded interaction -- in the lab and in the wild

Tangible user interface for increasing social interaction among rural women BIBAKFull-Text 139-145
  Vikram Parmar; Gert Groeneveld; Ashis Jalote-Parmar; David Keyson
The paper presents a case of tangible user interface (TUI), which has been designed using traditional metaphors to access personal health information through an ICT based health system. An evaluative study of the designed TUI was conducted with (n=175) rural women in western India. The interaction with TUI was compared with previously designed customized iconic keyboard of an existing personal health information system. The results from the study illustrate that proposed TUI increased social interaction due to enhanced product engagement, product attachment, and community decision-making. As a consequence of increased social interaction, sensitive health information has been disseminated successfully to the rural women.
Keywords: (semi)-illiterate users, personal health information, rural context, tangible user interface
Tactful interaction: exploring interactive social touch through a collaborative tangible installation BIBAKFull-Text 147-152
  Bruno Nadeau; Amanda Williams
How do tangible systems take advantage of our sociophysical embodiment in the world? How can we use tangible interaction to better understand collaboration and intersubjectivity? We present Parazoan, an interactive installation where evocative objects collaboratively control a dynamic visual display. Our analysis of interactions with Parazoan explores our questions and discusses implications for our understanding of tangible and virtual collaboration.
Keywords: collaboration, gallery studies, interactive art, tangible
Pendaphonics: a tangible pendulum-based sonic interaction experience BIBAKFull-Text 153-160
  Anne-Marie Skriver Hansen; Dan Overholt; Winslow Burleson; Camilla Nørgaard Jensen
Pendaphonics is a tangible physical-digital-sonic environment and interactive system that engages users in individual, collaborative, group, and distributed interactive experiences. The development of this system, as an element of urban revitalization and as a transdisciplinary research endeavor, presents strategies for the design and evaluation of low-cost, flexible, and distributed tangible interaction architectures for public engagement, expression, and performance. Pendaphonics is installed in a public media arts space, where over 200 people experienced it during the environment's opening event. Internationally, interaction laboratories at five research universities are advancing explorations of Pendaphonics. This paper presents the development process and findings from observation and evaluation of people using Pendaphonics; diverse social interaction patterns among performers and the general public are discussed. In particular, we identify the repeated and sustained invitation to interact -- created by the cyclic motion of a pendulum's simple harmonic oscillation -- as a new tangible interaction modality for human computer interaction, in 3D physical-digital-sonic environments. An investigation of this and related elements of Pendaphonics' large-scale tangible interaction scenarios are articulated, along with descriptions of the system's broad potential as a compositional and choreographic tool; an educational exhibit and classroom manipulative; and as an interface that facilitates playful interaction, exploration, discovery and creativity.
Keywords: interaction design, sound and music experience, tangible user interfaces
Tangibles for toddlers learning language BIBAKFull-Text 161-168
  Bart Hengeveld; Caroline Hummels; Kees Overbeeke; Riny Voort; Hans van Balkom; Jan de Moor
Here we present LinguaBytes, a modular, tangible play-and-learning system developed to stimulate the language and communication skills of toddlers (with a developmental age between 1 and 4 years) with multiple disabilities. The typical characteristics of these children and their common learning environment call for intelligent systems that are quickly and easily adaptable, or, even better, adjust themselves proactively. Over the last two and a half years we have designed and tested such a system within LinguaBytes. In this paper we will outline starting points, indicate the opportunities of Tangible Interaction and finally give an overview of the current LinguaBytes prototype.
Keywords: bodily skills, interactive toys, scaffolding, speech therapy, tangible interaction
Steering actors through a virtual set employing vibro-tactile feedback BIBAKFull-Text 169-174
  Björn Wöldecke; Tom Vierjahn; Matthias Flasko; Jens Herder; Christian Geiger
Actors in virtual studio productions are faced with the challenge that they have to interact with invisible virtual objects because these elements are rendered separately and combined with the real image later in the production process. Virtual sets typically use static virtual elements or animated objects with predefined behavior so that actors can practice their performance and errors can be corrected in the post production. With the demand for inexpensive live recording and interactive TV productions, virtual objects will be dynamically rendered at arbitrary positions that cannot be predicted by the actor. Perceptive aids have to be employed to support a natural interaction with these objects.
   In our work we study the effect of haptic feedback for a simple form of interaction. Actors are equipped with a custom built haptic belt and get vibro-tactile feedback during a small navigational task (path following). We present a prototype of a wireless vibro-tactile feedback device and a small framework for evaluating haptic feedback in a virtual set environment. Results from an initial pilot study indicate that vibro-tactile feedback is a suitable non-visual aid for interaction that is at least comparable to audio-visual alternatives used in virtual set productions.
Keywords: interaction in virtual sets, navigation aids, tactile feedback
MADO interface: a window like a tangible user interface to look into the virtual world BIBAKFull-Text 175-180
  Takuya Maekawa; Yuichi Itoh; Norifumi Kawai; Yoshifumi Kitamura; Fumio Kishino
"MADO Interface" is a tangible user interface consisting of a compact touch-screen display and physical blocks. "MADO" means "window" in Japanese, and MADO Interface is utilized as the real window into the virtual world. Users construct a physical object by simply combining electrical blocks. Then, by connecting MADO Interface to the physical object, they can watch the virtual model corresponding to the physical block configuration (shape, color, etc.) The size and the viewpoint of the virtual model seen by the user depend on the position of MADO Interface, maintaining the consistency between the physical and virtual worlds. In addition, users can interact with the virtual model by touching the display on MADO Interface. These features enable users to explore the virtual world intuitively and powerfully.
Keywords: 3D modeling, MADO interface, bi-directional interface, mixed reality, real-time interaction, tangible user interface
Spatially aware handhelds for high-precision tangible interaction with large displays BIBAKFull-Text 181-188
  Alex Olwal; Steven Feiner
While touch-screen displays are becoming increasingly popular, many factors affect user experience and performance. Surface quality, parallax, input resolution, and robustness, for instance, can vary with sensing technology, hardware configurations, and environmental conditions.
   We have developed a framework for exploring how we could overcome some of these dependencies, by leveraging the higher visual and input resolution of small, coarsely tracked mobile devices for direct, precise, and rapid interaction on large digital displays.
   The results from a formal user study show no significant differences in performance when comparing four techniques we developed for a tracked mobile device, where two existing touch-screen techniques served as baselines. The mobile techniques, however, had more consistent performance and smaller variations among participants, and an overall higher user preference in our setup. Our results show the potential of spatially aware handhelds as an interesting complement or substitute for direct touch-interaction on large displays.
Keywords: LightSense, MobileButtons, MobileDrag, MobileGesture, MobileRub, interaction technique, mobile, spatially aware, tangible, touch, touch-screen
Taking shortcuts: embedded physical interfaces for spatial navigation BIBAKFull-Text 189-196
  Douglas Boari; Mike Fraser
Designing for embodied physical interaction is just as important at a coarse level of spatial navigation as in the minutiae of object exploration. We created interactive embedded interfaces called 'Navitiles' that can be suspended in a floor to support navigation of a building. Our design uses capacitance and RFID sensors to determine users' location and LEDs to indicate possible directions. We determine whether Navitile cues could help users understand spatial relationships between points of interest. We based our study on a previous experiment that used a simulated VR maze to test whether users were able to exhibit 'shortcut' behaviour that would indicate the formation of spatial maps. Our hypothesis was that the physicality of embodied spatial navigation directed by the Navitiles in a real maze would enable users to achieve similar spatial shortcut behaviours to those found in the virtual task. We found significant evidence that sufficient spatial knowledge was acquired to enable successful shortcut performance between unexplored routes. However, further work is required to measure the effect of physical body movement on spatial skills development.
Keywords: interactive embedded interfaces, physical embodiment, spatial navigation
Designing pen-and-paper user interfaces for interaction with documents BIBAKFull-Text 197-204
  Jürgen Steimle
Despite numerous predictions of the paperless office, knowledge work is still characterized by the combined use of paper and digital documents. Digital pen-and-paper user interfaces bridge the gap between both worlds by electronically capturing the interactions of a user with a pen on real paper. The contribution of this paper is two-fold: First, we introduce an interaction framework for pen-and-paper user interfaces consisting of six core interactions. This helps both in analyzing existing work practices and interfaces and in guiding the design of interfaces which offer complex functionality and nevertheless remain simple to use. Second, we apply this framework and contribute three novel pen-and-paper interaction strategies for creating hyperlinks between printed and digital documents and for tagging both types of documents.
Keywords: Anoto, digital pen and paper, framework, hyperlink, paper interface, tagging
HorseIO -- virtual riding lessons with a low-cost tangible horse interface BIBAKFull-Text 205-206
  Gundula Dörries; Christian Geiger; Anke Lehmann; Andrea Wegstein
We describe the implementation of a playful multi-user virtual riding lesson for beginners. Our work focused on the integration of a wooden horse, equipped with real snaffle and saddle, which is used as input interface to navigate in a 3D environment. With the help of the wooden horse, the user is able to interact with a virtual 3D horse via reins and legs, similar to a real riding scenario.
Keywords: 3D, multi user application, tangible interface
Visual perception skills testing: preliminary results BIBAKFull-Text 207-208
  Andrew Cyrus Smith
Good visual perception skills are important in the effective manipulation of Tangible User Interfaces. This paper reports on the application of a test set we have developed specifically to quantify the visual perception skills of children when matching a physical object to its flat representation on paper. A pilot evaluation, with two groups of children from differing socio-economic backgrounds, was conducted to quantify their ability to make the mental transformation from tangible objects to the drawings that represent those objects. Our test instrument is described. We found a marked difference between the two groups in their ability to make the transformation.
Keywords: RockBlocks, TUI, tangible programming environment, visual perception
Tangible interaction with real and virtual products: designing a shopping assistant for rural communities BIBAKFull-Text 209-212
  Michael Schmitz; Homeira Quraischy
This work describes the design and development process of an interactive ordering system for rural corner stores, extending the limited assortment of a small store with virtual items on touch-sensitive displays embedded into shelves. The interface blends tangible interaction of both real products in a shelf and virtual products iconically represented on nearby screens. The tangible interaction component is complemented by a natural language interface, supporting comparison and inspection of multiple products of the real and virtual world.
Keywords: multi-modal interaction, shopping assistant, tangible user interface
Interface, environmental behavior, and the city BIBAKFull-Text 213-214
  Jordan Geiger
This paper describes the design of an urban, ubiquitous computing-assisted, month-long game, in which place-based teams use the infrastructure and protocols of toll plazas to create momentary competitive events in the streets.
   These events expose and engage problems of data privacy, cultural identity and freedom of movement in the city; and generate revenue for the remediation of automotive air pollution. The game's byproduct, or prize, is the initiation of a fund for projects to remediate air pollution that is a result of automotive commuter traffic.
   The project was created for an exhibition on ubiquitous computing and its consequences for urban design. Its development followed a period of research that uncovered relationships between interfaces embedded in the infrastructure of cities today, and a range of opportunities that they open for reconciling environmental damage resulting from the era of industrialization.
Keywords: architecture, data privacy, environmental activism, multi-user interaction, object-based gaming, transportation infrastructure, urban interface
Kurio: a museum guide for families BIBAKFull-Text 215-222
  Ron Wakkary; Marek Hatala; Kevin Muise; Karen Tanenbaum; Greg Corness; Bardia Mohabbati; Jim Budd
We discuss three design strategies for improving the quality of social interaction and learning with interactive museum guides: 1) embodied interaction; 2) game-learning; 3) a hybrid system. We used these strategies in our prototype Kurio, which is aimed at supporting families visiting museums. The results of our evaluation show positive implications of implementing the design strategies: closing the social gap, naturalizing technology, and supporting exploration and discovery in learning.
Keywords: families, group, group interaction, hybrid system, learning, museums, social interaction, tangible user interface
mixiTUI: a tangible sequencer for electronic live performances BIBAKFull-Text 223-230
  Esben Warming Pedersen; Kasper Hornbæk
Tangible user interfaces for manipulating audio and music focus mostly on generating music on the spot, but rarely on how electronic musicians balance preparation and improvisation in staging live performances or on how the audience perceives the performances. We present mixiTUI, a tangible sequencer that allows electronic musicians to import and perform electronic music. mixiTUI is developed in collaboration with electronic musicians, with a focus on live arranging, on visualizations of music, on tokens that represent key elements in live performances, and on how the audience experiences the tangible interface. We present an evaluation of mixiTUI in a concert with 117 participants and argue that mixiTUI improves both the audience's and the musician's experience.
Keywords: evaluation, tangible sequencer, tangible user interface, user-centered design

Tabletop tangibles and augmented surfaces

The other brother: re-experiencing spontaneous moments from domestic life BIBAKFull-Text 233-240
  John Helmes; Caroline Hummels; Abigail Sellen
In this paper, we describe "The Other Brother", a semi-autonomous device that captures images and video of spontaneous moments in the course of everyday life. It was our goal to design a situated, tangible object for life-time capturing purposes. In addition to describing the object and our deployment findings, this paper also discusses the design process and the goals we were aiming to achieve through the design. This was an iterative process from initial sketches, concepts and physical explorations towards a final design and several prototypes. The final prototype acts as an agent that behaves to some extent autonomously, capturing spontaneous moments that enable people to re-experience these moments in a playful way. Testing The Other Brother in a domestic environment, we describe several findings of the impact of the object in the home, reflect on several design and interaction issues, and discuss future directions for continuation of this research.
Keywords: agent, autonomous behavior, image capture, iterative design, randomness, spontaneity, unpredictability
Architales: physical/digital co-design of an interactive story table BIBAKFull-Text 241-248
  Ali Mazalek; Claudia Winegarden; Tristan Al-Haddad; Susan J. Robinson; Chih-Sung Wu
Many research efforts today explore how digitally augmented tables enable face-to-face interaction with digital content and applications. Yet the design of digital tables is still largely driven by the constraints and requirements of the underlying sensing technologies. In order to move digital tables into our real-world physical spaces, researchers need to work closely with architects and industrial designers in order to engage the knowledge and skills from a long history of physical design and fabrication in the creation of tabletop systems. This paper presents Architales, an interactive story table for gallery exhibition, developed as an experiment in physical/digital co-design. We describe the creation of the interactive table, tangible storytelling system, and story content, which evolved together in a closely unified design process, drawing on the skills from computing, media, design and architecture. We also describe lessons learned about the interdisciplinary design process and the creation of physical/digital artworks.
Keywords: architecture, design, digital tabletop, interactive stories, media art, physical/digital co-design, tangible interaction
SurfaceWare: dynamic tagging for Microsoft Surface BIBAKFull-Text 249-254
  Paul H. Dietz; Benjamin D. Eidelson
Microsoft Surface is distinguished among commercial multi-touch systems by its ability to interact with tagged objects. In this work, we examine a new class of tagged objects where the tag is dynamic -- it changes in response to some sensed variable. As an example, a drinking glass is described which can sense when a refill should be offered. The glass is completely passive, containing no electronic components or moving parts, and works with an unmodified Microsoft Surface.
Keywords: SurfaceWare, dynamic tags, surface
Media Crate: tangible live media production interface BIBAKFull-Text 255-262
  Tom Bartindale; Jonathan Hook; Patrick Olivier
Live media production -- the presentation of audio-visual content at events such as conferences and concerts -- is a high intensity task where a small production team must interact with an amalgamation of separate hardware tools to transform and direct a variety of media sources to outputs such as large screens, preview monitors, and web-casts. We present Media Crate, a tangible tabletop interface crafted in response to the key actions and needs of live media producers. Using tangibles, previously complex and ambiguous actions can now become collaborative and easy to learn, whilst providing expressive features not present in traditional interfaces. In this paper we give a description of the Media Crate's interface, discuss how knowledge and experience of live media production impacts on the design, and finally present the results of an initial deployment of the system at a live event.
Keywords: media, media production, portable, tangible interaction, video mixing
Spime builder: a tangible interface for designing hyperlinked objects BIBAKFull-Text 263-266
  Leonardo Bonanni; Greg Vargas; Neil Chao; Stephen Pueblo; Hiroshi Ishii
Ubiquitous computing is fostering an explosion of physical artifacts that are coupled to digital information -- so-called Spimes. We introduce a tangible workbench that allows for the placement of hyperlinks within physical models to couple physical artifacts with located interactive digital media. A computer vision system allows users to model three-dimensional objects and environments in real-time using physical materials and to place hyperlinks in specific areas using laser pointer gestures. We present a working system for real-time physical/digital exhibit design, and propose the means for expanding the system to assist Design for the Environment strategies in product design.
Keywords: Spime, design for the environment, exhibit design, gestural interfaces, interior design, product design, tangible user interface, virtual environments
Multi-finger interactions with papers on augmented tabletops BIBAFull-Text 267-274
  Son Do-Lenh; Frédéric Kaplan; Akshit Sharma; Pierre Dillenbourg
Although many augmented tabletop systems have shown the potential and usability of finger-based interactions and paper-based interfaces, they have mainly dealt with each of them separately. In this paper, we introduce a novel method aimed to improve human natural interactions on augmented tabletop systems, which enables multiple users to use both fingertips and physical papers as mediums for interaction. This method uses computer vision techniques to detect multi-fingertips both over and touching the surface in real-time regardless of their orientations. Fingertip and touch positions would then be used in combination with paper tracking to provide a richer set of interaction gestures that the users can perform in collaborative scenarios.
Tabletop concept mapping BIBAKFull-Text 275-282
  Stefan Oppl; Christian Stary
Concept mapping is designed to externalize and represent knowledge. Together with their visual presentation concept maps should support focused and sustainable interaction between students and coaches or members of organizations. Hence, corresponding tool support has not only to empower persons externalizing their mental models but also to enable transparent multi-party interaction based on context-sensitive (re)presentations. We introduce the Tabletop Concept Mapping (TCM) technique and tool which is supposed to meet these requirements. Providing an open space to express individual thoughts and ideas, it maximizes openness with respect to pragmatics, semantics and syntax of modeling, and minimizes intervention through feature-inherent properties of the artifact.
Keywords: concept mapping, modeling, semiotics, tabletop, tangible interface
Stick, Click n' Call: self-adhesive pressure-activated RFID tags for mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 283-284
  Fabian Hemmert; André Knörig; Gesche Joost; Reto Wettach
This paper describes a new interaction concept, which is based on customizable self-adhesive stickers with an integrated button, manufacturable at low cost. By pressing the button, users can execute specialized functionalities on their mobile phones, e.g. dialing phone numbers or accessing URLs. We present three usage scenarios and a proof-of-concept prototype.
Keywords: RFID, URL, button, mobile phone, phone number, situated interaction, sticker
Chemieraum: tangible chemistry in exhibition space BIBAKFull-Text 285-288
  Thomas Gläser; Jens Franke; Götz Wintergerst; Ron Jagodzinski
This paper describes a new interactive exhibit that should motivate young people to easily explore the field of chemistry with the help of a tabletop interface. This interface is controlled by a new input device equipped with a haptic and visual feedback.
Keywords: chemistry education, haptic input device, interaction techniques, interactive media installation, molecular modelling, organic chemistry, reference to everyday life, responsive environment, tabletop interfaces, tangible user interfaces
The search wall: tangible information searching for children in public libraries BIBAKFull-Text 289-296
  Karen Detken; Carlos Martinez; Andreas Schrader
Children tend to rely on spatial and graphical cues rather than on digital applications to find media in libraries [7]. Although some Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs) have been modified to appeal to young users, they are still hardly employed by children. Most of the enhancements in the physical space have been directed to signage systems and labels without much use of graphical and interactive elements. In this paper, a tangible interface is proposed as an alternative to support children's browsing activity in a public library. It draws from research in two fields: information interfaces for children, and tangible user interfaces. It is believed that by transferring functionalities of current information interfaces to the physical realm, the experience of young patrons in a public library might be enhanced in several aspects, including informational, social and recreational activities.
Keywords: children, information interfaces, public libraries, tangible interfaces
SLAPbook: tangible widgets on multi-touch tables in groupware environments BIBAFull-Text 297-300
  Malte Weiss; Julie Wagner; Roger Jennings; Yvonne Jansen; Ramsin Khoshabeh; James D. Hollan; Jan Borchers
We present SLAPbook, an application using SLAP, translucent and tangible widgets for use on vision-based multi-touch tabletops in Single Display Groupware (SDG) environments. SLAP stands for Silicone ILluminated Active Peripherals and includes widgets such as sliders, knobs, keyboards, and buttons. The widgets and tactile feedback to multi-touch tables while simultaneously providing dynamic relabeling to tangible objects using the table's rear projection. SLAPbook provides multiple users the ability to add and edit content to a guestbook, browse other peoples' entries, and access personal data using a token-based personalization system. Interaction with the table takes place in the personal and public space so that users can make use of personal and shared controls to perform separate and coordinative actions.
Onomato planets: physical computing of Japanese onomatopoeia BIBAKFull-Text 301-304
  Aya Miyazaki; Kiyoshi Tomimatsu
We proposed a design idea of an interactive educational toy for children based on Japanese onomatopoeia. Onomatopoeia "is a word or a grouping of words that imitates the sound it is describing, such as animal noises like "oink" or "meow", or suggesting its source object". Thus, onomatopoeia words have interesting sound and rhythm. There are a large number of Japanese onomatopoeia words and in the Japanese language in particular, they are also used to describe phenomena apart from the purely auditive.
   With "Onomato Planets" we can create various Japanese onomatopoeia words and the corresponding sounds, through touch. The rules, by which these are created, are defined by the actual meaning of these words. Japanese onomatopoeia words contain many elements that are based on cultural background and experiences (called "Nonverbal elements"). For instance, sound intensity and gesture (movement, force) of the phenomenon being described are nonverbal elements of Japanese onomatopoeia. Through the interface we identify the strength and type of the impact and the gesture of the hand on a multi touch display, and then map this information to Japanese Onomatopoeia words characters and sound.
   Finally, we aim to provide an exciting experience of sounds and characters to the children who play "Onomato Planets". There is no previous work that introduces mappings between characters or words, to vocal and motion parameters. Therefore this project expands the expression of vocal to motion interactive art by relating gestures, sounds and characters (words).
Keywords: Japanese language education, children, gesture, interactive art, multi touch display, onomatopoeia, synthesized voice, touch

Enabling technologies and design techniques

The EventTable technique: distributed fiducial markers BIBAKFull-Text 307-313
  Alissa N. Antle; Nima Motamedi; Karen Tanenbaum; Zhen Lesley Xie
The EventTable technique is a tangible object tracking technique implemented on a camera vision based tabletop platform. The technique supports an event-driven -- rather than object centric -- tracking technique. Fiducial markers are distributed between objects. When objects are brought into a proximal or connected relationship, a whole marker is formed and recognized by the tracking system. Thus, rather than tracking each individual object, the system tracks user-driven events that occur when two or more objects are proximal. The technique can be used in addition to individual object tracking and touch tracking. This approach provides a reliable and flexible approach to tabletop object tracking for a wide variety of tabletop activities. We describe three prototype applications to illustrate how the distributed marker technique can be applied. We describe the advantages and limitations of this approach. We conclude with a brief discussion of how the EventTable technique enables a shift in human computer interaction research from an information-centric to an action-centric epistemological view on how users' create meaning.
Keywords: distributed markers, fiducial markers, reacTIVision, tangible interaction, visual marker tracking
Stop-motion prototyping for tangible interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 315-316
  Leonardo Bonanni; Hiroshi Ishii
Stop-motion animation brings the constraints of the body, space and materials into video production. Building on the tradition of video prototyping for interaction design, stop motion is an effective technique for concept development in the design of Tangible User Interfaces. This paper presents a framework for stop-motion prototyping and the results of two workshops based on stop-motion techniques including pixillation, claymation and time-lapse photography. The process of stop-motion prototyping fosters collaboration, legibility and rapid iterative design in a physical context that can be useful to the early stages of tangible interaction design.
Keywords: Claymation, animation, pixillation, prototyping, stop-motion, tangible user interfaces
FLATIR: FTIR multi-touch detection on a discrete distributed sensor array BIBAKFull-Text 317-322
  Ramon Hofer; Daniel Naeff; Andreas Kunz
In this paper, we suggest a new way to add multi-touch capabilities to an LC-screen. For this, FTIR and IR-sensing behind the LC-screen will be combined. Using a large infrared sensor array mounted behind the LC-matrix, infrared light in front of the screen, which is strong enough to pass through the LC-screen's components, can be detected The FTIR-technology is able to deliver such infrared light to the integrated sensors when touching the screen with the fingers. For the prototype, the key parameters of the FTIR principle were experimentally analyzed to optimize the sensor reactivity. The 4x8 sensor prototype can simultaneously detect multiple touches with an accuracy of around 1 mm and with an update rate of 200 Hz.
Keywords: CSCW, FTIR, LCD, SDG, interaction, multi touch
xtel: a development environment to support rapid prototyping of "ubiquitous content" BIBAKFull-Text 323-330
  Satoru Tokuhisa; Takaaki Ishizawa; Yoshimasa Niwa; Kenji Kasuya; Atsuro Ueki; Sho Hashimoto; Kazuhiko Koriyama; Masa Inakage
This paper describes the "xtel" development environment for "Ubiquitous Content". Ubiquitous contents are real space applications that are embedded in day-to-day life and intended for use by consumers. This is content that is experienced through interaction with people, objects and environments that exist in real space. Xtel comprises three tools: the "moxa" MCU board that connects to sensors and actuators and is capable of short-distance wireless communications; the "Talktic" programming/runtime environment for the MCU board that contains a JavaScript parser, compiler, VM and library; and the "Entity Collaborator" P2P network library that is capable of handling continuous information such as video and audio in addition to the discrete information from sensors. Its use both accelerates development and makes development itself easier. As sample applications, this paper also contains an overview of three rapid prototypes developed for use in demonstrations at Maker Faire 2008.
Keywords: MCU, P2P, VM, prototyping, ubiquitous computing
Decoupling interaction hardware design using libraries of reusable electronics BIBAKFull-Text 331-337
  Rajesh Sankaran; Brygg Ullmer; Jagannathan Ramanujam; Karun Kallakuri; Srikanth Jandhyala; Cornelius Toole; Christopher Laan
This paper presents our research toward the design and development of a library of electronic hardware modules called Blades and Tiles. Interaction hardware design with blades and tiles provides researchers with considerable flexibility in iterating their designs, decoupling between the domains of electronics, software, firmware and mechanical design. Our approach has been driven by design objectives including hardware reusability, reliability, scalability, and flexibility. We have created a library of blades and tiles, and used them to develop several interaction devices. We present both conceptual and applied aspects and discuss future directions.
Keywords: blades and tiles, decoupling TUI design, hardware toolkit, modularity, reusable hardware
Prototyping digital clay as an active material BIBAKFull-Text 339-342
  Michael Reed
This paper describes a shape input device that extends the behavior of clay as a general model of shape interaction and supports arbitrary material deformation, addition and subtraction at interactive rates. These attributes are implemented in a prototype interface consisting of clay composed of wireless position trackers held together by a binding agent. These trackers provide position data in real time while isosurface extraction reconstructs the surface of the model as the user deforms it. Results are shown of this system behaving as an active material by performing geometry capture, and its utility in an augmented reality environment is discussed.
Keywords: augmented reality, digital modeling, tangible user interface
Designing with RFID BIBAKFull-Text 343-350
  Einar Sneve Martinussen; Timo Arnall
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a wireless technology that is emerging in consumer products as a method for input and interaction. Although RFID is relatively well known from a technical perspective, the methods and for designing with RFID are less well understood, particularly the tangible and physical aspects of RFID form. Using a practice-driven design approach we explore the possibilities for richer design of RFID objects in everyday contexts. Through sketching, making and form-explorations we build a visual and physical design vocabulary for RFID forms. This includes properties such as direction, balance, ergonomics and geometry that are communicated through design-focused language and visualisations.
Keywords: RFID, applied design, industrial design, interaction design, tangible interaction
Fritzing: a tool for advancing electronic prototyping for designers BIBAKFull-Text 351-358
  André Knörig; Reto Wettach; Jonathan Cohen
Today a growing community of DIY-practitioners, artists and designers are using microcontroller-based toolkits to express their concepts for digital artifacts by building them. However, as these prototypes are generally constructed using solder-free technologies, they are often fragile and unreliable. This means a huge burden of care and upkeep for these inventions when they are either exhibited or sold.
   We present a software application called Fritzing which allows artists, designers and DIY-tinkerers to prepare their hardware inventions for production. Through an interface metaphor based on the typical workflow of the target group, Fritzing has proven its ability to provide useful support in the steps following the invention of an interactive artifact.
   Fritzing serves also as a tool for documenting these interactive artifacts. As sharing of knowledge has been a driving force within this new DIY-movement, there is a need for a consistent and readable form of documentation which Fritzing can provide.
   Fritzing has also proven to be a useful tool in teaching electronics to people without an engineering background.
Keywords: design tools, physical interaction design, prototyping
HandSense: discriminating different ways of grasping and holding a tangible user interface BIBAKFull-Text 359-362
  Raphael Wimmer; Sebastian Boring
As mobile and tangible devices are getting smaller and smaller it is desirable to extend the interaction area to their whole surface area. The HandSense prototype employs capacitive sensors for detecting when it is touched or held against a body part. HandSense is also able to detect in which hand the device is held, and how. The general properties of our approach were confirmed by a user study. HandSense was able to correctly classify over 80 percent of all touches, discriminating six different ways of touching the device (hold left/right, pick up left/right, pick up at top/bottom). This information can be used to implement or enhance implicit and explicit interaction with mobile phones and other tangible user interfaces. For example, graphical user interfaces can be adjusted to the user's handedness.
Keywords: capacitive sensing, grasp, handedness, input devices, sensors, touch
Bringing concepts to life: introducing a rapid interactive sketch modelling toolkit for industrial designers BIBAKFull-Text 363-366
  Ian Culverhouse; Steve Gill
This paper presents the results of work in progress aimed at answering the challenges faced by industrial designers creating information appliance prototypes at a very early stage in the design process. A new system centred on a hardware unit called an IE5 is described in detail. The authors argue that the new method offers a potential solution that will allow prototyping in the critical 1-2 hour timeframe which would allow genuinely iterative hardware prototyping integration in the design process' early stages. The system utilises passive RFiD embedded controls that can be attached to a sketch model without the need for any wiring or soldering. It solves the problems encountered by previous RFiD based toolkits in flexibility, footprint size, and range / connection reliability. While the system is still in development, the concept has been proved by a basic prototype. The paper identifies the system's strengths and weaknesses before discussing areas for further development.
Keywords: RFiD, common RFiD antenna, interactive prototyping, low fidelity, rapid iteration
Kinetic sketchup: motion prototyping in the tangible design process BIBAKFull-Text 367-372
  Amanda Parkes; Hiroshi Ishii
Physical malleability is emerging as an important element of interaction design as advances in material science and computational control give rise to new possibilities in actuated products and transformable environments. However, this transition also produces a new range of design problems-how do we visualize, imagine, and design the physical processes of transformation? We must create tools for intuitive motion investigation to train and develop our motions sensibilities in 3D space, moving towards interfaces that makes sketching with motion as easy as drawing with paper and pencil? This paper presents Kinetic Sketchup, an approach to a design language for motion prototyping featuring a series of actuated physically programmable modules which investigate the rich interplay of mechanical, behavioral and material design parameters which motion enables.
Keywords: architecture, kinetic design, product design, tangible user interface, transformability
A tangible construction kit for exploring graph theory BIBAKFull-Text 373-376
  Eric Schweikardt; Nwanua Elumeze; Mike Eisenberg; Mark D. Gross
Graphs are a versatile representation of many systems in computer science, the social sciences, and mathematics, but graph theory is not taught in schools. We present our work on Graphmaster, a computationally enhanced construction kit that enables children to build graphs of their own and investigate their properties by experimenting with algorithms that operate on them. The system is distributed; microcontrollers inside each node execute an interpreted language in parallel. Graphmaster, with its magnetic connectors, illuminated edges, and capacitive sensing, encourages children to develop intuitions about connectivity long before they are introduced to the notation and formulas of graph theory.
Keywords: education, games, graphs, tangible, toys
TinkerSheets: using paper forms to control and visualize tangible simulations BIBAKFull-Text 377-384
  Guillaume Zufferey; Patrick Jermann; Aurélien Lucchi; Pierre Dillenbourg
This paper describes TinkerSheets, a paper-based interface to tangible simulations. The proposed interface combines the advantages of form-based input and paper. Form-based input allows to set an arbitrary number of parameters. Using paper as a medium for the interface keeps the interaction modality consistently physical. TinkerSheets are also used as an output screen to display summarized information about the simulation. A user study conducted in an authentic context shows how the characteristics of the interface shape real world usage. We also describe how the affordances of this control and visualization interface support the co-design of interaction with end-users.
Keywords: paper-based interfaces, tabletop computing, tangible user interfaces, vocational training
Projected interfaces: enabling serendipitous interaction with smart tangible objects BIBAKFull-Text 385-392
  David Molyneaux; Hans Gellersen
The Projected Interfaces architecture enables bi-directional user interaction with smart tangible objects. Smart objects function as both input and output devices simultaneously by cooperating with projector-camera systems to achieve a projected display on their surfaces. Tangible manipulation of the object and camera-based tracking allow interaction directly with the projected display. Such hybrid interfaces benefit both from the flexibility offered by the GUI and the intuitiveness of TUI. In this paper we present the theory behind how to consider interaction for projected interfaces with an architecture design and a proof of concept implementation using an augmented photograph album.
Keywords: augmented reality, cooperative augmentation, projected interfaces, projector-camera systems, smart tangible objects, tangible user interfaces
A short guide to modulated light BIBAKFull-Text 393-396
  Florian Echtler; Tobias Sielhorst; Manuel Huber; Gudrun Klinker
Many types of tangible interaction systems, such as interactive surfaces and gesture-based interfaces, are based on various kinds of optical tracking, using infrared illuminators and cameras. One drawback of these setups is that they suffer from problems common to optical trackers, such as sensitivity to stray environment light from artificial and natural sources. In this paper, we present a method to significantly enhance tracking robustness for those systems which employ active illumination. Through addition of a small electronic circuit which modulates the LEDs used to illuminate the scene, contrast can be significantly increased.
Keywords: hardware, infrared, input device, optical tracking
Electronics as material: littleBits BIBAKFull-Text 397-400
  Ayah Bdeir
As the democratization of electronics gains more momentum, we are interested in thinking of electronics as material that can be combined with other traditional ones such as paper, cardboard and screws. littleBits is an opensource library of discrete electronic components pre-assembled in tiny circuit boards. By creating simple, intuitive, space-sensitive blocks we attempt to make prototyping with sophisticated electronics a matter of snapping small magnets together. With a growing number of available modules, littleBits aims to move electronics from late stages of the design process to its earliest ones, and from the hands of experts, to those of artists, makers and designers.
Keywords: electronics, electronics kit, industrial design, interaction design, prototyping, sketching in hardware