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Proceedings of the 2009 AIS SIGHCI Workshop on HCI Research in MIS

Fullname:Proceedings of the 8th Annual Workshop on HCI Research in MIS
Editors:Khawaja Saeed; Horst Treiblmaier; Hock Chuan; Xiaowen Fang; Richard Johnson
Location:Phoenix, Arizona
Standard No:hcibib: SIGHCI09
Links:Workshop Proceedings | Workshop Program
  1. 1: Users and Interactivity I
  2. 2: Understanding Web Based Systems
  3. 3: IT and Decision Support
  4. 4: Users and Interactivity II
  5. Posters

1: Users and Interactivity I

An Empirical Study Of The Mediating Mechanisms of Knowledge Contribution BIBAKFull-Text 5
  Sharon Swee-Lin Tan; Xiao Zou
Knowledge contribution is critical to the success of Knowledge Management (KM) initiatives. While extensive research has been done to understand how different individual and organizational factors affect knowledge contribution behavior, few have studied the mediating mechanisms affecting the contribution act. This study develops and empirically validates a model of how people contribute their knowledge in the distributed team environment. Particularly, we explore two mediating mechanisms of awareness and effort required in searching and matching. Our results indicate that the mediating mechanisms model provides a better specification of the antecedents of contribution behavior. Our findings and implications are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: contribution behavior, distributed teams, knowledge management, Wiki
Note: Best paper award
An Exploratory Field Experiment on Actual Usage of Discount Coupons BIBAKFull-Text 9
  Anar Gasimov; Juliana Sutanto; CheeWei Phang; Chuan-Hoo Tan
In this study, we seek to answer the question of whether sending the product discount coupons through the mobile technology as opposed to another more traditional communication technology i.e., e-mail, will yield different effect on consumer behavior? Through a real-world field experiment spanning four weeks, we observed that there is no significant difference in terms of coupons' usage rate between the two technological means through which the coupons were disseminated, i.e., mobile phone in the form of short-message-service (SMS); and e-mail technology as e-mail message. However, we discovered that the discount coupons' forwarding rate is significantly higher via e-mail as compared to SMS. Furthermore, the results provide indication that the propensity of using coupons received from a peer is higher as compared to coupons received from a merchant.
Keywords: Mobile commerce, product discount coupons, e-mail, SMS
Toward E-Commerce Website Evaluation and Use: Qualitative and Quantitative Understandings BIBAKFull-Text 12
  Na Li; Ping Zhang
Users' affective evaluation of websites upon mere exposure hasn't been studied extensively despite its essential influence on attitude and use decision. Based on psychological and information systems (IS) literature, this paper investigates three affect-related concepts and their effects: affective cues, perception of positive affective quality (PPAQ), and perception of negative affective quality (PNAQ). We propose a causal model to describe how affective cues of an e-commerce website induce PPAQ and PNAQ, which in turn impact user attitude toward using this website and intention to use it. The model is tested in two studies, face-to-face interviews and an online survey. This paper adds value to the literature by providing both qualitative and quantitative understandings of the antecedents and impacts of exposure-based affective evaluations in hedonic and utilitarian use of e-commerce websites.
Keywords: E-commerce website evaluation, affective cues, perception of positive affective quality (PPAQ), perception of negative affective quality (PNAQ), attitude toward behavior, behavioral intention

2: Understanding Web Based Systems

Information Quality and System Quality in Online Communities: an Empirical Investigation BIBAKFull-Text 8
  YiMing Zheng; Kexin Zhao; Antonis Stylianou
As the number of online communities (OCs) continues to increase, it is critical for an OC to satisfy users' needs in order to encourage and retain their voluntary participation and contribution over time. Consistent with the IS Success model, we argue that information quality and system quality are two important antecedents of OC user satisfaction. However, little IS research has systematically examined quality issues and their impacts in the OC context. To bridge the gap, we empirically investigate the impacts of information quality and system quality on user satisfaction in one of the largest travel OCs. Based on the IS quality literature, we develop a measurement model by incorporating different dimensions of information quality and system quality. Given the uniqueness of OCs, this study enriches our understanding of why and how information and system quality matter in an OC. It also provides insights for OC design and management.
Keywords: Online communities, information quality, system quality, user satisfaction
3-D Virtual Worlds: Education and Learning BIBAKFull-Text 13
  Xiaofeng Chen; Keng Siau; Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah
3-D virtual worlds are increasing in popularity as a medium for higher education. In this research, we assess the efficacy of two instruction strategies in a virtual world environment, Second Life, and their effects on interactivity, social presence, and perceived learning. The two instruction strategies are direct and interactive instruction strategies. Our findings suggest that the interactive instruction strategy is more effective than the direct instruction strategy in increasing perceived learning, social presence, and classroom interactivity in the virtual world environment. The study also captured data on perceived ease of use and usefulness of the virtual world environment for education. The results show that the virtual world environment is perceived by students to be easy to use for both direct and interactive sessions. Students perceived the virtual world environment to be more useful for the interactive session than for the direct instruction session.
Keywords: 3-D virtual worlds, Second Life, instruction strategies, perceived learning, social presence, classroom interactivity, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness
Switching Costs and Loyalty: Understanding How Trust Moderates Online Consumers' Ties to Merchants BIBAKFull-Text 2
  Michelle Carter; Richard Klein; Jason B. Thatcher; Ryan Wright
Information technology has transformed how travelers interact with travel service providers. Due to fierce competition in the online air travel industry, e-ticketing services have focused attention on fostering customer loyalty. This is an important strategy because, in general, initial transactions with new customers are less profitable than transactions with existing customers. Drawing on research on customer loyalty, switching costs, and trust, this study develops, and proposes an empirical test, for a model incorporating trust as a moderator of the relationship between switching costs and online customer loyalty. We propose that in the presence of high customer trust, e-businesses should have less need to rely on switching costs as a driver of customer loyalty. If supported, this proposition will extend understanding of customer loyalty, switching costs, and trust in e-commerce environments and provide practical, theory-driven, guidelines to e-businesses seeking to develop customer loyalty programs.
Keywords: Customer loyalty, trust, switching costs, e-commerce, e-business strategies

3: IT and Decision Support

Relationship between the Quality of Individual Time Management and Temporal Structure Usage: Design Implications for Electronic Calendar Systems BIBAKFull-Text 10
  Dezhi Wu
This research examines the time management strategies of individuals and gathers information on the complex temporal structures they experience and manage. Its focus is on understanding the relationship between the quality of individual time management and an individual's understanding and use of temporal structures involving electronic calendar systems. This work consists of a survey study which examines the hypotheses developed from a review of literature on the impact and role of time in people's work lives. A theoretical research model is proposed and tested using partial least squares (PLS) technique to examine the relationships between the key survey constructs. This study demonstrates that the use and understanding of temporal structures is an important component for good individual time management. Significant relationships between the quality of individual time management and various temporal structures were discovered and also indicate that temporal structures could be a new design component for the electronic calendar systems.
Keywords: Temporal structure, calendar, time management systems, electronic calendar design
Automated and Participative Decision Support in Computer-aided Credibility Assessment BIBAKFull-Text 7
  Matthew L. Jensen; Paul Benjamin Lowry; Jeffery Jenkins
History has shown that inaccurate assessments of credibility can result in tremendous costs to businesses and society. This study uses Signal Detection Theory (SDT) to improve the accuracy of credibility assessments through combining automated and participatory decision support. Participatory decision support is also proposed to encourage acceptance of the decision aid's recommendation. A new hybrid decision aid is designed to perform automated linguistic analysis and elicit and analyze perceptual cues (i.e., indirect cues) from an observer. The results suggest that decision aids that collect both linguistic and indirect cues perform better than decision aids that collect only one type of cue. Users of systems that collect linguistic cues experience improved credibility assessment accuracy; yet, users of systems that collect both types of cues or only indirect cues do not experience higher accuracy. However, collecting indirect cues increases the user's acceptance of decision-aid recommendations.
Keywords: Credibility Assessment, Signal Detection Theory, Linguistic Analysis, Indirect Cues Elicitation, Decision Support Systems
Deception Detection, Task complexity, and Group Member Experience in Computer-Mediated Group Settings BIBAKFull-Text 3
  Gabriel Giordano; Joey George
Due to globalization and the increased availability of online collaboration tools, individuals are now likely to work together in settings where computers are their primary mode of communication. However, because communication characteristics are different in these settings, problems can arise, such as deception. Deceptive individuals may be difficult to detect over computer-based channels because many audio and visual cues to deception are filtered and communication tendencies are different. This paper presents two experiments where groups performed a collaborative task in a text-based, computer-mediated setting with and without confederate deceivers. The results show that deceivers were very successful in this setting, that groups performing a low complexity task were better at detecting deception than were groups performing a high complexity task, and that groups with members that had experience with each other had higher task performance but did not have higher deception detection accuracy than did inexperienced groups.
Keywords: Deception, Task Complexity, Channel Expansion, Media Synchonicity

4: Users and Interactivity II

Modeling Hedonic Consumption Behaviors in Online Shopping BIBAKFull-Text 4
  Eric T. K. Lim; Dianne Cyr
Increasingly, researchers have acknowledged that consumption activities involve hedonic components. Hedonic consumption relates to affective consumer behaviors in that it deals with the emotive and multi-sensory aspects of the consumption experience. Because the online shopping environment is characterized by the existence of an IT-enabled web interface that acts as the focal point of contact between customers and vendors, its design should also embed hedonic elements to create a holistic consumption experience. Drawing on the Expectation Disconfirmation Theory (EDT), this study advances a model that not only delineates hedonic consumer expectations into its constituent dimensions for online shopping but also highlights how these expectations can be best served through properties of aesthetic performance. The model is then empirically verified via an online questionnaire administered to a sample of 84 student participants. Theoretical contributions and pragmatic implications to be gleaned from our proposed model and its subsequent empirical validation are discussed.
Keywords: Expectation disconfirmation theory, hedonic expectations, aesthetic properties
An Exploratory study of the Video Bloggers' Community BIBAKFull-Text 11
  John Warmbrodt; Hong Sheng; Richard Hall; Jinwei Cao
Video blogs (or vlogs) are a form of blogs where each post is a video. This study explores the community of video bloggers (or vloggers) by studying the community's structure as well as the motivations and interactions of vloggers in the community. A social network analysis of a list of personal vloggers identifies the community's structure. Open-ended interviews with core vloggers in the sample provide in-depth understanding on the motivations and interactions of the vloggers. Overall, the results indicate that the vloggers' community exhibits a core/periphery structure. Such community is formed based upon shared interest and active interaction. In addition, the rich communication provided in vlogs allows for a more personal and intimate interaction, making vlogs a potentially powerful tool for business applications.
Keywords: video blog, vlog, virtual community, social network analysis, qualitative analysis
Designing for User-Generated Contents: An Investigation of Product Tags and Lead User Exposure BIBAKFull-Text 6
  Cheng Yi; Zhenhui Jiang; Izak Benbasat
Recent advances in the Internet have revolutionized the way people share information and choose products. Various new applications allow users to become an active part in developing content on the Web. This study specifically investigates e-commerce product search websites which allow users to search and evaluate products, share product opinions and interests, as well as communicate with other community members. Despite the increasing number of researchers studying diverse issues in this context, there still lacks a theoretical understanding of how the use of user-generated contents on these websites can actually influence people's decision making and social experience online. This study thus focuses on two prevailing design features on websites based on user-generated information -- product tags and lead user exposure. Results from a laboratory experiment using a large-scale, real social-network-based product search website are reported.
Keywords: User-generated contents, product tags, lead user, information foraging, perceived decision quality, sense of community


Perceptions of Avatars in 3D Virtual Worlds: Impact of Task and Gender Stereotypicality BIBAFull-Text 21
  David DeWester; Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah; Sarah J. Gervais; Keng Siau
Virtual worlds are growing in importance and popularity in businesses. As the use of virtual worlds increases, it becomes increasingly important to understand the behavioral and perceptual issues in virtual worlds. Although gender stereotypes have been widely studied in the real world along with their effects on trust perceptions, very little such research has been conducted in virtual worlds. We propose a research model to study the interaction effects of gender stereotypicality of male and female avatars and gender typicality of tasks on trust perceptions. An experiment is proposed to examine the effects of gender stereotypes on trust perceptions in virtual worlds. Implications and expected contributions are also discussed.
A Preliminary Framework for Usability Analysis in Healthcare BIBAKFull-Text 20
  Surendra Sarnikar; Maureen Murphy
We propose a usability analysis framework for healthcare information technology to help identify potential errors and evaluate their impact on medical processes.
Keywords: Usability, Healthcare Information Systems, Medical Errors
Individual Users' Adoption of Smart Phone Services BIBAKFull-Text 19
  Youngseek Kim; Ping Zhang
This study plans to investigate factors that influence individual users' adoption of smart phone services. A research model is developed based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Diffusion of Innovations Theory to include utilitarian, emotional, personal and social factors. Drawing from previous studies, we propose that there are direct and indirect influences among personal innovativeness, social influence, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, perceived usefulness and eventually intention to adopt smart phone services. The model will be empirically tested with a survey. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Smart Phone Services, Technology Adoption, Technology Acceptance, TAM, Diffusion of Innovations Theory
Conceptualizing Aesthetic Experiences of Embodied Interactions with ICTs BIBAKFull-Text 18
  Min-Chun Ku; Ping Zhang
This study proposes a theoretical model to depict a holistic view of aesthetic experiences of interactions with ICTs based on the embodiment approach, including their components and their interaction process.
Keywords: Aesthetics, Aesthetic Experiences, Embodiment
DSS Interaction: A Simulation Experiment BIBAKFull-Text 17
  Lei Chen; Chang Lin
Web-based systems are increasingly being used for decision support applications. However, few empirical studies examine the impact of web-based decision support systems (DSS). This experimental research looks at the various factors that impact decision-making in web-based DSS. Using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach, the analysis reveals that information quality and system quality are the most important factors in developing an effective information system.
Keywords: Business games, Web-based systems, Decision Support Systems
Tracking Users' Viewing Pattern BIBAFull-Text 16
  Soussan Djamasbi; Marisa Siegel; Tom Tullis; Rui Dai
Empirical evidence suggests that users often exhibit a viewing pattern that favors the top and left sides of web pages (Nielsen, 2006). According to the model of visual hierarchy, viewing pattern is guided by two distinct cognitive processes: searching and scanning, both influenced by the attributes of the web components (Faraday, 2000). When used effectively, these attributes create a visual hierarchy that can guide users in viewing a page. In addition, a number of studies show that web users often exhibit a viewing pattern that is shaped like the letter "F" (Nielsen, 2006; Shrestha and Lenz, 2007). F-pattern is common to text-based pages, but can be diminished for an image-heavy page and can also be task-dependent (Shrestha and Lenz, 2007). Because images often serve as entry points to web pages (Faraday, 2000), these findings suggest that visual hierarchy manipulated by images may have an impact on users' pattern of viewing.
   This study investigates two factors that may affect the F shaped viewing pattern: 1) visual hierarchy, and 2) task. Two prototypes of a homepage from a financialsrf company were designed to be different in only one section, which was named "Expert Insights". The location of the section was below the fold of the page, a spot typically missed when users exhibit an F-shaped viewing pattern. One prototype was named Faces as its Expert Insights section included images of faces, while the other, the No Faces prototype, contained no images of faces. Because images tend to attract users' attention, their inclusion affects the visual hierarchy of the homepage (Faraday, 2000).
   Two tasks were designed in this study: browsing and searching. In the searching task, participants were asked questions such as "You want to know more about a fall in Brazil's stocks" and needed to retrieve information which lay in the Expert Insights section.
   34 participants were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in this two-task (browse or search) X two-prototype (Faces or No Faces prototype) design. Their viewing patterns and eye fixations were collected by the non-intrusive Tobii 1750 and analyzed using heat maps.
   Results of this study showed that 1) consistent with previous findings, the content above the fold received more fixations overall; 2) more fixations in the center of the page were shown in the browsing task, whereas long fixations on navigations and more scattered pattern were shown in the searching task; 3) Faces prototype received more fixations on the text in Expert Insights, but No Faces prototype showed fixations only on the titles.
   Compared with a previous study in F-pattern (Shrestha and Lenz, 2007), our homepage had a more complex visual hierarchy, which could guide users' attention to areas outside of the pattern found on less visually complex pages. This study also shows that visual complexity may affect the effect of task on viewing pattern, and that task has an effect on viewing a page with a more complex visual hierarchy. Images of the faces have served as effective entry points, helping users to retrieve the information with fewer fixations. In addition, including images of faces on a homepage can help guide users in viewing and retrieving information adjacent to those images, even when the images are located below the fold of the webpage. Last, creating visual appeal in central area may be of great importance in creating a favorable aesthetic experience. These results not only have theoretical importance, but also have practical value.
A Lexical Approach to Classifying Computer Games BIBAKFull-Text 15
  Xiaowen Fang; Susy S. Chan; Chitra Nair
According to the Entertainment Software Association (2009), more than two-thirds of all American households play computer games. This vast audience is fueling the growth of the multi-billion dollar computer game industry and bringing jobs to communities across the nation. The rising popularity and proliferation of computer games call for systematic research on the design of computer games and their impact on game players. Systematic research on computer games inevitably requires an accurate description of the traits or characteristics of games. However, the traits of computer games haven't been well studied. Currently, computer games are often classified into genres by the computer game industry. Existing computer game genres, such as action adventure, simulation, single shooter, are designated by vendors and publishers. These genres are often general, overlapping, and not indicative of the complex traits of games and the hedonic information technologies. A few published studies on game genres are primarily based on qualitative analysis and are inconsistent with the views of different stakeholders -- game developers, game players, and game reviewers (Myers, 1990). The absence of a reliable game classification scheme could hinder research on hedonic information technologies and their interaction with users.
   The objective of this study is to systematically investigate the essential traits for computer games and empirically validate the classification scheme. We propose to use a lexical approach to identify basic computer game traits. We argue that these computer game traits can be used to establish a more reliable and consistent classification scheme than the current game genres. Results from this study will help researchers investigate characteristics and designs of different types of games for educational as well as hedonic purposes.
   The idea of using a lexical approach to obtain personality traits stems from the lexical hypothesis for personality research. The lexical hypothesis states that people will want to talk about personality traits that they view as having important consequences in their lives (Ashton, 2007). As a result, people will inevitably invent some words to describe those who exhibit high or low levels of these essential traits. Over long periods of time, words that describe important traits should become established in every language. In applying a lexical approach to personality research, a researcher first systematically searches the dictionary of the language to be examined in order to obtain a list of personality-descriptive adjectives. After establishing this list of adjectives, the researcher excludes terms that are rarely used. The resulting list is then administered to a large sample of participants who are asked to provide self-ratings on these adjectives, indicating the extent to which each adjective describes their own personalities.
   In our research project, we argue that computer game traits, like personality traits, can be characterized by a set of adjectives, and consistently rated by different game players and developers. Therefore, the lexical approach can be applied to studying computer game traits. To overcome the problems with current computer game genres, we propose a classification scheme for computer games. In this classification scheme, computer game traits are defined as differences among computer games consistently perceived by different game players at different times. These traits are independent of one another. They are reliable and specific, because they can be consistently observed by different players and at different times. We hypothesize that any given computer game can be described by a finite set of traits. When a group of computer game traits form a cluster, it is called a genre. Different genres may share same trait(s) but traits are distinctive and mutually exclusive.
   This bottom-up classification scheme will enable game developers, players, and researchers to more accurately define the characteristics of a computer game and categorize it more consistently. We propose a lexical approach for identifying and clustering game traits. The proposed research involves three phases: 1) creation of a list of game-descriptive adjectives, 2) online surveys to rate the adjectives, and 3) factor analyses to group the computer game traits.
Keywords: genre, computer games, lexical approach, classification scheme, computer game traits, hedonic information technology
Usage of Hedonic Web Instruments BIBAKFull-Text 14
  Horst Treiblmaier
In the World Wide Web companies can design Web sites which appeal to both utilitarian and hedonic customers. Other than traditional media, which require a trade-off between informative and entertaining content, the Internet allows for the combination of multimedia tools in order to produce a holistic online experience. Companies therefore incorporate hedonic elements into their site in order to improve its overall effectiveness and efficiency. In this exploratory study we show the results of a longitudinal survey, in which we monitored the usage of four different communication instruments (sweepstakes, online games, wallpapers/screensavers, e-cards) on commercial websites. We differentiate between sites offering high and low involvement products and use log-linear models to visualize our results and to find the combinations of instruments which turned out to be stable over time. Our results show that companies in general have reduced the usage of hedonic instruments (e.g. e-cards) during the period of investigation and that some combinations of hedonic instruments are more frequently used than others.
Keywords: Hedonism, Website, Involvement, Log-Linear Model, Mosaic-Plot
Affect and HCI: Past, Present, and Future BIBAKFull-Text 1
  Eleanor T. Loiacono; Soussan Djamasbi; Ganesh Dabholkar
A person's affective state is a critical component of his/her experience and must be considered in HCI research. In fact, one's feelings are a necessary component of his/her rational thoughts and actions. Because, IS behavioral models assume rational actors, including affect in such models result in a more complete understanding of user behavior. Since so much HCI research is focused on user behavior, it is important that affect be considered. This paper identifies the extent to which affect has been included in prior HCI research and to encourage its continued use given its significant impact on behavior. It begins by defining the general meaning of affect. It then presents recent advances in the affect literature and reviews affect work within HCI to date. Besides revealing that affect is a variable of great interest in HCI, the paper provides a theoretical and practical justification for including affect in HCI future research.
Keywords: affect, mood, review