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Proceedings of the 2008 AIS SIGHCI Workshop on HCI Research in MIS

Fullname:Proceedings of the 7th Annual Workshop on HCI Research in MIS
Editors:Eleanor T. Loiacono; Weiyin Hong; Khawaja Saeed; Hock Chuan; Xiaowen Fang
Location:Paris, France
Standard No:hcibib: SIGHCI08
Links:Workshop Proceedings | Workshop Program | Workshop Program | Workshop Review on p.5
  1. IT and Decision Support
  2. Acceptance of Web Based Systems
  3. Users and Interactivity
  4. Trust and Empowerment
  5. Posters

IT and Decision Support

Psychological Contract Violation in Recommendation Agent Use BIBAKFull-Text 21-25
  Sandeep Goyal; Fred Davis; Moez Limayem
We examine whether psychological contract theory can explain users' responses to e-commerce recommendation agents (RAs). Theories of social response to technology, trust in technology, and technology adoption are used to adapt psychological contract theory from the interpersonal domain to user-RA domain. We theorize that a psychological contract breach will cause a negative emotional reaction, called a psychological contract violation, which, via trust and usefulness perceptions, will influence users' intentions to follow an RAs' recommendation. Two studies elicited perceived user-RA mutual obligations, which form the basis for the posited psychological contract. We outline a Study 3 to measure preference strength for these obligations, and a Study 4 to test the effect of breaching these obligations on theorized emotional, cognitive, and behavioral reactions to the RA. Using these studies, insights can be gained about how to design RAs to achieve important business results and avoid negative side effects.
Keywords: Psychological contracts, recommendation agents, obligations, and online decision making
Designing a Personalized Health Risk Communication Website to Motivate User Attention and Systematic Processing BIBAKFull-Text 26-31
  Christopher A. Harle; Julie S. Downs; Rema Padman
A web-based diabetes "risk calculator" is being developed and evaluated to determine the impact of personalized risk estimates and interactive feedback on user attention and systematic information processing. Preliminary experiments that randomized participants to two different health websites suggested that a risk calculator with personalized risk estimates did not increase (and may have decreased) systematic processing, focused immersion and information seeking. We describe a series of think aloud user studies which were conducted to provide a qualitative evaluation of the experimental protocol and explore alternate explanations for these unexpected findings. User study results suggested that the prior findings may have been driven by a lack of perceived novelty of the risk information, selective attention, and an expectation of personalization in both experimental conditions. Findings are consistent with satisficing in information search and have implications for the design of health information and future experiments that evaluate these types of interventions.
Keywords: consumer health informatics, information processing, information seeking, personalization, think-aloud
Personal Temporal Structure Usage in Electronic Temporal Coordination Systems: A Qualitative Study BIBAKFull-Text 32-34
  Dezhi Wu; Benjamin Ngugi
Temporal structures have been argued to be an important element of business affecting both the processes that are undertaken within an organization and the overall productivity of the organization. As such, it might be considered appropriate for an organization to engage in what can be called temporal coordination in order to ensure that previously ad hoc temporal structures are now used to enhance and integrate business processes. Two in-depth interview studies with management were conducted to explore what types of temporal structures were used by professionals in their temporal coordination processes. The preliminary study results indicate that the majority of temporal structures being used are explicit clock-based temporal structures. This study therefore suggests that system design modifications are needed for enhancing the current electronic temporal coordination systems through incorporating new functions of manipulating more diverse temporal structures (e.g., implicit temporal structures) to achieve more efficient temporal coordination.
Keywords: Time, temporal structures, temporal coordination, electronic calendar systems

Acceptance of Web Based Systems

Hedonic and Utilitarian Outcomes of Website Social Presence: The Impacts of Framing and Time Constraints BIBAKFull-Text 35-39
  Dianne Cyr; Milena Head
It is now generally recognized that online shopping has both utilitarian as well as hedonic components. In this research we created and tested a model in which perceived social presence resulted in enjoyment (hedonic component) as mediated by involvement, and alternatively perceived social presence resulted in effectiveness (utilitarian component) as mediated by trust. All paths in the model were confirmed. Involvement was found to have a medium effect on enjoyment and trust had a medium effect on effectiveness. In addition, the impact of whether a task is framed to be utilitarian or hedonic in nature was tested. While questionnaire data revealed no significant differences, eye-tracking data indicated that users spent more time viewing hedonic versus utilitarian zones. Finally, time constraints in website viewing were examined and users in an unlimited time group (versus 5 seconds of viewing time) experienced higher levels of involvement, enjoyment, trust and effectiveness toward the website.
Keywords: Hedonic, utilitarian, website design, perceived social presence
The Role of Website Service Functionality in Explaining Price Dispersion and Price Trade-offs in Online Markets BIBAKFull-Text 40-45
  Sameh Al-Natour; Izak Benbasat; Ronald T. Cenfetelli
In this paper we report on two studies that (1) examine whether service quality and the set of functionality offered by a website can explain price dispersion in the online electronics market, and (2) investigate whether customers are willing to trade-off lower prices for more website functionality. The results highlight the importance of functionality offered by retailer websites in explaining the dispersion in observed prices, especially compared to service quality and market share. Study 2 demonstrates that customers attach different importance to product prices and have non-zero valuations for website functionality.
Keywords: Online shopping, price dispersion, price premiums, website functionality, service quality
The Impact of Motivation and Prevention Factors on Game Addiction BIBAKFull-Text 46-50
  Zhengchuan Xu; Yufei Yuan
Adolescents' addiction to game has a negative impact on the aberrance of adolescents. Although limited research has been done on the cause of game addiction, no research has been conducted on the effectiveness of prevention measures. In this paper, we propose a model to study the impact of both the motivation and prevention factors on game addiction. Surveys were conducted among middle school students in Shanghai, with 623 valid responses. The analysis results show that among all prevention factors, only attention switch has significant negative impact on game addiction, however, dissuasion and parental monitoring have positive correlation with game addiction. The rational, resource shortage and cost have no significant impacts on game addiction. The analysis results also show that among all motivation factors, mechanics, relationship and escapism have significant positive impact on addiction.
Keywords: Addiction, impulse control disorders, computer games, motivation, prevention

Users and Interactivity

A Study on Interaction Factors Influencing Use Intention of Interactive Video Service: Focusing on Media Synchronicity BIBAKFull-Text 51-55
  Seunghwa Yang; Seongtaek Lim; Inseong Lee; Sujin Lee; Jinwoo Kim
Interactive Video Services (IVS) are a new type of media service that enables users to cast and watch videos as well as exchange messages with others. Three factors that influence IVS usage, which are technology factor, communication factor, and contents factor, were derived from the theory of interactivity. Dimensions of each factor were identified through qualitative study. We constructed a structural model of use intentions of IVS, followed by a survey conducted to statistically verify the structural model. The model reflects one of the key traits of IVS, media synchronicity, as a moderating variable. Our findings presented that each factor has a significant effect on use intentions of IVS and that the degree of effect is moderated by media synchronicity according to the differences between real-time and non-real-time IVS.
Keywords: Interactive Video Service (IVS), media synchronicity, interactivity, use intention
How Old are You, Really?: Cognitive vs. Chronological Age in Technology Acceptance Decisions BIBAKFull-Text 56-60
  Se-Joon Hong; Carrie Lui; Jungpil Hahn; Kar Yan Tam
With increasing trends toward global aging and accompanying tendencies of (older) individuals to feel younger than they actually are, an important research question to ask is whether factors influencing IT acceptance are the same across individuals who perceive themselves to be as old as they actually are (i.e., cognitive age = chronological age) and those that perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are (i.e., cognitive age < chronological age). We conduct an empirical analysis comparing these two groups in the context of mobile data services (MDS). Our results show that for the "young at heart", perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment play significant roles in their IT acceptance decisions, whereas for those who perceive themselves to be as old as they actually are, perceived ease of use and subjective norms were significant. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Age, chronological age, cognitive age, technology acceptance, mobile data services
The Role of Authenticity in the Experience of Visitors Interacting with Museum Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 61-65
  Jessie Pallud
Cultural places such as museums tend to rely on Information Technologies (IT) to support their exhibition and communication to the public. Although technology has undeniable advantages for museums and their visitors, it is not evident that IT contributes both to more enjoyment and to an experience of authenticity. Indeed, little attention has been paid to user reactions with hedonic systems available in cultural heritage sites. The objective of this research is to assess affective and cognitive reactions of museum visitors interacting with IT. We also try to determine the role played by authenticity in visitor interactions with museum technologies. To test our hypotheses, a free simulation experiment was conducted at a French national museum where 184 questionnaires were completed. The results indicate that technologies are not incompatible with perceptions of authenticity and that IT can contribute to edutainment experiences of visitors.
Keywords: Authenticity, enjoyment, emotions, learning, immersion; museum technologies

Trust and Empowerment

Website Design, Trust and Culture: An Eight Country Investigation BIBAKFull-Text 66-71
  Dianne Cyr
Website design elements (information design, information content, navigation design, visual design), disposition to trust, website trust, and transaction security are examined for differences in an eight country sample with a total of 1156 participants (including Canada, the United States, India, Germany, Japan, Mexico, Chile, and China). Within Canada, users from English Canada and French Canada were also compared. In a theoretical context that includes cultural differences for uncertainty avoidance (e.g. Hofstede's classification) and the GLOBE study which identifies similar country clusters, overall and as predicted, low uncertainty avoidance countries of French Canada, English Canada, and the United States have the highest scores on the various constructs indicating more favorable reactions by users. Largest differences across most of the constructs occur between Germany, Japan, and China with other countries in the sample.
Keywords: website design, culture
Note: Best paper award
A Study of the Dynamic Nature of Trust from a Longitudinal Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 72-77
  Dan J. Kim
Trust is dynamic in nature. It is a process rather than an outcome; it develops over time. Trust is an essential ingredient for successful business transactions in electronic commerce. Yet, there is little empirical research on the dynamic nature of trust in information systems and electronic commerce areas using a longitudinal (pre- and post-phase) approach. This paper proposes a model of dynamic trust from a longitudinal perspective. Furthermore, it provides empirical evidence of the dynamic nature of trust in the context of e-Channel and e-Vendor. The results of the study show that a consumer's trust changes over time due to variations in the level of trust in the pre-purchase phase and satisfaction with a previous transaction in the post-purchase phase. The results also reveal that satisfaction and post-trust are strong determinants of a consumer's future intention to reuse the e-Channel and to repurchase through the e-Vendor.
Keywords: Dynamic Trust Model, Pre-Trust, Satisfaction, Post-Trust, E-Channel Trust, E-Vendor Trust
Participating in Open Source Software Projects: The Role of Empowerment BIBAKFull-Text 78-82
  Weiling Ke; Ping Zhang
As a community-based innovation, Open Source Software (OSS) development intrigues researchers and practitioners, especially on why OSS projects succeed with light coordination and control mechanisms. In the view that the viability and sustainability of an OSS project rely on individuals' contribution and engagement, we investigate how the psychological feelings of empowerment derived from the assessments of OSS tasks affect participants' participation outcomes. In particular, we posit that empowerment can lead directly to participants' task performance and satisfaction in OSS projects. In addition, empowerment's effect on task performance and satisfaction can also be mediated by task effort. The research model is supported by data collected from 233 OSS participants. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications of this study are discussed.
Keywords: Empowerment, Open Source Software, participation


Usability of "Trusted Shops" An Empirical Analysis of eCommerce Shops BIBKFull-Text 83
  Axel Winkelmann; Matthias Boehm; Jörg Becker
Keywords: Usability, eCommerce shops, empirical analysis, seals of approval, trusted shops
The Effect of Personalized Virtual Model and Voice Chat Support on Presence in Collaborative Online Shopping BIBAKFull-Text 84
  Hong-Ki Kim; Kil-Soo Suh; Dongmin Kim
Collaborative online shopping refers to the activity in which a consumer shops at an online store concurrently with one or more remotely located shopping partners such as her friends or family. Although collaborative shopping is one of the popular ways of shopping in an offline context, many existing studies regarding online shopping have focused mainly on shopping by individuals; few studies have examined how to enhance the collaborative online shopping experience. This study examines two features that have the potential to enhance collaborative online shopping experiences in the context of a clothing store: a personalized virtual model and voice chat support between shopping partners. Drawing from theories of media richness and social presence, we will examine whether implementing these two features can increase telepresence and copresence.
Keywords: Collaborative shopping, telepresence, copresence, avatar, chat, online store
Facilitating the Usage of Decision Strategies by Interactive Decision Aids: A Conceptual Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 85
  Jella Pfeiffer; René Riedl; Franz Rothlauf
Internet shops like amazon.com or activeshopper.com enable customers to compare a large amount of products (e.g., digital camera) and product properties (e.g., price) in form of a comparison matrix. For choosing the preferred product from a comparison matrix, customers apply decision strategies. Riedl et al. (2008), for example, summarize and define thirteen important decision strategies (Behavior Research Methods, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 795-807). The application of most of these strategies can be facilitated by interactive decision aids like (i) sorting of products, (ii) a conditional drop function, or (iii) performing pairwise comparisons between products (see examples below). This research studies the relationship between decision strategies and the proper interactive decision aid(s). In particular, it addresses the following research question: Which type of interactive decision aid is necessary to support the application of specific decision strategies? The provision of decision aids is important, because they may reduce the effort to apply a particular strategy and/or increase decision accuracy. Based on our conceptual analysis, web designers can tailor systems that offer those decision aids that fit best to their customers' decision strategy, thereby facilitating decision processes.
Keywords: decision making, interactive decision aids, e-commerce, human-computer interaction, decision strategies
Comparison Of Users' Perceptions In The Pre- And Post-ERP Implementation Phases BIBAKFull-Text 86
  Sue Abdinnou; Khawaja Saeed
This study examines users' perceptions (Capability, Value, Timing, and Acceptance) of an ERP implementation at a major aircraft manufacturing company in the pre-Implementation phase (T1) and the immediate post-Implementation phase (T2), which is referred to in the literature as the Shakedown Phase. Our study is one of only a few that looks at users' perceptions over time, and that focuses on the Shakedown phase. We obtained 205 T1-T2 matched responses and 120 open ended comments at the post-implementation phase (T2). A comparison of the four key perceptions shows a statistically significant drop for all of the perceptions, except for User Acceptance. This is an interesting finding, implying that users continue to perceive the ERP system as important even though their perceptions regarding capability, value, and timing drop significantly from pre-implementation to post-implementation stage. We further explore the variations in these perceptions across tenure with the company and job profiles.
Keywords: ERP, implementation, shakedown, users, perceptions
The Effects of Portal Affiliations and Self-Proclaimed Assurance on Consumer Trust: Investigating Customers' Purpose of Visit as a Moderator BIBAKFull-Text 87
  Dongmin Kim; Weiquan Wang; Izak Benbasat
Customers sometimes visit Internet stores just for fun, without strong intentions to purchase a product (hereafter "to browse"), and they sometimes visit with strong intentions to purchase a product (hereafter "to purchase"). Our research question is whether or not customers respond to the same interface features in a different manner depending on their purpose of visit (e.g., to browse or to purchase). We believe that this is an important question for Internet stores. If Internet stores can predict different influence of a certain web interface feature on customers who have strong purchase intentions from the store, then they can design Web shopping sites to serve those customers more effectively. For example, assuming that those customers who visit to purchase usually conduct checkout processes, while those who visit to browse are less likely to conduct checkout processes, it would be effective to include the Web interface features that are especially effective for those who visit to purchase in the checkout screens. This study will investigate whether or not customers' purpose of visit (e.g., to purchase or to browse) moderates the impact of portal affiliation and a store's self-proclaimed assurance on customer trust. A laboratory experiment is designed to investigate whether or not customers who have a different purpose of visit respond to portal affiliation and self-proclaimed assurance in a different manner.
Keywords: Trust, Portal Affiliation, Assurance, Purpose of Visit, Moderation
Matching People And Groups: Recruitment And Selection In Online Games BIBAKFull-Text 88
  Bo Reum Choi; Robert E. Kraut; Mark Fichman
Massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) have great potential as sites for research within the social and behavioral sciences and human-computer interaction. This is because "guilds" -- semi-persistent groups in online games -- are much like groups in real organizations. In this paper, we examine how groups and individuals find appropriate matches and whether appropriate matches lead newcomers to stay longer in their groups in an online game environment. Results from archival data, observation, and survey in the game World of Warcraft (WoW) indicate that different selection methods lead to person-group fit for social and task-oriented characteristics and good fit leads recruits to stay longer in their group. In particular, recruitment of new members to task-oriented guilds was most successful when brief interactions were used whereas recruitment to social-oriented guilds was most successful when probationary periods and referrals were used.
Keywords: Fit, MMOGs, Guilds, Players, Selection, Retention
Customization and/or Social Shopping: How do Digital Millennials Shop Online? BIBAKFull-Text 89
  Arnold Kamis; Jonathan Frank
This paper investigates how Social Shopping and Customization interplay to affect Digital Millennials' online shopping experience. We test whether the social richness of online shopping in pairs can overcome the leanness of the online shopping experience. Can the interactivity of Online Customization accomplish the same purpose? Is there a synergistic, interaction effect? Our 2x2 experimental design with 182 subjects examines this question with customizable versus packaged vacation travel. Analyses of Perceived Effectiveness, Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Enjoyment and Intent to Purchase suggest that a user's Intention to Purchase is linked to the suitability of the site's user interface as well as the perceived social / technological richness of the website. The results shed light on Digital Millennials' online shopping preferences and provide guidance to web site designers incorporating Social Shopping or Customization into online shopping applications. Future research will extend the results to other populations, task domains and devices.
Keywords: social shopping, customization, digital millenials, online shopping, intent to purchase
Study of the Organizational Critical Success Factors Affecting the Quality of IT Service BIBAKFull-Text 90
  Ninad Naik; Dan J. Kim; T. Andrew Yang
Information systems have been a well researched topic based on their development, implementation, effectiveness, success and more recently Business-IT alignment. Of late, since the new model of IS function which includes a significant "service" component, there have been number of studies on "how to measure IT/IS service quality using the SERVQUAL instrument". Our literature review, however, has revealed that there are few studies which provide a holistic view of which organizational factors affect the attributes of SERVQUAL and in what manner. In this paper, we first identify the individual organizational factors affecting the quality of IT service, and then develop a conceptual model to classify those factors and their relationships. The goal of our project is to study how those factors affect the quality of IT services and, with that understanding, to find ways to improve the quality of IT services. The proposed framework will facilitate organizations to judge the present state of their IT ecosystem and guide them to improve their IT service quality.
Keywords: IT Service Quality, Information Systems, IS Effectiveness, Critical Success Factors
User Behavior and Decision Making: The role of decisional Guidance in Decision Support BIBAKFull-Text 91
  Alison Parkes; Michael Davern
The very nature of decision support systems (DSS) is to guide and support the user. Yet decisional guidance has surprisingly not dominated empirical DSS research. In this research we examine the role of decisional guidance in decision support. We postulate that the effect of decisional guidance on decision outcomes is mediated by the subjective experience of the user in interacting with the DSS. Furthermore we develop a theoretical and empirical analysis of the different role decisional guidance plays for users of different levels of domain expertise: novices and experienced (but not expert) practitioners. Using a purpose built experimental platform with 135 subjects we find the effects on decisional guidance on perceptions of the DSS and confidence in decision outcomes varies interactively between type of guidance (informative versus suggestive) and level of expertise.
Keywords: Decision support, human computer interaction, decisional guidance, expertise, confidence, perceived usefulness
Understanding Conflict Escalations in Virtual Teams: A Social Network Approach BIBAKFull-Text 92
  Bin Zhu; Mark Gaynor
One crucial aspect of conflict management in teams is to avoid conflict escalation. When escalation occurs the entire team will be consumed by arguments among disputants and cannot accomplish its task. While many studies have provided theoretic framework for the academic understanding of team conflicts, they did not suggest convenient measurement for the monitoring of the status of team conflicts. This project seeks to bridge this gap by studying four hundred virtual teams that were formed over past ten for complex tasks. We will apply social network analysis to identify the social network patterns associated with conflict escalations. We believe that the results from this research could contribute to the theoretic understanding of the conflicts in virtual teams. In addition, this study could provide mangers and team leaders measurements to monitor the status of conflict. Finally, the research described may provide insight for the design of CMC systems.
Keywords: Social Network Analysis, Virtual Teams, Team Conflict
An Empirical Analysis of Usability-Sociability Design for Sustaining Virtual Communities BIBAKFull-Text 93
  Xianghua Lu; Jie Yu; Guanchun Yang
This study aims to explore how the usability and sociability design of virtual communities could encourage members' continuous participant in the communities. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the effects of usability and sociability design on continuous participation through members' perceived usefulness, enjoyment and sense of belonging. Data is collected from members of five popular leisure oriented virtual communities in China. The results show that both perceived usefulness and enjoyment have impacts on members' continuous participation intention. Among the usability and sociability design factors, we find that personalized service is the most critical mechanism that encourages members to continuously participate in virtual communities, while community infrastructure, friend connection and event organization also have positive effects on members' continuous participation intention through individual motivations. However, it is surprised to find out that leaders' involvement has no influence on members' continuous participation intention. Both theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed.
Keywords: Usability-sociability design, Virtual community, Continuous participation
Computer Mediated Social Ties and Knowledge Sharing BIBAKFull-Text 94
  Israr Qureshi; Yulin Fang; Nicole Haggerty; Deborah Compeau
Understanding social interactions and knowledge sharing behavior in the organizational context is important as an organization's success is increasingly dependent on how efficiently and effectively knowledge workers share information with others. Knowledge workers are increasingly interacting via computer and communication technologies. In this research we integrate theories of computer mediated communication with theories and prior mixed findings about the strength of social ties and knowledge sharing to theorize about the effects of computer-mediated communication (CMC) on social ties and ultimately on knowledge sharing between individuals in firms. Specifically we theorize about the ability of CMC to a) support diverse social ties, and b) facilitate frequency-based strong social ties that hold strong trust -- both supporting knowledge sharing. In a social network survey of 70% of employees in an innovation driven organization located in China, our analysis confirms our theorizing and offers contributions to IS and organizational researchers as well as practitioners.
Keywords: Social interactions, computer mediated communication, social ties, social networks, knowledge sharing
Towards Understanding the Formation and Impact of E-service Failures BIBAKFull-Text 95
  Chee-Wee Tan; Izak Benbasat; Ronald T. Cenfetelli
E-service failure has been the bane of e-commerce by compelling consumers to abandon transactions entirely or to switch to brick-and-mortar establishments. Yet, despite the downsides of e-service failures, there has not been a study to-date that systematically investigates how perceptions of failure arise within online transactional environments and their impacts on consumer behavior. Departing from the multi-attribute utility approach prevalent in conventional consumer research, this study advances a typology of e-service failure from a goal-directed perspective. Assimilating Lee and Ariely's (2006) shopping goal theory with Van Osselaer et al.'s (2005) classification of consumer goals, it is the contention of this study that when transacting online, consumers are not only motivated to (1) purchase a product suited to their extrinsic requirements (i.e., consumption goals) and personal preferences (i.e., criterion goals) while enjoying the transactional experience (i.e., process goals), but they are also seeking ways to (2) translate what are often elusive intentions into tangible objectives (goal activation) and achieve those objectives in the most efficacious manner (i.e., goal implementation). Consequently, e-service failures can be delineated according to the type of consumer goal (i.e., consumption, criterion or process) they target and the transactional stage (i.e., activation or implementation) at which they occur. A research model of e-service failure is then constructed and testable hypotheses are derived.
   To empirically validate the model, a 3x3 experimental design is proposed and elaborated. The experiment employs a 3 (Type of Failure: Activation Success + Implementation Failure; Activation Failure + Implementation Failure or Activation Failure + Implementation Success) x 3 (Type of Goal: Consumption; Criterion; or Process) between-subjects factorial design will be conducted. A totally separate control group without any form of e-service deficiency (Activation Success + Implementation Success) across the three goal categories will also be incorporated into the experimental design to contrast differences in consumers' perceptions, attitudes and behaviors arising from the distinction between the presence and absence of implementation failures given the successful activation of consumer goals. It is anticipated that the empirical findings from our experiment will serve to inform academics and practitioners on: (1) how consumer perceptions of different types of e-service failure manifest on e-commerce websites, and; (2) their impact on transactional attitudes and intentions.
   Conceptually, our proposed experimental study is designed to not only verify the veracity of our research model, but to also challenge the premise underlying past research into consumer behavior. Theories like the EDT have contended that expectations constructed from previous transactional experiences form the baseline from which consumers assess future transactions. Yet, if we were to establish goal activation as a prerequisite for perceptions of implementation failure to arise, it will imply that while prior transactional experiences might be pertinent in affecting consumer behavior, goals -- which are activated through immediate interactions with the e-commerce website -- may be a more salient influence. Additionally, the experiment represents an opportunity to validate our typology of e-service failures by demonstrating how they might occur in reality and explaining why each e-service failure type might be more or less effective in affecting online consumer behavior. Pragmatically, empirical findings can offer cautionary advice to practitioners to be vigilant in web interface design so as to avoid activating unwanted goals, especially when the website is ill-equipped to fulfill them. Further, the typology of e-service failures can provide guidelines for practitioners to establish benchmarks for designing error-free e-commerce websites. Finally, this study acts as a pre-requisite to uncovering corresponding e-service recovery mechanisms that can be offered on e-commerce websites to alleviate consumers' disappointment and feelings of dissatisfaction in the event of e-service failures.
Keywords: E-Service Failure, Goal-Directed Perspective, Goal Activation, Goal Implementation, Consumption Goals, Criterion Goals, Process Goals