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Proceedings of the 2002 AIS SIGHCI Workshop on HCI Research in MIS

Fullname:Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on HCI Research in MIS
Editors:Ping Zhang; Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah; Sid Davis
Location:Barcelona, Spain
Standard No:hcibib: SIGHCI02
Links:Workshop Program | Program with Abstracts
  1. HCI in MIS
  2. Issues in Website Design
  3. Trust and Motivation
  4. Human and Technology


Human-Computer Interaction (HCI): The Perfect Topic for Information Systems Researchers! BIBA 1
  Jenny Preece
Information Systems differs from its cousin, computer science, in being application oriented. We require graduate students to know some programming and networking, to be proficient in systems analysis and design, to design and implement data bases, to have a broad knowledge of management information systems and human-computer interaction and many other topics, such as e-commerce, e-government, AI, health informatics.
   Computer science curricula, in contrast, tend to emphasize programming languages, system architecture, algorithms and data structures. Information Systems takes a socio-technical perspective, whereas computer science takes an engineering and science perspective. Information Systems recognizes both the social and technical components of any system involving computers. Socio-technical systems are composed of: people, the social and physical environment in which technology is used and the technology itself. In order to develop successful socio-technical systems all of these components must be taken into account early and throughout system development.
   Human-computer interaction (HCI) is about people interacting with computer systems and with each other via computer systems. Consequently HCI fits within a socio-technical philosophy well. In fact, I will argue that HCI should be part of all information systems graduate programs and department research profiles. This is particularly important now that HCI has matured and broadened beyond just the human-computer interface -- or man-machine interface as it used to be known. New areas such as computer-supported co-operative work (CSCW) and more recently, online communities (OCs) and Internet and society research, push the boundaries of HCI even further in the socio- direction.
   In my presentation I will suggest, as I argue above, that HCI should be represented in all information systems departments. In addition, it is the duty of HCI faculty in information systems departments to promote HCI by encouraging cross-disciplinary research within information systems departments and with other associated departments. I will illustrate this point by first mapping out a research agenda for HCI in information systems and showing how our department at UMBC contributes to this vision. Finally, I will use my own research in online communities as an example of a strongly socio-technical research area that bridges across a number of disciplines in information systems, social psychology, sociology, medical informatics, and education. I even have interesting opportunities to work with students in a language, literature and culture (LLC) program.
Note: Invited presentation
Management Information Space (MIS*) BIBA 2
  Arkalgud Ramaprasad; Kevin Desouza
This paper extends the connotation of MIS (Management Information System) to MIS* (Management Information Space). Structurally MIS* consists of information objects, information processing agents, and 9 information flow media. Functionally it extends the manager's sensory space digitally and seamlessly to wherever and whenever necessary within the manager's organization and its environment. It also sustains the semiosis in an organization and extend the semiotic capability and capacity of the manager by: (a) using different semiotic agents, (b) using a variety of information objects, and (c) by facilitating the information flow among these agents and objects via a variety of media. The overall question for the HCI research in MIS* is to be able to make the MIS* pervasive and ubiquitous and yet make the manager feel omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent -- the Master of his or her universe, and not feel overwhelmed. The manager should be able to imagine the MIS* but it should not become an illusion; the manager she should be able to immerse himself or herself in the MIS* without getting lost; and the manager should be able to interact with the logical and physical organization through the MIS* without loss of control. The problem of HCI in MIS* is perhaps best paraphrased by the following lines from William Blake's (1757-1827) poem "Auguries of Innocence" (Eliot 1909-1914):
   To see a world in a grain of sand,
   And a heaven in a wild flower,
   Hold infinity in the palm of your hand,
   And eternity in an hour. A manager would like to sense his or her entire universe that could be spatially infinite and temporally eternal on a device that is comparatively miniscule in scale -- such as a computer monitor, or even smaller a personal digital assistant (PDA) screen. Having sensed, the manager seeks to create order from the disorder, organization from chaos through that minute window.
A Unified Model of IT Use Choices: Contributions from TAM, TTF, and CSE BIBA 3
  Diane Strong
An MIS approach to HCI (MIS/HCI) addresses a key aspect of users' interactions with computer systems, namely usefulness. While the usability focus of traditional HCI research encourages us to ask "Usable by whom?", usefulness encourages us to ask "Useful for what?" Since a person in an organization interacting with a computer system is typically trying to accomplish some organizational task, a focus on the tasks users are performing is a critical part of MIS/HCI. Furthermore, the concept of "task" differs between the traditional HCI approach and the MIS/HCI approach. In the traditional HCI approach, "task" means computer activities, e.g., insert data, query a table, insert a column. From an MIS/CHI approach, "task" refers to a business or organizational task, e.g., manage a budget, decide how much inventory to order, process a customer order.
   These observations about the role of task in an MIS approach to HCI support our belief that models of Task-Technology Fit are core to MIS/HCI research. Task-Technology Fit (TTF) models, as well as the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), have been used in the MIS literature to help us understand user choices about software utilization. In these models, the extent to which individuals in organizations choose to use an information technology is explained by usability, usefulness, and in general, how well the technology fits or supports the needs of the users' tasks.
   The research described in this talk is part of a stream of research exploring the similarities and differences among models and constructs that help MIS researchers understand users' choices about the software to use. The goal of this research stream is to propose and test unified models that help us understand better users' choices about software. Specifically, we have proposed and tested a model combining the TAM with a TTF model. TAM captures beliefs about usability and usefulness. To this, the TTF model adds constructs for task, technology, and the fit between the two. Together, this unified model provides better explanatory power than either model alone.
   To the combined TAM/TTF model, we are exploring the addition of constructs that capture individual abilities. Users' choices about information technology are not only influenced by task needs and technology functionality, but also by their experience and abilities related to the task and to the technology. Specifically, we are testing the addition of Experience and Computer Self-Efficacy (CSE) constructs to the combined TAM/TTF model.
   As we move toward a unified model of Task-Technology Fit, we need to address some key research questions including: How should we conceptualize and model information technology? How should we conceptualize and model organizational tasks and processes? What are the key dimensions of fit between task and technology? What are the critical dimensions of user abilities? How can we re-conceptualize models developed from individual-level theories so that they can be applied to organizational-level tasks, technologies, and fit?
Note: Invited presentation

Issues in Website Design

Communication Theory as a Basis for Designing Adaptive Websites: Levels of Abstraction and Scope BIBA 4
  Dov Te'eni
Websites such as professional web-books, online tutorials and other information intensive websites have traditionally been designed on the basis of an augmented book metaphor. In this talk, I take an alternative view in which the website is an active agent of communication that adapts to the needs of the reader (who is seen as a partner to the communication). This leads to a notion of adaptation on two dimensions: scope and levels of abstraction (high levels are abstract representations and low levels are detailed and concrete).
   People communicate at different levels of abstraction, depending on the task at hand and the complexity of the communication. Models of communication can predict these moves across levels and can therefore serve as a basis for websites that adapt to the needs of the reader (user). Similarly, if the system can be informed (by the reader or otherwise) of the current area of the reader's interest, the scope of website can be adapted accordingly.
   In order to examine these ideas empirically, we studied the use of websites that could adapt the presentation of materials to different levels of abstraction and different scopes. In one study, we constructed a website from a 100-page article that was reorganized as a Web-book built around four levels of abstraction, i.e., low levels consist of specific and concrete descriptions of reality, while high levels consist of general principles abstracted from specific cases. A field study of unsolicited readers, as well as a group of solicited readers who were assigned specific problems, tapped their access patterns. The findings suggest that users vary their allocation of attention to different levels of abstraction and choose to hide or ignore lower levels for certain reading tasks. An experiment further investigated under what conditions users move from one level to another and found that complexity triggers transitions between levels. A second study looked at the effects of adapting the scope of a website on the effectiveness and satisfaction of users. It turned out that the effects of adaptation are mixed and may be time dependent. I hope to involve the participants in a discussion of these issues.
Note: Invited presentation
The Impact of Cognitive Mapping on Effective Website Design BIBA 5
  Hui Kun Neo; Gek Woo Tan; Kwok Kee Wei
For Internet retailers to survive, it is important for them to design effective Websites. In surveys conducted by CommerceNet and GVU, the inability to find and access information in the Website was cited as main concerns in obstructing e-commerce, causing user dissatisfaction and hindering user performance. Current academic research on Website design models fall into three dimensions: purport -- meaning conveyed or implied by the contents of the Website (for example: Katerattanakul and Siau, 1999), semblance -- appearance or outward forms of the Website (for example: Zhang et al., 2000a; Zhang et al., 1999; Turban, 1999), and morphology -- organization and inter-linkages of the Webpages (for example: Troyer, 1999; Larson and Czerwinski, 1998). The existence of poor Website design is due to current models that have focused on identifying specific Website features to improve user performance, which is determined by user effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in performing task. However, user performance cannot be explained simply by existence of a Website feature. With increasing sophistication in Web technology, there are infinite arrays of features to be incorporated into the Website design. We postulate that the cognitive mapping of the users' mental model (i.e. a mental representation of the Website environment) to the actual Website is crucial in task accomplishment. Based on wayfinding theory, a person would form a mental model of the real environment and then perform a cognitive mapping between the mental model and the real environment in order to navigate the environment (Passini, 1984). In this study, we proposed that a molar perspective of Website design dimensions facilitates the cognitive mapping of user's mental model of the Website to the physical Website environment and consequently improves user performance. The main contribution of this study lies in the proposal of a parsimonious framework for measuring these dimensions in relation to user performance, to be carried out through experimentation. This would give us insights as to the formulation of guidelines that would assist designers to better identify the areas for improvement such that the user performance can be optimised and ultimately, create genuine effective Websites.
Designing Business-To-Consumer (B2C) Interface Metaphors: An Empirical Investigation BIBA 6
  John Wells; William Fuerst
The emergence of electronic commerce has pushed information technology to an increasingly heterogeneous set of users (e.g., customers) who interact with a wide variety of user interfaces. As a result, the need for user-friendly, intuitive interfaces has become an urgent issue in electronic commerce. In business-to-consumer (B2C) electronic commerce, a primary goal is the ability to present a virtual representation of products and/or services. Because metaphors are defined by a user's perception of objects in his/her environment (Lackoff & Johnson, 1980), business domains are a viable source for deriving B2C interface metaphors. For instance, these domains can include the product domain (e.g., graphical representation of a product) or the service domain where products/services are consumed (e.g., restaurant). This research explores the use of concrete attributes derived from the physical business domain as a technique for designing B2C interface metaphors. A laboratory experiment was designed to test the effectiveness of a concrete interface metaphor for presenting both textual and graphical information, as compared to an abstract interface metaphor. The independent variables were mode of interface and domain familiarity. The dependent variable consisted of a measure for user information retention/recall. Textual and graphical information were measured separately to make a distinction between symbolic and spatial information types. The subjects for this study were undergraduate students who were enrolled in an introductory management information systems course at a major university. A total of eighty-eight subjects (twenty-two in each treatment group) participated in the experiment. A questionnaire was administered to measure the subject's information retention/recall. The retention/recall of the information was measured for the two different interface metaphors, with subjects being tested both the day of the treatment and after a two-day lag. Results revealed that the concrete interface metaphor stimulated higher levels of retention/recall of information, particularly for customers who possess a weak mental model of the business domain. In addition, it was observed that the concrete interface metaphor stimulated a higher level of graphical information retention/recall without adversely affecting the retention/recall of textual information.

Trust and Motivation

Seal of Approval and Multidimensionality of Perceived Trustworthiness in Online Service Adoption BIBA 7
  Kevin Kuan; Judith Olson
This paper examines the concept of perceived trustworthiness and its effect on adoption of online service. Perceived trustworthiness has been argued as a higher-level concept reflected by three distinct beliefs: (1) perceived ability (the extent to which the trustee is perceived as competent), (2) perceived integrity (the extent to which the trustee is perceived as being adherent to a set of dependable and reliable principles), and (3) perceived benevolence (the extent to which the trustee is perceived as caring beyond an egocentric profit). An experiment based on an online service was conducted with 112 subjects at a major mid-west university. Modeled as a second-order factor, perceived trustworthiness was found to have a significant effect on intention to adopt the online service. Consistent with TAM, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were found to have significant effects on intention. Furthermore, perceived usefulness was found to have a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness. This paper also examines the effect of seal of approval by TRUSTe on the three dimensions of trustworthiness. It was found that TRUSTe seal improved perceived integrity but not perceived ability and perceived benevolence. The results suggest that, as a high level concept, perceived trustworthiness is generally important to the adoption on online services. Yet, different dimensions may be of different importance to different online services, and can be enhanced by different or multiple seals of approval. Online service providers should look at the nature of their services, identify the dimensions of trustworthiness that are important to the customers, and make sure their images with respect to those dimensions are well communicated to the customers. Finally, the effect of perceived usefulness on perceived trustworthiness suggests that the perception on the online service provider can be affected by the perception on the online service itself. Therefore, when focusing on its trust image, an online service provider should not overlook the fundamental importance of providing a good service.
The Impact of Internalization and Familiarity On Trust and Adoption of Recommendation Agents BIBA 8
  Sherrie Xiao; Izak Benbasat
This paper develops and tests a research model which reflects our postulation that in agent-mediated ecommerce, a customer will adopt a customer agent, such as a recommendation agent (RA), because the customer agent (an agent) will internalize the real needs of the customer (a principal). We think that Internalization will increase the customer's intention to adopt the RA through increased cognitive trust and emotional trust, which is not purely cognitive nor rational.
   Our research model conceptualizes that both internalization and familiarity will affect customer trust in an RA (including both cognitive trust and emotional trust), and that customer trust in an RA will affect the intention to adopt an RA as a delegated agent or as a decision aid. Internalization refers to a customer's perception of how well an RA represents the customer's real needs. New measures of cognitive trust, emotional trust, the intention to adopt an RA as a delegated agent, the intention to adopt an RA as a decision aid, and internalization have been developed. We have conducted a lab experiment and used PLS to analyze the data.
   The results support our postulation. We find that the total effects of internalization on the two intentions to adopt an RA are 0.46 and 0.47 respectively. This means that a one standard deviation increase in internalization will result in a 0.46 standard deviation increase in a customer's intention to adopt the RA as a delegated agent and a 0.47 standard deviation increase in a customer's intention to adopt the RA as a decision aid. One standard deviation increase in internalization affects the intention to adopt an RA through a 0.67 standard deviation increase in cognitive trust and through a 0.61 standard deviation increase in emotional trust. It is interesting to find that cognitive trust fully mediates the impact of internalization on emotional trust, and that emotional trust fully mediates the impact of cognitive trust on the intention to adopt an RA as a delegated agent or as a decision aid. In addition, familiarity significantly increases cognitive trust, while it does not significantly affect emotional trust.
A Motivational Model of Evaluation for Information Seeking Environments BIBA 9
  Jeff Stanton; Ping Zhang; Gisela von Dran
In this paper, we develop a framework that emphasizes the role of motivation and emotion in user evaluation of artifacts (such as information seeking environments) and how emotions resulting from artifact use may impact future behavior. We suggest that the hedonic outcomes of a user's experience with an artifact, such as an information-seeking environment, influence the likelihood of his or her future goal-oriented behavior pertaining to that artifact. We review earlier models of evaluation to identify areas of overlap and similarity. Then by adding perspectives of two current theories from the behavioral science research literature we attempt to understand the psychological processes underlying user evaluation of an artifact. We focus this examination on the level of the immediate experiences of individuals as they use an artifact rather than on the larger contexts of social and organizational influences on artifact use, although we recognize that these larger contexts can have substantial importance, particularly with regard to the behavior that follows user evaluation. The framework, which we have called the "joint evaluation model" (JEM), takes as a basic orientation the idea that evaluation outcomes stem from an interaction of user characteristics and artifact characteristics rather than one or the other alone.
   To examine whether the new framework could provide a satisfactory guide for future research, we reinterpret results from two previous studies in light of the new framework. We also present preliminary results from a user evaluation study that helped us to develop the framework. The artifact in this study was a set of web-based information-seeking environments that allowed users to conduct a brief information search and self-tutorial. Although results from our analyses of these data were mixed, some hopeful signs emerged that our framework's focus on changes to emotional states across the evaluation process was potentially fruitful. With further development, we hope that the framework can eventually be generalized to other artifacts (e.g., smart-phones, PDAs) with which people interact for achieving a particular goal.

Human and Technology

Leonardo's Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Technologies BIBA 10
  Ben Shneiderman
Recent research on computer user frustration with 111 experienced users has revealed that 30-45% of user time is wasted. This appalling record should push developers to dramatically improve the usability of existing systems. The potential productivity gains are enormous. Second, future designs can and should address the need for universal usability: device independence, user independence, and knowledge independence. Third, the largest opportunity is in new products and services that are truly in harmony with user needs. The Activities and Relationship Table is one guide for innovation. This talk proposes Leonardo da Vinci as an inspirational muse for the "new computing." The old computing is about what computers can do; the new computing is about what users can do. http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/newcomputing http://mitpress.mit.edu/leonardoslaptop
Note: Invited presentation
Web Site Delays: How Slow can You Go? BIBA 11
  Dennis Galletta; Ray Henry; Scott McCoy; Peter Polak
Web page loading speed continues to vex users, even as broadband adoption continues to increase. Sources of delay are too diverse to support a single "silver bullet." Several studies have addressed delays both in the context of web sites as well as interactive corporate systems, and a wide range of "rules of thumb" have been recommended. Some studies conclude that response times should be allowed to grow to no greater than 2 seconds while other studies caution on delays of 12 seconds or more. One of the strongest conclusions was that complex tasks seemed to allow longer response times. This study, the first of a series of three so far, examined delay times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 seconds using 196 undergraduate students in an experiment. The subjects were randomly assigned a constant delay time and were asked to complete 9 search tasks, exploring a site with familiar and unfamiliar material (categories and content). Plots of performance, attitudes, and behavioral intentions suggested that a moderate amount of each outcome can be explained by delay, using both linear and non-linear regression. Non-linear regression explained 2%, 5%, and 7% of each variable, respectively. More interestingly, focusing only on the familiar site, explained variance in attitudes and behavioral intentions grew to about 16%. The curve for behavioral intentions is shown below.
   A sensitivity analysis was performed on the data. It was interesting to find that our study supports strongly previous survey data that names delay as the worst problem. There were sharp, significant decreases in all dependent variables when delay was moved from 0 to 2 seconds. As delay increased, decreases in performance and behavioral intentions began to flatten when the delays extend to 4 seconds or longer, and attitudes flatten when the delays extend to 8 seconds or longer. Our follow-on studies include additional factors, including site depth/breadth, delay variability, and delay feedback. Future studies should examine user expectations, and other outcomes such as actual purchasing behavior, in more fully understanding the effects of delays in today's web environment.
Knowledge-based Support in a Group Decision Making Context: An Expert-Novice Comparison BIBA 12
  Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah; Izak Benbasat
Due to the increasing use of knowledge-based technology to support knowledge management and group decision-making in organizations, we need to more fully understand the impact of such support in a multi-individual decision-making context. Knowledge-based systems (KBS), which represent the knowledge and problem-solving expertise of human experts as well as other sources of expertise in narrow knowledge domains, have been used in organizations to support group decision-making. This study is the first to investigate how the domain expertise of users moderates the impact of KBS in the group setting. Specifically, it examined the use of a KBS and its explanation facilities to support group decision-making of experts versus novices in a laboratory setting. Consistent with predictions from social judgment theory, the results indicate that experts exhibit a higher level of criticality and involvement in their area of expertise; this not only decreases their likelihood of being persuaded by the KBS, but also accounts for a lower group consensus among experts as compared to novices after KBS use. In other words, the group judgments of novices were more in line with the KBS than the group judgments of experts, and novices utilizing the KBS in a group achieved a higher level of consensus than experts. As a consequence, novices found the KBS to be more useful than experts did. From a theoretical perspective, this research integrates social judgment theory from the persuasion literature into research on group use of KBS. From a practitioner perspective, this study highlights both the benefits and limitations of KBS use in organizations.