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Proceedings of Pervasive 2005: International Conference on Pervasive Computing

Fullname:Pervasive 2005: Pervasive Computing, Third International Conference
Editors:Hans-Werner Gellersen; Roy Want; Albrecht Schmidt
Location:Munich, Germany
Dates:2005-May-08 to 2005-May-13
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3468 Springer 2005
Standard No:ISBN 3-540-26008-0; hcibib: Pervasive05
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Location Techniques
  2. Activity and Context
  3. Location and Privacy
  4. Handheld Devices
  5. Sensor Systems
  6. User Interaction

Location Techniques

Audio Location: Accurate Low-Cost Location Sensing BIBAFull-Text 1-18
  James Scott; Boris Dragovic
Audio location is a technique for performing accurate 3D location sensing using off-the-shelf audio hardware. The use of off-the-shelf hardware allows audio location deployment to be low-cost and simple for users, as compared to other currently available centimetre-scale location sensing systems which have significant custom hardware and installation labour requirements. Another advantage of audio location is the ability to locate users who are not carrying any special location-enabling "tag", by using sounds that the user themselves can make such as finger clicking. Described herein are the various design parameters for audio location systems, the applicability of audio location for novel 3D user interfaces based on human sounds, and a quantitative evaluation of a working prototype.
Using Sound Source Localization in a Home Environment BIBAFull-Text 19-36
  Xuehai Bian; Gregory D. Abowd; James M. Rehg
In this paper, we examine the feasibility of sound source localization (SSL) in a home environment, and explore its potential to support inference of communication activity between people. Motivated by recent research in pervasive computing that uses a variety of sensor modes to infer high-level activity, we are interested in exploring how the relatively simple information of SSL might contribute. Our SSL system covers a significant portion of the public space in a realistic home setting by adapting traditional SSL algorithms developed for more highly-controlled lab environments. We describe engineering tradeoffs that result in a localization system with a fairly good 3D resolution. To help make design decisions for deploying a SSL system in a domestic environment, we provide a quantitative assessment of the accuracy and precision of our system. We also demonstrate how such a sensor system can provide a visualization to help humans infer activity in that space. Finally, we show preliminary results for automatic detection of face-to-face conversations.
Tracking Locations of Moving Hand-Held Displays Using Projected Light BIBAFull-Text 37-46
  Jay Summet; Rahul Sukthankar
Lee et al. have recently demonstrated display positioning using optical sensors in conjunction with temporally-coded patterns of projected light. This paper extends that concept in two important directions. First, we enable such sensors to determine their own location without using radio synchronization signals -- allowing cheaper sensors and protecting location privacy. Second, we track the optical sensors over time using adaptive patterns, minimizing the extent of distracting temporal codes to small regions, thus enabling the remainder of the illuminated region to serve as a useful display while tracking. Our algorithms have been integrated into a prototype system that projects content onto a small, moving surface to create an inexpensive hand-held display for pervasive computing applications.

Activity and Context

Bathroom Activity Monitoring Based on Sound BIBAFull-Text 47-61
  Jianfeng Chen; Alvin Harvey Kam; Jianmin Zhang; Ning Liu; Louis Shue
In this paper an automated bathroom activity monitoring system based on acoustics is described. The system is designed to recognize and classify major activities occurring within a bathroom based on sound. Carefully designed HMM parameters using MFCC features are used for accurate and robust bathroom sound event classification. Experiments to validate the utility of the system were performed firstly in a constrained setting as a proof-of-concept and later in an actual trial involving real people using their bathroom in the normal course of their daily lives. Preliminary results are encouraging with the accuracy rate for most sound categories being above 84%. We sincerely believe that the system contributes towards increased understanding of personal hygiene behavioral problems that significantly affect both informal care-giving and clinical care of dementia patients.
Simultaneous Tracking and Activity Recognition (STAR) Using Many Anonymous, Binary Sensors BIBAFull-Text 62-79
  D. H. Wilson; Christopher G. Atkeson
In this paper we introduce the simultaneous tracking and activity recognition (STAR) problem, which exploits the synergy between location and activity to provide the information necessary for automatic health monitoring. Automatic health monitoring can potentially help the elderly population live safely and independently in their own homes by providing key information to caregivers. Our goal is to perform accurate tracking and activity recognition for multiple people in a home environment. We use a "bottom-up" approach that primarily uses information gathered by many minimally invasive sensors commonly found in home security systems. We describe a Rao-Blackwellised particle filter for room-level tracking, rudimentary activity recognition (i.e., whether or not an occupant is moving), and data association. We evaluate our approach with experiments in a simulated environment and in a real instrumented home.
Enhancing Semantic Spaces with Event-Driven Context Interpretation BIBAFull-Text 80-97
  Joo Geok Tan; Daqing Zhang; Xiaohang Wang; Heng Seng Cheng
One important functionality provided by a context-aware infrastructure is to derive high-level contexts on behalf of context-aware applications. High-level contexts are summary descriptions about users' states and surroundings which are generally inferred from low-level, explicit contexts directly provided by hardware sensors and software programs. In Semantic Space, an ontology-based context-aware infrastructure, high-level contexts are derived using context reasoning. In this paper, we present another approach to deriving high-level contexts in Semantic Space, event-driven context interpretation. We show how event-driven context interpretation can leverage on the context model and dynamic context acquisition/representation in Semantic Space as well as easily integrate into Semantic Space. Differing from the context reasoning approach, our proposed event-driven context interpreter offers better performance in terms of flexibility, scalability and processing time. We also present a prototype of the event-driven context interpreter we are building within Semantic Space to validate the feasibility of the new approach.
The Java Context Awareness Framework (JCAF) -- A Service Infrastructure and Programming Framework for Context-Aware Applications BIBAFull-Text 98-115
  Jakob E. Bardram
Context-awareness is a key concept in ubiquitous computing. But to avoid developing dedicated context-awareness sub-systems for specific application areas there is a need for more generic programming frameworks. Such frameworks can help the programmer develop and deploy context-aware applications faster. This paper describes the Java Context-Awareness Framework -- JCAF, which is a Java-based context-awareness infrastructure and programming API for creating context-aware computer applications. The paper presents the design goals of JCAF, its runtime architecture, and its programming model. The paper presents some applications of using JCAF in three different applications and discusses lessons learned from using JCAF.

Location and Privacy

Place Lab: Device Positioning Using Radio Beacons in the Wild BIBAFull-Text 116-133
  Anthony LaMarca; Yatin Chawathe; Sunny Consolvo; Jeffrey Hightower; Ian E. Smith; James Scott; Timothy Sohn; James Howard; Jeff Hughes; Fred Potter; Jason Tabert; Pauline Powledge; Gaetano Borriello; Bill N. Schilit
Location awareness is an important capability for mobile computing. Yet inexpensive, pervasive positioning -- a requirement for wide-scale adoption of location-aware computing -- has been elusive. We demonstrate a radio beacon-based approach to location, called Place Lab, that can overcome the lack of ubiquity and high-cost found in existing location sensing approaches. Using Place Lab, commodity laptops, PDAs and cell phones estimate their position by listening for the cell IDs of fixed radio beacons, such as wireless access points, and referencing the beacons' positions in a cached database. We present experimental results showing that 802.11 and GSM beacons are sufficiently pervasive in the greater Seattle area to achieve 20-30 meter median accuracy with nearly 100% coverage measured by availability in people's daily lives.
Social Disclosure of Place: From Location Technology to Communication Practices BIBAFull-Text 134-151
  Ian E. Smith; Sunny Consolvo; Anthony LaMarca; Jeffrey Hightower; James Scott; Timothy Sohn; Jeff Hughes; Giovanni Iachello; Gregory D. Abowd
Communication of one's location as part of a social discourse is common practice, and we use a variety of technologies to satisfy this need. This practice suggests a potentially useful capability that technology may support more directly. We present such a social location disclosure service, Reno, designed for use on a common mobile phone platform. We describe the guiding principles that dictate parameters for creating a usable, useful and ubiquitous service and we report on a pilot study of use of Reno for a realistic social network. Our preliminary results reveal the competing factors for a system that facilitates both manual and automatic location disclosure, and the role social context plays in making such a lightweight communication solution work.
A Formal Model of Obfuscation and Negotiation for Location Privacy BIBAFull-Text 152-170
  Matt Duckham; Lars Kulik
Obfuscation concerns the practice of deliberately degrading the quality of information in some way, so as to protect the privacy of the individual to whom that information refers. In this paper, we argue that obfuscation is an important technique for protecting an individual's location privacy within a pervasive computing environment. The paper sets out a formal framework within which obfuscated location-based services are defined. This framework provides a computationally efficient mechanism for balancing an individual's need for high-quality information services against that individual's need for location privacy. Negotiation is used to ensure that a location-based service provider receives only the information it needs to know in order to provide a service of satisfactory quality. The results of this work have implications for numerous applications of mobile and location-aware systems, as they provide a new theoretical foundation for addressing the privacy concerns that are acknowledged to be retarding the widespread acceptance and use of location-based services.

Handheld Devices

A Conceptual Framework for Camera Phone-Based Interaction Techniques BIBAFull-Text 171-189
  Michael Rohs; Philipp Zweifel
This paper proposes and evaluates interaction techniques for camera-equipped mobile phones. The proposed techniques are based on a visual code system that provides a number of orientation parameters, such as target pointing, rotation, tilting, distance, and relative movement. Our conceptual framework defines a set of fundamental physical gestures that form a basic vocabulary for describing interaction when using mobile phones capable of reading visual codes. These interaction primitives can be combined to create more complex and expressive interactions. A stateless interaction model allows for specifying interaction sequences, which guide the user with iconic and auditory cues. In using the parameters of the visual code system as a means of input, our framework enhances the currently limited input capabilities of mobile phones. Moreover, it enables users to interact with real-world objects in their current environment. We present an XML-based specification language for this model, a corresponding authoring tool, and a generic interpreter application for Symbian phones.
u-Photo: Interacting with Pervasive Services Using Digital Still Images BIBAFull-Text 190-207
  Genta Suzuki; Shun Aoki; Takeshi Iwamoto; Daisuke Maruyama; Takuya Koda; Naohiko Kohtake; Kazunori Takashio; Hideyuki Tokuda
This paper presents u-Photo which is an interactive digital still image including information of pervasive services associated with networked appliances and sensors in pervasive computing environment. U-Photo Tools can generate a u-Photo and provide methods for discovering contextual information about these pervasive services. Users can easily find out this information through the metaphor of 'taking a photograph'; the users use u-Photo by clicking on a physical entity in a digital still image. In addition, u-Photo makes managing information more efficient because the still image has embedded visual information. Using u-Photo and u-Photo Tools, we conducted various demonstrations and performed usability tests. The results of these tests show that u-Photo Tools are easy to learn. We also present that the time that expert u-Photo users take to find the object in piles of u-Photos is shorter than the time it take to find the object in piles of text-based descriptions.
Towards Massively Multi-user Augmented Reality on Handheld Devices BIBAFull-Text 208-219
  Daniel Wagner; Thomas Pintaric; Florian Ledermann; Dieter Schmalstieg
Augmented Reality (AR) can naturally complement mobile computing on wearable devices by providing an intuitive interface to a three-dimensional information space embedded within physical reality. Unfortunately, current wearable AR systems are relatively complex, expensive, fragile and heavy, rendering them unfit for large-scale deployment involving untrained users outside constrained laboratory environments. Consequently, the scale of collaborative multi-user experiments have not yet exceeded a handful of participants. In this paper, we present a system architecture for interactive, infrastructure-independent multi-user AR applications running on off-the-shelf handheld devices. We implemented a four-user interactive game installation as an evaluation setup to encourage playful engagement of participants in a cooperative task. Over the course of five weeks, more than five thousand visitors from a wide range of professional and socio-demographic backgrounds interacted with our system at four different locations.

Sensor Systems

Design Methodology for Context-Aware Wearable Sensor Systems BIBAFull-Text 220-236
  Urs Anliker; Holger Junker; Paul Lukowicz; Gerhard Tröster
Many research projects dealing with context-aware wearable systems encounter similar issues: where to put the sensors, which features to use and how to organize the system. These issues constitute a multi-objective optimization problem largely determined by recognition accuracy, user comfort and power consumption. To date, this optimization problem is mostly addressed in an ad hoc manner based on experience as well as trial and error approaches. In this paper, we seek to formalize this optimization problem and pave the way towards an automated system design process. We first present a formal description of the optimization criteria and system requirements. We then outline a methodology for the automatic derivation of Pareto optimal systems from such a description. As initial verification, we apply our methodology to a simple standard recognition task using a set of hardware components, body locations and features typically used in wearable systems. We show that our methodology produces good results and that a simple example can provide information that an experienced system designer would have problems extracting by other means.
Collaborative Sensing in a Retail Store Using Synchronous Distributed Jam Signalling BIBAFull-Text 237-254
  Albert Krohn; Tobias Zimmer; Michael Beigl; Christian Decker
The retail store environment is a challenging application area for Pervasive Computing technologies. It has demanding base conditions due to the number and complexity of the interdependent processes involved. We present first results of an ongoing study with dm-drogerie markt, a large chemist's retailer, that indicate that supporting product monitoring tasks with novel pervasive technology is useful but still needs technical advances. Based on this study, we uncover problems that occur when using identification technology (such as RFID) for product monitoring. The individual identification struggles with data overload and inefficient channel access due to the high number of tags involved. We address these problems with the concept of Radio Channel Computing, combining approaches from information theory, such as the method of types and multiple access adder channels. We realise data pre-processing on the physical layer and significantly improve response time and scalability. With mathematical formulation, simulations and a real world implementation, we evaluate and prove the usefulness of the proposed system.
Parasitic Mobility for Pervasive Sensor Networks BIBAFull-Text 255-278
  Mathew Laibowitz; Joseph A. Paradiso
Distributed sensor networks offer many new capabilities for contextually monitoring environments. By making such systems mobile, we increase the application-space for the distributed network mainly by providing dynamic context-dependent deployment, continual relocatability, automatic node recovery, and a larger area of coverage. In existing models, the addition of actuation to the nodes has exacerbated three of the main problems with distributed systems: power usage, node size, and node complexity. In this paper we propose a solution to these problems in the form of parasitically actuated nodes that harvest their mobility and local navigational intelligence by selectively engaging and disengaging from mobile hosts in their environment. We analyze the performance of parasitically mobile distributed networks through software simulations and design, implement, and demonstrate hardware prototypes.

User Interaction

Decision-Theoretic Planning Meets User Requirements: Enhancements and Studies of an Intelligent Shopping Guide BIBAKFull-Text 279-296
  Thorsten Bohnenberger; Oliver Jacobs; Anthony Jameson; Ilhan Aslan
This paper reports on extensions to a decision-theoretic location-aware shopping guide and on the results of user studies that have accompanied its development. On the basis of the results of an earlier user study in a mock-up of a shopping mall, we implemented an improved version of the shopping guide. A new user study with the improved system in a real shopping mall confirms in a much more realistic setting the generally positive user attitudes found in the earlier study. The new study also sheds further light on the usability issues raised by the system, some of which can also arise with other mobile guides and recommenders. One such issue concerns desire of users to be able to understand and second-guess the system's recommendations. This requirement led to the development of an explanation component for the decision-theoretic guide, which was evaluated in a smaller follow-up study in the shopping mall.
Keywords: Mobile commerce; navigation support; decision-theoretic planning; user studies; recommender systems; explanation
Integrating Intra and Extra Gestures into a Mobile and Multimodal Shopping Assistant BIBAFull-Text 297-314
  Rainer Wasinger; Antonio Krüger; Oliver Jacobs
Accompanying the rise of mobile and pervasive computing, applications now need to adapt to their surrounding environments and provide users with information in the environment in an easy and natural manner. In this paper we describe a user interface that integrates multimodal input on a handheld device with external gestures performed with real world artifacts. The described approach extends reference resolution based on speech, handwriting and gesture to that of real world objects that users may hold in their hands. We discuss the varied interaction channels available to users that arise from mixing and matching input modalities on the mobile device with actions performed in the environment. We also discuss the underlying components required in handling these extended multimodal interactions and present an implementation of our ideas in a demonstrator called the Mobile ShopAssist. This demonstrator is then used as the basis for a recent usability study that we describe on user interaction within mobile contexts.
AwareMirror: A Personalized Display Using a Mirror BIBAFull-Text 315-332
  Kaori Fujinami; Fahim Kawsar; Tatsuo Nakajima
In this paper, we propose a personalized display, "AwareMirror: an augmented mirror". AwareMirror presents information relevant to a person in front of it by super-imposing his/her image. A toothbrush has been chosen as an identification tool while proximity sensors have been utilized to detect a person's position (in front of the mirror). Also, three types of information that can affect a user's decision have been selected. The mirror has been constructed using an acrylic magic mirror board and ordinal computer monitor. The acrylic board has been attached in front of the monitor, and only bright color from the display can penetrate the board. As a result of preliminary evaluation, we found that the mirror is useful to offer information in an unobtrusive manner while preserving its metaphor.
Embedded Assessment: Overcoming Barriers to Early Detection with Pervasive Computing BIBAFull-Text 333-346
  Margaret E. Morris; Stephen S. Intille; Jennifer Beaudin
Embedded assessment leverages the capabilities of pervasive computing to advance early detection of health conditions. In this approach, technologies embedded in the home setting are used to establish personalized baselines against which later indices of health status can be compared. Our ethnographic and concept feedback studies suggest that adoption of such health technologies among end users will be increased if monitoring is woven into preventive and compensatory health applications, such that the integrated system provides value beyond assessment. We review health technology advances in the three areas of monitoring, compensation, and prevention. We then define embedded assessment in terms of these three components. The validation of pervasive computing systems for early detection involves unique challenges due to conflicts between the exploratory nature of these systems and the validation criteria of medical research audiences. We discuss an approach for demonstrating value that incorporates ethnographic observation and new ubiquitous computing tools for behavioral observation in naturalistic settings such as the home.