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Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Persuasive Technology

Fullname:Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Persuasive Technology: Persuasive Technology and Design: Enhancing Sustainability and Health
Editors:Curtis P. Haugtvedt; Agnis Stibe; David Ewoldsen
Location:Columbus, Ohio
Dates:2011-Jun-02 to 2011-Jun-05
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-0669-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: Persuasive11
Links:Conference Website
Persuasive power in groups: the influence of group feedback and individual comparison feedback on energy consumption behavior BIBAFull-Text 1
  Cees Midden; Hiroaki Kimura; Jaap Ham; Tatsuo Nakajima; Mieke Kleppe
In this paper we argue that energy conservation is largely a group phenomenon requiring group interventions to achieve change. Persuasive technology can help to provide these interventions. The present study explores the influence of group feedback and individual comparative feedback on energy consumption using an experimental simulation paradigm. To account for cultural differences in group orientation and the power of group feedback, two studies were conducted, one in the Netherlands and one in Japan, in which groups of participants received feedback on everyday tasks. As expected, Dutch participants saved more energy when individual comparison feedback was present, but not the Japanese participants. In contrast, as expected, group feedback caused Japanese participants to save more energy. Providing solely group feedback did not promote energy saving in the Netherlands. Group feedback made the Dutch save more energy only in combination with individual comparison feedback. These results suggest that persuasive technology can employ the power of feedback as a group intervention, but that relevant cultural orientations are crucial.
The persuasive power of PowerPoint® presentations BIBAFull-Text 2
  Rosanna E. Guadagno; Jill M. Sundie; Terrilee Asher Hardison; Robert B. Cialdini
This study investigated the persuasive impact of information using varying degrees of technological sophistication. Participants were individuals who were novices and experts in the domain of the information. Participants reviewed a presentation of a football scout's favorable report on a potential recruit. They then evaluated the recruit's projected success. The experimental design was a 2 (participant football expertise: expert vs. novice) X 3 (technological sophistication of presentation: low [typed summary of statistics] vs. moderate [printed PowerPoint® charts] vs. high [computer-based animated PowerPoint® charts]) between subjects factorial. We expected and found that the recruit would be rated higher in the PowerPoint® presentation condition but that experts would be less affected by the difference in communication modality than would novices. Both novice and expert participants were more swayed by the greater the technological sophistication of the presentation. This effect was more marked for football novices than football experts.
Technology and adherence in web-based interventions for weight control: a systematic review BIBAFull-Text 3
  Saskia M. Kelders; Robin N. Kok; Julia E. W. C. Van Gemert-Pijnen
While technology based health interventions can be effective, high attrition rates are commonly observed in research and practice and are a major issue in eHealth. Research on adherence has recently gained some scientific attention, but little has been done as to how technology itself engages users. It seems plausible that technology plays a role in persuading people to use an eHealth intervention and keep on using it. The present study seeks to apply the PSD-model with regard to this major issue in eHealth. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the databases Web of Knowledge, EBSCOHOST, Picarta, Scopus and ScienceDirect. The following characteristics were coded: Health care domain, Study level, Sample size, Intended usage, Usage web-based intervention, Adherence, Predictors of adherence, Intervention, Interaction, Persuasive technology in the intervention. The search yielded 4939 unique titles, of which 460 articles were deemed relevant. After title, abstract and full text screening by two researchers, 109 articles were included. Concluding, we can say that it seems that when designing web-based interventions, most attention is given to support the primary task. Dialogue support and social support appear neglected. Taking into account that more extensive use of persuasive technology seems to be positively related to adherence, more attention should be paid to all forms of support through technology.
Unconscious persuasion needs goal-striving: the effect of goal activation on the persuasive power of subliminal feedback BIBAFull-Text 4
  Peter A. M. Ruijten; Cees J. H. Midden; Jaap Ham
A fundamental characteristic of ambient persuasive technology is the ability to persuade users outside of conscious attention. One method of influencing people outside of their conscious awareness is subliminal priming: Presenting a stimulus for less than 50 milliseconds so people can not consciously perceive it but they are able to process the information unconsciously. Earlier research has shown that subliminal feedback on energy consumption leads to more optimal choices in an energy-related choice task compared with no feedback. Would subliminal feedback always be effective in influencing people's choices, or do people need to be motivated to reach a specific goal for it to work? In the current research, we investigate if persuasion by subliminal feedback comprises a goal-striving related process in which people strive for a goal and use the subliminal information to reach that goal. In an experimental study, half of the participants were primed with the goal to perform well, and the other half was not primed with this goal. Next, half of the participants received subliminal feedback in a learning task, whereas the other half received no feedback. Results indicated that participants primed with a performance goal made more correct choices in the task when given the subliminal feedback compared with given no feedback. Participants who were not primed with a goal were not influenced by this feedback. This finding indicates the need for a behavior-relevant goal to make subliminal information effective, which in turn has important implications for research and design of ambient persuasive technology.
Cooking behaviours: understanding energy use to design persuasive applications BIBAFull-Text 5
  Luis Carlos Rubino de Oliveira; Val Mitchell; Kevin Badni
Electric cookers and kettles are often the highest electricity consumers amongst household appliances. Cooking requires several interactions with these appliances, and furthermore people's behaviours play an important role in the energy consumption. This research is seeking to understand people's behaviours whilst cooking and also identify the determinants of these behaviours. Energy monitoring, video recording and semi-structured questionnaires were used to gather this information. This knowledge will inform the development of an intervention aiming at reducing energy expenditure.
Whom to tell a moving story?: individual differences and persuasion profiling in the field of narrative persuasion BIBAFull-Text 6
  Markus Appel; Tobias Richter; Martina Mara; Christopher Lindinger; Bernad Batinic
Telling stories can be a powerful way to persuade. This contributions reviews previous research on individual differences in narrative persuasion, with an emphasis on one personality construct: the need for affect. Implications for persuasion profiling are discussed. Moreover, this contribution provides data on correlates of the need for affect which might be useful in applied settings. Finally, ethical issues are addressed.
Reinforcing preliminary design strategy selection guidelines with insight from Fogg's behaviour grid BIBAFull-Text 7
  Johannes Zachrisson Daae; Casper Boks
In 2010, Zachrisson & Boks presented a set of preliminary guidelines for when different types of design strategies should be applied, according to information about the user and the context [1]. This paper describes an investigation of how these guidelines may be reinforced by combining them with insight about the selection of design strategies from Fogg's behaviour grid [2]. The conclusion is that the suggestions from Fogg's behaviour grid of requirements for behaviour change according to the type of change, and the sequence to address these requirements, may add valuable insight to the guidelines. In addition, there are some factors affecting behaviour that are not covered by the guidelines, which could be included.
Incremental persuasion through microblogging: a survey of Twitter users in Latvia BIBAFull-Text 8
  Agnis Stibe; Harri Oinas-Kukkonen; Ilze Berzina; Seppo Pahnila
Emerging socio-technical environments facilitate the advancement of existing social activities and creation of innovative forms of online social influence. Social networks and microblogging services are few of the most frequently used forms of online interaction. These channels provide means for intensive communication embodying persuasion in one way or the other. This paper presents features of Twitter to uncover inbuilt persuasion patterns that influence users' behaviors and attitudes. An online survey of Twitter users in Latvia was carried out receiving 403 valid responses for quantitative data analysis. Recent frameworks for designing persuasive systems and measuring the success of Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSSs) were applied in the evaluation process. The main findings from this study relate to incremental behavior and attitude change among Twitter users. Other results magnify the understanding of social influence patterns amongst Twitter users. These findings could be used for further research focused on the persuasive potential of Twitter.
Design and evaluation of persuasive technology to encourage healthier typing behaviors BIBAFull-Text 9
  Dave Berque; Jimmy Burgess; Alexander Billingsley; ShanKara Johnson; Terri L. Bonebright; Brad Wethington
A software system was designed and implemented using an integrated set of persuasive approaches to encourage healthy typing behaviors that are often recommended for combating Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI). The system encourages users to avoid excessive typing speeds, to set up and use typing shortcuts, and to take regular breaks from typing. The design and integration of a foot-operated input device that interoperates with the software system is also presented. Forty-three undergraduate students completed a laboratory procedure that used a between-groups experimental design to evaluate the effectiveness of the system at persuading users to avoid typing at speeds that exceed a defined threshold as well as at persuading users to use predefined keyboard shortcuts (for example typing cpt as a shortcut for captain). Results indicated that providing users with feedback when they exceeded a typing speed threshold decreased the number of times they exceeded that threshold. Similarly, results indicated that providing users with feedback when they missed an opportunity to use a typing shortcut decreased the total number of shortcut usage opportunities missed.
Tracking and learning: exploring dual functions of residential energy feedback BIBAFull-Text 10
  Beth Karlin
Residential energy feedback is widely promoted as a promising form of persuasive technology based on its effectiveness in field studies. However, previous research has treated "feedback" as a unified construct, despite a wide variety of device types and categories, and has devoted little energy to understanding how or for whom feedback works. An improved understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying feedback would be of great benefit at both a theoretical and practical level. The current paper presents results of survey data from 86 individuals who self-reported use of feedback devices. Qualitative analysis of open-ended responses revealed a distinction between the use of feedback for tracking (e.g. monitoring ongoing energy use) and learning (e.g., gaining specific information about energy use). This distinction emerged throughout user responses about adoption (how, where, and why they obtained feedback), usability (likes and dislikes about the use of feedback), and outcomes (changes in knowledge and/or behavior due to use of feedback). These two functions have implications for both the design of energy feedback and its outcomes. Features such as time-series graphs and social comparisons are most likely to facilitate tracking; whereas the provision of discrete information tied to a specific appliance or behavior is most likely to facilitate learning. There may also be individual level differences that moderate who would benefit from a tracking vs. learning approach to feedback provision. It appears that the most beneficial feedback may facilitate both a tracking and learning function.
Adaptive mediated persuasion technologies BIBAFull-Text 11
  Martha G. Russell
The operational practices of persuasion for marketing, advertising, political, and management purposes are increasingly embedded in information technology. Mobile, information-rich lifestyles depend on having the right information at the right time. Technology is now at hand to integrate all this information, which is fortunate because otherwise we would drown in it. The integration forms part of new mediation technology that will facilitate our interactions with people, places, and things. This paper presents a model for thinking about this coming revolution of adaptive mediated persuasion technologies. It identifies personal and regulatory issues that may influence adoption, and it challenges professionals in the interdisciplinary field of persuasive technology to take leadership roles in establishing reasonable expectations to create software and hardware that respect individuals' rights regarding their personal intimate data.