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Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Persuasive Technology

Fullname:Persuasive Technology: 5th International Conference
Editors:Thomas Ploug; Per Hasle; Harri Oinas-Kukkonen
Location:Copenhagen, Denmark
Dates:2010-Jun-07 to 2010-Jun-10
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6137
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-13226-1; ISBN: 978-3-642-13225-4 (print), 978-3-642-13226-1 (online); hcibib: Persuasive10
Links:Online Proceedings
Technology for Changing Feelings BIBAFull-Text 1
  Rosalind W. Picard
Feelings change and technology usually ignores such changes, despite that technology often is credited with causing the changed feelings, especially frustration, irritation, annoyance, or (sometimes) interest and delight. This talk will demonstrate technology we've built to recognize and respond to emotion and discuss some ways it can help people better change their own emotions if they want to do so. I will attempt to demo some of the new technologies live, and discuss their beneficial uses (e.g. helping people with anxiety, stress or health-behavior change). I will also mention some worrisome uses and solicit ideas for how to minimize or prevent abusive uses.
I Persuade, They Persuade, It Persuades! BIBAFull-Text 2-3
  Jennifer J. Preece
Persuasion changes behavior. Persuasive people encourage us to do things we might not otherwise do, such as buying a new coat, taking a trip, changing jobs, and so on. Artifacts can persuade too: marketing specialists know that slick ads, sexy slogans, colorful packaging, empathic messages, elegant and beautiful designs are persuasive -- they sell products.
   Visionaries predict that "mobile phones will soon become the most important platform for changing human behavior" (Fogg & Eckles, 2007, p.5). Phones that look attractive, feel comfortable, and are usable are one part of a success story. The other part of the story concerns the applications (i.e., apps) that run on the phones. Creative apps turn a mobile phone into a personal finance manager, inspiration for cooks, a music player, an exercise coach, a marketing device, a weather service for farmers, a guide for bird watchers, a spirit level for do-it-yourself enthusiasts, and much more. Apple's iPhone App Store has led the way in ratcheting up expectations about the range and quality of apps that users want, and has engaged users in creating them. Other phone developers are following Apple's example.
   Technology-mediated social participation applications are popular and increasing becoming accessible via cell phones and other mobile devices. Technology-mediated social participation is generated when social networking tools (e.g., Facebook), blogs and microblogs (e.g., Twitter), user-generated content sites (e.g., YouTube, Flicker), discussion groups, problem reporting, recommendation systems, and other social media are applied to national priorities throughout the world, such as health, energy, education, disaster response, environmental protection, business innovation, cultural heritage, community safety, as well as social friendship and family networks. Fire, earthquake, storm, fraud, or crime reporting sites provide information to civic authorities. AmberAlert has more than 7 million users who help with information on child abductions, and SERVE.GOV enables citizens to volunteer for national parks, museums and other institutions. Compelling possibilities for healthcare (e.g., PatientsLikeMe), wellness, smoking cessation, and obesity reduction are also attracting attention. These early attempts hint at the vast potential for technology-mediated social participation, but substantial research is needed to persuade scaling up, raising motivation, controlling malicious attacks, limiting misguided rumors, and protecting privacy (http://iparticipate.wikispaces.com).
   Clearly stated research challenges should have three key elements: (1) close linkage to compelling national and international priorities (2) scientific foundation based on established theories and well-defined research questions (e.g., privacy, reciprocity, trust, motivation, recognition, etc.), and (3) research challenges (e.g., security, privacy protection, scalability, visualization, end-user development, distributed data handling for massive user-generated content, network analysis of community evolution, cross network comparison, etc.). By incorporating this research wisdom in designs that impact the 5 billion-plus mobile phone users throughout the world (Economist, 2010), people's lives and society could be transformed for the better. Contributing to this transformation is a goal for participants attending Persuasive 2010.
   In this talk I will draw on example applications (e.g., Encyclopedia of Life, Twitter, Recovery.gov, PatientsLikeMe, etc.) and research reports (summarized in Preece & Shneiderman, 2009, and else where) that suggest key principles for designing and managing technology mediated social participation. I will discuss how individuals, groups and communities, applications and devices persuade people to contribute, collaborate and lead using social technologies (i.e., how I/you persuade, how they persuade, and how it persuades).
Behavior Change Support Systems: A Research Model and Agenda BIBAKFull-Text 4-14
  Harri Oinas-Kukkonen
This article introduces the concept of a behavior change support system and suggests it as a key construct for research on persuasive systems design, technologies, and applications. Key concepts for behavior change support systems are defined and a research agenda for them is outlined. The article suggests that a change in complying, a behavior change, and an attitude change (C-, B- or A-Change) constitute the archetypes of a behavioral change. Change in itself is either of a forming, altering or reinforcing outcome (F-, A- or R-Outcome). This research model will become helpful in researching and designing persuasive technology.
Keywords: Socio-technical system; behavioral outcomes; psychological outcomes; behavioral change; persuasive technology
Persuasive Conversational Agent with Persuasion Tactics BIBAFull-Text 15-26
  Tatsuya Narita; Yasuhiko Kitamura
Persuasive conversational agents persuade people to change their attitudes or behaviors through conversation, and are expected to be applied as virtual sales clerks in e-shopping sites. As an approach to create such an agent, we have developed a learning agent with the Wizard of Oz method in which a person called Wizard talks to the user pretending to be the agent. The agent observes the conversations between the Wizard and the user, and learns how to persuade people. In this method, the Wizard has to reply to most of the user's inputs at the beginning, but the burden gradually falls because the agent learns how to reply as the conversation model grows.
   Generally speaking, persuasion tactics is important to persuade people efficiently, but it is also useful to reduce the burden of the Wizard because it guides the Wizard to a way of persuasion. In this paper, we explicitly implement persuasion tactics into the persuasive conversation agent. Evaluation experiments show that the burden (the input ratio) of the Wizard was reduced from 55% (without tactics) to 33% (with tactics), although the success ratio of persuasion was little improved.
Happier Together: Integrating a Wellness Application into a Social Network Site BIBAKFull-Text 27-39
  Sean A. Munson; Debra Lauterbach; Mark W. Newman; Paul Resnick
What are the benefits and drawbacks of integrating health and wellness interventions into existing online social network websites? In this paper, we report on a case study of deploying the Three Good Things positive psychology exercise as a Facebook application. Our experience shows that embedding a wellness intervention in an existing social website is a viable option. In particular, we find adherence rates on par with or better than many other Internet-based wellness interventions. We also gained insights about users' privacy and audience concerns that inform the design of social network-based wellness applications. Participants did not want all of their entries to be shared with all their Facebook friends, both because they did not want others to know some things and because they did not want to clutter others' newsfeeds. Users found it compelling, however, to interact with their friends around some "Good Things" they had posted.
Keywords: Social software; wellness; positive psychology; design; privacy; sharing; audience
Animate Objects: How Physical Motion Encourages Public Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 40-51
  Wendy Ju; David Sirkin
The primary challenge for information terminals, kiosks, and incidental use systems of all sorts, is that of getting the "first click" from busy passersby. This paper presents two studies that investigate the role of motion and physicality in drawing people to look and actively interact with generic information kiosks. The first study was designed as a 2x2 factorial design, physical v. on-screen gesturing and hand v. arrow motion, on a kiosk deployed in two locations, a bookstore and a computer science building lobby. The second study examined the effect of physical v. projected gesturing, and included a follow-up survey. Over twice as many passersby interacted in the physical v. on-screen condition in the first study and 60% more interacted in the second. These studies, in concert, indicate that physical gesturing does indeed significantly attract more looks and use for the information kiosk, and that form affects people's impression and interpretation of these gestures.
Keywords: kiosk; physicality; gesturing; public; field study
What Makes Social Feedback from a Robot Work? Disentangling the Effect of Speech, Physical Appearance and Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 52-57
  Suzanne Vossen; Jaap Ham; Cees J. H. Midden
Previous research showed that energy consumption feedback of a social nature resulted in less energy consumption than factual energy consumption feedback. However, it was not clear which elements of social feedback (i.e. evaluation of behavior, the use of speech or the social appearance of the feedback source) caused this higher persuasiveness. In a first experiment we studied the role of evaluation by comparing the energy consumption of participants who received factual, evaluative or social feedback while using a virtual washing machine. The results suggested that social evaluative feedback resulted in lower energy consumption than both factual and evaluative feedback. In the second experiment we examined the role of speech and physical appearance in enhancing the persuasiveness of evaluative feedback. Overall, the current research suggests that the addition of only one social cue is sufficient to enhance the persuasiveness of evaluative feedback, while combining both cues will not further enhance persuasiveness.
Keywords: energy conservation; social feedback; social cues; evaluation
The Persuasive Power of Virtual Reality: Effects of Simulated Human Distress on Attitudes towards Fire Safety BIBAKFull-Text 58-69
  Luca Chittaro; Nicola Zangrando
Although virtual reality (VR) is a powerful simulation tool that can allow users to experience the effects of their actions in vivid and memorable ways, explorations of VR as a persuasive technology are rare. In this paper, we focus on different ways of providing negative feedback for persuasive purposes through simulated experiences in VR. The persuasive goal we consider concerns awareness of personal fire safety issues and the experiment we describe focuses on attitudes towards smoke in evacuating buildings. We test two techniques: the first technique simulates the damaging effects of smoke on the user through a visualization that should not evoke strong emotions, while the second is aimed at partially reproducing the anxiety of an emergency situation. The results of the study show that the second technique is able to increase user's anxiety as well as producing better results in attitude change.
Keywords: virtual reality; personal fire safety; distress; suffering; negatively-framed experiences; negative feedback; aversive feedback; emotions
Successful Persuasive Technology for Behavior Reduction: Mapping to Fogg's Gray Behavior Grid BIBAKFull-Text 70-81
  Susan Shepherd Ferebee
This study evaluates 24 persuasive technologies that achieved statistically significant behavior reduction across a variety of domains. The purpose of this research was to map the 24 persuasive technology studies across the Gray Behaviors (decrease behavior) in Fogg's Behavior Grid in order to identify commonalities and patterns in the technologies. Additionally, each persuasive technology is mapped to Fogg's Behavior Model factors, and Fogg's persuasive strategies. Mapping across these three dimensions provides a synthesized understanding of how persuasive technology successfully reduces behavior.
Keywords: persuasive technology; behavior reduction; Behavior Grid; persuasive design
Selecting Effective Means to Any End: Futures and Ethics of Persuasion Profiling BIBAFull-Text 82-93
  Maurits Kaptein; Dean Eckles
Interactive persuasive technologies can and do adapt to individuals. Existing systems identify and adapt to user preferences within a specific domain: e.g., a music recommender system adapts its recommended songs to user preferences. This paper is concerned with adaptive persuasive systems that adapt to individual differences in the effectiveness of particular means, rather than selecting different ends. We give special attention to systems that implement persuasion profiling -- adapting to individual differences in the effects of influence strategies. We argue that these systems are worth separate consideration and raise unique ethical issues for two reasons: (1) their end-independence implies that systems trained in one context can be used in other, unexpected contexts and (2) they do not rely on -- and are generally disadvantaged by -- disclosing that they are adapting to individual differences. We use examples of these systems to illustrate some ethically and practically challenging futures that these characteristics make possible.
Individual Differences in Persuadability in the Health Promotion Domain BIBAFull-Text 94-105
  Maurits Kaptein; Joyca Lacroix; Privender Saini
This paper examines the behavioral consequences of individual differences in persuadability in the health promotion domain. We use a 7-item persuadability instrument to determine participants persuadability score. Based on this score two groups are created: the low and high persuadables. Subsequently, we present 2 studies that test the responses to health-related persuasive messages of both low and high persuadables. The results consistently show that high persuadables comply more to messages with a persuasive content as compared to a neutral message than low persuadables. Even more, both studies indicate lower compliance by low persuadables when persuasive messages are employed. Implications of this possible detrimental effect of the use of persuasive messages for low persuadables are discussed.
Designing for Persuasion: Toward Ambient Eco-Visualization for Awareness BIBAKFull-Text 106-116
  Tanyoung Kim; Hwajung Hong; Brian Magerko
When people are aware of their lifestyle's ecological consequences, they are more likely to adjust their behavior to reduce their impact. Persuasive design that provides feedback to users without interfering with their primary tasks can increases the awareness of neighboring problems. As a case study of design for persuasion, we designed two ambient displays as desktop widgets. Both represent a users' computer usage time, but in different visual styles. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative study of two ambient displays. We discuss the gradual progress of persuasion supported by the ambient displays and the differences in users' perception affected by the different visualization styles. Finally, Our empirical findings lead to a series of design implications for persuasive media.
Keywords: Persuasive Technology; Eco-visualization; Sustainable Design; Ambient Display
Behavior Wizard: A Method for Matching Target Behaviors with Solutions BIBAKFull-Text 117-131
  B. J. Fogg; Jason Hreha
We present a method for matching target behaviors with solutions for achieving those behaviors. Called the Behavior Wizard, this method first classifies behavior change targets into one of 15 types. Later stages focus on triggers for the target behaviors and on relevant theories and techniques. This new approach to persuasive design, as well as the terminology we propose, can lead to insights into the patterns of behavior change. The Behavior Wizard can also increase success rates in academic studies and commercial products. The most current version of this method is at www.BehaviorWizard.org.
Keywords: behavior change; persuasive design; habits; captology; behavior models; Fogg Behavior Model; Behavior Grid; Behavior Wizard
Ambient Persuasive Technology Needs Little Cognitive Effort: The Differential Effects of Cognitive Load on Lighting Feedback versus Factual Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 132-142
  Jaap Ham; Cees J. H. Midden
Persuasive technology can influence behavior or attitudes by for example providing interactive factual feedback about energy conservation. However, people often lack motivation or cognitive capacity to consciously process such relative complex information (e.g., numerical consumption feedback). Extending recent research that indicates that ambient persuasive technology can persuade the user without receiving the user's conscious attention, we argue here that Ambient Persuasive Technology can be effective while needing only little cognitive resources, and in general can be more influential than more focal forms of persuasive technology. In an experimental study, some participants received energy consumption feedback by means of a light changing color (more green=lower energy consumption, vs. more red=higher energy consumption) and others by means of numbers indicating kWh consumption. Results indicated that ambient feedback led to more conservation than factual feedback. Also, as expected, only for participants processing factual feedback, additional cognitive load lead to slower processing of that feedback. This research sheds light on fundamental characteristics of Ambient Persuasive Technology and Persuasive Lighting, and suggests that it can have important advantages over more focal persuasive technologies without losing its persuasive potential.
Keywords: Ambient Persuasive Technology; Persuasive Technology; Lighting; Unconscious Influences
Design Dimensions Enabling Divergent Behaviour across Physical, Digital, and Social Library Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 143-149
  Lennart Björneborn
What design dimensions across physical, digital, and social library interfaces may enable and trigger users to find more information resources than planned or known in advance? The paper outlines a conceptual framework with libraries as integrative interfaces across physical, digital, and social affordances and users that mix convergent (goal-directed) and divergent (exploratory) information behaviour. Ten design dimensions that enable and trigger divergent behaviour are outlined. Implications for persuasive design are discussed.
Keywords: interaction design; persuasive design; libraries; enabling spaces; affordances; interfaces; exploratory information behaviour; serendipity
Personality and Persuasive Technology: An Exploratory Study on Health-Promoting Mobile Applications BIBAKFull-Text 150-161
  Sajanee Halko; Julie A. Kientz
Though a variety of persuasive health applications have been designed with a preventive standpoint toward diseases in mind, many have been designed largely for a general audience. Designers of these technologies may achieve more success if applications consider an individual's personality type. Our goal for this research was to explore the relationship between personality and persuasive technologies in the context of health-promoting mobile applications. We conducted an online survey with 240 participants using storyboards depicting eight different persuasive strategies, the Big Five Inventory for personality domains, and questions on perceptions of the persuasive technologies. Our results and analysis revealed a number of significant relationships between personality and the persuasive technologies we evaluated. The findings from this study can guide the development of persuasive technologies that can cater to individual personalities to improve the likelihood of their success.
Keywords: Persuasive Technologies; Personality; mHealth; User-Centered Design; Quantitative Methods
Persuasive Features in Six Weight Loss Websites: A Qualitative Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 162-173
  Tuomas Lehto; Harri Oinas-Kukkonen
Websites for weight loss have been demonstrating promising results. Still, it is unclear which website components contribute to successful outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to explore the utilization of various persuasive features on six weight loss websites. The websites were selected by using a set of criteria for this qualitative evaluation. The Persuasive Systems Design Model was applied to extract and analyze persuasive system features found in the sites. The results of this study suggest that there is room for improvement in both designing and implementing web-based interventions for weight loss. The evaluated sites provided relatively good primary task support and strong social support. However, there were weaknesses in both dialogue and credibility support. Overall, the evaluation showed that the evaluated weight loss websites may not be very persuasive.
Keywords: PSD model; persuasive; web-based; weight loss; intervention
The Dominant Robot: Threatening Robots Cause Psychological Reactance, Especially When They Have Incongruent Goals BIBAKFull-Text 174-184
  Maike A. J. Roubroeks; Jaap R. C. Ham; Cees J. H. Midden
Persuasive technology can take the form of a social agent that persuades people to change behavior or attitudes. However, like any persuasive technology, persuasive social agents might trigger psychological reactance, which can lead to restoration behavior. The current study investigated whether interacting with a persuasive robot can cause psychological reactance. Additionally, we investigated whether goal congruency plays a role in psychological reactance. Participants programmed a washing machine while a robot gave threatening advice. Confirming expectations, participants experienced more psychological reactance when receiving high-threatening advice compared to low-threatening advice. Moreover, when the robot gave high-threatening advice and expressed an incongruent goal, participants reported the highest level of psychological reactance (on an anger measure). Finally, high-threatening advice led to more restoration, and this relationship was partially mediated by psychological reactance. Overall, results imply that under certain circumstances persuasive technology can trigger opposite effects, especially when people have incongruent goal intentions.
Keywords: Persuasive Robot; Psychological Reactance; Intentionality; Social Influence; Energy Conservation Behavior; Incongruent goals
Practical Findings from Applying the PSD Model for Evaluating Software Design Specifications BIBAKFull-Text 185-192
  Teppo Räisänen; Tuomas Lehto; Harri Oinas-Kukkonen
This paper presents practical findings from applying the PSD model to evaluating the support for persuasive features in software design specifications for a mobile Internet device. On the one hand, our experiences suggest that the PSD model fits relatively well for evaluating design specifications. On the other hand, the model would benefit from more specific heuristics for evaluating each technique to avoid unnecessary subjectivity. Better distinction between the design principles in the social support category would also make the model easier to use. Practitioners who have no theoretical background can apply the PSD model to increase the persuasiveness of the systems they design. The greatest benefit of the PSD model for researchers designing new systems may be achieved when it is applied together with a sound theory, such as the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Using the ELM together with the PSD model, one may increase the chances for attitude change.
Keywords: Persuasive Systems Design Model; specifications; research; practice; guide; analysis
Activity-Based Micro-pricing: Realizing Sustainable Behavior Changes through Economic Incentives BIBAKFull-Text 193-204
  Tetsuo Yamabe; Vili Lehdonvirta; Hitoshi Ito; Hayuru Soma; Hiroaki Kimura; Tatsuo Nakajima
In this paper, we further develop the idea of combining pervasive computing techniques with electronic payment systems to create activity-based micro-incentives. Economic incentives are an effective way to influence consumer behavior, and are used in e.g. marketing and resource coordination. Our approach allows marketers and regulators to induce consumers to perform particular actions in new application domains by attaching micro-prices to a wider range of behaviors. A key challenge is designing incentive mechanisms that result in desired behavior changes. We examine two basic incentive models. Based on the results of preliminary experiments, we discuss how economic incentives can affect consumer attitudes and lead to sustainable behavior changes.
Keywords: Persuasive technology; economic incentives; mobile payment; micropayments; activity-based micro-pricing; virtual currency
Enhancing Human Responses to Climate Change Risks through Simulated Flooding Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 205-210
  Ruud Zaalberg; Cees J. H. Midden
Delta areas are threatened by global climate change. The general aims of our research were (1) to increase our understanding of climate and flood risk perceptions and the factors that influence these judgments, and (2) to seek for interventions that can contribute to a realistic assessment by laypersons of long-term flooding risks. We argue that awareness of one's own vulnerability to future flooding and insights into the effectiveness of coping strategies is driven by direct flooding experiences. In the current research multimodal sensory stimulation by means of interactive 3D technology is used to simulate direct flooding experiences at the experiential or sensory level, thereby going beyond traditional persuasion attempts using fear-evoking images. Our results suggest that future communication efforts should not only use these new technologies to transfer knowledge about effective coping strategies and flooding risks, but should especially be directed towards residents living in flood prone areas, but who lack direct flooding experiences as their guiding principle.
Keywords: Climate Change; Flooding Experience; Affect; Appraisal; Coping; Persuasive Virtual Environment; Simulation; Presence
Pitfalls in Persuasion: How Do Users Experience Persuasive Techniques in a Web Service? BIBAKFull-Text 211-222
  Katarina Segerståhl; Tanja Kotro; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
Persuasive technologies are designed by utilizing a variety of interactive techniques that are believed to promote target behaviors. This paper describes a field study in which the aim was to discover possible pitfalls of persuasion, i.e., situations in which persuasive techniques do not function as expected. The study investigated persuasive functionality of a web service targeting weight loss. A qualitative online questionnaire was distributed through the web service and a total of 291 responses were extracted for interpretative analysis. The Persuasive Systems Design model (PSD) was used for supporting systematic analysis of persuasive functionality. Pitfalls were identified through situations that evoked negative user experiences. The primary pitfalls discovered were associated with manual logging of eating and exercise behaviors, appropriateness of suggestions and source credibility issues related to social facilitation. These pitfalls, when recognized, can be addressed in design by applying functional and facilitative persuasive techniques in meaningful combinations.
Keywords: User experience; web service; qualitative field study; web-based health promotion; Persuasive Systems Design Model
Using Persuasive Design Principles in Motivational Feeling towards Children Dental Anxiety (CDA) BIBAKFull-Text 223-237
  Sobihatun Nur-Abdul Salam; Wan Ahmad Jaafar-Wan Yahaya; Azillah-Mohd Ali
This paper is focusing the potential use of persuasive design principles in motivating children's dental anxiety. The main intention of the paper is to emphasize an attempt of how persuasive design principle can be designed into educational material using CD ROM based multimedia learning environment to overcome the CDA. Firstly, we describe a problem domain which discuss about the universal feeling of CDA and secondly the current practices in handling those negative feelings. Thirdly, the conceptual background of PMLE and how the principle has been applied in designing the information interfaces and presentation of a persuasive multimedia learning environment (PMLE) are described. Fourthly, an experimental design was used to validate the effects of prototype which assessed children dental anxiety level before and after the demonstration and utilization of a PMLE. Primary school children age between seven and nine years old are selected as respondents. Fifthly, the result of the study has revealed the feedback from children regarding baseline test and children dental anxiety test. It shows how by using persuasive design principles as an overall strategy in designing PMLE was able to motivate children feelings towards dental anxiety and could let the children behave in a good manner for dental visit in the future.
Keywords: children dental anxiety (CDA); persuasive technology principles; multimedia design principles; persuasive multimedia learning environment (PMLE)
Facilitation of Goal-Setting and Follow-Up in an Internet Intervention for Health and Wellness BIBAKFull-Text 238-249
  Kirsikka Kaipainen; Elina M. Mattila; Marja-Liisa Kinnunen; Ilkka Korhonen
Chronic work-related stress and insufficient recovery from workload can gradually lead to problems with mental and physical health. Resources in healthcare are limited especially for preventive treatment, but low-cost support can be provided by Internet-based behavior change interventions. This paper describes the design of an Internet intervention which supports working-age people in managing and preventing stress-related health and wellness problems. The intervention is designed for early prevention and aims to motivate individuals to take responsibility for their own well-being. It allows them to choose the approach to take to address personally significant issues, while guiding them through the process. The first iteration of the intervention was evaluated with three user groups and subsequently improved based on the user experiences to be more persuasive, motivating and better suited for independent use. Goal setting and follow-up were especially enhanced, tunneled structure improved, and the threshold of use lowered.
Keywords: Internet intervention; computer-aided cognitive behavioral therapy; behavior change; goal-setting; stress; well-being
Persuasive Dialogue Based on a Narrative Theory: An ECA Implementation BIBAKFull-Text 250-261
  Marc Cavazza; Cameron Smith; Daniel Charlton; Nigel Crook; Johan Boye; Stephen G. Pulman; Karo Moilanen; David Pizzi; Raul Santos de la Camara; Markku Turunen
Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA) are poised to constitute a specific category within persuasive systems, in particular through their ability to support affective dialogue. One possible approach consists in using ECA as virtual coaches or personal assistants and to make persuasion part of a dialogue game implementing specific argumentation or negotiation features. In this paper, we explore an alternative framework, which emerges from the long-term development of ECA as "Companions" supporting free conversation with the user, rather than task-oriented dialogue. Our system aims at influencing user attitudes as part of free conversation, albeit on a limited set of topics. We describe the implementation of a Companion ECA to which the user reports on his working day, and which can assess the user's emotional attitude towards daily events in the office, trying to influence such attitude using affective strategies derived from a narrative model. This discussion is illustrated through examples from a first fully-implemented prototype.
Keywords: Affective Dialogue Systems; Persuasive Dialogue; Embodied Conversational Agents; Attitude Persuasive Systems
Generating Directions for Persuasive Technology Design with the Inspiration Card Workshop BIBAKFull-Text 262-273
  Janet Davis
Participatory design methods may help account for the ethical implications of persuasive technology. But how can participatory design methods both address ethical issues and lead to effective persuasive technologies? This paper presents the early stages of participatory design with a college EcoHouse. I discuss concepts resulting from an Inspiration Card Workshop [1], finally considering further development of participatory methods for designing persuasive technology.
Keywords: Persuasive technology; participatory design; Inspiration Card Workshop; conceptual design; design materials
Designing Effective Persuasive Systems Utilizing the Power of Entanglement: Communication Channel, Strategy and Affect BIBAKFull-Text 274-285
  Haiqing Li; Samir Chatterjee
With rapid advances in information and communication technology, computer-mediated communication (CMC) technologies are utilizing multiple IT platforms such as email, websites, cell-phones/PDAs, social networking sites, and gaming environments. However, no studies have compared the effectiveness of a persuasive system using such alternative channels and various persuasive techniques. Moreover, how affective computing impacts the effectiveness of persuasive systems is not clear. This study proposes (1) persuasive technology channels in combination with persuasive strategies will have different persuasive effectiveness; (2) Adding positive emotion to a message that leads to a better overall user experience could increase persuasive effectiveness. The affective computing or emotion information was added to the experiment using emoticons. The initial results of a pilot study show that computer-mediated communication channels along with various persuasive strategies can affect the persuasive effectiveness to varying degrees. These results also shows that adding a positive emoticon to a message leads to a better user experience which increases the overall persuasive effectiveness of a system.
Keywords: persuasive effectiveness; affective computing; emotions; design; user experience; experiment design; simulation mock-ups
Embodied Agents, E-SQ and Stickiness: Improving Existing Cognitive and Affective Models BIBAKFull-Text 286-298
  Pablo Brice de Diesbach
This paper synthesizes results from two previous studies of embodied virtual agents on commercial websites. We analyze and criticize the proposed models and discuss the limits of the experimental findings. Results from other important research in the literature are integrated. We also integrate concepts from profound, more business-related, analysis that deepens on the mechanisms of rhetoric in marketing and communication, and the possible role of E-SQ in man-agent interaction. We finally suggest a refined model for the impacts of these agents on web site users, and limits of the improved model are commented.
Keywords: Modelling; Experimentation; EVA; attitude; affect; E-SQ