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Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Persuasive Technology

Fullname:Persuasive Technology: Third International Conference
Editors:Harri Oinas-Kukkonen; Per Hasle; Marja Harjumaa; Katarina Segerståhl; Peter Øhrstrøm
Location:Oulu, Finland
Dates:2008-Jun-04 to 2008-Jun-06
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5033
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-68504-3; ISBN: 978-3-540-68500-5 (print), 978-3-540-68504-3 (online); hcibib: Persuasive08
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Keynote Papers
  2. Social Network Systems
  3. Knowledge Management
  4. Applications
  5. Conceptual Frameworks
  6. Perspectives on Persuasive Technology
  7. Peer-to-Peer and Social Networks
  8. Self-persuasion and Timing
  9. Well-Being Applications
  10. Theoretical Considerations

Keynote Papers

Affective Loop Experiences -- What Are They? BIBAKFull-Text 1-12
  Kristina Höök
A research agenda for bodily persuasion through a design approach we name affective loops is outlined. Affective loop experiences draw upon physical, emotional interactions between user and system.
Keywords: affective loop; affective interaction; persuasion; bodily interfaces
Fine Processing BIBAFull-Text 13-22
  Ian Bogost
This article first presents a series of concerns about the concept and field called persuasive technology, including an overly broad focus on technology instead of computation, and a focus on ends instead of means. As a possible solution, an alternative perspective is offered, dubbed fine processing, which is modeled after the concept of belles lettres.
Mass Interpersonal Persuasion: An Early View of a New Phenomenon BIBAKFull-Text 23-34
  B. J. Fogg
In 2007 a new form of persuasion emerged: mass interpersonal persuasion (MIP). The advances in online social networks now allow individuals to change attitudes and behaviors on a mass scale. MIP has six components: persuasive experience, automated structure, social distribution, rapid cycle, huge social graph, and measured impact. Before the launch of Facebook Platform, these six components had never come together in one system. As tools for creating MIP become available to ordinary people, individuals and small groups can better reach and persuade masses. This new phenomenon will change the future of persuasion.
Keywords: persuasive technology; captology; social networking; persuasion; Facebook; mass interpersonal persuasion; MIP

Social Network Systems

Online Persuasion in Facebook and Mixi: A Cross-Cultural Comparison BIBAKFull-Text 35-46
  B. J. Fogg; Daisuke Iizawa
Social networking sites persuade millions of users each day to adopt specific behaviors. To understand this phenomenon in the context of persuasive technology, we analyzed how persuasion takes place in leading social networking sites from two different countries: Facebook in the U.S. and Mixi in Japan. We compared the two services on four persuasion goals: creating profile pages, inviting friends, responding to content by friends, and returning to the site often. Our analysis reveals the differences and similarities in how Facebook and Mixi are designed to influence users toward the achievement of these four goals. In general, Facebook's persuasive design is more assertive and mechanistic, while Mixi's approach, by comparison, is subtle and indirect. These persuasion styles seem to map generally to cultural differences between the U.S. and Japan.
Keywords: persuasion; captology; social networking; persuasive technology; behavior chain; persuasive design; cultural comparison; Mixi; Facebook
Website Credibility, Active Trust and Behavioural Intent BIBAKFull-Text 47-57
  Brian Cugelman; Mike Thelwall; Phil Dawes
This paper evaluates data from an international anti-poverty campaign to assess if common principles from e-marketing and persuasive technology apply to online social marketing. It focuses on the relationships between website credibility, users' active trust attitudes and behavioural intent. Using structural equation modelling, the evaluation found a significant relationship between these variables and suggests strategies for online behavioural change interventions.
Keywords: social marketing; advocacy; website credibility; trust; behaviour; Internet; online; captology
Network Awareness, Social Context and Persuasion BIBAFull-Text 58-70
  Donald Steiny
This paper brings a sociological perspective to an area dominated by social psychology, that of persuasion. It discusses how networks can be used to describe context for persuasive messages. It has been previously argued that network awareness, having knowledge of how networks affect behavior and perception, combined with knowledge of the networks in some part of society such as an organization or region, is important for innovation and productivity. This paper expands on this by introducing the concept of "social context." While the idea of location in social structure is not new, the difference here is that this paper talks not just about abstract location in social space, but the more concrete realization of it in communication networks based on cell phones, social networking software, IM, email and other new technology is. I argue that the ability to observe and measure these networks can give insight into the user's behavior, attitudes and worldview and provide a context for persuasion to take place.

Knowledge Management

Persuasion in Knowledge-Based Recommendation BIBAKFull-Text 71-82
  Alexander Felfernig; Bartosz Gula; Gerhard Leitner; Marco Maier; Rudolf Melcher; Erich Teppan
Recommendation technologies support users in the identification of interesting products and services. Beside the wide-spread approaches of collaborative and content-based filtering, knowledge-based recommender technologies gain an increasing importance due to their capability of deriving recommendations for complex products such as financial services, technical equipment, or consumer goods. The identification of best-fitting products is in many cases a complex decision making task which forces users to fall back to different types of decision heuristics. This phenomenon is explained by the theory of bounded rationality of users which is due to their limited knowledge and computational capacity. Specifically in the context of recommender applications bounded rationality acts as a door opener for different types of persuasive concepts which can influence a user's attitudes (e.g., in terms of product preferences) and behavior (e.g., in terms of buying behavior). The major goal of this paper is to provide an overview of such persuasive aspects and possible formalizations in knowledge-based recommender systems.
Keywords: Recommender Systems; Persuasion; Decision Phenomena
Persuasive Technology Design -- A Rhetorical Approach BIBAKFull-Text 83-93
  Kristian Tørning
This article offers a rhetorical design perspective on persuasive technology design, introducing Bitzer's method of the rhetorical situation. As a case study, knowledge workers in an industrial engineering corporation are examined using Bitzer's method. Introducing a new system, knowledge workers are to be given the task of innovating and maintaining business processes, thus contributing with content in an online environment. Qualitative data was gathered and Bitzer's theory was applied as a design principle to show that persuasive technology designers may benefit from adopting rhetorical communication theory as a guiding principle when designing systems. Bitzer's theory offers alternative ways to thinking about persuasive technology design.
Keywords: Rhetoric; persuasive design; persuasive technology design; persuasion; knowledge workers; knowledge management; community
Benevolence and Effectiveness: Persuasive Technology's Spillover Effects in Retail Settings BIBAKFull-Text 94-103
  Martha G. Russell
Results point to perceived store benevolence and staff effectiveness as important spillover effects in the use of persuasive technologies in the retail setting. The comparison of customer exit interviews, conducted at control stores and at test stores, before and after the introduction of video displays playing advertising and promotion messages, documented that customers noticed the displays, recalled the content and were influenced toward the desired effect. Additionally, significant attitudinal differences related to customer perception of staff and stores were also noted. Product marketers, brand managers, retailers, and academicians can draw actionable insights for the use of persuasive technologies by understanding the impact of persuasive technologies on relational exchanges.
Keywords: benevolence; effectiveness; retail; video display; advertising; promotion; engagement; persuasion; persuasive technologies; relational exchange


Persuasive Technology for Shaping Social Beliefs of Rural Women in India: An Approach Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour BIBAFull-Text 104-115
  Vikram Parmar; David V. Keyson; Cees deBont
This paper presents the Personal Health Information system (PHI), which has been designed to influence health behaviours of rural women. The objective of the PHI is to offer health information to rural women to increase their awareness about menses and maternal health. The design and development process of the PHI is based on the theory of planned behaviour and employs social cues of persuasive technology to increase perceived behaviour control of rural women. In order to measure users' level of engagement, a comparative study between the PHI and conventional health information system was conducted. The results of the interactive sessions with women of different age groups and literacy levels illustrates the usefulness of PHI in motivating rural women to challenge existing social beliefs and practices, thereby persuading them to follow correct health practices. In this paper, design process of PHI, preliminary results of the initial study, and future research plans are discussed.
Enabling Calorie-Aware Cooking in a Smart Kitchen BIBAKFull-Text 116-127
  Pei-Yu Chi; Jen-hao Chen; Hao-Hua Chu; Jin-Ling Lo
As a daily activity, home cooking is an act of care for family members. Most family cooks are willing to learn healthy cooking. However, learning healthy cooking knowledge and putting the learned knowledge into real cooking practice are often difficult, due to non-trivial nutritional calculation of multiple food ingredients in a cooked meal. This work presents a smart kitchen with UbiComp technology to improve home cooking by providing calorie awareness of food ingredients used in prepared meals during the cooking process. Our kitchen has sensors to track the number of calories in food ingredients, and then provides real-time feedback to users on these values through an awareness display. Our user study suggests that bringing calorie awareness can be an effective means in helping family cooks maintain the healthy level of calories in their prepared meals.
Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing / Smart Environments; Home; Healthcare; Context-Aware Computing
perFrames: Persuasive Picture Frames for Proper Posture BIBAFull-Text 128-139
  Christoph Obermair; Wolfgang Reitberger; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Michael Lankes; Manfred Tscheligi
Poor sitting habits and bad sitting posture are often the cause for musculoskeletal disorders like back pain. Also office employees are affected, because they carry out the majority of their work sitting in front of computers. Therefore we aim at sensitizing and motivating office employees regarding preventive healthcare. We have developed a persuasive interface in form of an interactive picture frame which integrates unobtrusively into the working environment -- the perFrame. This frame contains a moving portrait of a person the employee loves or likes. It provides affective feedback in order to persuade employees for better sitting habits while working with a computer. We conducted a preliminary in-situ study, deploying these picture frames on the desktops of eight office employees. The results highlight the employees' acceptance of our application as well as its potential to foster awareness and achieve persuasion regarding healthy behavior in the office.
Persuasion for Stronger Passwords: Motivation and Pilot Study BIBAKFull-Text 140-150
  Alain Forget; Sonia Chiasson; Paul C. van Oorschot; Robert Biddle
Text passwords are the ubiquitous method of authentication, used by most people for most online services. Many people choose weak passwords that are vulnerable to attackers who simply guess all the passwords within the most probable password spaces. This paper describes a lightweight password creation mechanism that uses Persuasive Technology to influence users to create stronger passwords. Results from a pilot study show that our Persuasive Text Passwords (PTP) prototype system successfully influenced users to create and remember more secure passwords.
Keywords: authentication; computer security; passwords; Persuasive Technology; usable security

Conceptual Frameworks

Six Patterns for Persuasion in Online Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 151-163
  G. Michael Weiksner; B. J. Fogg; Xingxin Liu
Social psychology research has shown that persuasion happens in predictable ways. To identify patterns of persuasion in online social networks, we studied Facebook as a persuasive technology. Using a Grounded Theory approach, we found and named six persuasion patterns. Four patterns that led to large-scale viral adoption -- Provoke and Retaliate, Reveal and Compare, Expression, and Group Exchange -- are native to Facebook. Two patterns -- Competition and Deception -- are adapted to Facebook. We describe these native and adapted patterns and offer psychological explanations for each. We conclude that persuasion in online social networks follows regular, observable patterns, and we suggest promising avenues for future research.
Keywords: Online Social Networks; Facebook; Persuasion; Social Psychology; Applications; Patterns; Persuasive Technology; Viral Growth; Captology
A Systematic Framework for Designing and Evaluating Persuasive Systems BIBAKFull-Text 164-176
  Harri Oinas-Kukkonen; Marja Harjumaa
A growing number of information technology systems and services are being developed to change users' attitudes or behavior or both. Despite the fact that attitudinal theories from social psychology have been quite extensively applied to the study of user intentions and behavior, these theories have basically provided checklists or rules of thumb rather than systematic design methods or methodologies to develop software solutions. This article is conceptual-theoretical by its nature. It discusses the process of designing and evaluating persuasive systems and describes what kind of content and software functionality may be found at the final product. Seven underlying postulates behind persuasive systems, ways to analyze the user and the use context, and persuasive design strategies and guidelines are highlighted. Based on the works of Fogg, the article also lists techniques for persuasive system content and functionality, describing example software requirements and implementations. Some new techniques are suggested. Moreover, a new categorization of these techniques is proposed, composing of the primary task, dialogue, system credibility, and social support categories.
Keywords: Design; functionality and techniques; models and frameworks; strategies; theories
Digital Therapy: Addressing Willpower as Part of the Cognitive-Affective Processing System in the Service of Habit Change BIBAKFull-Text 177-188
  Pål Kraft; Filip Drozd; Elin Olsen
We know much too little about how to design effective digital interventions to support sustained behavior change and improved well-being. The purpose of the present paper was to contribute in two ways. First, we want to contribute to current practice in designing such interventions. Second, we try to identify key research questions that could be a point of departure for a more detailed and comprehensive future research program. The propositions we suggest reflect that the construction of digital interventions should be seen as an iterative process which should take into account both "content" and "design" factors. However, we argue that intervention research and practical design experience is not just something that follows basic research at a polite distance, but rather is its inherent complement.
Keywords: Digital Therapy; Persuasive Technology; Willpower; Cognitive-Affective Processing System; Emotion Regulation; Ego Depletion; Implementation Intentions; Behavior Change; Health Behavior; Emotional Design; Interactivity; Successful Information Systems

Perspectives on Persuasive Technology

The Persuasive Power of Human-Machine Dialogue BIBAFull-Text 189-200
  Divya Ramachandran; John F. Canny
The persuasive power of live interaction is hard to match, yet technologies are increasingly taking on roles to promote behavioral change. We believe that speech-based interfaces offer a compelling mode of interaction for engaging users and are motivated to understand how to best present persuasive information using speech interaction. We present a study comparing the persuasive power of two speech-based information systems, one which uses a recorded message-based lecture presentation and another which uses an interactive dialogic presentation. We measure the persuasive power across both conditions using a survival task. We find that the dialogic system is significantly more persuasive than the lecture system. We also find that the dialogic system presents significantly (almost four times) less information than the lecture system. We analyze our results using three standard rank correlation methods. We point to limitations of these measures and propose a new metric which appears to be more sensitive for this task.
Designing Persuasive Dialogue Systems: Using Argumentation with Care BIBAKFull-Text 201-212
  Hien Nguyen; Judith Masthoff
Persuasive dialogue systems that aim to change people's attitudes and behaviours have drawn much attention in recent years due to their great practical potential. Current systems rely heavily on argumentation and advice-giving to form their persuasive messages. Many findings in psychology, and some counselling intervention methods such as Motivational Interviewing (MI) dispute this confrontational approach. Our project sets out to investigate whether MI can provide an alternative way to develop a more effective system. In this paper, we discuss the limitations of the argumentation-based approach, review a number of argumentation-based systems, and present the results of an evaluation study which compares people's perception of the persuasibility of two argumentation-based dialogues and a MI-based counterpart. Our results show a higher perceived persuasiveness for the MI-based dialogue.
Keywords: persuasive dialogue systems; argumentation; motivational interviewing
Categorization as Persuasion: Considering the Nature of the Mind BIBAKFull-Text 213-223
  Signe Dahl Iversen; Maria Elisabeth Pertou
Categorization is inevitable in the process of designing persuasive software. Having said that, there has not yet been paid much attention to the role of categorization within the field of Persuasive Design. When a designer categorizes what elements should be part of the persuasive software he must always consider the user in order to achieve the most suitable categorization in relation to his intention. This article will show how theories of Epistemic Rhetoric and Cognitive Science both emphasize the role of categorization and how they supplement each other in an understanding of the user and how human beings categorize in order to comprehend and make sense of concepts. In a concluding example it will show how two furniture warehouses with seemingly similar persuasive intentions have chosen different categorizations that consequently result in different persuasive outcomes.
Keywords: Categorization; Persuasive Design; Epistemic Rhetoric; Cognitive Science; Comprehension; Basic-level Categories; Prototype Theory; Metaphors
A Qualitative Study of Culture and Persuasion in a Smoking Cessation Game BIBAFull-Text 224-236
  Rilla Khaled; Ronald Fischer; James Noble; Robert Biddle
To explore the issue of culture in persuasive technology, we identified strategies distinguishing individualist or collectivist audiences, and developed two versions of a prototype game. In this paper we report on a qualitative study of this game. The game concerned smoking cessation, and was set in a New Zealand context, where one version was designed for individualist New Zealand Europeans, and the other for collectivist New Zealand Maori. Our qualitative study involved people from each group playing each of the two games. Using a "think-aloud" protocol, we recorded player comments and reflections that show the effect of our design on their behaviour. The results of the study show the designs were interpreted differently according to the audiences playing them, and reveal detail about culture and persuasion.

Peer-to-Peer and Social Networks

Exploring the Acceptability of Delayed Reciprocity in Peer-to-Peer Networks BIBAKFull-Text 237-240
  Jenneke Fokker; Huib de Ridder; Piet Westendorp; Johan A. Pouwelse
Using Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technology for distributing Television programs to many viewers simultaneously can only be successful if users cooperate voluntarily and massively. The current BitTorrent protocol only enforces instantaneous bandwidth exchange within the context of one video file. We explore ways to induce user cooperation flexible over time and over type of resources. Essential resources for a P2P system are: bandwidth, injections, moderations, and appreciations. Social exchange theory is taken as a background for addressing the inducement of cooperation in a P2P-TV system called Tribler. This theory helps to explain how the acceptability of delayed reciprocity can be influenced by the specificity of the exchangeable resources and by the relationship types between individuals. This paper presents the results from a study among 36 participants about the acceptability of delayed reciprocity in a P2P-TV system, under varying relationship types and specificity of exchangeable resources.
Keywords: User communities; quantitative research; social issues; theories
How to Build a Persuasive Web Application BIBAKFull-Text 241-244
  Evan Rosenfeld
Successful web applications are able to influence the behaviors of their users. The top 40 Facebook applications were analyzed to determine the most persuasive ways of achieving such influence. This paper presents a framework of feedback loops for this purpose and then applies it within the context of Facebook.
Keywords: Persuasive technology; Facebook; social networking; influence; behavior change; online communities
"Hey World, Take a Look at Me!": Appreciating the Human Body on Social Network Sites BIBAKFull-Text 245-248
  Bernd Ploderer; Steve Howard; Peter Thomas; Wolfgang Reitberger
Social network sites (SNSs) such as Facebook have the potential to persuade people to adopt a lifestyle based on exercise and healthy nutrition. We report the findings of a qualitative study of an SNS for bodybuilders, looking at how bodybuilders present themselves online and how they orchestrate the SNS with their offline activities. Discussing the persuasive element of appreciation, we aim to extend previous work on persuasion in web 2.0 technologies.
Keywords: Persuasive technology; social network sites; web 2.0; persuasion; appreciation; recognition; fitness; bodybuilding

Self-persuasion and Timing

Digital Therapy: The Role of Digital Positive Psychotherapy in Successful Self-regulation BIBAKFull-Text 249-253
  Elin Olsen; Pål Kraft
We are currently developing a digital positive psycho-therapy intervention. The intervention will be presented at the 3rd International Conference on Persuasive Technology 2008. By means of installing positive emotions, digital positive psycho-therapy may help prevent ego-depletion and hence increase the chances for successful self-regulation. This may turn out to be an important component in many health behaviour interventions. The current paper discusses some basic insights regarding how digital psychotherapy interventions can be designed and why they hold the potential to make a valuable contribution.
Keywords: Digital Therapy; Self-Regulation; Positive Psychology; Digital Positive-Psychotherapy; Behaviour Change; Health Psychology
Finding Kairos in Quitting Smoking: Smokers' Perceptions of Warning Pictures BIBAKFull-Text 254-257
  Teppo Räisänen; Harri Oinas-Kukkonen; Seppo Pahnila
This paper studies Kairos, i.e. the opportune moment to persuade, through a smoking cessation experiment. We approached 101 people, comprising of 81 smokers and 20 non-smokers, on the streets of Palo Alto, California. The participants were shown five warning pictures related to the dangers of smoking as well as a control picture. The people rated each picture based upon how strongly they felt they were affected by the pictures. The results indicate that the opportune moment to show these pictures is not when the people already are smoking but rather much earlier. Quite interestingly, the affect of this intervention was stronger on women than men. The fact that the opportune moment seems to vary between individuals complicates the design of applications leveraging Kairos to a great extent.
Keywords: Mobile persuasion; Kairos; smoking cessation
Exploring the Persuasiveness of "Just-in-time" Motivational Messages for Obesity Management BIBAFull-Text 258-261
  Megha Maheshwari; Samir Chatterjee; David Drew
The healthcare industry in the United States is going through major challenges in terms of financial and human resources. One of the preferred ways to address this issue is to develop effective prevention systems so that the people can live healthy lives and in turn minimize the use of the medical system. Preventing diseases requires people to adopt healthy lifestyles. Advances in pervasive technology provide promising opportunity in developing such systems. Specifically, sending "just-in-time" motivational messages to help people make right health related decision has been pointed out as an emerging field of research. However, in order to persuade the users to take a healthy action, it is essential that the "just-in-time" messages are persuasive to the recipients. In this study, we explored persuasiveness of such messages by considering two of the five elements of a communication process with a focus on obesity management.

Well-Being Applications

BLB: A Persuasive and Interactive Installation Designed to Improve Well-Being BIBAKFull-Text 262-265
  Connie Golsteijn; Elise van den Hoven; Sijme Geurts; Max Eichenbrenner; Christ van Leest; Sanne van den Hurk; Yih Shun Ling
Well-being is a broad subject, which is described in this paper as: a personal balance of mental, social and physical being, influenced by life circumstances and life factors. These factors include emotions, engagement, life satisfaction, intentional activities and social network. The project described in this paper aims at improving well-being through the design of a persuasive and interactive installation for the home environment. After the investigation of well-being by means of a literature study, cultural probes and questionnaires, a concept was developed. This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of this concept. 'BLB', as it is called, encourages its users to seize the moment in order to increase their well-being.
Keywords: well-being; persuasive technology; intentional activities; interaction design; human-computer interaction
A Case Study on an Ambient Display as a Persuasive Medium for Exercise Awareness BIBAFull-Text 266-269
  Kaori Fujinami; Jukka Riekki
In this paper, we propose a persuasive display to motivate walking exercise. The display is an ambient display that is originally daily object like a mirror, and provides information about one's exercise level on the periphery of a line of sight. The presentation is designed to have an unpredictable nature as well as competition/collaboration aspects with others so that he/she could continue the exercise to have a fun with it. We describe an initial case study on information presentation to demonstrate our approach's feasibility and effectiveness, where a mirror is augmented.
Technology that Persuades the Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 270-273
  Laura Sorri; Eeva Leinonen
This paper discusses what makes technology persuasive and what kind of technology is considered interesting among the elderly. Also, factors contributing to the choice between appliances are presented. For acquisition of information several qualitative methods were used. Among the factors making technology interesting were the support of safety, independency, memory and health, and bringing easiness and comfort to everyday life without forgetting expressing oneself and social issues. The elderly had several opinions on the usability. The study revealed some factors which were influencing the interest despite the qualities of an appliance.
Keywords: elderly; technology for the elderly; persuasion

Theoretical Considerations

Design with Intent: Persuasive Technology in a Wider Context BIBAFull-Text 274-278
  Dan Lockton; David Harrison; Neville A. Stanton
Persuasive technology can be considered part of a wider field of 'Design with Intent' (DwI) -- design intended to result in certain user behaviour. This paper gives a very brief review of approaches to DwI from different disciplines, and looks at how persuasive technology sits within this space.
The Influence of Gender and Involvement Level on the Perceived Credibility of Web Sites BIBAKFull-Text 279-282
  Susan Ferebee
This article discusses the influence of interaction effects of gender and enduring involvement level on the perceived credibility of Web sites. This article discusses results that show that the interaction effect between enduring involvement and gender significantly influence the perceived credibility of Web sites.
Keywords: Credibility; Gender; Involvement; Web Design; Computer-Mediated Communication
Embodied Agents on Commercial Websites: Modeling Their Effects through an Affective Persuasion Route BIBAKFull-Text 283-286
  Pablo Lambert de Diesbach; David F. Midgley
The effects of embodied virtual agents have been widely studied but too often without a theoretical model of such effects. This paper proposes and tests a two-step affective route of persuasion, based on perspectives from psychology and consumer behavior. Step 1 posits effects of the agent on affect. Step 2 posits effects of affect on a construct of website stickiness. The model is tested in an experiment. The construct of stickiness is validated and the affective route is partially confirmed.
Keywords: Embodied virtual agents; affect; website stickiness