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Proceedings of the 2013 Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference

Fullname:Proceedings of the 25th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference
Note:Augmentation, Application, Innovation, Collaboration
Editors:Haifeng Shen; Ross Smith; Jeni Paay; Paul Calder; Theodor Wyeld
Location:Adelaide, Australia
Dates:2013-Nov-25 to 2013-Nov-29
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2525-7; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: OZCHI13
Papers:87
Pages:572
Links:Conference Website
  1. Mobility and security
  2. User experience
  3. Interface and interaction technologies
  4. Human factors and programming
  5. Interaction design
  6. Learning environments
  7. Gaming and motivational aspects
  8. Sustainability
  9. Interaction and visualisation
  10. Evaluation and usability
  11. Ubiquitous computing
  12. Touch interaction
  13. Student design challenge
  14. Social and collaboration technologies
  15. Resilience and ageing
  16. Information seeking
  17. Health and welfare
  18. Audio and speech

Mobility and security

A recommendation for designing mobile pedestrian navigation system in university campuses BIBAFull-Text 3-12
  Tony Shu-Hsien Wang; Dian Tjondronegoro; Michael Docherty; Wei Song; Joshua Fuglsang
University campuses have thousands of new students, staff and visitors every year. For those who are unfamiliar with the campus environment, an effective pedestrian navigation system is essential to orientate and guide them around the campus. Compared to traditional navigation systems, such as physical signposts and digital map kiosks, a mobile pedestrian navigation system provides advantages in terms of mobility, sensing capabilities, weather-awareness when the user is on the go. However, how best to design a mobile pedestrian navigation system for university campuses is still vague due to limited research in understanding how pedestrians interact with the system, and what information is required for traveling in a complex environment such as university campus. In this paper, we present a mobile pedestrian navigation system called QUT Nav. A field study with eight participants was run in a university campus context, aiming to identify key information required in a mobile pedestrian navigation system for user traveling in university campuses. It also investigated user's interactions and behaviours while they were navigating in the campus environment. Based on the results from the field study, a recommendation for designing mobile pedestrian navigation systems for university campuses is stated.
Classifying users of mobile pedestrian navigation tools BIBAFull-Text 13-16
  James Wen; William S. Helton; Mark Billinghurst
Providing the most appropriate navigation information on mobile devices for pedestrians requires an understanding of how pedestrians use navigation technology. While large-scale studies have identified different types of pedestrian navigation behaviour, far less data exists for classifying navigators by the technology they use. We report on a study that presented pedestrian users with multiple navigation interfaces in order to gain insight on usage preferences. We create a classification of users based on observed usage behavior that would be helpful for designing pedestrian navigation aids.
Realistic books for small-screen devices BIBAFull-Text 17-26
  Annika Hinze; Doris Jung; Lakshmi Muthaiah
Realistic Books is a digital book reading software using the presentation of a physical book, while offering the advantages of digital books access. This paper describes our experience with transferring the Realistic Books concept onto small-screen devices, i.e., tablets. We compared and contrasted two interface approaches: adapted and tailor-made. We conducted a study of Realistic Books with the original software ported to small screens, in which a number of usability issues were identified. We also describe our tailor-made interface for Realistic Books, and the outcomes of our second study.
"Who decides?": security and privacy in the wild BIBAFull-Text 27-36
  Kenneth Radke; Colin Boyd; Juan Gonzalez Nieto; Laurie Buys
Even though web security protocols are designed to make computer communication secure, it is widely known that there is potential for security breakdowns at the human-machine interface. This paper examines findings from a qualitative study investigating the identification of security decisions used on the web. The study was designed to uncover how security is perceived in an individual user's context. Study participants were tertiary qualified individuals, with a focus on HCI designers, security professionals and the general population. The study identifies that security frameworks for the web are inadequate from an interaction perspective, with even tertiary qualified users having a poor or partial understanding of security, of which they themselves are acutely aware. The result is that individuals feel they must protect themselves on the web. The findings contribute a significant mapping of the ways in which individuals reason and act to protect themselves on the web. We use these findings to highlight the need to design for trust at three levels, and the need to ensure that HCI design does not impact on the users' main identified protection mechanism: separation.
Trust and cooperation in text-based computer-mediated communication BIBAFull-Text 37-40
  Ahmad Khawaji; Fang Chen; Nadine Marcus; Jianlong Zhou
This study examines how different behaviours can affect trust in the text-chat environment. We designed two automated chat systems: one behaves cooperatively and the other behaves competitively. Thirty subjects participated in this study and the results revealed that the trust of subjects who chatted with a cooperative partner was significantly higher than the trust of subjects who chatted with a competitive partner. This study also examines the chat contents and the results show that subjects behave differently when they trust their partner, using more assent and positive emotion words.

User experience

Understanding 'tingle' in opera performances BIBAFull-Text 43-52
  Tuck Wah Leong; Peter Wright
With HCI venturing more into designing for the cultural and entertainment domain, researchers are engaging with experimental designs, and technical interventions to understand how to best consider new technologies for this domain. This paper focuses on audience experience. It presents approaches as to how the HCI community can better support audiences' encounters with deeply engaging peak experiences that are intense, memorable and personally engaging experiences in live performances. We do this by studying tingle experiences encountered during opera performances. Besides contributing to advancing experience design, this work adds to current understanding of liveness, offers ideas about the role of digital technologies to support live performances, and general insights towards designing for audience experiences.
Understanding "cool" in human-computer interaction research and design BIBAFull-Text 53-62
  Dimitrios Raptis; Jesper Kjeldskov; Mikael Skov
Recently a discussion has been initiated on what is cool and how HCI can use the concept in practice and design for it. This paper aims to provide a better understanding on cool as a concept from a theoretical and a practical perspective. From the theoretical perspective, we selected the HCI papers that focus on cool and we present their core findings. Then we performed a literature review on the concept of cool and we have identified its fundamental characteristics, through cool personalities and cool styles. From a practical perspective, we have studied how other domains have managed to successfully produce cool objects and we provide four suggestions on how to design cool digital artifacts. Finally, in this paper we also identify possible research directions in relation to cool, which if we manage to address we can increase our understanding on what is user experience and this can lead to the creation of better digital artifacts. Overall, this paper is a contribution towards researching and designing for cool, a research topic, which we believe it will initiate fruitful discussions in the HCI field.
"It's alive, it's magic, it's in love with you": opportunities, challenges and open questions for actuated interfaces BIBAFull-Text 63-72
  Majken Kirkegaard Rasmussen; Erik Grönvall; Sofie Kinch; Marianne Graves Petersen
Actuated Interfaces are receiving a great deal of interest from the research community. The field can now present a range of point designs, illustrating the potential design space of Actuated Interfaces. However, despite the increasing interest in Actuated Interfaces, the research carried out is nevertheless primarily preoccupied with the technical challenges and potential application areas, rather than how users actually approach, experience, interpret and understand Actuated Interfaces. Based on three case studies, investigating how people experience Actuated Interfaces, we point to; magic, movement and ambiguity as fruitful perspectives for understanding users' experiences with Actuated Interfaces. The three perspectives are employed to reflect upon opportunities and challenges, as well as point to open questions and relevant areas for future research for Actuated Interfaces.
The effect of language in answering qualitative questions in user experience evaluation web-surveys BIBAFull-Text 73-82
  Tanja Walsh; Piia Nurkka; Helen Petrie; Jaana Olsson
We investigated the effect of language in answering qualitative questions in user experience (UX) evaluation web-surveys. Two cross-cultural case studies of high tech sports watches with altogether 176 participants were carried out. Comparisons in answers were made among 72 native English speakers and 104 non-native English speakers. In the first study native Italian and native English speaking users were compared. Half of the Italians answered in Italian and half of them in English. We found that the response rate for participating to the survey among Italians answering in their native language was 64% compared to only 38% among Italians answering in English. The results of our case studies indicate that translating a UX web-survey into participants' native language would motivate users to participate in the study, especially if the user sample needs to include more varied users. It is easier to describe more in details and give examples of experiences, express emotions, feelings and ideas in one's own native language. The results suggest that if more descriptive qualitative data is needed from users, they are able to answer better in their own native language.

Interface and interaction technologies

Harnessing multi-user design and computation to devise archetypal whole-of-body gestures: a novel framework BIBAFull-Text 85-94
  Suranjith De Silva; Michael Barlow; Adam Easton
A novel framework is proposed to capture the variability in end user designed gestures and extract archetypal patterns from a pool of gestures sourced from multiple participants. The primary objective is to identify a gesture library that is preferred by the end user population so as to control a human avatar in a 3D virtual environment using whole-of-body gestures. By adapting a group based user centric study, different gesture designs from 36 participants were elicited. Analysis shows that the existing techniques are incapable of extracting archetypal patterns in gestures from such an unconstrained gesture space. As such, a formal notation, followed by hierarchical clustering, is used to provide an abstract representation of gesture designs and then to distil the archetypal gesture patterns from the pool of highly variable gestures. User acceptance of the extracted gestures was performed for validation and common motion patterns were identified from the provided user ratings. The gesture library selected by the framework is compared against the gesture library extracted based on the user ranking, and the similarities and differences between two gesture libraries are presented.
Four-dimensional viewing direction control by principal vanishing points operation and its application to four-dimensional fly-through experience BIBAFull-Text 95-104
  Takanobu Miwa; Yukihito Sakai; Shuji Hashimoto
This paper presents a novel interactive method that handles the 4-D viewing direction via the pick and move operation of principal vanishing points displayed in 3-D space. The principal vanishing points are represented by projecting the points at infinity in the directions of the 4-D principal coordinate axes onto 3-D space. Since the principal vanishing points are associated with the 4-D visual axis, they act as a landmark when users move in 4-D space. We utilize them as an interface of the 4-D viewing direction control to achieve intuitive 4-D interaction. Using the proposed method, we construct an interactive system that enables users to observe 3-D perspective drawings of 4-D data from an arbitrary 4-D viewing direction at an arbitrary 4-D position. Moreover, translating the 4-D eye-point along the 4-D viewing direction, the proposed system provides the 4-D first-person fly-through. The results of the user experiments show that the proposed system has a sufficient usability and an efficiency for 4-D interaction.
Investigating mobile stereoscopic 3D touchscreen interaction BIBAFull-Text 105-114
  Ashley Colley; Jonna Häkkilä; Johannes Schöning; Maaret Posti
3D output is no longer limited to large screens in cinemas or living rooms. Nowadays more and more mobile devices are equipped with autostereoscopic 3D (S3D) touchscreens. As a consequence interaction with 3D content now also happens whilst users are on the move. In this paper we carried out a user study with 27 participants to assess how mobile interaction, i.e. whilst walking, with mobile S3D devices, differs from interaction with 2D mobile touchscreens. We investigate the difference in touch accuracy between 2D touchscreens and mobile S3D touchscreens and evaluate the minimum touch target size for mobile S3D touchscreens. The contributions of this paper are twofold: Firstly, we found the increase in minimum touch target size caused by walking was larger for a mobile S3D UI than for a 2D UI. Secondly, we present touch target sizes and aspect ratios required for reliable user interaction in each case. Additionally we examined differences in the angle at which users held the mobile S3D device compared to a 2D mobile device. We found that mobile S3D caused users to hold the device at a different angle when walking, compared to the 2D case. This first study of its kind provides valuable information to developers of the next generation of UIs and applications for mobile S3D displays and devices.
Analysing mouse activity for cognitive load detection BIBAFull-Text 115-118
  Syed Arshad; Yang Wang; Fang Chen
User interaction and multimodal behaviour have been argued as viable indicators of cognitive load. We extend this idea to explore interactive mouse behaviour for the same. Though mouse dynamics is generally being explored as a biometric technology, we intend to adapt and enhance this usage for detecting pattern changes in user behaviour as cognitive load is varied. The scope of this paper is limited to analysing mouse interaction data generated during a larger multitier experiment (aimed at investigating effects of cognitive load on organisational trust). Mouse events data is from 88 subjects, each of which completed two different tasks (labelled T1 & T3) twice (under randomized order of high and low cognitive load levels). High cognitive load was induced using standard dual-task design. This paper brings forth core issues in mouse activity analysis and focuses on pause/break activity as possible indicator of cognitive load (in the context of performed experiment). Significant differences were found in extracted features from contemplation and hesitation type pause categories and future course of study charted.
Comparison of gestural, touch, and mouse interaction with Fitts' law BIBAFull-Text 119-122
  Lawrence Sambrooks; Brett Wilkinson
We present preliminary results of an experiment to compare gestural, touch, and mouse interaction using Fitts' law. A total of 15 participants were asked to select 100 targets as quickly and accurately as possible using each technique. Selection of targets was split into rounds of 20 (separated by a short break) in order to evaluate whether fatigue affected performance or whether performance improved/declined over time. The results found that gestural interaction performed much worse than touch and mouse interaction and recorded 3 times as many miss-selections. The poor results for gestural interaction were attributed to participant unfamiliarity and inaccuracies of the gesture-sensing device (Microsoft Kinect). Touch interaction performed comparably with mouse interaction although suffered with smaller targets due to occlusion and the impreciseness of a finger compared to a mouse cursor. Overall, performance remained fairly consistent over subsequent rounds. Fatigue did not have any effect.

Human factors and programming

Foundations for infrastructure and interfaces to support user control in long-term user modelling BIBAFull-Text 125-134
  Debjanee Barua; Judy Kay; Cécile Paris
Personal sensors track data about many aspects of our lives. This data can be used to form a long-term user model to help people self reflect on their long-term goals. Yet, there is a dearth of work on designing the infrastructure and associated interfaces so that people can control the data stored in their user models, enabling them to use and manipulate their own data as they wish. We have conducted a survey with over 100 participants to gain an understanding of people's attitudes towards controlling their data. This paper presents the design of the survey and reports on its results. We explored control issues in terms of three sensors for weight, activity and inactivity. Our results paint a nuanced picture of user preferences. We conclude with implications for designing long-term user modelling systems for user control of personal sensor data.
Towards a cognition-based assessment protocol for user-centered design BIBAFull-Text 135-138
  Jemma Harris; Mark Wiggins; Ben Morrison; Natalie Morrison
In usability testing there is often an emphasis on accurate and timely task performance without a systematic consideration of the appropriateness or otherwise of the cognitive skills and processes that lead to that behaviour. Consequently, this paper details how the constructs of cognitive complexity and cognitive load can explain the extent to which an end-user's interaction with the system is aligned with the expectations of the designer. We explain how these cognition-based concepts can be integrated into usability assessment protocols, allowing for targeted remedial strategies and minimum standards of competency to be identified.
Interfaces for discourse summarisation: a human factors analysis BIBAFull-Text 139-142
  Agata McCormac; Kathryn Parsons; Marcus Butavicius; Aaron Ceglar; Derek Weber; Tim Pattison; Richard Leibbrandt; Kenneth Treharne; David Powers
Empirical studies assessing the effectiveness of novel document interfaces are becoming more prevalent, however relatively little attention has been paid to how such tools could work with less structured documents featuring multiple contributors. Participants in this study used different interfaces to answer questions requiring the exploration of collaborative discourse. User performance was influenced by an interaction of interface, transcript, and question type. Individual differences also impacted on performance with higher education levels and higher general knowledge scores being associated with better task performance. The results also revealed that unnecessary interface functionality can hinder performance.
Towards a creativity support tool in processing: understanding the needs of creative coders BIBAFull-Text 143-146
  Mark C. Mitchell; Oliver Bown
Creative coding as a paradigm has seen increased interest in recent years. However, detailed studies of the processes and needs of these creative coders are currently lacking. This paper reports on the preliminary findings of a study into the practices of both novice and expert creative coders by analysing their approach to a creative design task in an observational, qualitative study. The findings have been placed into a taxonomy of needs, which can feed into the design of tools that aim to assist creative coders. The paper concludes by discussing the implications the taxonomy of needs has on defining requirements for a creativity support tool in the Processing environment.
A sense of working there: the user experience of Agile software developers BIBAFull-Text 147-150
  Julia Prior
This paper emphasises the importance to the Human-Computer Interaction community of understanding the landscape in which Agile software developers practice. A longitudinal ethnographic study of professional Agile software developers in Australia is drawn on to present an account of their everyday work. A deeper understanding of the user experience of software developers should inspire and inform the design of innovative technologies that more effectively enable and enhance their work of producing technology for end-users.

Interaction design

Proxemic interaction in a multi-room music system BIBAFull-Text 153-162
  Henrik Sørensen; Mathies G. Kristensen; Jesper Kjeldskov; Mikael B. Skov
In recent years we have seen a growing interest in proxemic interaction within HCI. In order to explore proxemic interaction that spans across separate locations, we have developed a functional prototype of a multi-room music system, called AirPlayer, and performed a field evaluation. The system implements proxemic interactions on top of an existing Apple AirPlay based platform. The added features allow music to follow the user around the house and provide a smartphone app which can adapt to the current location of the user. The prototype was deployed in two households over a three week period, where data was collected through logging, user-written diaries and interviews. What the field evaluation has revealed is a number of interesting findings specifically regarding the importance of a simple interaction, the power of discrete zones to provide a local interaction, the importance and challenge of understanding background interactions and challenges in designing interaction with music in discrete zones.
Evaluating organic 3D sculpting using natural user interfaces with the Kinect BIBAFull-Text 163-166
  Bradley Wesson; Brett Wilkinson
This project investigates the use of full body gestures to facilitate artistic expression. Skeletal data tracked with a Kinect sensor is used to drive a natural user interface providing users with the ability to sculpt a virtual claylike substance into different forms. Various gestures allow interaction with the scene to adjust brush size, augment the virtual form and orient the user's view. Several verbal commands offer system-wide commands to return the scene to its initial state, reset the camera position, and undo interactions.
   Test participants use these interactions to transform a spherical "blob" into a teapot by extruding the spout and handle and flattening the top. A survey completed by the participants has indicated that this action is enjoyable and immersive.
Mobile ambient presence BIBAFull-Text 167-170
  Greg Wadley; Frank Vetere; Lars Kulik; Liza Hopkins; Julie Green
We are exploring "mobile ambient presence" (MAP) as an approach to sustaining unobtrusive social connection. Prior research has shown that ambient technology can support connectedness by conveying social presence. Since mobile devices are typically always-on and often in peripheral vision, they are candidate ambient displays that might convey presence. We tested a MAP app for tablet computers, finding that it sustained connection in two settings where high-fidelity communication media were considered intrusive. In this paper we discuss the advantages and challenges of mobile ambient presence and the contexts in which it could be put to use.
Favoured attributes of in-air gestures in the home environment BIBAFull-Text 171-174
  Karen Ho; Hanley Weng
The home is an environment filled with an increasing number of fixtures and appliances, from doors and windows to kettles and chargers. Devices for in-air gestural recognition are also increasing in commercial availability. Appropriate attributes that make up natural in-air gestures have yet to be uniformly established, especially in relation to their use in the comfort of the home environment. Three studies were conducted, each informing the focus and construction of a gesture-recognition prototype for the following study. The preferred attributes of in-air gestures were examined; their use in conjunction with other modalities, the motion of in-air gestures, and feedback delay and transition time of an action as instigated by an in-air gesture. Our findings indicate natural actions that precede in-air gestures, topographical correlations between gesture and system response, and a desire for minimal effort. These results can be used as guidelines for the design of in-air gestures and systems for their recognition in environments within and beyond the home.
The Leap Motion controller: a view on sign language BIBAFull-Text 175-178
  Leigh Ellen Potter; Jake Araullo; Lewis Carter
This paper presents an early exploration of the suitability of the Leap Motion controller for Australian Sign Language (Auslan) recognition. Testing showed that the controller is able to provide accurate tracking of hands and fingers, and to track movement. This detection loses accuracy when the hand moves into a position that obstructs the controller's ability to view, such as when the hand rotates and is perpendicular to the controller. The detection also fails when individual elements of the hands are brought together, such as finger to finger. In both of these circumstances, the controller is unable to read or track the hand. There is potential for the use of this technology for recognising Auslan, however further development of the Leap Motion API is required.

Learning environments

Assessing the usability of students object-oriented language with first-year IT students: a case study BIBAFull-Text 181-188
  Eugene McArdle; Jason Holdsworth; Ickjai Lee
This paper describes our "objects-first" programming environment from the perspective of HCI in education. We argue why a syntactically simple domain-specific programming language allows first-year IT students to focus on core programming skills such as code reading, writing, and debugging. We present a case study of first-year IT students at our regional university. The results suggest that simplified language design helps a student develop transferable skills and conceptual knowledge when compared with traditional approaches.
Integrating orchestration of ubiquitous and pervasive learning environments BIBAFull-Text 189-192
  Roberto Martinez-Maldonado; Yannis Dimitriadis; Andrew Clayphan; Juan A. Muñoz-Cristóbal; Luis P. Prieto; María Jesús Rodríguez-Triana; Judy Kay
Ubiquitous and pervasive computing devices, such as interactive tabletops, whiteboards, tablets and phones, have the potential to enhance the management and awareness of learning activities in important ways. They provide students with natural ways to interact with collaborators, and can help teachers create and manage learning tasks that can be carried out both in the classroom and at a distance. But how can these emerging technologies be successfully integrated into current teaching practice? This paper proposes an approach to integrate, from the technological perspective, collaborative learning activities using these kinds of devices. Our approach is based on the concept of orchestration, which tackles the critical task for teachers to coordinate student's learning activities within the constraints of authentic educational settings. Our studies within authentic learning settings enabled us to identify three main elements that are important for ubiquitous and pervasive learning settings. These are i) regulation mechanisms, ii) interconnection with existing web-based learning environments, and iii) awareness tools.
Understanding the effects of discreet real-time social interaction on student engagement in lectures BIBAFull-Text 193-196
  Mark D. Reilly; Haifeng Shen; Paul R. Calder; Henry Been-Lirn Duh
Student disengagement in lectures is a common issue experienced by higher education globally. Our approach is to use the application of known human behaviour in groups to influence educationally meaningful behaviour by students during and external to lectures through the use of available technology that is both affordable and desirable to those students. We have developed a proof-of-concept application GroupNotes that we believe meets those aims. This paper outlines the principles behind the application design and some preliminary test results.
MolyPoly: immersive gesture controlled chemistry teaching system BIBAFull-Text 197-200
  SooJeong Yoo; Callum Parker; Winyu Chinthammit; Susan Turland
Currently, first-year chemistry students at the University of Tasmania learn about three-dimensional molecular structures using a combination of lectures, tutorials, and practical hands-on experience with molecular chemistry kits. We have developed a basic 3D molecule construction simulation, called MolyPoly, to help students grasp the concepts of chemistry easily through immersion and natural interaction with 3D molecules. It was designed to augment the teaching of organic chemistry with enhanced natural interaction and 3D visualization techniques. This paper presents the results of a pilot study conducted with the aforementioned chemistry class. Participating students were split into two groups; MolyPoly and traditional. The results demonstrated that the two groups have achieved similar learning outcomes at the end of the four (4) class sessions.
Engaging stakeholders through Facebook for teacher professional development in Indonesia BIBAFull-Text 201-204
  Eunice Sari; Adi Tedjasaputra
This paper discusses the implementation of social media, i.e. Facebook during the design and development of an online learning community for teacher professional development in Indonesia. The study employed Design Research where intensive interaction with stakeholders played a key role in design decisions. During the third intervention, Facebook was employed as the main design artifact to engage stakeholders in reflective action and critical reflection. The implementation of Facebook was contextualised to the socio-cultural settings of Indonesia. This paper reports several findings related to stakeholder participation in this study, i.e. online membership and online interaction.

Gaming and motivational aspects

Being chased by zombies!: understanding the experience of mixed reality quests BIBAFull-Text 207-216
  Alexander Kan; Martin Gibbs; Bernd Ploderer
Both researchers and practitioners show increasing interest in exploring mixed reality games: games, where physical environments blend together with digital technologies. In this paper we have extended earlier work by bringing attention to the role of narrative in mixed reality games. For our case study we chose a mobile phone application Zombies Run!, which is designed to support actual running. This application contains a fictional story about a zombie apocalypse and provides runners with various quests (in the form of missions) to complete during their run. We investigated different aspects of participants' experience with the application and how it changed their running. Our findings show how the app changed running in three major ways. Firstly, it changed the way runs were organised. Secondly, it shook up established running routines. And lastly, it shaped the meanings associated with running.
Measuring audience experience in social videogaming BIBAFull-Text 217-220
  John Downs; Frank Vetere; Steve Howard; Steve Loughnan
Social videogaming sessions present a variety of opportunities for interaction and engagement. While active play is the most obvious way that participants can interact during the gaming session, these sessions can also have audience members who are not actively playing. However, there is little understanding about the experience of audience members within a gaming context. We argue that in order to understand audience experience it is necessary to identify and measure its components. In this paper we present the development of an instrument specifically designed for studying the experience of audience members within social videogaming sessions. The instrument consists of a scale based on measures of game player experience, but designed to be more relevant to the game experience of non-players.
How are gamers better at drawing teapots than non-gamers? BIBAFull-Text 221-224
  Theodor Wyeld; Benedict Williams; Zak Barbuto
This paper reports on a study of gamers (defined as those who play 2D or 3D games for more than 1hr a week) and non-gamers (defined as those who play 2D or 3D games for less than 1hr a week per month) and their ability to draw what they see. A series of spatial cognition tests were conducted as well as a drawing task. Gamers tended to perform better than non-gamers in both the spatial ability tests and the drawing task. Statistical analyses showed common processes were involved in both types of tasks. Gamers tended to be better at both tasks. Similar faculties seem to be invoked by gamers' approach to the tasks when compared to non-gamers.
Exploring internet CO2 emissions as an auditory display BIBAFull-Text 225-228
  Stuart McFarlane; Frank Feltham; Darrin Verhagen
This research project explores the effectiveness of an auditory display (AD) prototype for the sonification of perceived internet e-waste of CO2 emissions to a small user group within their office context. To date, methods do not exist for the reporting of e-waste to users of personal computing while they perform simple internet enquiries. Underpinning the theoretical development of this project is a focus on AD guided by a soundscape theory, and on approaches to sonification to convey subtle, unobtrusive, and useful information. Evaluation of the prototype takes place as a field study in an office context. The following paper gives an account of the design and development of the AD prototype and its respective sonification, the design methodology employed and the research findings, and concludes with recommendations for further exploration of the balance between ambient and salient information.
Awesome!: conveying satisfaction on the app store BIBAFull-Text 229-232
  Leonard Hoon; Rajesh Vasa; Gloria Yoanita Martino; Jean-Guy Schneider; Kon Mouzakis
In a competitive market like the App Store, high user perceived quality is paramount, especially due to the public review system offered. These reviews give developers feedback on their own apps, as well as help provide data for competitor analysis. However, given the size of the data set, manual analysis of reviews is unrealistic, especially given the need for a rapid response to changing market dynamics. Current research into mobile app reviews has provided an insight into the statistical distributions, but there is minimal knowledge about the content in these reviews. In particular, we do not know if the aggregated numerical rating is a reliable indicator of the information within a review. This work reports on an analysis of reviews to determine how closely aligned the numerical ratings are to the textual description. We observed that short user reviews mostly contain a small set of words, and the corresponding numerical rating matches the underlying sentiment.

Sustainability

Promoting pro-environmental behaviour: a tale of two systems BIBAFull-Text 235-244
  Jeni Paay; Jesper Kjeldskov; Mikael Skov; Rahuvaran Pathmanathan; Jon Pearce
Sustainability is becoming increasingly important in our everyday lives. We no longer see it as solely the responsibility of governments or large corporations, but we are asking ourselves how we as individuals can contribute to the well-being and maintenance of the world we live in. This paper explores the use of mobile persuasive technology to promote pro-environmental behaviour in the home. We have designed, implemented, deployed and evaluated two mobile systems in two different domains, in two different countries. The novelty in this research is that the theoretical outcomes from two different but related studies are analysed together. From this we have discovered eight overarching persuaders to sustainable domestic resource consumption. The fact that these concepts are common to both studies strengthens the generalisability of our findings. The contribution of this paper to HCI is a set of eight key concepts to consider when designing mobile persuasive technology to promote pro-environmental behaviour.
Curiosity to cupboard: self reported disengagement with energy use feedback over time BIBAFull-Text 245-254
  Stephen Snow; Laurie Buys; Paul Roe; Margot Brereton
This paper discusses findings made during a study of energy use feedback in the home (eco-feedback), well after the novelty has worn off. Contributing towards four important knowledge gaps in the research, we explore eco-feedback over longer time scales, focusing on instances where the feedback was not of lasting benefit to users rather than when it was. Drawing from 23 semi-structured interviews with Australian householders, we found that an initially high level of engagement gave way over time to disinterest, neglect and in certain cases, technical malfunction. Additionally, preconceptions concerned with the "purpose" of the feedback were found to affect use. We propose expanding the scope of enquiry for eco-feedback in several ways, and describe how eco-feedback that better supports decision-making in the "maintenance phase", i.e. once the initial novelty has worn off, may be key to longer term engagement.
Sustainable HCI for grassroots urban food-growing communities BIBAFull-Text 255-264
  Sara Heitlinger; Nick Bryan-Kinns; Janis Jefferies
Mainstream food growing practices around the world call in to question our future food security, and in particular the sustainability of food consumption in urban centres. At the same time there has been a dramatic recent increase in grassroots urban food-growing communities in the UK and beyond. This paper looks at how research in sustainable human-computer interaction (HCI) can support better social and environmental practices through a focus on urban food-growing communities. In this paper we respond to recent work within sustainable HCI. We report on a field study at an urban city farm in inner London which took a participatory research approach with staff and volunteers. We discuss the values, needs and practices of the farm community which have emerged from the fieldwork. We conclude with a discussion of the implications and opportunities for designing with computational technology to help inform the conceptualisation of sustainable HCI and to serve as a resource for designers engaging with urban food-growing communities.

Interaction and visualisation

Enhancing spatial perception and user experience in video games with volumetric shadows BIBAFull-Text 267-276
  Tuukka M. Takala; Perttu Hämäläinen; Mikael Matveinen; Taru Simonen; Jari Takatalo
In this paper, we investigate the use of volumetric shadows for enhancing three-dimensional perception and action in third-person motion games. They offer an alternative to previously studied cues and visual guides. Our preliminary survey revealed that from the games that require Kinect, 37% rely primarily on a third-person view and 9% on a first-person view. We conducted a user study where 30 participants performed object reaching, interception, and aiming tasks in six different graphical modes of a video game that was controlled using a Kinect sensor and PlayStation Move controllers. The study results indicate that different volumetric shadow cues can affect both the user experience and the gameplay performance positively or negatively, depending on the lighting setup. Qualitative user experience analysis shows that playing was found to be most easy and fluent in a typical virtual reality setting with stereo rendering and flat surface shadows.
How screen size influences Chinese readability BIBAFull-Text 277-280
  You Wang; Zhihao Zhao; Danni Wang; Guihuan Feng; Bin Luo
Mobile devices are becoming more and more important in our daily life, with larger and larger screens. It seems to be no doubt that the larger the screen, the better readability we can achieve. However, there is no sufficient research about how screen size affects readability. We aim at doing such a thorough study. In this paper, we conduct an experiment with twenty-four participants to investigate the relationship between screen size and the Chinese reading effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. The results indicate that, although reading seems to be easier on larger screen, screen size has no definitely influences on reading effectiveness or efficiency, except that reading on larger screens are definitely easier. Moreover, mobility, price and usability of the mobile devices are the key issues that customers treasure most. Therefore, according to our experiment results, we conclude that screen size smaller than 7 inch for mobile phones and about 10.1 inches for Tabs are preferable for mobile users.
A leap-supported, hybrid AR interface approach BIBAFull-Text 281-284
  Holger Regenbrecht; Jonny Collins; Simon Hoermann
We present a novel interface approach which combines 2D video-based AR with a partial voxel model, allowing for more convincing interactions with 3D objects and worlds. It enables users in a hand-controlled interface (a) to interact with a virtual environment (VE) and at the same time (b) allows for correct mutual occlusions between interacting fingers and the VE. A Leap Motion Controller is used to track the users' fingers and a webcam overlay allows for an augmented view.
   Our "VoxelAR" concept can be applied in modified ways to any video see-through AR system; we demonstrate our approach in a physical rehabilitation application scenario. Our prototype implementation and our work-in-progress findings are presented.
The effect of subject familiarity on comprehension and eye movements during reading BIBAFull-Text 285-288
  Leana Copeland; Tom Gedeon
We investigate factors affecting reading and overall comprehension of the underlying meaning and concepts within a piece of text using eye movements. Our objective is to identify eye movement measures that will predict reading comprehension, and intend to apply them in eLearning to create dynamic learning environments that can use eye movement to detect reader comprehension. We found that the self-reported familiarity of readers with the subject of documents affects their reading behaviour but not their total comprehension score, and found that we could identify answer-seeking behaviour and a measure of their actual familiarity with the text content using eye gaze.
One-line GUI: minimized graphic user interface for interactive TV BIBAFull-Text 289-292
  HyungKun Park; Yeseul Kim; Jeeyong Chung; Sangyoung Cho; Eunji Woo; Woohun Lee
In this research, we have developed an interactive television (ITV) interface, which has different context than a conventional television. We assumed that people do not want to be disturbed of their watching experience by a large graphic user interface (GUI), which occludes TV contents. In this paper, we propose a new concept of interface called One-line GUI, a compressed GUI placed at the bottom of the TV screen, and which is manipulated with optimized physical user interface (PUI). Minimized GUI will not occlude the TV contents and support necessary task of ITV simultaneously with integrated manipulation system. To evaluate usability, we conducted user study to compare interface between the conventional ITV and One-line GUI. The result shows that the participants could perform the task better without difficulty with One-line GUI.

Evaluation and usability

An evaluation of advanced user interface customization BIBAFull-Text 295-304
  Clemens Zeidler; Christof Lutteroth; Gerald Weber
Many graphical user interfaces (GUIs) are customizable. While there are many approaches to user interface customization, most of them are fairly simplistic, e.g., they only allow users to customize menus and toolbars. However, one can think of more advanced customization approaches that allow more complex GUI layout customizations and even functional customization. Functional customization goes deeper into the application logic and makes it possible to change the behavior of an application. In this paper we target two open questions: (1) Are technical users able to use such advanced customization approaches? (2) Would technical users apply such approaches in practice?
   We introduce prototypical systems for layout and functional customization of GUIs. In a user study, these systems were evaluated to address the research questions mentioned above. 18 technical users were given customization tasks for three layout and two functional customization scenarios. The participants were observed during the tasks and were asked to complete questionnaires. The results indicate that users are able to use the proposed customization systems, and would also employ them in practice. This suggests that it would be beneficial to include such customization facilities into current and future applications.
Quantitative evaluation of media space configuration in a task-oriented remote conference system BIBAFull-Text 305-314
  Kyle Koh; Jinwook Seo
While remote conference systems have been extensively studied and developed in the past with various user scenarios, many people still rely on simple tools like messengers or video chats that deliver only visual and auditory information of each remote participant as their primary methods of real time remote communication on their computers and tablets. With the simple tools, people still perform variety of tasks. This paper analyzes the tasks performed in remote conference tools running on general purpose PCs or tablets, and categorizes them into different types based on their characteristics. We performed a controlled user experiment to discover behavioral differences observed from each type of the tasks using eye trackers. The study revealed that users showed different behavioral patterns for different task types in both subjective reporting and the eye gaze data. Based on the results, we also provide a general guideline for the screen configuration of a remote conference tool.
Physicality quantitative evaluation method BIBAFull-Text 315-324
  Mahmood Ashraf; Masitah Ghazali
The physical interaction aspects of embedded systems have been neglected in comparison to internal software issues in the software engineering field. Physical interfaces suffer from interaction complexities leading to usage difficulty and poor acceptance by the end-users. Meanwhile, the usability techniques focus on the overall usability issues while overlooking the in-depth physicality aspects of the interface and interaction. This study proposes a physicality-focused quantitative evaluation method to assist the embedded system developers in managing the interaction complexities of their products. The acceptance of the embedded system developers towards the proposed method was assessed by means of a user study. The results suggested their strong acceptance. The aim of this study is to re-emphasise the natural physical aspects of embedded system interfaces leading to intuitive interaction.
Trial by tablet: user evaluation of the digital courtroom BIBAFull-Text 325-328
  Graham Farrell; Robert T. Tipping; Vivienne Farrell; Clinton J. Woodward
Increasing volumes of paper based evidence documentation and its preparation is creating a growing need for an IT solution in Australian courtrooms. This paper discusses the findings of a study where members of the Australian judiciary, including judges, barristers, lawyers, court administrators, law academics and members of the general public, were introduced to an electronic evidence presentation system in a formal court environment. The purpose of the study was to identify particular needs of the users in order to produce a series of design recommendations for future.
Measuring interactivity at an interactive public information display BIBAFull-Text 329-332
  Christopher Ackad; Rainer Wasinger; Richard Gluga; Judy Kay; Martin Tomitsch
Public Information Displays (PIDs) have only recently begun to support user interaction. Traditionally, such displays have been static and non-interactive, and past research has shown that users of such displays (both non-interactive and interactive) are often oblivious to them; a term commonly known as 'display blindness'.
   In this paper, we describe the results from a field study that was conducted on a gesture-based PID, to observe interactivity with the display over a number of different experiment conditions. Over a period of 120 days, a total of 2,468 people approached the display. Results show that 71% proceeded to face the display, and from this, 62% of these people proceeded to interact with the display, with average interaction sessions lasting 28 seconds. Results from this study provide valuable insight into interaction sessions with interactive PIDs, as well as an essential baseline for future studies into PID interactivity.

Ubiquitous computing

Internet of things: a review of literature and products BIBAFull-Text 335-344
  Treffyn Lynch Koreshoff; Toni Robertson; Tuck Wah Leong
This paper offers an HCI perspective on the emergent agenda of the Internet of Things (IoT). The purpose is to provide insights and resources for how HCI could engage productively with the IoT agenda while it is still evolving and being realised. We examined and reviewed HCI-related literature and commercial products of the IoT, categorising a final collection of 89 research papers and 93 commercial products into two tables. Through this, we are able to provide a snapshot of the types, extent and foci of both research and commercial efforts. It has also revealed trends, opportunities, as well as gaps for how HCI could proceed when engaging more deeply with the IoT. Finally, this review provides insights for HCI, suggesting tools, methods and potential approaches that can help ensure a human-centred IoT.
Understanding spatial contexts of the real world under explicit or tacit roles of location BIBAFull-Text 345-354
  Masaya Okada; Masahiro Tada
To realize context-aware services in a ubiquitous computing environment, it is essential to extract the spatial structure of non-linguistic context information that involves a person at a certain location in the real world. With the techniques of multimodal behavior observation and knowledge science, we propose a method of location-based activity analysis to extract the explicit or tacit roles of location in human activities and to express the spatial contexts of the world. We confirmed that location-based estimation of real-world spatial contexts enables a close approximation of the contexts of real-world people. We also showed that spatial contexts can be multidirectionally understood by accumulating, comparing, and integrating the results of spatial interpretations made by people with different attributes and different viewpoints. The estimated spatial contexts can be used for onsite and offsite support services that consider the inherent characteristics of each location and potential human needs arising at each location.
Working in the clouds: a study of contemporary practices BIBAFull-Text 355-358
  Anita Gisch; Toni Robertson
This paper presents findings from a scoping study conducted with 12 participants who use cloud productivity tools in a range of small business contexts and work arrangements. There are two key areas discussed in this paper; access and equity issues within different Australian geographic regions and polarized views of cloud technology that resonate with teleworking utopian/dystopian discourses. The findings suggest that reliable and fast internet access beyond urban contexts should not be taken for granted and challenge the assumption that a current lack of access can be correlated with perceptions of technology and attitudes towards innovation.
SmartFinger: connecting devices, objects and people seamlessly BIBAFull-Text 359-362
  Shanaka Ransiri; Roshan Lalintha Peiris; Kian Peen Yeo; Suranga Nanayakkara
In this paper, we demonstrate a method to create a seamless information media 'channel' between the physical and digital worlds. Our prototype, SmartFinger, aims to achieve this goal with a finger-worn camera, which continuously captures images for the extraction of information from our surroundings. With this metaphorical channel, we have created a software architecture which allows users to capture and interact with various entities in our surroundings. The interaction design space of SmartFinger is discussed in terms of smart-connection, smart-sharing and smart-extraction of information. We believe this work will create numerous possibilities for future explorations.
Approaching a human-centred internet of things BIBAFull-Text 363-366
  Treffyn Lynch Koreshoff; Tuck Wah Leong; Toni Robertson
This paper surveys recent Internet of Things (IoT) related HCI literature, and examines it in light of a comprehensive framework by Atzori et al. (2010). Mapping HCI literature to this framework helped us understand the extent and the focus of IoT related HCI efforts, including a lack of HCI engagement with deeper human-centred perspectives of the IoT. It also revealed HCI considerations for the IoT which we added to the framework. This extended the framework to a tool for an HCI audience that can be used for 'thinking through' the design of IoT technologies. We close the paper by demonstrating how this tool has been found useful in an IoT research project and at the same time illustrating our approach in how to engage more deeply with human-centred concerns.
The irony and re-interpretation of our quantified self BIBAFull-Text 367-370
  Rafael A. Calvo; Dorian Peters
The new possibilities afforded by cloud computing infrastructure, with respect to the large amounts of data that can now be collected and processed unobtrusively, have triggered a growing interest in systems that record personal life events. We go on the notion that this information can be used as a kind of extended memory to support insights into our past and our present lives. However, as we argue in this paper, the psychological processes and consequences underlying the interpretation of this data can be significantly more complex and less predictable than has generally been acknowledged.
   Specifically we look at two phenomena: first, that of re-interpretation (that events are reinterpreted every time we recall them) and second, that humans participate in ironic processes such that even self-control goals can become obstacles to behavior change. In this paper we put forward that as we design life-logging systems, personal informatics or quantified-self technologies in future, will need to better find ways to take into account this psychological complexity in order to be effective and avoid inadvertent harm. We also briefly review theoretical frameworks and psychological evidence that may inform the way we design such systems going forward.

Touch interaction

An approach for designing and evaluating a plug-in vision-based tabletop touch identification system BIBAFull-Text 373-382
  Andrew Clayphan; Roberto Martinez-Maldonado; Christopher Ackad; Judy Kay
Key functionality for interactive tabletops to provide effective collaboration affordances requires touch identification, where each touch is matched to the right user. This can be valuable to provide adaptive functions, personalisation of content, collaborative gestures and capture of differentiated interaction for real-time or further analysis. While there is increased attention on touch-identification mechanisms, currently there is no developed solution to readily enhance available tabletop hardware to include such functionality. This paper proposes a plug-in system that adds touch identification to a conventional tabletop. It also presents an analysis tool and the design of an evaluation suite to inform application designers of the effectiveness of the system to differentiate users. We illustrate its use by evaluating the solution under a number of conditions of: scalability (number of users); activity density; and multi-touch gestures. Our contributions are: (1) an off-the-shelf system to add user differentiation and tracking to currently available interactive tabletop hardware; and (2) the foundations for systematic assessment of touch identification accuracy for vision-based systems.
Pseudo-pressure detection and its use in predictive text entry on touchscreens BIBAFull-Text 383-392
  Ahmed Sabbir Arif; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
In this article we first present a new hybrid technique that combines existing time- and touch-point-based approaches to simulate pressure detection on standard touchscreens. Results of two user studies show that the new hybrid technique can distinguish (at least) two pressure levels, where the first requires on average 1.04 N and the second 3.24 N force on the surface. Then, we present a novel pressure-based predictive text entry technique that utilizes our hybrid pressure detection to enable users to bypass incorrect predictions by applying extra pressure on the next key. For inputting short English phrases with 10% non-dictionary words a comparison with conventional text entry in a study showed that the new technique increases entry speed by 9% and decreases error rates by 25%. Also, most users (83%) favour the new technique.
FingerInk: turn your glass into a digital board BIBAFull-Text 393-396
  Alaa Halawani; Haibo Li
We present a robust vision-based technology for hand and finger detection and tracking that can be used in many CHI scenarios. The method can be used in real-life setups and does not assume any predefined conditions. Moreover, it does not require any additional expensive hardware. It fits well into user's environment without major changes and hence can be used in ambient intelligence paradigm. Another contribution is the interaction using glass which is a natural, yet challenging environment to interact with. We introduce the concept of "invisible information layer" embedded into normal window glass that is used as an interaction medium thereafter.
Evaluation of a new error prevention technique for mobile touchscreen text entry BIBAFull-Text 397-400
  Ahmed Sabbir Arif; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
This paper presents a new pressure-based error prevention technique for mobile touchscreen text entry. Two user studies were conducted to compare the new technique with a conventional virtual keyboard, one with novice and another with expert users. Results of the first user study showed that with practice the new technique significantly improves accuracy. Yet, no such indication was observed during the second study.
Designing rich touch interaction through proximity and 2.5D force sensing touchpad BIBAFull-Text 401-404
  Seongkook Heo; Jaehyun Han; Geehyuk Lee
The touchpad is the de facto standard input device for controlling the GUI on portable computers. Most touchpads detect only finger contact and ignores other physical actions, such as applying force or hovering over the device. In this paper, we introduce a novel touchpad capable of tracking finger hover and measuring normal and shear forces. We also present two design strategies for the hover- and force-enhanced touchpad: multi-level user interaction and mimicry of physical manipulation. We illustrate the two design strategies using two applications that we developed based on the design strategies.

Student design challenge

Family room: reducing email overload BIBAFull-Text 407-408
  Sarah Ellen Webber; Kayla J. Heffernan; Behnaz Rostami Yeganeh; Fernando Estrada; Daina Augstkalns
This paper introduces Family Room, a cross-platform solution to address email overload associated with personal information management (PIM), bridge the intergenerational disparity in technology use, and enhance reminiscence within geographically dispersed families. In response to the OzCHI 2013 24-hour Student Design Challenge, to design the future of email, this proposal focuses on families' use of email alongside other communication tools for managing digital possessions. The aim was to identify an approach to reduce email burden while supporting users' ability to connect with their family through a familiar platform. As this concept was designed and prototyped within 24 hours, further exploration and evaluation is recommended.
TorteMail: solving email information overload BIBAFull-Text 409-410
  Matthew Ritchie; Elizabeth Gilleran; Rowan Lucas; Nick Woods; Darrell Rivero
The OzCHI24 student challenge brief summarized the current problems associated with email due to its use as a communication medium that has evolved far from its original purpose. The brief directed us to address this challenge by designing an email 'replacement': a solution that would somehow ease the current problem of information overload due to modern usage email services. Hence, this paper introduces our solution, TorteMail, a new email solution intended to increase the speed and improve the organization of email. TorteMail is born from first hand research and investigation in current trends of email sorting and is hence comprised of both a new sorting approach to email and a innovative email format combining traditional multimedia content with form interface elements.
Vision of the future of email featuring upcoming technology to enhance the user experience BIBAFull-Text 411-412
  Marcel Penz; Kallirroi Pouliadou; Taís Mauk; Yedan Qian; Siyuan Fang
Information overload caused by emails is a growing problem faced by users in work environments. This leads to distraction and loss in productivity. We present a series of concepts to reduce time spent on browsing interfaces and improve the overall user experience of email. Our contribution includes visually clustering emails and information based on content, a timeline view to archive past correspondences, eye tracking used to highlight key terms and data, voice recording to emphasize the tone of messages, as well as proximity based data exchange. Further investigation and implementation of these suggestions along with emerging technologies will enhance the overall experience for the future use of email.
Threading centric approach towards email client BIBAFull-Text 413-414
  Mehul Agrawal; Mannu Amrit; Minal Jain; Himanshu Bansal; Abhinav Krishna
Email has changed from its original vision of a simple asynchronous communication system to a core application for digital personal information management. In its current form, Email lets you glance at all of your information at once. Mechanisms introduced into Gmail (Google's email client) such as starring, labeling, sorting into folders, importance markers were initially proposed as a means to classify and de-clutter the mailboxes. But in contrast they have overloaded the mailbox with information. We propose a solution based on tagging, threads and visualization techniques to make the email system much more organized and effective. We mainly focus on threads and our understanding of the life-cycle of communication to arrive at the solution.
inBOX: your future mail box BIBAFull-Text 415-416
  Gashaye Mahtemu; Jahnvi Mudgal; V. R. Parvathy; Rajib Bhakat; Sri Harsha VSSS Andukuri
Email and related traditional collaboration applications are some of the few truly ubiquitous and critical forms of communication for business today. Like the telephone, it is hard to imagine a workplace without them.
   Email, which was designed as a simple one-to-one communication tool, is used today for everything from broadcasting communications to project, information and business process management. The resulting information overload, coupled with the availability of newer social collaboration tools, has highlighted major challenges to the current use cases for email.
   Despite these challenges, email use is expected to continue growing -- but at a slower pace than some of the newer capabilities such as blogs, micro blogging, wikis, social file sharing, social communications and video collaboration. Email will retain relevance as a key business collaboration tool by evolving towards a more integrated approach with these newer interfaces. This evolution into a social email experience takes users to an integrated social environment in which they can switch seamlessly between the right tools for the right tasks.
Hush tube: designing a tangible and quieter email BIBAFull-Text 417-418
  Kevin Gaunt; Jenni Toriseva; Regimantas Vegele; Migle Padegimaite
As mobile devices become more prevalent in our lifestyles it raises the question of how a healthy work-life balance can be upheld. The user research in this student design challenge project revealed that there are people who receive more work related emails per hour than they can respond to. This causes stress and performance anxiety in the long run. Our hypothesis is that these individuals would prefer to receive only the relevant messages and over the most suitable communication channel (e.g. phone calls, instant messaging, etc.). We propose a playful and tangible system that makes the sender more aware of the workload the recipient is under. We postulate that this system would lower the amount of irrelevant emails being sent, as users would have to reconsider the importance of their messages.
Semantic emails: agent technology in email systems BIBAFull-Text 419-420
  M. S. Vishnu; Dhruv Damle; Debanshu Bhaumik; Debashish Sahu
This paper introduces the concept of semantic email system as our response the OZCHI 24 hours challenge. We have attempted to look into the problem of categorization, task management, context awareness and aesthetics of email by defining the possible characteristics of the emails. The design solution envisions a scenario where individual emails act as agents interacting with each other within a digital landscape controlled by the user.
e-Tely: electronic stamps for augmenting emails BIBAFull-Text 421-422
  Vishesh Kumar; Harshit Agrawal; Rishika Jain; Arka Bani Maini; Prabhat Kumar
In our pursuit to restore delight in email, and making it more human, we recalled a common hobby of ours that was being lost in abandoning snail mail, for the technologically advanced e-mail. This paper explores a concept that, in a playful manner symbolized by stamps, reignites the elements of glee that used to belong to handling traditional letters; while adding valuable metadata from the sender's end for easier gauging of relevance and importance for the receiver, and also adds a dimension of preparedness for future imagined scenarios of email usage.
Convergent location-based messaging: design for the future email ecosystem BIBAFull-Text 423-424
  A Madyana Torres de Souza (CAPES); Júlia Nacsa; James McIntyre; Idil Tunga; JiaoJiao Xu
In a future of ubiquitous interconnected and web-based artifacts, we envision email technology, which currently overloads users, to evolve into a system of single user identity protocol that offers convergent, multi-sensory and location-based messaging.

Social and collaboration technologies

Gelatine: making coworking places gel for better collaboration and social learning BIBAFull-Text 427-436
  Mark Bilandzic; Ronald Schroeter; Marcus Foth
Public libraries and coworking spaces seek for means to facilitate peer collaboration, peer inspiration and cross-pollination of skills and creativity. However, social learning, inspiration and collaboration between coworkers do not come naturally. In particular in (semi-) public spaces, the behavioural norm among unacquainted coworkers is to work in individual silos without taking advantage of social learning or collaboration opportunities. This paper presents results from a pilot study of 'Gelatine' -- a system that facilitates shared encounters between coworkers by allowing them to digitally 'check in' at a work space. Gelatine displays skills, areas of interest, and needs of currently present coworkers on a public screen. The results indicate that the system amplifies users' sense of place and awareness of other coworkers, and serves as an interface for social learning through exploratory, opportunistic and serendipitous inspirations, as well as through helping users identify like-minded peers for follow-up face-to-face encounters. We discuss how Gelatine is perceived by users with different pre-entry motivations, and discuss users' challenges as well as non-use of the system.
Integrating collaborative context information with social media: a study of user perceptions BIBAFull-Text 437-446
  Ari-Heikki Sarjanoja; Minna Isomursu; Pekka Isomursu; Jonna Häkkilä
This paper explores the collaborative context, i.e. consolidated data summarizing context information for groups of people, in social media. The results are based on a user study combining an analysis of actual personal social media content, in-depth interviews and a triggered ESM (experience sampling method) inspired diary study. The results indicate that collaborative context data has the potential to increase the interest level of status updates. It offers possibility for summary representations of groups, and can be used as a possible source of motivation and inspiration arising from activities or behavior of a predefined group of peers.
Interaction patterns for assessment of learners in tabletop based collaborative learning environment BIBAFull-Text 447-450
  Ammar Al-Qaraghuli; Halimah Badioze Zaman; Azlina Ahmad; Jihan Raoof
Most of the emerging digital tabletop prototypes lack the capability to identify users and hence cannot attribute actions to users. Identity attribution is essential for logging user interactions and activity analysis. This research uses a prototype of a multi-pen digital tabletop that supports user identification. A collaborative learning application called Digital Mysteries was built, aiming mainly to examine the benefits of digital tabletops to collaborative learning. The application logged the interaction of students collaborating to solve ill-defined problems. Teachers analysed recorded videos of the application trials to inform the subsequent pattern detection step. The automated interaction logs were then analysed to discover the hidden patterns of interaction that are suitable to evaluate the achievement of each student. The analysis also looked for patterns to detect students need for inter-activity feedback, besides patterns to identify leaders and free riders.
Understanding the fabric of social interactions for ridesharing through mining social networking sites BIBAFull-Text 451-454
  Seyed Hadi Mirisaee; Margot Brereton; Paul Roe; Fiona Redhead
The design of applications for dynamic ridesharing or carpooling is often formulated as a matching problem of connecting people with an aligned set of transport needs within a reasonable interval of time and space. This problem formulation relegates social connections to being secondary factors. Technology assisted ridesharing applications that put the matching problem first have revealed that they suffer from being unable to address the factor of social comfort, even after adding friend features or piggybacking on social networking sites. This research aims to understand the fabric of social interactions through which ridesharing happens. We take an online observation approach in order to understand the fabric of social interactions for ridesharing that is happening in highly subscribed online groups of local residents. This understanding will help researchers to identify design challenges and opportunities to support ridesharing in local communities. This paper contributes a fundamental understanding of how social interactions and social comfort precede rideshare requests in local communities.

Resilience and ageing

"Reconstructing normality": the use of infrastructure leftovers in crisis situations as inspiration for the design of resilient technology BIBAFull-Text 457-466
  Amro Al-Akkad; Leonardo Ramirez; Sebastian Denef; Alexander Boden; Lisa Wood; Monika Büscher; Andreas Zimmermann
In this paper, we examine challenges people face in situations of disrupted network infrastructures and how people use surviving portions of technology to cope with these challenges. We show how an important aspect in crises is the disturbance of services caused by disruptions in underlying technological structures. In such situations, people resort to all possible means to "reconstruct normality" in the sense of restoring their ability to communicate. For doing so, people often make creative use of the remains of the technological landscape. Building on the analysis of interviews with crises witnesses and first responders, external reports and scientific literature, we propose and describe three categories of mechanisms involving the creative use of surviving technology in crisis situations. We argue that studying these mechanisms can provide a key source of inspiration to define qualities of resilient architectures, and use these mechanisms as creative input to propose architectural qualities that can potentially make communication systems more resilient in the face of crises.
Dispelling ageing myths in technology design BIBAFull-Text 467-476
  Jeannette Durick; Toni Robertson; Margot Brereton; Frank Vetere; Bjorn Nansen
We present a review of literature from the fields of gerontology, gerontechnology, HCI and government policy that deals with social and technical solutions for the ageing population. We highlight common assumptions about ageing people, which we argue are still embedded in much of the research related to the domain of ageing. This paper challenges six common assumptions across four broad themes that we identified in the literature. It aims to provide a reminder and resource for designers to eschew assumptions during designing technology for 'older' users.
Engaging older adults in activity group settings playing games on touch tablets BIBAFull-Text 477-480
  Sonja Pedell; Jeanie Beh; Ken Mozuna; Susan Duong
This research develops, trials and evaluates three innovative game apps on mobile touch screen technology that addresses the needs of older adults during activity groups. The research was conducted with a group of older adults participating in the ageing-well activity program of a local council. The project assists older adults to discover and to increase their technology use in a familiar group setting. Building on established interests such as family history, cooking and movies, the study investigates how mobile technology can further these activity groups. The project aims to explore how mobile technology can be integrated in group settings (1) and to develop games suitable for these different settings (2). The paper makes recommendations for game play in older adults' activity groups using touch tablets.
Touch screen ensemble music: collaborative interaction for older people with dementia BIBAFull-Text 481-484
  Stu Favilla; Sonja Pedell
This paper presents new touch-screen collaborative interaction models for people with dementia. The authors argue that dementia technology has yet to focus on group musical interactions. The project aims to contribute to dementia care while addressing a significant gap in current literature. Research includes observations and two system trials exploring contrasting musical scenarios: the performance of abstract electronic music and the distributed performance of J. S. Bach's Goldberg Variations. Findings presented in this paper suggest that dementia people are able to successfully perform and engage in collaborative music performance activities with little or no scaffolded instruction.

Information seeking

Statistical analysis and implications of SNS search in under-developed countries BIBAFull-Text 487-496
  Saif Ahmed; Md. Tanvir Alam Anik; Mashrura Tasnim; Hasan Shahid Ferdous
Using Social Network Sites (SNS) as an information source has drawn the attention of the researchers for a while now. There have been many works that analyzed the types and topics of questions people ask in these networks and why. Topics like what motivate people to answer such queries, how to integrate the traditional search engines and SNS together are also well investigated. In this paper, we focus on a relevant but novel issue -- how SNS search varies in developed and developing regions of the world and why. Analyzing 880 status messages collected from a widely used SNS, we have observed that, unavailability and inadequacy of information on web in developing countries play a significant role to motivate users using SNS for information retrieval. With established statistics of Internet usage, e-Governance, and our experimental data analysis, we have tried to emphasize the differences between social search and traditional web-search and provided insight that one might require to consider while developing any application for SNS based searching.
Boxing clever: how searchers use and adapt to a one-box library search BIBAFull-Text 497-506
  Dana McKay; George Buchanan
One of the major problems users experience searching for information in libraries is the number of places they have to search. It has long been posited that a single search box (like Google) that searched a range of library resources would solve these problems and make users more effective information seekers in libraries. In this paper we use log analysis to compare user search behaviour in a single search box system with that in a traditional library catalogue. We discover that behaviour varies in response to the results produced by the different systems.
Interactive interface for query formulation BIBAFull-Text 507-510
  Lu Chen; Caslon Chua
Query formulation interface remained unchanged over the years. It is still mainly an input box for the user to enter the search query and a search button to initiate the search process. This paper explores and implements an interface design that incorporates dynamic and interactive properties during query formulation. It attempts to match user's search strategies rather than force users to accommodate to the current search interface. It proposes interaction elements to support functionalities that assists user during query formulation. These functionalities include domain filter suggestion, query suggestion, and spelling correction functions.

Health and welfare

Participatory design of an online therapy for youth mental health BIBAFull-Text 517-526
  Greg Wadley; Reeva Lederman; John Gleeson; Mario Alvarez-Jimenez
Online therapy has the potential to extend existing face-to-face support for mental health, but designers face challenges such as lack of user engagement. Participatory design could improve outcomes but is difficult to pursue in the mental health context. By working with a research-focused clinic we have been able to employ participatory design methods over a period of three years to develop and test an online therapy for young people with psychosis. This paper discusses our methods and results in the light of existing design frameworks for youth mental health, and reports experiences which will be useful for other researchers in the field. We have found that participatory approaches are indeed challenging in the mental health context, but can result in technology that is efficacious and acceptable to young people.
Exploratory development and evaluation of user interfaces for exposure therapy treatment BIBAFull-Text 527-530
  Natalie Eustace; James Head-Mears; Andreas Dünser
Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) and Augmented Reality Exposure Therapy (ARET) techniques have been gaining considerable attention in recent years. Although extensive research has been done in these fields there has been very little research into User Interface (UI) design specifically for these types of applications. This paper follows the design process of developing an ARET UI for therapists, focusing on arachnophobia treatment. Furthermore, this paper highlights the importance of low-fidelity feedback prototypes to assist with evaluation.
Using critical-cue inventories to advance virtual patient technologies in psychological assessment BIBAFull-Text 531-534
  Ben W. Morrison; Natalie M. V. Morrison; Julia Morton; Jemma Harris
A shortage in clientele at university-based psychology clinics represents a significant challenge to patient-based practical skills training. Although supplementary methods of skill development (e.g., role-plays) are embraced within these programs, it may be argued that these methods offer a relatively diluted simulation of the psychological assessment process. Recently, virtual patients have been proposed as an attractive avenue for augmenting these traditional training methods. The current paper explores the potential benefits of using critical-cue inventories in the advancement of virtual patient technologies in psychological assessment. The piece briefly details a study which aimed to elicit cue-based information from experienced mental health practitioners, which may be embedded in simulations of the initial stages of psychological assessment. Preliminary findings are presented, and future directions discussed.
Hanging out at the computer lab: how an innovative Australian program is helping young 'Aspies' BIBAFull-Text 535-538
  Greg Wadley; Stefan Schutt
Technology-based interventions for young people diagnosed with autism have focused largely on individual use. Yet research into use of technology 'in the wild' emphasises the value of computer-mediated social interaction. In this paper we use HCI to examine the success of a program premised on the social use of technology in safe offline spaces. Participants typically go through stages of object-centred and computer-mediated communication before engaging in face-to-face interaction. We use the concepts of third place, social distance and ticket-to-talk to explain how this hybrid space helps 'Aspies' engage comfortably in social interaction.
Supporting tele-assistance and tele-monitoring in safety-critical environments BIBAFull-Text 539-542
  Weidong Huang; Leila Alem; Surya Nepal; Danan Thilakanathan
Underground mines are hazardous environments. With more and more high-tech machines being introduced in mines, mine operators are under pressure of keeping machinery running smoothly as well as maintaining safety. To address this issue we have developed a remote guiding system called ReMoTe to allow an offsite expert to guide and monitor real time an onsite mining operator. This system brings offsite expertise to operators when and where it is needed (and in doing so supporting on-the-job training) and in the same time providing operators with the ability to monitor their level of stress (self monitoring) as well as allowing shift supervisor to remotely monitor their staff stress level. In our view the combination of these two services is key to increasing the productivity of the mines while supporting operators' safety. This paper describes ReMoTe and discusses how safety concerns are addressed in the design and evaluation of it.

Audio and speech

Audio stickies: visually-guided spatial audio annotations on a mobile augmented reality platform BIBAFull-Text 545-554
  Tobias Langlotz; Holger Regenbrecht; Stefanie Zollmann; Dieter Schmalstieg
This paper describes spatially aligned user-generated audio annotations and the integration with visual augmentations into a single mobile AR system. Details of our prototype system are presented, along with an explorative usability study and technical evaluation of the design. Mobile Augmented Reality applications allow for visual augmentations as well as tagging and annotation of the surrounding environment. Texts and graphics are currently the media of choice for these applications with GPS coordinates used to determine spatial location. Our research demonstrates that the use of visually guided audio annotations that are positioned and orientated in augmented outdoor space successfully provides for additional, novel, and enhanced mobile user experience.
Treemaps to visualise and navigate speech audio BIBAFull-Text 555-564
  Fahmi Abdulhamid; Stuart Marshall
Audio recordings are usually treated as one unbreakable and sequential document. Most interfaces only support basic audio navigation controls such as play, pause, forward, and rewind. However, by extracting meaningful information from audio, such as the spoken words and acoustic noise, we have created a Treemap-based interface which makes the task of finding the important information in audio simple. When applied to lecture audio, our interface allows students to easily consume lecture recordings by only listening to the parts they are interested in. A user study shows that our interface can successfully help users to find content in lecture recordings.
SpeechPlay: composing and sharing expressive speech through visually augmented text BIBAFull-Text 565-568
  Kian Peen Yeo; Suranga Nanayakkara
SpeechPlay allows users to create and share expressive synthetic voices in a fun and interactive manner. It promotes a new level of self-expression and public communication by adding expressiveness to a plain text. Control of prosody information in synthesized speech output is based on the visual appearance of the text, which can be manipulated with touch gestures. Users could create/modify contents using their mobile phone (SpeechPlay Mobile application) and publish/share their work on a large screen (SpeechPlay Surface). Initial user reactions suggest that the correlation between the visual appearance of a text phrase and the resulting audio was intuitive. While it is possible to make the speech output more expressive, users could easily distort the naturalness of the voice in a fun manner. This could also be a useful tool for music composers and for training new musicians.
Evaluating the effectiveness of audio-visual cues in immersive user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 569-572
  Luke Hespanhol; Oliver Bown; Jingwen Cao; Martin Tomitsch
Pervasive and ubiquitous technologies have taken digital interfaces out of the traditional realms of computing devices and into the built environment. Increasingly, a combination of architectural, artistic and technological concerns characterise the design of new engaging experiences for people in augmented public spaces. The design of immersive interfaces represents a new chapter in HCI, as they need to address the human body as an active input mechanism, while considering cognitive and psychological implications. This paper represents an initial step in the evaluation of audio-visual aesthetic elements for the design of cuing mechanisms for events about to happen in an immersive interface, and points to initial findings regarding the utilisation of visual and sound effects as design elements in responsive environments.