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Proceedings of OZCHI'05, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of OZCHI'05, the CHISIG Annual Conference
Note:Citizens Online: Considerations for Today and the Future
Editors:Ash Donaldson
Location:Canberra, Australia
Dates:2005-Nov-21 to 2005-Nov-25
Publisher:CHISIG
Standard No:ISBN 1-59593-222-4; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: OZCHI05
Papers:74
Pages:431
Links:Conference Home Page | Conference Series Home Page
  1. Case Studies
  2. Consortium
  3. Demonstrations
  4. Keynotes
  5. Long papers
  6. Panels
  7. Short papers

Case Studies

Proposal for case study: OZCHI 2005 conference BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Jackie Moyes
Different is currently Marriott's Australia & New Zealand online partner. To Marriott the web is critical, with over 90% of hotel bookings made online.
Proposal outline for a case study session at OZCHI 2005 BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Marcus Holstein; Ulla Yip
This case study showcases the transformation of an online banking system to the mobile market. In particular how traditional online banking for Citibank Australia was transferred to an award nominated (MMA awards) i-mode service.
OZCHI 2005: proposal: industry case study BIBAFull-Text 1-6
  Leisa Reichelt
Massive Interactive and the National Museum of Australia have been working together over the past 2 years to develop an innovative approach to online collections display.
Proposal outline for a case study session at OZCHI 2005 BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Caroline Jarrett
What do you do if you're forced to give quick feedback on a product? You know that the best answer would be to run a usability test -- but time or other constraints make it impossible. This session will give you ideas about what to do if you have thirty minutes, and what else to do if you have two days. It is based on actual reviews conducted by the presenter and will be illustrated with 'war stories' about what went right -- and the risks you might run by giving quick feedback.
Proposal outline for a case study session at OZCHI 2005 BIBAFull-Text 1
  Iain Barker
Traditional consultancy models bring obvious benefit to the consultant, but can leave clients shortchanged in more ways the one. When consultants walk away from a project, too often with them go insights and ideas that could benefit the organisation for months and even years.
Case study for OZCHI 2005 BIBAFull-Text 1-3
  Stephen Hall
Australians have little understanding of our complex aged care system, and a tendency to hide from aged care until some emergency forces us to face it. When this happens, we quickly discover that the available information is fragmented and confusing. This case study discusses the development of Aged Care Choices, a new 'shopfront' for the entire spectrum of government-funded aged care services. Information rich and highly interactive, Aged Care Choices was developed with a strong consumer focus, based on a solid market research foundation.
Proposal outline for a case study session at OZCHI 2005 BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Faruk Avdi
This case study looks at the experiences of one practitioner in his attempts to introduce a user-centred design framework into the online engineering and financial practices of one of Australia's largest corporations.
OZCHI industry case studies BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  Phillip Julian
Applying Usability Research to the Design of Mobile Internet Application to Support Ringback Tones.

Consortium

OZCHI 2005: doctoral consortium submission BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  Janette Agg
The research is about developing a better understanding of what constitutes effective design rationale in the web design context, and using this understanding to develop and test a lightweight design rationale process. The primary aim is to find a way of harvesting the design rationale that exists in web design team, but may not be explicitly acknowledged.
OZCHI 2005 doctoral consortium application BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  Robert B. K. Brown
Formal methods of generating and specifying requirements have a chequered past when it comes to dealing with interface design. The Human Computer Interface (HCI) community have not adopted formal methods with open arms [Paterno 96].
Voice recognition technology for visual artists with disabilities in their upper limbs BIBAFull-Text 1-6
  Dharani Perera
Currently most assistive technologies are designed with the specific aim of assisting disabled people in employment and independent living. Whilst there is no dispute about the value of such technologies, there is a dire need to enhance their "quality of life" (Daye 1998; Scherer 1996).
Creative geeks..?: facilitating the creative growth of computer science students using engaging environments BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  Sophie Nichol
This study explores the enhancement of creativity in students studying computer science at a tertiary level. It has been widely acknowledged (Blumenthal et al., 2003) that while creativity is advantageous to any form of study, the perceived lack of creativity, and its expression, in computer science students severely hampers their ability to accommodate the skills necessary to successfully perform within the IT industry. These creative skills include: innovation, intrinsic motivation, self confidence, independence of judgement, a wide range of interest and tolerance of ambiguity (Bahleda & Runco, 1989; Ripple, 1989). Further, this study explores the potential of both technological and social collaborative environments to enhance and nurture these requisite creative skills. Computer science students are particularly receptive to online collaboration, thus being a focus in this study. Creativity is multifaceted with the components of person, product process and press (environment) interacting. Previous research has focussed on components of creativity such as person, process and product, yet fails to acknowledge the significance of the role of the environment, specifically online collaborative environments, as a facilitator for nurturing the creative person. Ironically, considering the apparent myth of the computer science student or "geek" who is perceived as a particularly anti-social creature, such a nurturing environment is the result of a social collaboration between the creative person and peers, mentors and teachers. In this study the creative environment is made possible through the use of computer support, or Creativity Support Systems (CSS).
Of anthropoids and instructional designers BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  James Meek
This study has its origins in an environment producing interactive educational multimedia materials for adults. It begins at an intersection where a particular device of interface is being developed under the influence of an educational designer. It intends travelling from there, with the aid of a generally qualitative compass, toward a goal of creating a coherent descriptive framework. Built primarily on selected cases and perspectives from designers who have employed the device in these, the study is initiated with an intention of creating three products: A rationale for use of static visual humanoid devices; A scheme to describe the placement of such visuals in the interface and their pedagogical or other roles, and; A map of design decision processes and the attributes among which designers choose in arriving at a particular visual manifestation, providing an indication of factors affecting choices made.
Searching in public versus re-finding in private: are they the same? BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  Azrina Kamaruddin
My work is set within the area of personal information management (PIM). More particularly, I am interested in the process of re-finding and the emotional aspect of this. Here the term refinding is the process where resources, such as web pages, that have previously been seen by a user are later retrieved. Whereas the original process of finding the resources often occurs in the public domain (e.g. WWW), the process of re-finding often uses private collection such as bookmarks. The research will investigate the experienced and novice users. We feel that these two types of users employed different strategy and approach in achieving their information target. We would like to bridge the gap between these two users by having a generic model which both users can benefit from it.

Demonstrations

A haptic interface for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1-3
  Bruce Macdonald
The Chordic Graphical User Interface (CGUI) was originally developed at the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) to enable divers to control the WetPC Underwater Computer. It comprises two main elements: a hand controller and a visual on-screen notation. The technology has numerous advantages for mobile computing, and can be readily combined with additional inputs and outputs to provide multi-modal control under almost any conditions. WetPC Pty Ltd is commercialising the technologies under license from AIMS for a broad range of markets and applications. The CGUI is useful anywhere that rapid, easy computer control is required under diverse and difficult conditions.
Seeing eye to eye with your customers BIBAFull-Text 1-3
  Mark McElhaw
Eye-tracking technology facilitates studies into where a person is focusing their attention on a visual stimulus (usually presented via a screen). Eye-tracking is used for multiple purposes in a variety of contexts and the technology has been refined to the point where it is portable and completely unobtrusive to the eye-tracking subject. However, rather than focusing on the technology, this demonstration will illustrate how eye-tracking can contribute to traditional usability testing, including a live demonstration of analysing eye-tracking data and how it can assist in further examining the causality of usability issues and give cues to potential solutions.

Keynotes

Innovating organizational processes: a practical approach BIBAFull-Text 1-8
  Karen Holtzblatt
Businesses' business is to stay in business -- to create value for customers while creating jobs and revenue for employees and stakeholders. Government can also be thought of as a "business" -- government must create value for citizens by providing services and managing government operations efficiently. Behind good government and good business are processes supported by systems that work for the people running organizations. When processes and systems get in the way, organizations cannot deliver value -- and they frustrate employees, customers, and citizens alike.
Exploring e-democracy and online service delivery for Australian governments: a background to Australian e-government usage BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Scott Davey
Australian governments at all levels are becoming more sophisticated with their internet activities. No longer just static information pages, the modern government website has become a recognised service channel, and in the last twelve months, thirty nine per cent of all Australians had made contact with a government agency using this new channel.
Evolving HCI ... from where to where? BIBAFull-Text 1
  Geraldine Fitzpatrick
Since Human Computer Interaction (HCI) developed as a field in the late 1970s, it has been continually challenged to identify and address the people-centred issues in making new (and old) technologies fit with human needs and capabilities. A review of the history of HCI is useful to chart its evolving response to ongoing technical advances, from command line interfaces to windows environments, from stand alone to networked distributed systems, and from desktop to mobile devices. At each stage, we can identify the theoretical, conceptual and methodological developments that have happened to meet each new challenge. These more recent moves to ubiquitous computing, however, create new even more complex challenges than have ever been faced before.

Long papers

Automatic recognition of affective cues in the speech of car drivers to allow appropriate responses BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Christian Martyn Jones; Ing-Marie Jonsson
Speech interaction with in-car systems is becoming more commonplace as systems improve. New cars are often equipped with speech recognition systems to dial phone numbers and or control the in-car environment, and with speech output to provide verbal directions from navigation systems. The paper explores the possibilities of richer speech interaction between driver and car with automatic recognition of the emotional state of the driver with appropriate responses from the car. Driver's emotions often influence driving performance that could be improved if the car actively responds to the emotional state of the driver. This paper focuses on an in-car emotion recognition system to recognise driver emotional state.
Do physiological data relate to traditional usability indexes? BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Tao Lin; Masaki Omata; Wanhua Hu; Atsumi Imamiya
Task performance data and subjective assessment data are widely used as usability measures in the human-computer interaction (HCI) field. Recently, physiology has also been explored as a metric for evaluating usability. However, it is not clear how physiological measures relate to traditional usability evaluation measures. In this paper, we investigated the relationships among three kinds of data: task performance, subjective assessment and physiological measures. We found evidence that physiological data correlate with task performance data in a video game: with a decrease of the task performance level, the normalized galvanic skin response (GSR) increases. In addition, physiological data are mirrored in subjective reports assessing stress level. The research provides an initial step toward establishing a new usability method using physiology as a complementary measure for traditional HCI evaluation.
Supporting awareness in instant messaging: an empirical study and mechanism design BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Minh Hong Tran; Yun Yang; Gitesh K. Raikundalia
Supporting awareness plays a prominent role in facilitating natural and effective communication in Instant Messaging (IM). This paper reports our empirical study of awareness in IM, using an online survey and face-to-face interviews to identify user needs for awareness support. The study has identified three themes, including awareness of multiple concurrent conversations, presence awareness of a group conversation, and visibility of moment-to-moment listeners and viewers. The study showed that these three types of awareness are necessary but have been either ineffectively supported or ignored by current IM systems. Drawing on these findings, we have designed three awareness features to support these three categories of awareness. Conversation Dock provides awareness of multiple conversations; Group List provides presence awareness in a group chat by showing who are no longer in the group chat and who are going to join the chat; and Track View provides awareness of in-progress listeners in voice conversations and in-progress viewers in video conversations.
Evaluation using cued-recall debrief to elicit information about a user's affective experiences BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Todd Bentley; Lorraine Johnston; Karola von Baggo
While affect and emotion are recognised as important factors in the success of many systems, there is a lack of methods to effectively address these during evaluation. The present study explores the use of the cued-recall debrief methodology, a form of situated recall, as a method to elicit information about user affect during system use. The results indicate that the cued-recall debrief can successfully elicit information about user affect while playing computer games. The cued-recall debrief methodology requires minimal equipment, and is easy to apply -- both factors that enhance its viability for use in industry.
Broadening stakeholder involvement in UCD: designers' perspectives on child-centred design BIBAFull-Text 1-9
  Sofia Pardo; Frank Vetere; Steve Howard
We contribute to research and practice in User Centred Design (UCD) by arguing that, in certain contexts, the literal and restrictive interpretation of 'user' as hands-on user can be a hurdle to achieving development processes that are profoundly use-centred, and products that better support end users. Our example case focuses on Child Centred Design (CCD) and drawing on empirical data, we negate some popular concerns relating to the involvement of teachers in the child-designer equation, and suggest new structures for children and their teachers to jointly engage in UCD. The traditional power structure of adult-child or teacher-student, seen by previous authors as a barrier to involving teachers in CCD, is challenged and the need for an extension of the designer-child partnership to include a significant role for teachers is proposed. The implications for the wider UCD literature relate to a broadening of stakeholder involvement in design.
Depth, layering and transparency: developing design techniques BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  B. L. William Wong; Ronish Joyekurun; Hoda Mansour; Paola Amaldi; Anna Nees; Rochelle Villanueva
In this paper we briefly report on our investigations into the development of representation design techniques to take advantage of capabilities that a novel Multi-Layered Display (MLD) technology affords for improving information uptake in information intensive environments. The MLD comprises two LCD screens separated by a 14 mm thick transparent perspex layer. Data presented on the rear screen is viewable through the front LCD. By combining transparency, colour, form of the data, and motion, we can create physically distinct layers of information which affords new ways of presenting information, such as information layering, focus + context, visual linking and information foraging support. Because of the visual effects caused by overlaying information in the physical layers, some of the old rules of display design such as optimal colour combinations, are no longer applicable within this context. New techniques for visualisation and interaction are needed, not just to make such a display readable, but also to take advantage of the new display capabilities. While we are still some way from prescribing techniques for designing information in layers across physically overlapping displays, we will also discuss five early lessons learned from the process of developing such design techniques.
Supporting problem identification in usability evaluations BIBAFull-Text 1-9
  Mikael B. Skov; Jan Stage
Identification of usability problems is a key element in a usability evaluation of an interactive system. This paper presents and discusses results from an empirical study of problem identification. The study includes an experiment, where it was examined to what extent a conceptual tool can support problem identification in a usability evaluation. A group of novice evaluators was divided into two, and one of the groups received a conceptual tool and a related presentation of ideas and examples. Both groups conducted a usability evaluation based on the same recording of a user applying a web-based system to solve a series of tasks. It is concluded that the conceptual tool and training in using the tool improve the problem identification performance of a group of inexperienced usability evaluators.
Dawn explorer: a framework for multimodal accessibility to computer systems BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Frank Loewenich; Frederic Maire
Technology is advancing at a rapid pace, automating many everyday chores in the process, changing the way we perform work and providing various forms of entertainment. Makers of technology, however, often do not consider the needs of the disabled in their design of products by, for example, providing some alternative means of input. The use of computers presents a challenge to many disabled users who are not able to see graphical user interfaces, use a mouse or keyboard or otherwise interact with standard computers. This paper presents a multimodal user interface, emulating and extending the functionality of the Windows Explorer application, with alternative input and output methods. The project utilizes auditory and visual interaction technologies, comprises a modular and extendible architecture and utilises off-the-shelf hardware to reduce implementation cost and maximize accessibility.
Emerging research methods for understanding mobile technology use BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Penny Hagen; Toni Robertson; Melanie Kan; Kirsten Sadler
Mobile devices, applications and services have become integrated into people's daily lives on a personal and professional level. Although traditional research methods are being used to understand the use of mobile devices and applications, methodological challenges still exist. Researchers have responded to these challenges in a range of ways, with an emphasis on developing methods that enable new ways of accessing, making available and collecting, data about mobile technology use. This paper identifies, defines, describes and presents, a preliminary framework for understanding the methodological responses emerging in current Mobile Human Computer Interaction (Mobile HCI) research.
Reach the virtual environment: 3D tangible interaction with scientific data BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Wen Qi; Jean-Bernard Martens; Robert van Liere; Arjan Kok
In this paper we present an augmented virtuality system with a set of tangible devices for interactive visualization with scientific data (volumetric scalar field data and molecular data). We describe the design concepts and application scenarios that underlie the development of the interfaces and system. The prototype system allows users to interact with scientific data by manipulating tangible devices, such as a graspable cube, pen and plane frame. These devices provide passive haptic cues that help the user to maintain position awareness and relative spatial relation during three-dimensional (3D) interaction. Active stereoscopic shutter glasses can be used to provide a 3D display, whenever necessary. We describe the differences with traditional fish tank and fully immersive virtual reality (VR) systems. At the end of the paper, we discuss the user experience and the research questions related to VR system with tangible interfaces for visualization application. Our planned activities for obtaining a more in-depth understanding of some of the usability issues involved through user study are described as well.
Designers' use of paper and the implications for informal tools BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Damon J. Cook; Brian P. Bailey
While informal tools can benefit early design, their use requires that a designer surrender the richer affordances of physical tools. To better understand the importance of physical tools for early design, we conducted contextual interviews with twelve designers. We found that paper is an integral part of the early design process and argue that informal tools will not realize their full potential unless they provide similar benefits. We recommend that informal tools provide a mechanism to connect the use of physical tools to complement their electronic interfaces. We discuss several mechanisms and use lessons from our study to evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses, concluding that a digital ink interface would be most effective. A realistic scenario involving a digital ink interface is evaluated. Results confirm our design rationale and suggest that a digital ink interface would benefit existing design practice.
The space and sound of intelligent information environments BIBAFull-Text 1-9
  G. More; J. Yuille; L. Padgham; A. Sahani; M. Burry
This paper reports on the development of a unique software prototype that combines digital information spaces with sound and intelligent agent support. This prototype is innovative in its use of digital space as a mechanism for arranging image based information for presentation scenarios. Working with a spatial approach to digital environments, this research presents the prototype, and examines the enhancement of digital space in two principal areas: spatial sound and intelligent agent support.
Technology for the humdrum: trajectories, interactional needs and a care setting BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Connor Graham; Keith Cheverst; Mark Rouncefield
We report on a care setting where staff looking after ex-psychiatric hospital patients were supported by mobile and stationary communications technology (e.g. mobile phones and a messaging system) and physical artefacts (e.g. whiteboards and Post-It notes). Building on previous ethnographic investigations, we show that the notion of trajectory (or an ongoing course of action) was important for understanding staff's care work. We argue that sensitivity to this notion was helpful in identifying the key transitions, cycles, plans and management issues in staff's ongoing work. We present verified trajectory-informed scenarios emerging from fieldwork and show that these snapshots of work were useful for establishing current and future interactional needs among staff and residents. Finally we describe issues pertinent to new technology design emerging from these trajectory-informed scenarios and discuss the usefulness of the concept for informing socio-technical system design.
Training wheels for older users BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Dan Hawthorn
This paper looks at effective training as a way of extending older people's computer use. Computer training approaches from Carroll's work on minimal manuals and training wheels approaches were combined with recommendations for design for older users drawn from the literature in order to design an interactive tutorial for training older users in file management skills. The design factors behind the tutorial are described. 25 older participants were chosen who had failed to learn file management skills using other methods. Tests of these participants' ability to perform file management tasks after completing the tutorial showed that an interactive tutorial that was carefully designed for older learners could, in fact, extend the range of skills available to these users.
Adaptability and accessibility: a new framework BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Liddy Nevile
This paper presents a new framework for accessibility based on a broad framework for metadata about adaptability. Accessibility is generally associated with the needs of people with disabilities while adaptability includes, for example, the transformation of digital resources and services for users as they change from one access device to another, as is the case when one uses a telephone instead of a desktop computer screen to display a web page. Adaptability with accessibility in mind involves more than device compatibility as it takes into account user's individual needs at the time of delivery of resources and services.
The converged appliance: "I love it... but I hate it" BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  John Murphy; Jesper Kjeldskov; Steve Howard; Graeme Shanks; Elizabeth Hartnell-Young
The last decade has seen convergence marketed as one response to the challenge of users having to juggle an increasingly wide array of digital services, technologies and media. Key to this view is the assumption that by converging computer devices, and digital media, the value of technology for end users can be maximised whilst the overheads involved in purchasing, maintaining and orchestrating a variety of different technology solutions can be minimised. In contrast however, some authors have argued that convergence creates weak-general solutions, and rather we should be aiming for strong-specific technology by means of the deliberate design of multiple diverged devices. This paper contributes to the ongoing discussion of convergence and divergence. We discuss three apparently irreconcilable perspectives on the relationship between functionality and usability, and show that they are in fact complementary views of convergence. To ground this discussion we draw on the results of a recent cultural probes study of a cohort of early adopters of converged devices.
Moving bodies, social selves: movement-oriented personas and scenarios BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Lian Loke; Toni Robertson; Tim Mansfield
This paper describes the development of movement-oriented personas and scenarios for representing multiple users of an interactive, immersive environment, designed as an artistic work for a public space. Personas and scenarios were integrated into a user interaction script and linked to a set of movement schemas using Labanotation for group choreography. Enactment of the script within a prototype environment enabled the designers to experience the aesthetic and kinaesthetic qualities of the work, as well as the social interactional aspects of the user experience. This ensured that the experience of those visiting the exhibition was always central to the design process.
LetterEase: Improving text entry on a handheld device via letter reassignment BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Hokyoung Ryu; Katrina Cruz
LetterEase, a new technique for text entry on a small handheld device is described. Indeed, the current 12-button text entry keypad causes typing overhead as 26 alphabet letters are assigned to only 8 buttons (2-9). The LetterEase method uses letter-frequency data from SMS text messages collected from real situations and the moving distance between buttons with thumb use. We first discuss how to implement this LetterEase method, and then present the results of a controlled experiment comparing LetterEase to the conventional multitap method and the two-letter multitap method that was designed as a control letter assignment. The results showed that both less keystrokes and less errors using LetterEase were identified. In addition, despite slower text entry speed than that of the conventional multitap method, in effect, the users experienced LetterEase lessened the gap more readily during the course of the experiment as fast as the conventional multitap method.
Panoramic viewfinder: providing a real-time preview to help users avoid flaws in panoramic pictures BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Patrick Baudisch; Desney Tan; Drew Steedly; Eric Rudolph; Matt Uyttendaele; Chris Pal; Richard Szeliski
Image stitching allows users to combine multiple regular-sized photographs into a single wide-angle picture, often referred to as a panoramic picture. To create such a panoramic picture, users traditionally first take all the photographs, then upload them to a PC and stitch. During stitching, however, users often discover that the produced panorama contains artifacts or is incomplete. Fixing these flaws requires retaking individual images, which is often difficult by this time. In this paper, we present Panoramic Viewfinder, an interactive system for panorama construction that offers a real-time preview of the panorama while shooting. As the user swipes the camera across the scene, each photo is immediately added to the preview. By making ghosting and stitching failures apparent, the system allows users to immediately retake necessary images. The system also provides a preview of the cropped panorama. When this preview includes all desired scene elements, users know that the panorama will be complete. Unlike earlier work in the field of real-time stitching, this paper focuses on the user interface aspects of real-time stitching. We describe our prototype, individual shooting modes, and an implementation overview.
Towards understanding system acceptance: the development of an assessment instrument and workpractice BIBAFull-Text 1-9
  Pat Lehane; Samuel Huf
This paper reports on work-to-date in the development of a survey instrument to assess system acceptance. The system acceptance indicator (SAI) is being developed as part of a PhD study into the introduction of software upgrades in a regional university. The project is a three stage longitudinal study of the parallel release of two applications. The SAI was developed from a framework of human-computer interaction theories. The conceptual framework of the SAI is reviewed and initial results from a series of user workshops and responses to the SAI are discussed. The SAI was designed to quantify user experience and to make explicit issues that IT system users may not be able to articulate. Even at this early stage in its development, the SAI has proved to be a tool with the potential to meet these requirements. Survey responses in the initial stages of the study have led to a reorganisation of system training by the university.
Spy-resistant keyboard: more secure password entry on public touch screen displays BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Desney S. Tan; Pedram Keyani; Mary Czerwinski
Current software interfaces for entering text on touch screen devices mimic existing mechanisms such as keyboard typing or handwriting. These techniques are poor for entering private text such as passwords since they allow observers to decipher what has been typed simply by looking over the typist's shoulder, an activity known as shoulder surfing. In this paper, we outline a general approach for designing security-sensitive onscreen virtual keyboards that allow users to enter private text without revealing it to observers. We present one instantiation, the Spy-Resistant Keyboard, and discuss design decisions leading to the development of this keyboard. We also describe the results of a user study exploring the usability and security of our interface. Results indicate that although users took longer to enter their passwords, using the Spy-Resistant Keyboard rather than a standard soft keyboard resulted in a significant increase in their ability to protect their passwords from a watchful observer.
Does time heal?: a longitudinal study of usability BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Jesper Kjeldskov; Mikael B. Skov; Jan Stage
We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of an interactive system. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when a large commercial electronic patient record system was being deployed in the use organization. After the users had used the system in their daily work for 15 months, same evaluation was conducted again. Our aim was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users over time, and to see to what extends usability problems may or may not disappear over time, as users get more familiar with the system. On the basis of our two usability evaluations, we present key findings on the usability of the evaluated system as experienced by the two categories of users at these two different points in time. Based on our findings, we discuss implications for evaluating usability.
Personalisation in intelligent environments: managing the information flow BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Craig Chatfield; David Carmichael; René Hexel; Judy Kay; Bob Kummerfeld
The challenge in intelligent environments is to overcome the dual forms of the Invisibility Problem, specifically when it comes to managing security and privacy in such environments. We present a user study (N = 17) that informs the design of the personalisation that needs to be done to enable users to effectively negotiate and control an intelligent environment, in particular the MyPlace system.
   This user study finds that trust is a critical aspect of intelligent environment design. Effective feedback to the user and the management of information flow across physical, social, and temporal borders is essential to maintain user trust. Users are able to understand the invisibility problem, and are willing to share personal information to receive a tangible benefit from personalisation of intelligent services.
Involving psychometric tests for input device evaluation with older people BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Murni Mahmud; Hastuti Kurniawan
This paper presents a preliminary study of using psychometric tests when testing input devices with older people. An experiment with twelve older computer users evaluating three commonly used input devices (mouse, touch screen and tablet-with-stylus) in two common computer tasks (browsing and playing solitaire), preceded by a questionnaire and psychometric tests (Simple Reaction Time, Mini Mental State Exam and Identical Picture), and concluded with debriefing interviews, is described. The paper concludes that psychometric tests can provide quantitative data that complement the information collected through the questionnaire and interview and that some psychometric data were the best predictor of task performance.
"Where we met last time": a study of sociality in the city BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Jeni Paay
Understanding the context of use of a computing system is an important part of designing human-centred interaction especially where that computing pervades the places and activities of daily life. The aim of this paper is to introduce two ontologies that represent understanding of 1) human perception of architectural place and 2) sociality in an urban space, gained through field studies of the physical and social layers of an urban environment. This paper demonstrates how these ontologies are used to provide an understanding of context of use of an urban space, and how to identify design opportunities for informing design of a digital layer of pervasive computing.

Panels

Servicing the HCI needs of large organisations BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Megan Bauer; Graeme Laycock; Ryan Percival; Shane Morris
As a still-emerging field, Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has enjoyed varying uptake within large organisations. Some organisations have established centralised groups to service HCI needs across the business. This panel aims to explore how three Australian organisations have approached such a service and how successful they have been. We will discuss issues such as how to justify and promote HCI services internally, the role of executive sponsorship, and the benefits (or otherwise) of high-profile assets such as usability laboratories. Panellists will cover tips and traps for establishing and building a centralised HCI function within large organisations.
Book smarts meet street smarts: the best of both worlds BIBAFull-Text 1
  Jackie Moyes; Jacob Buur; Caroline Jarrett; Pelle Ehn; Steven Howard; Margot Brereton
This panel will discuss how academia can contribute to industry practice and how industry practitioners can contribute to academia. We will focus in particular on how theories and practices are formed and shaped in different settings. We will discuss when academic theories and practices help industry, when and why they are discarded, and how they are transformed in industry settings.
Lost in translation BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  M. Kirsten Mann; Shane Morris; John Murphy; Patrizia Bordignon
Communication is a fine art when you speak the same language. When communicating your vision to an overseas counterpart, how do you handle all of the additional hurdles to ensure your design is not lost in translation? Factors that need to be considered when communicating your vision to an overseas counterpart include the different: culture, work ethics, time zone, personnel, religions, languages. Listen to how three interaction designers have dealt with all of these issues and more in translating their designs.

Short papers

Best practices in an online community for blind, partly sighted and fully sighted children BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Phia Damsma; John Norgaard; Rob Jones
Careful design and assistive technologies can make websites fully accessible to people with visual impairments. However, accessibility does not equate with usability or usefulness for the target audience. The Sonokids website has been developed to bring young people together, including those with a loss of vision. This paper outlines the considerations that were given to content, accessibility, usability and visual attractiveness when creating this inclusive online community. Website design good practices to meet the needs of all children, regardless of visual impairment, which emerged during the construction of the site are also outlined.
Uncovering traces of mobile practices: 'the bag study' BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Toni Robertson; Melanie Kan; Kirsten Sadler; Penny Hagen
This study addresses everyday human practices in order to inform our thinking around the design of technology to support human mobility and mobile device use. Building on traditional ethnographic techniques, we investigated the contents of people's bags, seeking traces of planning, decision making and other social practices that people rely on to construct and maintain relations between particular mobile objects and their particular mobile lives. The research contributes to the development of novel methods for researching mobile practices and its initial findings question assumptions about information use and storage, and about the personalisation of mobile device and services.
Making sense of student use of nonverbal cues for intelligent tutoring systems BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Farhad Dadgostar; Hokyoung Ryu; Abdolhossein Sarrafzadeh; Scott Overmyer
Many software systems would significantly improve performance if they could interpret the nonverbal cues in their user's interactions as humans normally do. Currently, Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) (and other software systems) are unable to use nonverbal cues to interpret student's responses to instructional material as can human tutors. We believe that this capability is essential to adapt teaching strategy to the needs of the learner. An experiment was performed aimed at identifying what kinds of gestures are being used by students in a human-to-human learning context. We have identified a range of gestures being used in one-to-one tutoring environments and a dependency of gesture use on students' skill level. As a result, we suggest how the student model in an ITS should reflect this dependency. These results are applicable to HCI in general.
Infostudio: teaching ambient display design using home automation BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Andrew Vande Moere
The infostudio course unit introduced 3rd year undergraduate students to the design of ambient display as physical, human-scale installations that convey data-driven spatial experiences. Students developed ambient display installations in a common printer hub room that subtly reflected the electronic network traffic, human activities and environmental data within the adjacent computer labs in real time. The resulting prototypes explored how the combination of common networked home automation hardware controlling simple electrical devices and multiple multimedia projections can be used to convey real-time information through different human senses.
Spheres of role in context-awareness BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Ivo Widjaja; Sandrine Balbo
This paper outlines a conceptual view in characterising context awareness by its roles in user interaction within a context-aware application. We propose three high-level spheres of role based on the extent of how the context is used to influence the interaction, namely interpretation, representation, and effectuation. The challenges in performing each of these roles are briefly discussed. Our perspective of looking at context-awareness provides alternative approach for choosing level of "awareness" and identifying their risk in designing context-aware applications.
Analysing structure within tasks in user-centred design BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Nisha Leena Sinha Roy; Anthony Saliba
The key factor in satisfying human expectation lies in identifying what the user wants to achieve. This could be in the abstract form of a mission or a more tangible and identifying form of a task or an activity. This paper presents two notions. The first notion is acknowledging that the task or activity performed has a significant focus when designing for context-sensitive and mobile systems. The second notion argues that the identification of the degree of structure within an activity can inform the level of probing and exploring required when acquiring contextual information. We outline the structure spectrum deduced from our research studies in this paper.
Implementing a web-based measurement of 3d understanding BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Ken Sutton; Andrew Heathcote; Miles Bore
This paper outlines the conversion of a psychometric test to a web-based study. The test measures understanding of three-dimensional (3D) concepts as it applies to technical drawing. We describe the instrument in terms of its subtests and examine implementation and data collection issues. Comments are provided about technical, experimental design, participation and recruitment matters. We report comparisons of reliability and validity measures against a parallel laboratory-based study. Advantages and disadvantages of web-based studies are summarized and the relevance of the instrument to industry is addressed along with considerations for future developments.
User interface design and evaluation for control room BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Fang Chen; Eric H. C. Choi; Natalie Ruiz; Yu Shi; Ronnie Taib
User interface technology is an integral element of modern information and communications systems. This paper describes the outcomes of a field study that sought to design, develop, and evaluate a user interface suitable for an Incident Management System. Initially, the study comprised interviews and questionnaires used to examine how current systems are used, determine key issues facing current users, and identify the functions, features and behaviours a new system should exhibit. Subsequently, a mock-up was tested by potential end-users. All user feedback was incorporated into a set of design guidelines for the multimodal user interface of the new system. Preliminary analysis of the mock-up interface suggests that a 37% improvement in task time-to-completion could be achieved, together with 59% reduction in missed calls from a variety of contacts.
Harvesting versus creating: effective web design rationale BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Janette Agg
This paper describes an empirical study of the attributes of effective design rationale in the web design context. The presence of design rationale was ascertained by analysing web design team interviews, observations and work documents. Design rationale existed in many forms, but was limited in its usefulness. Web design team members could meet their needs more effectively by using existing design rationale more creatively. A method is proposed for dynamically harvesting design rationale for reuse. The paper contributes to a deeper understanding of design rationale in the web design context.
Characteristics of web applications that affect usability: a review BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Vince Bruno; Audrey Tam; James Thom
The characteristics of a web application are many and varied in comparison to traditional applications. There is a larger spectrum of possibilities for each web application characteristic. These differences provide additional motivation to examine a web application's usability. These characteristics can aide in better defining and measuring web usability, through determining of the set of usability attribute.
Subjective understanding of context attributes: a case study BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Kirsi-Maria Hiltunen; Jonna Häkkilä; Urpo Tuomela
Subjective understanding of context attributes may cause potential usability risks when designing context-aware mobile applications. This paper presents a survey-based study of people's individual perceptions on defining and grouping context attributes. The findings demonstrate the problem areas that were found on several commonly used context attributes, such as temperature, time, noise level and movements.
A usability study of short message service on middle-aged users BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Christine Soriano; Gitesh K. Raikundalia; Jakub Szajman
Short Message Service (SMS) is a popular method of non-verbal communication. So far, the majority of research has been conducted upon teenagers and young adults. In our work, we investigate the use of SMS services by middleaged users. A usability study of SMS is conducted, evaluating how effectively middle-aged users engage in SMS activities. Ease of use and difficulties experienced by middle-aged users are assessed after completing predetermined scenarios and SMS tasks on two different mobile phone handsets. Such usability issues experienced by middle-aged users of SMS include the level complexity of the navigational keys and the need for efficiency.
Work domain modelling for an operational headquarters BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  T. Andrew Au; Kien Tang; Conn Copas
This paper presents an application of work domain analysis to a new joint operational headquarters of the Australian Defence Force. Work domain analysis provides a baseline for defining the problem space of operational-level command and control. This analytical framework focuses evaluation on how well the purposive context is satisfied so that, in this context, the design outcome is a usable and flexible headquarters, leading to improved efficiency and effectiveness of staff. The paper describes our attempt to analyse fundamental constraints of the work environment.
Watching ourselves watching: ethical issues in ethnographic action research BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Ian MacColl; Roslyn Cooper; Markus Rittenbruch; Stephen Viller
In this paper we explore some of the ethical issues associated with conducting Ethnographic Action Research (Tacchi, 2004; Tacchi et al., 2003) for understanding and facilitating distributed collaboration. Ethnography and action research are increasingly popular qualitative approaches to researching computer-supported collaboration and we are applying them together in a project within a distributed research centre. We identify ethical principles applied to the conduct of research in Australia and we briefly describe a number of ethical problems that arise due to the nature of Ethnographic Action Research.
"I think i can see it now!": evidence of learning in video transcripts of a collaborative virtual reality surgical training trial BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Matthew Hutchins; Duncan Stevenson; Chris Gunn; Alexander Krumpholz; Brian Pyman; Stephen O'Leary
Networked collaborative virtual reality systems have been proposed for surgical education. They allow an instructor to teach a student using a shared virtual model, even if separated by distance. For these systems to be accepted within the surgical community there must be a compelling body of evidence that demonstrates that learning occurs in the training environment, and is transferable to the operating theatre. We have developed a networked multisensory virtual reality system for teaching surgery of the temporal bone and conducted a training transfer trial. To augment the quantitative analysis of the results, we have performed a qualitative analysis of the transcripts of videotapes of the learning phase of the trial, using techniques from Conversation Analysis. In this short paper we present a single case study that convincingly demonstrates that learning occurred within the instruction phase of the trial.
Parallel processes and situation awareness display design BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Samuel A. Moyle
In recent years there has been trend away from single sensor/single (SS/SI) indicator boards as the means by which overall understanding of current work-flow is expressed. Rather, computer screen based Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are being modified to meet this need. This paper discusses a continuing experiment that compares existing SCADA design elements and those with simple display modification; display changes that facilitate decision making by improving overall Situation Awareness (SA).
The serendipity shuffle BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Tuck W. Leong; Frank Vetere; Steve Howard
Recently, listening to music in shuffle mode has gained a strong following. Analysis of online data about the 'shuffle experience' reveals a range of rich and unusual user-experiences -- one in particular is Serendipity. Although serendipity is often imbued with 'magic' or regarded as a product of chance and luck, its effects can be inspirational and transformative. To date, little has been done to understand and characterise this experience. We sketch an initial understanding of serendipitous experience, and position it within a broader view of user experience. We also surface some implications for user-centred design processes.
Structuration of activity: a view on human activity BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Ivo Widjaja; Sandrine Balbo
Activity Theory meets Structuration Theory. We propose structuration of activity as an alternative theoretical lens for human activity and its dynamics. Drawing from the strength of and the critiques to Activity Theory (AT) and Giddens' Structuration Theory (ST), we attempt to recast both AT and ST on the understanding of human activity in the larger social context. We present a brief introduction to AT and ST, their intertwined motive and approaches. Finally, we outline structuration of activity and close the paper with its significances.
Evaluating tangible objects for multimodal interaction design BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Ronnie Taib; Natalie Ruiz
The design of applications with multimodal interfaces currently implies complex handcrafting by interface experts, lack of compliance with industry standards of cost effectiveness, maintenance and user focus such as those achieved by the current User-Centered Design methods. This paper presents an initial step towards a design by-example approach, whereby the end-user's multimodal preferences for a specific domain can be learned during the design phase. In particular, we propose to alleviate the design costs by using tangible objects for designing multimodal user interfaces. Heuristic evaluation shows small to no effect on the user's preferred multimodal behaviour when comparing tangible and virtual objects during design.
The secret life of domestic objects BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  Youngmi Choi; Steve Howard; Bharat Dave
We report the results of a pilot study examining significant domestic objects, and the associated user experience. We propose a conceptual framework capturing three types of user-modified functionalities. We used the framework as a lens through which to view the relationship between user activities and user-modified functionalities. Our findings indicate that modified functionalities result in attracting both objects and personal activities to the surrounding area. Significant objects with modified functionalities seem to help users create a private 'space' within the 'place' of home that can fulfil or accommodate their personal ritual activities and habitual tendencies. We conclude by speculating that such user-modified functions are early indicators of opportunities for technical innovation.
User experiences on location-aware mobile services BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Jonna Häkkilä; Minna Isomursu
This paper describes the user experiences gained from the use of a location sensitive mobile services in urban environment, collected with a diary study and user interviews over one summer. In this study users' perceived problems and the resulting frustration and difficulties in use were mainly caused by slow or unreliable data connections and lack of content in mobile services. On the other hand, users identified the future potential of these mobile services.
3D display based on motion parallax using non-contact 3D measurement of head position BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Tsuyoshi Suenaga; Yoshio Matsumoto; Tsukasa Ogasawara
In this paper, a novel non-contact 3D display based on motion parallax is proposed. The 3D viewpoint of the user is measured by real-time non-contact measurement system. By moving the user's head position and watching a CG image which corresponds to the measured viewpoint, the user can perceive 3D information using a normal flat display. Basic experiments for depth perception using single eye and both eyes of the user are conducted to show the feasibility of the system.
A novel user interface for online literary documents BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Desmond Schmidt; Theodor Wyeld
Documents produced in the past usually exist in multiple versions. There is an inherent difficulty in recording and visualising variation between different versions, which is inhibiting efforts to make literature available online. This paper describes a novel document structure, which accurately records variations and facilitates their visualisation.
Towards a framework to analyse information architecture work practices BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Björn Busch-Geertsema; Sandrine Balbo; John Murphy; Scott Davey
This paper reports early findings based on comparing working practices and understandings of information architecture (IA) practitioners. We interviewed and observed a web developer who is also doing the implementation of his IAs. We also interviewed consultants with formal human computer interaction & ergonomics approach to IA. The paper extracts from the literature, our interviews and our observations basic techniques an information architect uses; these findings are presented via two case scenarios. We then propose the IA framework that enables us to analyse differences in IA work practices.
Augmenting travel gossip: design for mobile communities BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Jeff Axup; Stephen Viller
New communication technologies are changing the way travellers gossip and trade advice while on the road. This paper presents initial results from our studies of backpacker culture and identifies gaps where future technologies could assist backpackers in existing situations. Our research included contextual interviews with backpackers, tours of hostel accommodation, and reviews of online discussion and blogging sites. Results so far indicate the need for mobile devices which can help a social, distributed community to connect and coordinate. To address this, we have developed methods of depicting community interaction and context of use, and prototype mobile travel assistants.
Internet use and misuse in the workplace BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Kerryann Wyatt; James G. Phillips
Internet misuse is becoming an increasingly serious problem in the workplace. Cyber-slacking occurs when employees use their work access to engage in personal web activities, whilst maintaining the appearance of working (Lavoie & Pychyl, 2001). Personality traits associated with Internet use and misuse in the workplace were considered. Eighty-four participants completed an Internet use survey and a personality inventory (NEO FFI). Of the 5 personality traits considered, Openness was positively correlated with conducting more work-related web searches and Agreeableness was negatively correlated with hours spent online at work. Extraverts sent higher numbers of both work-related and non work-related emails. This study provides estimates of the proportions of time spent cyber-slacking, indicating the most common forms and possible predictors of these behaviours.
Relating context to interface: an evaluation of picture scenarios BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Sonja Pedell; Wally Smith
An ongoing challenge for designers of interactive systems is to take into account its various contexts of use. Picture Scenarios, which use photographic stories to depict situations, are one promising technique. An analysis is presented of 31 picture scenarios developed by student design teams, to determine in what ways contextual factors are shown to bear on an interactive task. A continuum of contextual strength emerged: purely interaction; purely functional; weak fusion; strong fusion; purely situation. The significance of this continuum for design is briefly discussed.