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Proceedings of OZCHI'03, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of OZCHI'03, the CHISIG Annual Conference
Note:New Directions in Interaction: Information Environments, Media and Technology
Editors:Stephen Viller; Peta Wyeth
Location:Brisbane, Australia
Dates:2003-Nov-26 to 2003-Nov-28
Standard No:ISBN: 1-8649-9738-9; hcibib: OZCHI03
Papers:40
Pages:277
Links:Proceedings PDF 14.6 Mb | Conference Series Home Page
  1. Opening Plenary
  2. Full Papers
  3. Short Papers
  4. Demonstrations/Exhibitions

Opening Plenary

Gettign Physical BIBAPDF Slides 1
  Alan Dix
In our conferences on human-computer interaction, we obviously focus on the way people engage with the electronic world. In addition, in the technology pages of any newspaper we see phrases such as 'information society', 'electronic commerce', 'virtual reality'. Parallel to the world of concrete, steel and glass that we have built around ourselves, we have also constructed an information world that undergirds the more tangible fabric of 21st century society.
   In Australia, the glass and concrete of cities and suburbia hang precariously to the edge. Beyond this coastal fringe, the rock and earth shrugs off all but the most tenuous signs of technological construction. Similarly, beyond the rational focus of much of our information-centred activities, lie deeper and more primitive layers. Beneath our shells of rayon, nylon and PVC, we are not far different from Neanderthals.
   Our minds are designed for interacting with the physical world and many of the most successful interface paradigms draw on our deep and innate understandings of the real: direct manipulation, virtual reality and more recently tangible interactions. Designing novel tangible artefacts is hard because they are a new paradigm and so there is no body of design knowledge to draw on. However, our lives are surrounded with appliances and electronic consumer goods, many of which exploit our virtuosity with the physical in the subtleties of their design.
   In this talk, we will explore a little of the archaeology of the mind and how it affects our day-to-day lives. We will also see how studying mundane interactions with ordinary electronic devices can help us build a conceptual design repertoire to apply to novel tangible devices.

Full Papers

Designing with Care: Adapting Cultural Probes to Inform Design in Sensitive Settings BIBA 4-13
  A. Crabtree; T. Hemmings; T. Rodden; K. Cheverst; K. Clarke; G. Dewsbury; J. Hughes; M. Rouncefield
We report on the methodological process of developing computer support for former psychiatric patients living in residential care settings, for older members of the community, and disabled people living at home. Methods for identifying user needs in such sensitive settings are underdeveloped and the situation presents a very complex set of design challenges. In particular, the highly personal character of such settings presents conventional observational techniques, such as ethnography, with obdurate problems that make direct observation intrusive, disruptive and inappropriate on occasion. Direct observation requires supplementation in sensitive settings. Accordingly, we report on our experiences of adapting Cultural Probes to explore care settings, to develop a design dialogue with participants, and to gather information about their unique needs.
Springboards into Design: Exploring Multiple Representations of Interaction in a Dental Surgery BIBAK 14-23
  B. Campbell; T. Cederman-Haysom; J. Donovan; M. Brereton
This paper demonstrates that in order to understand and design for interactions in complex work environments, a variety of representational artefacts must be developed and employed. A study was undertaken to explore the design of better interaction technologies to support patient record keeping in a dental surgery. The domain chosen is a challenging real context that exhibits problems that could potentially be solved by ubiquitous computing and multi-modal interaction technologies. Both transient and durable representations were used to develop design understandings. We describe the representations, the kinds of insights developed from the representations and the way that the multiple representations interact and carry forward in the design process.
Keywords: Interaction Design, Participatory Design, Representation, Ubiquitous Computing
Walking Through Mobile Use: Novel Heuristics and their Applications BIBA 24-32
  F. Vetere; S. Howard; S. Pedell; S. Balbo
What is mobile use, and how should we evaluate it? We propose and motivate a variant of Heuristic Evaluation, based on the Locales framework, which has been specifically tailored for mobile devices. We report on the application of the 'Mobile Heuristic Walkthrough' approach to an experimental mobile appliance. Though useful, the evaluation results challenge us to be clearer about the nature of the 'mobile problem'. We finish with an initial attempt to define some issues germane to mobile use.
GroupBar: The TaskBar Evolved BIBA 34-43
  G. Smith; P. Baudisch; G. Robertson; M. Czerwinski; B. Meyers; D. Robbins; D. Andrews
Our studies have shown that as displays become larger, users leave more windows open for easy multitasking. A larger number of windows, however, may increase the time that users spend arranging and switching between tasks. We introduce GroupBar, a task management system for dealing with the profusion of windows on the PC desktop. Designed to offer the same basic form and function as the existing Microsoft Windows™ TaskBar, GroupBar additionally allows users to group windows into higher-level tasks and enables task switching with a single mouse click. In order to gain experience with GroupBar usage and to develop reasonable task definitions we conducted a longitudinal field study. Based on the results of that field study, we conducted a comparative user study wherein we found that participants were able to multitask faster when using GroupBar than when using the existing Windows TaskBar.
Towards a Supportive Technological Environment for Digital Art BIBA 44-51
  G. Turner; E. Edmonds
This paper presents the case for extending programming languages to support digital artists engaged in technologically-innovative work. The anticipated result is an "environment for building environments", which will need to satisfy certain technological requirements according to the areas in which digital artists most need creative support. A review of these areas is undertaken, and a proposal is made to capture the specific areas in which digital artists most need technological support.
Interacting with Home and Home Appliances in a Hand-held Terminal BIBA 52-61
  A. Aaltonen; M. Roykkee
Many remote controlled home appliances exist in homes and consequently, several remote controls lie around tables. We decided to study how to combine these controllers as one and especially, how to provide a unified user interface for all the devices. In addition, we wanted to understand how people perceive their homes in order to navigate between rooms and control devices. As a result of user-centered iterative software design, we created a concept, which is based on a simplified zoomable user interface. The interaction is based on zooming on different levels of information. The lowest level is the hand-held terminal. The next level is the selected device in the room where it is located. Finally, the highest level provides a view of the house and its yard. We began by interviewing a group of potential users and gathered their requirements. After this we studied three different floor plan visualizations in order to create visualization, which is suitable for a small screen of a hand-held terminal and limited interaction capabilities. Based on these results we created a high-fidelity prototype, which was tested further. Currently we have a working prototype -- a Micro Java application that runs in any MIDP capable mobile phone.
Context-Studio -- Tool for Personalizing Context-Aware Applications in Mobile Terminals BIBA 64-73
  J. Mäntyjärvi; U. Tuomela; I. Känsälä; J. Häkkilä
The development of context-based application adaptation brings new challenges related to human-computer interaction of adaptive systems. Innovative technical solutions are seldom ready for implementation and they must be carefully evaluated with end users. We introduce a tool for personalising mobile terminal applications according to context information, and present extensive user studies with it. Users opinions indicate that location, time and user activity are the most used contexts with mobile applications while call, profiles and notification/reminder are most used context-based mobile applications. Users have two approaches for personalising context-based behaviour of mobile terminal applications with the tool: select the minimum amount of contexts or select them from all available context types. Users have some problems concerning the composition of working conditions using the provided attributes. The main problems are in the use of operators. Concerning the navigation in the tool when configuring context based functionality, the majority of the users start from the application list since they deem it the most logical approach for configuring context based functions.
'Out To Lunch': Exploring the Sharing of Personal Context through Office Door Displays BIBA 74-83
  K. Cheverst; A. Dix; D. Fitton; M. Rouncefield
The sharing of personal context is often the subject of strong opinions and concerns over loss of privacy of 'big brother' proportions. However, in the workplace sharing personal context, e.g. by leaving a post-it note on the office door stating when one is likely to return from lunch, can facilitate cooperation between work colleagues. In this paper, we present the findings of our exploration into this controversial area, an exploration that has utilised a deployed system of interactive office door displays called Hermes. The ten Hermes displays currently 'situated' outside offices in our computing department can (amongst other things) be used by their owners to leave messages. Since the first display was deployed in March 2002 over 600 messages have been set, the majority of which share personal context in some way. Through analysis of the messages themselves and (questionnaire based) user feedback we extract and present a number of issues and insights that we believe are key to understanding this topical area.
Interaction in Location-Aware Messaging in a City Environment BIBA 84-93
  J. Häkkilä; R. Hexel
Location-aware messaging offers enormous possibilities as location tracking systems become more common and the amount of mobile services grow. The easiest way for application development would be to implement a general location-aware platform building on existing infrastructures used for tracking and messaging. Such an approach has to take into account the limitations in location accuracy and interaction design. The critical issues for location-aware applications are end-user needs and acceptance, which are the factors that ultimately determinate success. In this study, we chart user expectations of location-aware push-messaging. We test and compare the design of user interfaces for location-aware applications. Important factors concerned are the accuracy of the tracking system and interaction methods, which take into account the special requirements imposed by mobile handheld devices. The approach is to confront the users with the limitation of such systems, testing the their expectations and acceptance of the system. The results suggest, that users are concerned about spam messages, and wish to have control over the content they receive in order to limit and personalise the incoming information flow. Finally, location-aware information related to personal notes and the scalability are the most commonly mentioned desirable features for the application.
Mobile Evaluation: What the Data and the Metadata Told Us BIBA 96-105
  S. Pedell; C. Graham; J. Kjeldskov; J. Smith Davies
Evaluating mobile applications to identify usability problems presents a unique set of challenges. Not only is it difficult to capture data on an application that is inherently mobile, but generating an authentic environment of use is also problematic. This paper compares two "traditional" user-based approaches to evaluate a mobile system: one laboratory-based and the other in the field. These data serve as a basis for the primary focus of this study: the effectiveness of 'metadata' generated from 'rapid reflections'. These data were collected by the evaluators after each day of evaluation in order to investigate the quality of metadata in relation to the data of the two evaluation methods. The study also found that the laboratory study identified typical usability problems with the system at a more detailed level whilst the field study identified characteristic problems of mobile use. The metadata findings summarised the major findings in a useful way, but generally were less specific and reflected subjective theories of individual researchers.
Experimental Evaluation of Techniques for Usability Testing of Mobile Systems in a Laboratory Setting BIBA 106-115
  E. T. Beck; M. K. Christiansen; J. Kjeldskov; N. Kolbe; J. Stage
Usability testing of systems for mobile computers and devices is an emerging area of research. This paper presents and evaluates six techniques for usability testing of mobile computer systems in laboratory settings. The purpose of these techniques is to facilitate systematic data collection in a controlled environment and support the identification of usability problems that are experienced in mobile use. The proposed techniques involve various aspects of physical motion combined with either needs for navigation in physical space or division of attention. The six techniques are evaluated through two experiments, with reference to walking in a pedestrian street. Each of the proposed techniques had some similarities to testing in the pedestrian street, but none of them turned out to be completely comparable to that form of field-testing. Seating the test subjects at a table supported identification of significantly more usability problems than any of the other proposed techniques. When increasing the amount of physical activity, the test subjects also experienced a significantly increased subjective workload.
Evaluating and Evolving Digital Mobile Maps BIBA 116-125
  C. Graham; K. Urquhart; J. Smith Davies; F. Vetere
Cartographic representations on portable, networked, handheld devices can be problematic. Field and laboratory work reported here shows that the simple digital maps used in a prototype mobile service were limited in usefulness. We argue that this was due to a number of issues, grouped under the broad themes: System vs. real world (reconciliation of map representations with the real world), User (differences between knowledge, skills and expectations), Representation (map characteristics) and Interaction (map responses and behaviours). It is contended that, apart from general inattention to the application of cartographic design rules, difficulties arose during the translation of real world information into useful representations for users in context. Following a detailed comparison of the data, a series of recommendations are made regarding improvements to map design in the system that address design rules and the issues observed. Finally, research opportunities in map design for the studied devices are articulated.
Operating Theatre Patient Monitoring: The Effects of Self Paced Distracter Tasks and Experimental Control on Sonification Evaluations BIBA 128-137
  M. Watson; P. Sanderson; J. Woodall; J. Russell
Three experiments were conducted to explore the effectiveness of continuous auditory displays, or sonifications, to convey information about simulated patient physiological state in dual task trials. Participants' patient monitoring performance under different dual task conditions was investigated to determine if anaesthetic training was required to successfully use the sonification. A patient monitoring experiment using an arithmetic distracter task established that at high workloads, participants performed better when supported by the sonification than by visual displays. A second experiment using a manual labelling manipulation distracter task, that was less demanding on visual attention, demonstrated that participants could effectively use the combined sonification and visual patient monitors. A third experiment using the labelling task demonstrated the potential for non-anaesthetists to achieve better patient monitoring with sonification through greater exposure to the sonification and visual monitors. The results of the three experiments are used to highlight how the design of distracter tasks in divided attention experiment on process monitoring may have an impact on substantive conclusions about display modality effects.
Task-Driven Information Presentation BIBA 138-146
  N. Colineau; C. Paris
In the context of innovative Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEW&C) platform capabilities, we are building an environment that can support the generation of information tailored to the operator's tasks. To this end, we propose a task-based interaction environment that delivers tailored multimedia information based on the analysis and the recognition of the operator's activity. This aims at supporting the operators and maximising their efficiency by automatically providing them with information relevant to their tasks. The work is being conducted under a program that aims to enhance research and development capabilities in Australia that align with the Commonwealth's areas of interest in AEW&C.
Design and Usability Evaluation of a GAAP Flight Progress Monitoring System in a Simulated Air Traffic Environment BIBA 147-156
  C. Ryan; R. van Schyndel; G. Kitchin
Pen and paper is still used as the primary method of recording flight progress in Australian GAAP type Air Traffic Control Towers. Although paper based systems may seem crude, they occupy little of the controller's time, allowing him or her to concentrate on the primary task of visually monitoring aircraft and runways.
   This paper describes from an experiential perspective, the conception, development and usability evaluation of a working computer based prototype, intended to replace the above method. Given the safety critical nature of the system, emphasis was placed on the requirement that the GUI based implementation must not distract the controller from the primary duty of aircraft and runway surveillance.
   A number of novel testing methods were developed in order to measure the efficacy of the existing manual system, which would serve as a baseline for comparison with the newly developed prototype. Specialised techniques were also derived to simulate a live air traffic control situation so that the new system could be realistically evaluated in a safe non-live environment.
An Empathic-tutoring System Based on Spoken Language Analysis BIBA 158-166
  T. Zhang; W. Zhu; M. Hasegawa-Johnson; S. E. Levinson
This paper presents a novel approach to simulate the cognitive activities of children in an intelligent-tutoring interactive system. The cognitive activities of children are categorized into three states: confidence, confusion and frustration. Two speech information sources, prosody and lexicon, are used to determine the cognitive state of a child in his/her interaction with a computer tutor. Prosody and lexicon are then integrated via a special MAP estimator. Moreover, this paper applies a vocal-tract-normalization (VTLN)-based technique to compensate for both inter- and intra-speaker variability in children's speech. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been tested by both simulation and real conversations. The classification performance was satisfying. The prosody module is being integrated with visual information modules toward our final realization of an intelligent-tutoring system.
Face Re-Orientation in Video Conference Using Ellipsoid Model BIBA 167-173
  B. Yip; J. S. Jin
The lack of eye contact in video conference degrades the user experience. This paper suggests two simple and novel approaches for face re-orientation in a monocular setting, the rotate ellipsoid and the anti-rotate ellipsoid operation. Our approaches on face re-orientation eliminate the registration or texture mapping in 3D modelling. It is simple and efficient. To make the eye gaze correction complete, an image warping technique is used for modifying eyelids and a simple transformation is used for correcting eye glares.
Affect: Physiological Responses During Computer Use BIBA 174-182
  T. Bentley; L. Johnston; K. von Baggo
Affect and emotion are becoming the focus of increased scrutiny, both in research and practice, possibly due to the increased number of systems that are now placing emphasis on the emotions and overall experiences of the user. However, there has been little done to provide methods to determine, without subjective bias or intrusion of behaviour, the emotional responses of a user in either the short or longer terms. A study was performed using basic physiological measures to determine if these would be able to indicate when an affective response was occurring in a user. The preliminary results, as reported in this paper, indicate that the variability of physiological measures can provide indications of when an affective reaction occurs. The study demonstrates the potential of using physiological measures as an unbiased, real-time and viable indicator of user affective and emotional states in human-system evaluation scenarios.
Effects of Visual Separation and Physical Discontinuities when Distributing Information across Multiple Displays BIBA 184-191
  D. S. Tan; M. Czerwinski
Systems that include multiple integrated displays distributed throughout the working environment are becoming prevalent. Compared to traditional desktop displays, information presented on such systems is typically separated at much wider visual angles. Additionally, since displays are often placed at different depths or are framed by physical bezels, they introduce physical discontinuities in the presentation of information. In this paper, we describe a study that utilizes a divided attention paradigm to explore the effects of visual separation and physical discontinuities when distributing information across multiple displays. Results show reliable, though small, detrimental effects when information is separated within the visual field, but only when coupled with an offset in depth. Surprisingly, physical discontinuities such as monitor bezels and even separation in depth alone do not seem to affect performance on the set of tasks tested. Following the findings, we provide recommendations for the design of hardware and software in multiple display environments.
The Usefulness of Constraints for Diagram Editing BIBA 192-201
  M. Wybrow; K. Marriott; L. McIver; P. J. Stuckey
This paper examines the usefulness of constraint-based alignment and distribution tools in graphical editors. Currently one-way constraints are used to provide alignment and distribution tools in many commercial editors. In this paper we discuss how limitations of oneway constraints lead to serious usability issues with such tools. To overcome these limitations, we show how to implement alignment and distribution tools using multi-way constraints. We then describe a usability study comparing these two implementations. This is the first usability study we are aware of that examines the relative usefulness of interactive graphical tools based on one-way and multi-way constraints.
Side-By-Side Display and Control of Multiple Scenarios: Subjunctive Interfaces for Exploring Multi-Attribute Data BIBA 202-210
  A. Lunzer; K. Hornbæk
Information exploration often involves specifying alternative values for some set of parameters, and comparing the corresponding results. Some interfaces allow only one scenario, i.e., one set of parameter values, to be handled at a time. To compare results, the user must therefore switch repeatedly among the scenarios of interest and must remember details of the results seen so far. A subjunctive-interface approach may reduce this burden on the user. Subjunctive interfaces let users establish, view and adjust multiple scenarios in parallel, so that results can be compared side by side. As an illustration, we describe two subjunctive interfaces for comparing queries over a multi-attribute dataset. In both designs the query results are shown side by side, but in one case the input parameters' available values are laid out in menus, marked to show which queries use each value; in the other case the parameters are controlled by sliders, with the parameters' values in the different queries displayed side by side like the results. Both designs appear to offer advantages over other exploration interfaces, because they reduce the number of interface actions required and the information that users must remember.

Short Papers

Hybrid Stroke/Vowel Input System for Mobile Devices BIBAK 212-215
  L. K. Seng
A new input system that combines stroke-based key and character keys for mobile devices is introduced. Word-based or letter-pair prediction is provided. As an alternative the stroke keys can be replaced with stylus input. Preliminary comparisons indicate that this hybrid stroke/vowel keys is as good or better than alphabetic keys with word prediction.
Keywords: Text entry, pen-based computing, mobile computing
Saving Space by Perspective Distortion when Browsing Images on a Small Screen BIBA 216-219
  J. Lehikoinen; A. Aaltonen
Presenting pictorial information on a small screen of a mobile terminal is getting important as multimedia messaging becomes popular. Perspective distortion is one possible technique for presenting images efficiently on a small screen, but the earlier studies have showed that the use of it has problems. We set out to find out whether perspective distortion could be applied in cases where the size and amount of the images are limited. This experimental design resembles a photo album in a terminal where most of the images are familiar. The results of our experiment, made with 20 participants, showed no significant differences in performance when the digital images were tilted vertically 0, 40, 50, 60, or 70 degrees away from the viewer. We concluded that when it comes to performance, perspective distortion could well be used to increase screen real estate. However, aesthetic concerns and subjective opinions may vary.
The Swarm: Facilitating Fluidity and Control in Young People's Use of Mobile Phones BIBA 220-223
  C. Satchell
This paper is a work in progress. It presents the findings to date of a study into the day-to-day activities and cultural behaviors that underpin young people's use of mobile phones. Four main themes emerged from the study: they are the role that technology plays in the construction of identity, emerging archetypes of users, 'fluidity' as an ideal for the use of mobile technology in the spontaneous formation of social networks and finally, 'control' as an ideal in the use of mobile technology to maintain the boundaries of virtual space. The study indicates ways in which fluidity and control could be more easily achieved for the young user. This is communicated through the Swarm scenario which is a hybrid of narrative and prototyping. This use of a scenario tells a story that provides insights into the culture of a specific user group that can contribute to the early phases of the design process.
Affordances, Attention, and Mobile Phone Use During Driving BIBA 224-227
  P. Treffner; A. Petersen; R. Barrett
What effect does speaking on a hands-free mobile phone have upon the perception-action cycle for locomotion? Most studies confirm a dangerous effect of speaking on a hands-free mobile phone while simultaneously driving. However, these studies typically use computer simulations, often with small field-of-view displays and can not take into account multimodal information involved in the perceptual control of action such as gravitoinertial forces, and the extended visual field available in a car. Importantly, such simulations can not easily simulate the existence of affordances -- the perceivable opportunities for action available in the environment. The current study investigated the biomechanical and attentional demands of driving while using a hands-free mobile phone under realistic conditions using a closed-circuit driving track in order to approach the issue of how the perception of affordances is compromised by mobile phone useage.
An Exploratory Study of Mobile Computing Use by Knowledge Workers BIBA 228-231
  P. Prekop
This paper describes some preliminary results from a 20-week study on the use of Compaq iPAQ Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) by 10 senior developers, analysts, technical managers, and senior organisational managers. The goal of the study was to identify what applications were used, how and where they were used, the problems and issues that arose, and how use of the iPAQs changed over the study period. The paper highlights some interesting uses of the iPAQs, and identifies some of the characteristics of successful mobile applications.
AR phone: Accessible Augmented Reality in the Intelligent Environment BIBA 232-235
  D. Cutting; M. Assad; D. J. Carmichael; A. Hudson
This paper introduces the concept of the AR phone, a mobile phone acting as an augmented reality interface into an intelligent environment. We present scenarios to illustrate this concept and describe the design and implementation of a prototype system whereby a phone can capture images, transfer them to an intelligent environment and receive some form of visually augmented result.
Computer Supported Cooperative Play, "Third Places" and Online Videogames BIBA 238-241
  G. Wadley; M. Gibbs; K. Hew; C. Graham
Recently, Microsoft and Sony have added network capabilities to their game consoles allowing real-time competitive and cooperative game play over the Internet. This paper reports on the initial stage of a study examining Microsoft's Xbox Live, a system supporting computer supported cooperative play (CSCP) through voice communication and centralized identity management. In order to understand this phenomenon we utilized the metaphor of a "third place". We report on a study involving observation of users playing games and subsequent focus groups. Issues from the data regarding identity, sociability and communication medium, and their relationships, are described. We then discuss the importance of these concepts for understanding the phenomenon of CSCP over the Internet, and its appropriation.
Using Tangible Interfaces to Support Collaborative Multi Modal Interactions BIBA 242-245
  H. Slay; R. Vernik; B. Thomas
This paper describes a novel use of multi modal interfaces to support collaboration within ubiquitous computing workspaces. Our system provides multi modal interfaces that combine the use of tangible interaction devices (such as fiducial markers for use within augmented reality), speech recognition and traditional devices such as mouse and keyboard, allowing the user to choose the modality they would prefer. The system we describe has been incorporated into our existing intelligent workspace environment.
Groovy Tubes: an interface for designing sound effects in space and time BIBA 246-249
  G. Sood; S. Barrass
Groovy Tubes are a new tool for the design of multi-parameter sound effects in 3D space and time in the Wedge VR Theatre. A Groovy Tube has 3 parts -- a sound effect, an input mapping, and a visualisation. In this paper we describe a prototype Groovy Tube for an effect that has 3 parameters -- high pass cut-off frequency, filter resonance (Q), and playback rate of the sound passing through it. The input mapping translates the x, y, z movements of a 6 degree of freedom stylus onto the effects parameters along the time-line of a sound moving in space. The visualisation of these parameters is a Cubic Prism selected over Sphere and Fin variants for computational efficiency and visual accuracy. The first Groovy Tube was implemented in the Java based TIWI framework for the Wedge VR Theatre. Input interaction and visualisation were implemented in Java3D and sound synthesis was implemented using the JSyn Java API for sound synthesis.
Supporting Interaction in Mobile Co-operative Contexts using Agent Technology BIBA 250-253
  S. Goschnick; C. Graham
Current technology has the potential to play an important role in providing the tools and interfaces for people to interact co-operatively using the Internet incorporating both mobile and broadband technologies. This paper reports on early work exemplifying such interaction through the presentation and analysis of a narrative involving the manager of a usability laboratory engaged in wandering behaviour. Initially the Locales framework from Computer Supported Cooperative Work is used to understand the problematic aspects of the interaction involved and to identify specific needs for technology intervention. Then Shadowboard, an agent-based architecture, is used to illustrate how aspects of interaction and cognition can be 'outsourced' through agent technology. Finally, ShadowPlaces is described: a proposed architecture extending Shadowboard by facilitating group cooperation among a network of mobile individuals.
Rotational movements in real and virtual environments BIBA 254-255
  M. Tlauka
The study compared spatial learning in real and virtual environments. Twenty-four participants were placed in the centre of small laboratory environments and equivalent virtual environments. The participants' task was to learn the location of target objects by turning left or right (rotational movements). Knowledge of the location of the targets was subsequently assessed employing two paper-and-pencil pointing tasks. The main finding was the absence of any statistically significant differences between the learning conditions (real versus virtual) in terms of participants' ability to indicate the direction of the target objects.
Understanding and Designing Information Spaces Using Social Worlds BIBA 256-257
  J. Paay; C. Graham
The design of information systems for physical spaces is becoming increasingly relevant to HCI with the fusion of physical and digital design. This paper reports on early work understanding and designing such systems. We compare a journal entry from a first-time visitor to, Federation Square in Melbourne, with the official brochure description in order to better understand the issues involved in design of physical spaces that incorporate digital components in the built environment. This process revealed several differences between the designer's intention and the visitor's experience, particularly in perceived social aspects of the space and the envisaged role of digital displays. We argue that such spaces can be better understood using social world theory and that, once understood, this could be utilised in spatial design using the Locales framework.
SIDE-VIEW: Reducing student motivation problems in collaborative learning using social identity based group and communication structures BIBA 258-259
  M. Lea; P. Rogers; A. Joinson
The latest field trial of the SIDE-VIEW computer-supported collaborative learning environment specifically addressed problems in motivating distance-learning students to participate in on-line tutorial groups. The design of SIDE-VIEW is driven by the social identity approach to understanding group behaviour and is premised upon the need to establish congruity between the self-definition of group members and their collaborative learning tasks. We outline the system design rationale, and describe specific group communication structures designed to enhance participation and productivity in collaborative learning groups. Preliminary results of the field study indicate that a combination of group communication structures enhances the experience of electronic tutorial groups, particularly for distance-learning students who reported low motivation or anxiety about electronic conferencing. Furthermore, the presence of these group communication structures supplants the need for initial face-to-face meetings of tutorial groups.

Demonstrations/Exhibitions

CoWord: a Collaborative Word Processor BIBA 262-263
  Q. Xia; D. Sun; H. Shen; D. Chen; C. Sun
The aim of our CoWord project is to apply the state-of-the-art collaborative editing technologies to widely used commercial single-user word processors in a transparent way, i.e., without modifying the source code of single-user applications. CoWord is the first CollaborativeWord processor, that not only retains existing features of MS Word, but also includes new features that enable multiple users to perform and undo MS Word editing operations on the same MS Word document concurrently and consistently.
Visualisation to support navigation and exploration of glossary structures BIBA 264-265
  A. Lum; J. Kay
This demonstration presents an interface that provides an innovative navigation mechanism for large information sources such as dictionaries and glossaries.
The Nexus: A Games Engine Adapted for Collaboration BIBA 266-267
  M. Simpson; K. Bartlett
The availability of a good interface for online user collaboration has been a sore point for most collaboration applications to date. While MUD's, MOO's, IRC and other chat applications, are well suited to impersonal communication, the meaning of a single message can often be misconstrued or misunderstood. Linked to this are issues of bandwidth and the effort required to learn control of a new application, which can be difficult to overcome. The Nexus proposes to aid in the intuitive act of communication, interaction and movement and in the process enhance collaborative user experience.
A Demonstration of Mobile Augmented Reality BIBA 268-269
  M. Assad; D. J. Carmichael; D. Cutting; A. Hudson
This demonstration paper presents the AR phone, a mobile phone acting as an augmented reality (AR) interface into an intelligent environment. We describe the design and implementation of a prototype system whereby a phone can capture images, transfer them to an intelligent environment and receive some form of visually augmented result. In conclusion we explore some demonstrations of the system.
Active Visualisation of Complex Systems (Video) BIBA 270-272
  P. Treffner
Facilities at CAV revolve around use of a wall-sized twin-screen passive stereo 3D back projection system which permits either a highly immersive virtual reality configuration or a large flat screen configuration. CAV was designed to be highly flexible providing both continuously adjustable screen angle and screen height. As the only facility of its kind in the world, CAV has attracted great interest throughout the university community. Current projects at CAV are inherently multidisciplinary but all address how human behaviour can be visualised as a goal-directed complex dynamical system.