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Proceedings of OZCHI'01, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of OZCHI'01, the CHISIG Annual Conference
Note:Usability and Usefulness for Knowledge Economies
Editors:Wally Smith; Richard Thomas; Mark Apperley
Location:Perth, Australia
Dates:2001-Nov-20 to 2001-Nov-22
Standard No:ISBN: 0-7298-0504-2; hcibib: OZCHI01
Papers:41
Pages:239
Links:Proceedings PDF 13.4 Mb | Conference Series Home Page
  1. Opening Keynote
  2. Closing Keynote
  3. Plenary Panel
  4. Papers
  5. Posters

Opening Keynote

Yackity yack, blah blah blah blah. Parlez vous? Dialogue Management for Talking Heads BIBA xi
  Andrew Marriott
There are a number of interesting research problems associated with making a computer generated Talking Head behave in a realistic and believable manner. The research embraces such diverse areas as computer graphics, artificial intelligence and knowledge bases, international standards such as XML, emotional and psychological personalities, as well as Text to Speech Synthesis. My computer graphics alter ego and I will share some of these problems and their solutions with you.

Closing Keynote

Is HCI Still Necessary, Still New in the 21st Century? BIBA xii
  Steve Draper
Is HCI as a distinct subject a pressure group that has now outlived its moment of utility? Two broad classes of pressure suggest this: the relentless march of technology that seems to change the relationships of humans to computers: mobile computing, multimedia, affective, wearable, invisible computing, etc. It's not HCI (except in the sense of IO technology) that matters. On the other hand, a user-centered as opposed to that gadget-centred, attitude may argue that it never was the interface that needed designing for the user, but the whole system. Once this message has been absorbed and the transitional period of applying bandaids to the user interface was passed, then HCI would be unnecessary and user-centered design would be the software engineering orthodoxy for all designs. Recent debates in the UK about the best way to organise undergraduate training in HCI has also shown this spectrum of approaches.
   The persistent argument against both these attacks is that the real business of HCI research is to discover and articulate abstract principles that are valid across changes in technology and context (e.g. the different techniques needed for high and low bandwidth user interface links, pace in interaction, consistency, developing theories of interactivity, the mutual interaction of context and reference, designing for error recovery, designing for learning by exploration, etc.). We may however discern a steady shift in the type of such principles that are emerging as most important. Firstly, often the key issues turn out to be those of human-human interaction: e.g. CSCW, privacy, educational applications. These are often areas not well understood in advance by other disciplines, and advances in technology and HCI have depended upon creating new understanding of the relevant human-human interactivity. Secondly, there still seems to be too much techno-centrism, and too seldom do designers or researchers focus clearly on the fact that the best systems come from synergies: not from pushing either human or machine to their limits, but on finding designs that make the most of both, combining them in ways that overcome the weaknesses of each by themselves. For instance, retail call centres are very big business in a newly evolved configuration that crucially rely on both human and computer, yet are not hyped in the way that novel seeming technology is (e.g. E-commerce). But applying this paradigm in a new context (an undergraduate teaching lab) brought immediate success.

Plenary Panel

BIBA xiv
  Patrick Larvie; Jared Braiterman; Jonathan Arnowitz; Elizabeth Dykstra-Erickson; Mike Floyd; Gina Grumke; Bob Skubic; Meaghan Waters
Interactive media can be usable, yet remain unused. Some of the most popular applications, such as SMS communications and the Napster website, are also the least usable according to traditional evaluation methods. Conversely, even some of the most user-friendly and intuitive applications can fail to arouse the interest of the intended audience. How might usability professionals approach the difficulties of designing for desirability and usability? This panel gathers industry specialists to examine innovations in usability practice and theory that will help us go from making things people can use to making things people actually want to use.
   Usability professionals often find themselves at the crossroads of two historically separate fields: the "creative services" world of design and branding and the "engineering" and "productivity" focused process of developing online and offline software applications for business use. In today's competitive marketplace, user centered design must bridge creative and technical disciplines to create compelling interaction experiences and innovative business services. These applications require more than an easy to use interface; they must also tap into dimensions of user experience more closely related to pleasure and desire than to efficiency and intuitiveness.
   Especially for more novel applications, usability professionals may make important contributions from the early phases of product development, including concept prototyping, through later stages of design and evaluation. How can these practitioners learn new skills to meet the changing requirements of interactive media? What techniques and forms of collaboration will be required to address the changing product development cycle?
   The Panelists come from design and usability consultancies, venture capital firms, and Internet startups. They are teachers, designers, anthropologists, architects and consultants, all veterans of interactive media. They will discuss the ways they have learned to bridge the gap between design, branding and usability from both theoretical and practical perspectives. The Co-Chairs will provide a historical context for the shifting environment that has changed the theories and methods used by usability professionals working in interactive media and commerce.

Papers

Analysis of Task Model Requirements BIBAK 1-6
  Todd Bentley; Lorraine Johnston
This paper examines four key task-modelling methods, each associated with a computer support tool, and identifies distinct features that allow each model to achieve its specific objectives. By identifying these features, it is possible to make an informed decision regarding the most suitable task-modelling method for the current objective and allows a person to know what facilities an existing model can provide. This will be of particular use for novice task modellers and people who are unfamiliar with all task-modelling methods. Furthermore, it may be used to guide the development and enhancement of task-modelling methods.
Keywords: task models, requirements, analysis, tools, selection
Panorama: A Tool for Browsing Design Artefacts BIBAK 7-12
  Judy Brown; Conrad Johnston
This paper proposes a tool called Panorama that allows users to browse linked artefacts created during the software development process. Either software engineers or HCI specialists have created the artefacts we consider in this paper. Panorama facilitates the sharing of artefacts and aims to increase the quality of communication between design team members throughout the development and maintenance phases of the project and thereby improve the usability of software applications. We look at a variety of artefacts created by HCI specialists and software engineers including: static prototypes, dynamic prototypes, task analysis specifications, scenarios and essential use case descriptions. We investigate the value and feasibility of creating links between these design artefacts.
Keywords: Panorama, HCI, design, software engineering, development process, development tools, UML, UIML
Structuring Envisionment: Using Understanding of Current Practices to Design for Future Use BIBAK 13-18
  Jennie Carroll; Steve Howard
This paper proposes a process model that provides a structured and systematic way of using scenarios to design for future use. The process model assists designers in moving from understanding of current practices to envisioning future practices and situations of use; a by-product of the process is that the rationale for decisions is documented. Examples from an ongoing research project demonstrate the value of the approach.
Keywords: Scenario based design
Developing a Shared Understanding of IT-Supported Learning Environments BIBAK 19-24
  Penny Collings; Chris Trevitt; Matthew Absalom
It is important that designers and users of IT-supported learning environments develop a shared understanding of their purpose and of the new ways of working and learning that they support. This is an evolutionary process. This paper uses three examples of innovative IT-supported learning environments to explore the development of shared understanding between designers and users. The examples consist of empirical data from course notes and seminars, and the reflections of designers and users. We find that understanding of these IT-supported learning environments is enhanced by considering each as providing new meeting places. Each meeting place creates new opportunities for active engagement in a community of learning.
Keywords: shared understanding, learning environments, conceptual model, computer mediated communication, learning
Making the Web Emotional: Authoring Multimodal Presentations Using a Synthetic 3D Agent BIBAK 25-30
  Sylvain Descamps; Istvan Barakonyi; Mitsuru Ishizuka
Interface agents are becoming a new way for computers to communicate with humans. These agents have gained much focus recently since there is a growing interest for presentations over the Internet. The application domain of these agents is becoming wider, the quality and complexity of the existing systems is increasing fast. Our contribution to this research field concerns a new system enabling authors to easily enhance their already existing content with synthetic agents having believable behavior. It consists of a customizable 3D facial agent system and a powerful language to author presentations using interface agents, called MPML. This system provides both a versatile agent and an easy-to-use control over it.
Keywords: Multimodal presentation, interface agent, facial animation, affective behavior
Strategies for Knowledge Acquisition from Multiple Experts -- An Explorative Study BIBAK 31-37
  Marita Duecker; Natalie Woletz
It is well-known that knowledge acquisition from multiple experts benefits the quality of a knowledge base in many respects. However, knowledge acquisition from multiple experts also causes several problems not least because of the frequent spatial dispersion of experts. Appropriate CSCW applications are needed to overcome spatial dispersions and to support experts in acquiring knowledge collaboratively. By means of an explorative study we identified major requirements for a system allowing experts to reach consensus concerning the composition of a knowledge base. The study consisted of three different settings in which experts were asked to demonstrate their approaches to reaching consensus. Our observations allow the conclusion that amongst others anonymity, transparency, different views on the conflict and solution space, problem structuring, and easy access to knowledge constructing modules are important characteristics of such a system.
Keywords: Knowledge Acquisition, Multiple Experts, CSCW, Explorative Study
Personality Traits: The Missing Piece to Develop Design Guidelines for Graphical User Interfaces BIBAK 38-44
  Robert Fuchs
During the design of a real estate e-commerce website, several research methods were applied to gather background information about real estate agents and home buyers/sellers, with the purpose to define user personality profiles and establish design guidelines for the Graphical User Interface. A personality inventory was administered to 11 real estate agents and interviews were conducted with 5 additional real estate agents and 5 clients. Parts of the interviews with the real estate agents were used to validate the results obtained from the questionnaire.
   The analysis of the real estate agent personality traits identified a very homogeneous group composition. This profile served as basis for the development of usability goals and recommendations for the Graphical User Interface design for this particular user group.
Keywords: User Research, User Profiling, Web-Design Guidelines, Usability
Levels of Interactivity and Interactivity Maps BIBAK 45-50
  Connor Graham; Jon Pearce; Steve Howard; Frank Vetere
In interactive systems design the concept of interactivity often presents difficulties in terms of conceptual understanding, representation and modeling. This paper draws on existing taxonomies in human factors (e.g. Sheridan, 1998), HCI (e.g. Laurel, 1992) and educational technology (e.g. Sims, 1997) to elucidate a working definition of interactivity that includes locus of control, temporality, degrees of freedom and impact on dialogue. The paper further discusses interactivity's relationship to engagement and how individual dimensions are applicable to understanding and designing user-system interactions. Finally it proposes using "Interactivity Maps" to explore the relationship between individual scenarios, theories of action and levels of interactivity.
Keywords: interactivity, locus of control, temporality, degrees of freedom, engagement, interactivity maps, scenarios
Evolving and Iterating Style Guides BIBAK 51-57
  Connor Graham; Jon Pearce; Elizabeth Sykes
Style Guides are now relatively commonplace in the development of Web sites, with organizations writing sets of specific design rules to ensure consistent and hopefully usable designs. This study claims that the traditional conception of a style guide as a set of rules is not complete and that a style guide can only be understood in the context of the organization in which it will be deployed. The paper then reports on a set of criteria describing style guides, extracted from the analysis of a set of four different style guides. The paper argues that many traditional style guides are costly to develop and may not fit in the organizational context. Finally a process for the development of a style guide for Web learning resources is proposed through interaction with stakeholders, a usability evaluation involving usability testing and contextual interview and finally reduction of the data generated into statements within a style guide. Limitations to the study and areas for further work are then noted.
Keywords: style guides, criteria, organizational context, Style Guide Development Cycle
Reconciling Communities of Practice: Lessons from User-Centred Design BIBAK 58-62
  Helen Hasan; Lejla Vrazalic
This paper describes and interprets lessons learnt from a user-centred system development project. The system gathers performance data on a set of strategic objectives in order to determine how well the work of employees in the organization meets those strategic objectives. The concept of information architectures is used to analyse and interpret the development of the system, where the term "information architecture" means the structure of information that makes sense to the people using it. The analysis indicates that communities of practice seem to base their information architecture on the activities in which they are engaged. Lessons learnt from the project imply that an activity-based approach would be useful in reconciling different communities of practice when designing systems for diverse users.
Keywords: Communities of practice, information architecture, user-centred design, strategic information systems
Young People, Mobile Technology and the Task Artefact Cycle BIBAK 63-69
  Steve Howard; Jennie Carroll; Frank Vetere; Jane Peck; John Murphy
What happens during the earliest stages of technology use? How do users make sense of novel technologies? Why do some people persist in the use of an artefact, when others reject it? On the basis of empirical research, we are capturing the processes followed by young people during their earliest stages of technology use, stages we have called 'appropriation'. Depending on the balance between what young people desire, the capabilities and implications of technology and the situations of use that young people inhabit, we have observed non-appropriation, appropriation and disappropriation. Design for the long-term persistent use of technology, requires the design process to be mindful of appropriation. In the paper we discuss how such mindfulness can be achieved through scenario-based design and we situate our model of appropriation within the task-artefact cycle.
Keywords: Scenario based design, mobile devices, envisionment
Assessing the Effectiveness of Generic User Models BIBAK 70-76
  Peter N. Hyland
This paper identifies the characteristics most frequently used in the literature to describe casual and novice users and integrates these characteristics into an initial model of expert, casual and novice users. Using data collected during the usability testing of an experimental prototype, the initial model was found to be ineffective. This suggests that many intuitive models of casual and novice users may be invalid. Results of the usability testing were statistically analysed to produce other tentative models, with some surprising results.
Keywords: User models, expert users, casual users, novice users, usability testing
BIBAK 77-83
  Jesper Kjeldskov
Full and partial immersion in virtual reality are fundamental different user experiences: partial immersion supports the feeling of "looking at" a virtual environment while full immersion supports the feeling of "being in" that environment. Working with a range of interactive virtual reality applications using different display systems we have found that the use of six-sided caves and panoramic displays results in different requirements to interaction techniques. These can be related to specific categories of interaction: orientating, moving and acting. In this paper I present a framework for the evaluation and design of interaction techniques for virtual reality focusing on the relations between interaction techniques and display types.
Keywords: Virtual Reality, Interaction Techniques, Interaction Devices, Display Types, Field of View
On Context-Aware Artifacts and Socially Responsible Design BIBAK 84-89
  Christopher Lueg
Context-aware artifacts are of particular interest to HCI researchers as the user's interaction with artifacts moves from rather static desktops to less well-structured environments. Most work in developing such artifacts appears to be technology-driven by which we mean that often not much time is spent on exploring and clarifying the underlying concepts of context. In this paper, we attempt to contribute to the discussion of context by outlining an explicit distinction between the concept of context as a characterization of a situation and the situation itself which we understand as a social construct in the first place. Acknowledging this difference suggests that designers of context-aware artifacts should pay particular attention to the fact that the context determined by context-aware artifacts may differ from what the persons involved in a social setting have negotiated. In such a situation, it should be possible to overrule the context-aware artifact in such a way that the artifact's behavior does no longer interfere with the situation that has been negotiated among peers.
Keywords: Artifacts, context, context-awareness, situation, negotiation, frame problem
Access to Personal Travel Itinerary Information Using Mobile Phones BIBAK 90-95
  Masood Masoodian; Nicholas Lane
A typical travel itinerary provides information relating to various travel arrangements. In its conventional form, a travel itinerary is tabular and lists travel information such as flights and hotel bookings sequentially in time. Other forms of travel itinerary visualisation techniques have been developed in recent years to allow travellers easier access to information in their itinerary. However, these visualisations have generally been created for personal computers with large display screens, making them of limited use to travellers without continuous access to computers during their travel. This paper describes a system called MATI, which allows access to online personal travel itinerary information using WAP-enabled mobile phones.
Keywords: mobile computing, information visualisation, mobile phones, handheld devices, travel itinerary, WAP
International Usability Testing Who Should Do It -- Internationals or Locals? BIBAK 96-101
  John D. Murphy
This paper uses a case study of international usability testing conducted across five countries in five different regions of the world to define a framework to support practitioners design international usability tests. Firstly, usability tests from the case study are used to define three types of testing models -- local, foreign and mixed. Then a number of relationships and communication gaps or distances between the designer, the tester and the subject of the test are defined. Finally, these are combined into a framework to define the type of test model that should be used for a given set of communication relationships.
Keywords: international, usability, test, design, framework
User Centred Design Space Exploration for Consumer AR Applications BIBAK 102-108
  Volker Paelke; Christian Geiger; Christian Reimann; Joerg Stoecklein
Augmented reality (AR) integrates interactive computer graphics into real-world environments. Current developments in mobile computing and wireless communication technology will soon enable the implementation of AR applications on commodity hardware, thus enabling the creation of consumer AR applications. In order to explore the design space of consumer AR applications we have developed a design process that enables active participation of end-users in the conception, design and evaluation of AR applications. The design process itself is based on the idea of "testable design representations". Throughout the process design representations are refined and employed in user tests to provide instant feedback to designers. A collection of tools allows to create and modify the design representations and supports Wizard-of-Oz tests with these design representations.
Keywords: Augmented Reality, Concept Evaluation, User Centred Design, Wizard-Of-Oz Tests, Tool Support
Arrowhead Cursors Have Irrelevant Features that Influence Cursor Velocity and Overshooting BIBAK 109-114
  Jim Phillips; Tom Triggs; James Meehan
Arrowheads cue direction and engender optical illusions. These irrelevant properties may influence cursor placement upon computer screens. In a choice reaction time paradigm participants moved an upwards or downwards pointing arrowhead cursor to screen top or bottom to targets of 7.5 or 15mm diameter. Experiment 1 employed a standard sized cursor, and found downwards cursor placements prolonged. With a double size cursor, Experiment 2 found a compatible arrowhead orientation improved response latencies, but reduced cursor velocities for smaller targets. Overshooting occurred in the direction the arrow pointed for larger targets. Apparently there are costs when planning movements within virtual environments.
Keywords: Cursor, Arrowhead, Positioning, Mouse, Kinematics
Learning HCI in The Lost World BIBAK 115-120
  Toni Robertson; Christopher Lueg; Wayne Brookes
Instead of a formal examination, HCI students completed part of their assessment in a local video game parlour. It is one of the few places where a large group of students can experience participant observation of technology in its everyday situation of use. In this paper we discuss some of the usability issues that were identified during the evaluations as well as the pedagogical insights that resulted for the students and staff involved. It was clear that while the students could identify specific problems, they had difficulty, describing and critiquing the structure of the interaction in the various games and moving between general usability principles and specific examples in context. However, their experience demonstrated vividly the differences between evaluating technology inside and outside of its everyday context and between observation of, and participation in, the use of the technology being evaluated.
Keywords: Usability issues, HCI education, usability evaluation, video games, learning, pleasure
The Continuing Evolution of Best Practice Principles in Designing for Web Accessibility BIBAK 121-127
  Gian Sampson-Wild; Oliver K. Burmeister
Web accessibility for people with disabilities, particularly those with vision impairment is an issue of prominence due to the publicity surrounding the recent SOCOG court case. Implications for web site design arise from interpretations of the Disability Discrimination Act as it was interpreted for that case, as well as recommendations by HREOC and W3C. There are categories of compliance that designers need to understand. These categories are still evolving. Their current interpretations are presented in this paper as well as further ways to develop them.
Keywords: accessibility, W3C, web, disability, design, discrimination, guidelines, HREOC
Interface Issues for 3D Motion Control BIBAK 128-133
  Jan Scott; Barney Dalgarno
3D virtual environments have wide-ranging potential applications. It is important that the user can comfortably move and navigate in such environments. However, the design of an interface allowing the user to easily control their motion is problematic. This paper describes a comparative study on the usability of motion control interfaces in 3D virtual environments. A series of positive and negative features of the navigation tools studied have been identified and a series of usability guidelines for designers have been derived.
Keywords: Usability, Navigation, 3D, Motion control, Computer Games, VRML
Dynamically Constructed Virtual Spaces -- The "Loose Integration" Framework BIBAK 134-142
  Simeon J. Simoff
This paper discusses the loose integration approach in building collaborative virtual environments as a collection of several underlying technologies. The framework allows to develop an open integrated environment which supports consistent human computer interaction, uniting existing supporting technologies at conceptual and interface level. Proposed approach is suitable for developing customisable learning environments for subjects, which include in their curriculum different computer mediated environments and different modes of delivery.
Keywords: virtual place, virtual worlds, collaborative virtual environments, on-line learning, systems integration, computer supported collaborative work, virtual communities
The Use of Auditory Feedback in Call Centre Computer-Human-Human Interaction BIBAK 143-147
  Anette Steel; Matt Jones; Mark Apperley
Initial investigations have been carried out to evaluate issues of the computer-human-human interaction (which we refer to as CHHI) commonly found in call centre scenarios. These investigations suggest the use of auditory icons and earcons to give auditory feedback could improve CHHI in the call centre environment. Providing good customer service is crucial to organizations and it is increasingly common that it is provided through call centres therefore improvements in CHHI will have significant impacts.
Keywords: call centre interaction, chhi, chi, auditory feedback, visually impaired software, cscw
Culturally Commercial: A Cultural E-Commerce Framework BIBAK 148-153
  Fay Sudweeks; Simeon Simoff
A problem with most global e-business models is a flattening of cultural diversity, with little regard to local identity. This paper presents a culturally specific framework for e-Business with an example of its application. The example illustrates online shopping in a 3D distributed environment which is sensitive to specific cultures.
Keywords: e-commerce, cultural diversity, 3d environments, online shopping
Investigations into Privacy and Other Aspects of a Real-Time Distributed Marks Collection System BIBAK 154-160
  Richard C. Thomas; Paul Cashman; David Edwin; Martin Ritchie
The real-time collection of laboratory marks gives the opportunity to save lecturer time and, as a side effect, possibly improve the early detection of students at risk. However there may be adverse consequences for student and demonstrator privacy. This paper presents a distributed marks-collection system we have built. It captures marks in situ in the laboratory from about 650 students enrolled over two units. The web-based system, constructed using the Teachers' and Learners' Collaborascope software, has proved highly robust. We also discuss our investigations into privacy concerns.
Keywords: privacy, student marks, distributed information system, performance prediction, user monitoring, TLC, servlet, non-functional requirements
Towards Contingent Usability Evaluation of WWW Sites BIBAK 161-167
  Andrew Turk
evaluation parameters for WWW sites, through a contingency table approach. This is based on categorising the site via taxonomies of user characteristics and site content/purpose. Appropriate design guidelines, usability dimensions and evaluation techniques may then be identified and a suitable evaluation plan established. Usability questionnaires may be optimised. Progress on development of this framework into a software tool is discussed.
Keywords: usability, evaluation, WWW, sites, contingency, users, tasks, characteristics
Ambiguity and Abstraction: Supporting Early Design Process in Interactive Systems BIBAK 168-174
  Michael Wainer; Denny Hays
Computer systems promoted as design tools often are neglected by designers until after the initial design phases have been completed. Several researchers(Gross et al (1996), Hays et al (2000) Kao et al (1997)) have noted the deficiencies of software systems to adequately support the early phases of design. Our premise is that this is due in large part to the disregard of ambiguity as an abstraction management tool. The goal of this paper is to more clearly define the role of ambiguity and to suggest interface guidelines to incorporate it so as to create better interactive support for early design process.
Keywords: Design process, User interface, Ambiguity, Abstraction, Emergence, Creativity, Guidelines
Respiratory Sonification Helps Anaesthetists Timeshare Patient Monitoring with Other Tasks BIBAK 175-180
  Marcus Watson; Penelope Sanderson
We explored the effectiveness of continuous auditory displays, or "sonifications", for conveying information about an anaesthetised patient's respiratory state. A dual-task experiment showed that sonification helps anaesthetists maintain high levels of awareness of patient state and at the same time perform other tasks more effectively than when relying upon visual monitoring of patient state. In summary, sonification of patient physiology beyond traditional pulse oximetry appears a viable and useful adjunct when monitoring patient state.
Keywords: Sonification, auditory displays, patient monitoring systems, cognitive engineering
Situation Awareness and Its Implications for Human-Systems Interaction BIBAK 181-186
  B. L. William Wong; Ann Blandford
This paper describes the nature of situation awareness in the command and control of emergency ambulances in a large metropolitan centre. In a field study using the Critical Decision Method, situation awareness has been found to play a crucial role in ensuring that real-time decisions are made in the context of the situation. A descriptive model of how dispatchers interact with their control systems to develop and maintain this mental picture was developed. This paper proposes four challenges that systems developers must address when designing command and control systems for emergency ambulance dispatch management.
Keywords: situation awareness, human-systems interaction, field study, command and control, emergency ambulance, Critical Decision Method
Stakeholder Perspectives of Accounting Information Quality BIBAK 187-193
  Hongjiang Xu
The quality of the information provided is critical in accounting information systems. This paper describes a study, which explores the stakeholders' perspectives in relation to data quality in accounting information systems. The study involved the development of a conceptual framework representing the relationships between stakeholder groups and data quality in accounting information systems, and the application of the framework in a case study.
Keywords: information quality, accounting information, stakeholder
Privacy-Enhanced Displays by Time-Masking Images BIBAK 194-199
  William S. Yerazunis; Marco S. Carbone
This paper describes a method for enhancing the privacy of computer displays in public and semipublic areas. By operating the display at a higher-than-usual frame rate and alternately displaying frames of an arbitrary private image and a computed mask image, unauthorized viewers perceive one image, while authorized viewers with appropriately keyed shutterglasses see an entirely different (and private) image. Although the technique can be defeated, it provides a measure of privacy against casual and opportunistic privacy penetrations.
Keywords: data privacy, display technology, shutterglasses

Posters

Scenario Editor Project: Supporting Scenario Development Activities In Web-Site Design BIBAK 200-203
  Kentaro Go; John M. Carroll; Atsumi Imamiya
In this paper, wee describe the rationale and design of our ongoing project: the Scenario Editor, which supports scenario development activities in Web-site design and redesign. The Scenario Editor helps the development of scenarios of Web-site use as well as tradeoff analysis of Web-related artifacts; in other words, it manages the design rationales of Web sites. Furthermore, it transforms recorded scenarios and claims into XML (eXtensible Markup Language) format, which can be browsed using specific Web browsers. Thus, it provides an opportunity to share and reuse the design rationales among the stakeholders including non-technical users.
Keywords: Scenarios, scenario-based design, design activities, claims, claims analysis, design rationales, Web-site design
Cultural Issues of User Interface Design in Implementing Web Based Electronic Business BIBAK 204-209
  Kyeong-Soon Kang
This paper explores cultural issues with respect to web-based business systems and web design in electronic business over web sites. Studying the cultural issues of user interface design in implementing web-based electronic business will provide guidelines for the global use of electronic business. This paper summarises recent work on implementation issues for the improvement of graphic and text usage in a variety of system environments and web interface design issues, which should be designed to suit users on a global level, and discusses examples of effective popular business web site interfaces currently in use.
Keywords: Culture Issues, User Interface Design, Web Interface Design and Web Based Business Systems
Auditory Cues in a Multimodal Jukebox BIBAK 210-216
  Tatiana Lashina
This paper addresses the problem of evaluating the meaningfulness of auditory feedback used in a multimodal interface. The question of meaningfulness arises when auditory feedback have to give navigation cues in hands-and-eyes free interaction. An experimental framework was developed to answer the questions addressing the interaction between visual and auditory modalities. The results indicated that the visual interface representation had great influence on interpreting the meaning of sound. The degree of this influence depends on the autonomy of the sound. When auditory and visual modalities are presented together it reinforces the meaning of the sound being played on its own.
Keywords: Auditory-feedback, audio-visual modalities, navigation cues, hands-and-eyes free, remote-evaluation, user-interfaces, jukebox
In Search of a Complete Metaphor for Scaffolding the User of On-Line Course Materials BIBAK 217-221
  Joan Richardson; Sarah Guss
When we design our Web sites for learning or gaining knowledge we need to maintain a focus on the activities the students will be involved in and the use of the medium as a form of expression. It is insufficient to merely look at the content or topics as components of a syllabus. It is important to define the objectives of a course, then the content as topics and related outcomes and finally the activities the students will be involved in to achieve these outcomes. This process assists in the determination of aspects of the interface like the navigational pathways through the content. We must endeavour to provide not only the knowledge on the Web but to ensure that these fragments are activity focussed and tied together by a logical sequencing of events and an abstract context. This will construct knowledge and therefore make usable and useful systems for this knowledge economy.
Keywords: Learning, Web design, interface design, design theory
A Method for Recognizing Sign Language Sentences Based on Head Movements BIBAK 222-227
  Hirohiko Sagawa; Atsuko Koizumi; Masaru Takeuchi; Ming Xu; Katsuhiko Sakaue
In Japanese sign language (JSL), non-manual signs (NMSs) such as facial expressions, glances, and nods are important for conveying grammatical information. We focused on head movements among the NMSs in JSL and classified their types and functions. In accordance with the result of the classification, we propose a method for recognizing JSL sentences based on the grammatical functions of head movements.
Keywords: Japanese sign language, non-manual signs, recognition, grammar, head movements
Colour and Perception in User Interface Design BIBAK 228-234
  Jan Scott; Milena Dunn; Glenda Croft; Deri Hadler; Geoff Fellows
Interface design has moved a long way from command language interface. Visually, we have the opportunity of improving usability and communication with people from diverse backgrounds. However 'moving' forward has created the need to include many other disciplines such as graphic design, psychology and human factors. As with many interfaces, those who have developed the interface find it difficult to see why it lacks usability. This poster is based on a CD-ROM developed to provide students and designers with material to assist in understanding how perception and colour can make the difference between a good and a poor design.
Keywords: Usability, interface, perception, colour, education, design
Virtual Tours in Tourism: Interaction Issues BIBAK 235-239
  Rochelle Villanueva; B. L. William Wong
This paper briefly describes issues of design, production and usability of creating and producing a photo-realistic desktop Virtual Reality (VR) from a recently completed project of Queenstown, New Zealand. It briefly speculates and raises the question of whether addressing the issues of design, photography and usability when creating a VR for marketing and tourism will make the VR more usable and informative to the user.
Keywords: photo-realistic vr, desktop vr, usability, quicktime virtual reality authoring suite (qtvras)