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OCSC Tables of Contents: 07091113

OCSC 2007: 2nd International Conference on Online Communities and Social Computing

Fullname:OCSC 2007: 2nd International Conference on Online Communities and Social Computing
Note:Volume 15 of HCI International 2007
Editors:Douglas Schuler
Location:Beijing, China
Dates:2007-Jul-22 to 2007-Jul-27
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4564
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-540-73256-3 (print), 978-3-540-73257-0 (online); hcibib: OCSC07
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. Part I: Designing and Developing On-Line Communities
  2. Part II: Knowledge, Collaboration, Learning and Local On-Line Communities

Part I: Designing and Developing On-Line Communities

User-Centred Design Approach for a Community Website with Social Software BIBAKFull-Text 3-11
  Ilse Bakx
Social software and web 2.0 live on the fact that people want to share and collaborate. This feeling of connecting with each other as well as helping and sharing information can be used in different domains. We think social software can be used to build dynamic online communities and subsequently can be used to improve the relationships between community members and stimulate them to be more active community members. To make sure the website is usable by all people and to make it approachable for all people to be active on a community website, we involved the users in an early stage of the design process. With the results of the user studies we designed the website, after which iterative usability tests took place. In this paper, we discuss a case study of the design of a community website around an interactive page in a local newspaper, using social software and their interaction with the real life community.
Keywords: Social software; online community; user-centred design; usability
What Would Jiminy Cricket Do? Lessons from the First Social Wearable BIBAKFull-Text 12-21
  Timothy W. Bickmore
Work towards the development of a "wearable conscience" that helps individuals make healthy decisions in their everyday lives is described. To be effective, such a system must be portable, sense key elements of the user's environment, have knowledge of counseling and health behavior change techniques, be able to effectively communicate with the user, and have social competencies for maintaining an ongoing working relationship. The design of a prototype system is presented, along with results from a series of design and usability studies. Current and future directions for the research are also discussed.
Keywords: social agent; relational agent; embodied conversational agent; health behavior change; wearable computer
Using Design Critique as Research to Link Sustainability and Interactive Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 22-31
  Eli Blevis; Youn-Kyung Lim; David Roedl; Erik Stolterman
This paper echoes and points to work we have presented elsewhere on establishing the links between issues of sustainability and interaction design. The significant contribution of this paper is a description of the use of design critique as a research method and an argument for its importance to HCI researchers, especially with respect to very complex design contexts -- the link between sustainability issues and interaction design research and practice, in particular.
Keywords: Design critique; design research; sustainable interaction design; research methods; design ethics and values; value sensitive design; social context of interaction design
An Analysis of Involvement of HCI Experts in Distributed Software Development: Practical Issues BIBAKFull-Text 32-40
  Görkem Çetin; Damiano Verzulli; Sandra Frings
Traditionally, free and open source software (F/OSS) developers have focused more on the features of a specific application, most of the time ignoring the necessity of user-centric design. This has mainly stemmed from the fact that developers have little interaction with HCI studies, knowledge bases and reports. Moreover, the lack of user interface designers has resulted in a lack of awareness of this area. As a consequence, the user centric design phenomenon within F/OSS applications has been neglected. In this paper, we have mentioned various problems that would slow down a F/OSS project development towards a user-engineered software, and investigated the ways that HCI experts and developers interact with each other and researched bug reporting systems by means of eligibility to issue usability bugs. For the conclusion part, we have explored possible ways to achieve a user-centric design in a project with asynchronous interaction among geographically distributed developers.
Keywords: F/OSS; HCI; usability; open source; distributed usability; user centric design
Modelling and Matching: A Methodology for ePlanning System Development to Address the Requirements of Multiple User Groups BIBAKFull-Text 41-49
  Yun Chen; Maria Kutar; Andy Hamilton
In this paper the authors present the Modelling and Matching methodology (M&M), developed to ensure that ePlanning systems meet the needs of their users. Designed to address the requirements of multiple and diverse user groups, the methodology intends to offer an operational guidance to ePlanning system developers. M&M combines elements of UML, Soft Systems Methodology, Object-Oriented Methodology and Rapid Development Methodology, and embeds them into a five-step process to reflect a human-centred approach. The methodology will be elucidated further in the paper together with its application and evaluation in a multi-partner, geographically distributed ePlanning system development project, called Virtual Environment Planning System (VEPs) project. The reflection of this application will be discussed at last, in terms of the learning recorded with respect to the methodology (i.e. M&M) itself and the effects it caused.
Keywords: ePlanning Systems; Information System Development Methodologies (ISDMs); Multiple User Groups; Modelling and Matching (M&M)
The Need for Technology to Support Creative Information Sharing Whilst Mobile: Identified Activities and Relationship Groups BIBAKFull-Text 50-59
  Yan Chen; Tracy Ross; Val Mitchell
Social computing technologies are becoming increasingly popular as it allows people to create and share their own content. Given that most social computing technologies are limited to fixed environments, this paper outlines an exploratory study which investigates the characteristics of people's creative information sharing process; identifying user needs and difficult scenarios during the process, focusing particularly on mobile scenarios. The results give an indication about people's potential needs to create and share whilst mobile. It describes the characteristics of creative information sharing process and suggests that supporting the process of information sharing by harnessing context-aware elements could be a potential solution.
Keywords: social computing; mobile environment; context-awareness
Aspects of Augmented Social Cognition: Social Information Foraging and Social Search BIBAKFull-Text 60-69
  Ed Huai-hsin Chi; Peter Pirolli; Shyong K. Lam
In this paper, we summarized recent work in modeling how users socially forage and search for information. One way to bridge between different communities of users is to diversify their information sources. This can be done using not only old mechanisms such as email, instant messages, newsgroups and bulletin boards, but also new ones such as wikis, blogs, social tags, etc. How do users work with diverse hints from other foragers? How do interference effects change their strategies? How can we build tools that help users cooperatively search? We seek theories that might help us answer these questions, or at least point us toward the right directions.
Keywords: social processes; information search; information foraging
First Design of a Ubiquitous System for Affective Bonding and Support with Family and Friends BIBAKFull-Text 70-79
  Sébastien Duval; Hiromichi Hashizume
We consider the design of a ubiquitous system whose objective is to strengthen affective bonding and allow affective support, especially for distant relationships with the family and friends. It is based on wearable computers that evaluate emotions, transmit information to authorized persons, and enable interactions. Our most significant contribution is the provision of the design for a complete system usable in everyday life, based on emotional design and on multi-cultural feedback.
Keywords: Cultures; Emotional design; Emotions; Family; Friends; HCI; Ubiquity; Wearable
PixelWish: Collective Wish-Making and Social Cohesion BIBAKFull-Text 80-85
  Catherine Hu; Simon M. S. Law
This paper discusses the concept of a network-mediated system for making wishes and sending them remotely to people whom we care about. Particularly at occurrences of critical events, i.e. crises, when shared emotional connection [1] and group bond is most likely to develop, we believe this system will have positive emotion effects on both the wish-senders and the wish-receivers. We propose this to be a novelty design of community-ware, and believe it has strong potentials in utilizing information technologies to turn 'digital divide' into 'digital cohesion'. [2]
Keywords: Online communities; community-ware; wish-making; social cohesion; emotional connection; Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Computing Social Networks for Information Sharing: A Case-Based Approach BIBAKFull-Text 86-95
  Rushed Kanawati; Maria Malek
In this paper we describe a peer-to-peer approach that ails at allowing a group of like-minded people to share relevant documents in an implicit way. We suppose that user save their documents in a local user-defined hierarchy. the association between documents and hierarchy nodes (or folders) is used by a supervised hybrid neural-CBR classifier in order to learn the user classification strategy. This strategy is then used to compute correlations between local folders and remote ones allowing to recommend documents without having a shared hierarchy. Another CBR system is used to memorize how good queries are answered by peer agents allowing to learn a dynamic community of peer agents to be associated with each local folder.
Keywords: Collaborative Document Sharing; Peer To Peer; Case-based reasoning; Community identification
Presentation Desire of Digital Identity in Virtual Community BIBAFull-Text 96-105
  Hee-Woong Kim; Eunice Que
Recently digital items have been widely used by people in the online space including virtual communities and online games. Some Internet companies even in the context of virtual community (VC) generate revenue from the sales of digital items to their online members. The sales of digital items provide insights for Internet companies and virtual community providers who are suffering from the lack of a profitable business model. This study examines why people pay for digital items from the self-presentation perspective in the context of VC by introducing a new construct, digital identity, and developing a conceptual framework of presentation of digital identity. The findings of this study show that the presentation desire of digital identity leads to the intention of purchasing digital items. This study identifies the significance of online group norm and online group involvement on the presentation desire from the social digital identity perspective and the significance of personal innovativeness from the personal digital identity perspective. These findings help to advance theory and offer practical insights in the context of Internet business and VC.
Grand Challenges in Design Research for Human-Centered Design Informatics BIBAKFull-Text 106-115
  Youn-Kyung Lim; Eli Blevis; Erik Stolterman
The idea of design informatics as a distinguished discipline is a new one, with little precedence. This paper argues for the importance of a human-centered perspective with respect to the emergence of this newly nascent field of design informatics -- a perspective which may be termed Human-Centered Design Informatics (HCDI). The paper proposes four grand challenges that are essential to the foundations of HCDI, specifically (i) understanding the living nature of information, (ii) understanding the relationships between interaction design and information, (iii) understanding how to design for sustainable and engaging social interactions mediated by information technologies, and (iv) understanding the multi-cultural and globalization issues implied by the use of the materials of information technologies in design.
Keywords: design informatics; information and communications technology (ICT); human-centered design; design education; design research; human-computer interaction (HCI)
A Study on Content and Management Style of Corporate Blogs BIBAKFull-Text 116-123
  Shanshan Ma; Qiping Zhang
Corporate blogs are used by companies to talk with customers. We did a study into 262 blog entries in 9 corporate blogs. The study revealed three corporate blog content types; three corporate blog management styles, and relatively shorter blog length and lower update frequency.
Keywords: Blog; Corporate blog; blog content; blog management; update frequency
Chameleon-Based Deniable Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol Secure Against Forgery BIBAKFull-Text 124-133
  Chunbo Ma; Jun Ao; Jianhua Li
As a useful means of safeguarding privacy of communications, deniable authentication has received much attention. A Chameleon-based deniable authenticated key agreement protocol is presented in this paper. The protocol has following properties. Any one of the two participants can't present a digital proof to convince a third party that a claimed agreement has really taken place. Once a forgery occurs, the original entity can present a digital proof to disclose the forgery.
Keywords: Chameleon; Deniability; Authentication; Key Agreement
ConnectDots: Visualizing Social Network Interaction for Improved Social Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 134-140
  Deidra Morrison; Bruce Gooch
There has been a fairly large body of research surrounding decision making theory and ways in which choice framing and judgment are major contributing factors to decision outcome and future practice. The purpose of this study is to use abstract visual stimulus as an application for information organization and display, in order to aid in decision making practices. In this paper, we will introduce ConnectDots, a visualization tool that will allow users to be able to view this large data set of interaction information and more easily perceive the patterns of interaction therein. With this information, a person can also become more aware of their current decision making practices for their social network, and observe how their relationships are affected.
Recognition of Affect Conveyed by Text Messaging in Online Communication BIBAKFull-Text 141-150
  Alena Neviarouskaya; Helmut Prendinger; Mitsuru Ishizuka
In this paper, we address the task of affect recognition from text messaging. In order to sense and interpret emotional information expressed through written language, rule-based affect analysis system employing natural language processing techniques was created. Since the purpose of our work is to improve social interactivity and affective expressiveness of computer-mediated communication, we decided to tailor the system to handle style and specifics of online conversations. Proposed algorithm for affect analysis covers symbolic cue processing, detection and transformation of abbreviations, sentence parsing, and word/phrase/sentence-level analyses. To realize visual reflection of textual affective information, we have designed an avatar displaying emotions, social behaviour, and natural idle movements.
Keywords: Affective computing; affective user interface; avatar; emotions; online communication; language parsing and understanding; text analysis
Ranking Method for Mediators in Social Network BIBAKFull-Text 151-159
  Ryosuke Saga; Hiroshi Tsuji
This paper proposes a method for ranking mediators where a mediator is defined as node having an important role in a social network. To precisely rank the mediators in order of their importance, a method is used based on changes in the average shortest path length. However, the computational complexity for this method is O(N5), so an unreasonable amount of time it is required to determine complexity for a massive network. Our ranking method, whose complexity is no more than O(N2), is based on the relationships among adjacency nodes. Although the method does not provide a precise but an approximate rank, we found that there is a strong correlation between the ranks generated using the strict and the developed methods. Results on a variety of generated networks confirmed the feasibility of our method for a massive network.
Keywords: Social Network; Mediator; Rank Mining; Community Computing; Graph Theory
The Relationship Between Social Presence and Group Identification Within Online Communities and Its Impact on the Success of Online Communities BIBAKFull-Text 160-168
  Diana Schimke; Heidrun Stoeger; Albert Ziegler
In order to encourage more girls to choose STEM-study courses (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) we created an online community and e-mentoring program for German high school girls and women engaged in STEM vocational fields. Within the online community, we brought together girls and female role models. A community platform was offered for getting to know and exchange with other community members. Within this community, we used quantitative methods to measure the students' levels of social presence and group identity, and tested to see if a correlation between those two factors exists. We further evaluated if the group identity has an impact on the girls interest and willingness to participate in STEM.
Keywords: Online communities; e-mentoring; social presence; group identity; STEM; gender
From Clicks to Touches: Enabling Face-to-Face Shared Social Interface on Multi-touch Tabletops BIBAFull-Text 169-175
  Chia Shen
Making the interactions with a digital user interface disappears into and becomes a part of the human to human interaction and conversation is a challenge. Conventional metaphor and underlying interface infrastructure for single-user desktop systems have been traditionally geared towards single mouse and keyboard, click-and-type based, WIMP interface design. On the other hand, people usually meet in social context around a table, facing each other. A table setting provides a large interactive visual and tangible surface. It affords and encourages collaboration, coordination, serendipity, as well as simultaneous and parallel interaction among multiple people. In this paper, we examine and explore the opportunities, challenges, research issues, pitfalls, and plausible approaches for enabling direct touchable, shared social interactions on multi-touch multi-user tabletops.
Physical Representation Social Presence with Interactive Grass BIBAKFull-Text 176-181
  Jui Hang Shih; Teng-Wen Chang; Hui-Mei Hong; Tian-Chiu Li
The hypothesis that happy team members are more cooperative than sad team members has become a popular presumption in social and applied psychology. The member negatively may affect the emotion, mood or attitudes, and continually annoys the rest in the team, and positive either. Also, how do es team member learn more adaptive emotion strategies in complex relationship. This paper introduces a research program on social presence theory and practice of technology creation based on application of emotional physical device. The simple concept of our study is to create an interactive system of expression in the following areas: (1) Theoretical Research: research of social presence and the team members in adopted an emotion system; we will study social media concept in scientific fields, and then establish a program of slow theology. (2) The interactive table as human emotion.
Keywords: Emotion; Social media; Adaptive; Affective; Interactive Behavior; Corporation design
Artistic Data Visualization: Beyond Visual Analytics BIBAKFull-Text 182-191
  Fernanda B. Viégas; Martin Wattenberg
Information visualization is traditionally viewed as a tool for data exploration and hypothesis formation. Because of its roots in scientific reasoning, visualization has traditionally been viewed as an analytical tool for sensemaking. In recent years, however, both the mainstreaming of computer graphics and the democratization of data sources on the Internet have had important repercussions in the field of information visualization. With the ability to create visual representations of data on home computers, artists and designers have taken matters into their own hands and expanded the conceptual horizon of infovis as artistic practice. This paper presents a brief survey of projects in the field of artistic information visualization and a preliminary examination of how artists appropriate and repurpose "scientific" techniques to create pieces that actively guide analytical reasoning and encourage a contextualized reading of their subject matter.
Keywords: Visualization; Art
Social Puppets: Towards Modular Social Animation for Agents and Avatars BIBAFull-Text 192-201
  Hannes Högni Vilhjálmsson; Chirag Merchant; Prasan Samtani
State-of-the-art computer graphics can give autonomous agents a compelling appearance as animated virtual characters. Typically the agents are directly responsible for controlling their graphical representation, but this places too much burden on the agents that already deal with difficult high-level tasks such as dialog planning. This paper presents work, done in the context of an interactive language and culture training system, on a new kind of engine that fits between the high level cognitive agent models and the animated graphics that represent them. This is a social engine that generates socially appropriate nonverbal behavior based on rules reflecting social norms. Similar to modular physics engines, the social engine introduces a re-usable component that can heighten believability of animated agents in games and simulations with relatively little effort.
A Cross-Cultural Study of Flow Experience in the IT Environment: The Beginning BIBAKFull-Text 202-211
  Alexander E. Voiskounsky
Flow (optimal) experience is being widely investigated in the IT environments: in human-computer interaction, computer-mediated communication and exploratory behaviour, consumer and marketing applications, educational practice, playing computer, video and online games, psychological rehabilitation of the disabled, web usability testing, etc. Though a universal experience, flow can be expected to be culture specific and culture dependent. Optimal experience has only rarely been studied from a cross-cultural perspective, mainly in the field of gaming activities. An overview of the earliest works in the field is presented, as well as empirical evidences of a study referring to the flow experience and interaction patterns inherent to the samples of Russian and French online players.
Keywords: Optimal Experience; Flow; Interaction; Information Technologies; Culture; Online Games; Multi-Player Games; MUD; Cross-Cultural Study
Cultural Institutions, Co-creativity and Communities of Interest BIBAKFull-Text 212-221
  Jerry Watkins; Angelina Russo
Despite the proliferation of web-based news and information services, there remains a lack of online destinations from which to obtain reliable and authoritative cultural knowledge. In many countries, such knowledge is provided by cultural institutions such as museums and libraries. Recent discussion suggests that social media -- including blogs, wikis and digital stories -- may provide a creative solution to the ongoing interaction between cultural institutions and communities of interest. However, little applied research exists to demonstrate how social media can be established and maintained within museums and libraries, and what issues are raised within the institution by a more participatory approach to cultural communication. This paper highlights the implementation of a new program at the Australian Museum to train staff in social media production, in order to make the many thousands of objects and stories held within the Museum's collections more accessible and engaging to communities of interest.
Keywords: co-creativity; social media; digital cultural communication; human-computer interaction
A Study of Emotional and Rational Purchasing Behavior for Online Shopping BIBAKFull-Text 222-227
  Lifen Yeh; Eric Min-Yang Wang; Sheue-Ling Hwang
Emotion has gained much attention in product design over recent years. It is not surprised that the aesthetic appeal may determine the fate of a product, namely its success or failure in the market. Unlike the traditional marketing channel, websites provide a different opportunity for promoting the products to the potential customers who may know the products via a computer mediated website and its user interface. Previous studies have shown that website design features and usability can influence the willingness of the purchase. However, whether the product characteristics on the websites and the customers' attitudes (emotional thinking vs rational thinking) will affect the purchasing behavior is still unknown. In this study, the influence of the emotional appearances of the websites and the product characteristics as well as the user characteristics to the purchase behavior was examined. The findings suggest the emotional web appeal may not be able to affect the thinking style which may further enhance the purchasing intention of specific products. Further study on web appeal and web design strategies may be needed to identify and attract online customers.
Keywords: E-commerce; Emotional decision; Web appeal; Purchase behavior
A Trust-Based Reputation System in Peer-to-Peer Grid BIBAFull-Text 228-235
  Zenggang Xiong; Yang Yang; Xuemin Zhang; Dairong Yu; Li Liu
Grid computing and peer-to-peer computing are both hot topics at present. The convergence of the two systems is increasingly visible, and OGSA provides a framework for integrating grid and peer to peer. However, managing trust is a key issue for peer-to-peer grid. This paper proposes a novel trust-based reputation system for peer-to-peer grid, which is based on Bayesian theory. Theoretical analysis and simulations prove that the trust-based reputation system in peer-to-peer grid can improve the performance of cooperation among Gridpeers.

Part II: Knowledge, Collaboration, Learning and Local On-Line Communities

The Social Implications of an Assisted Living Reminder System BIBAKFull-Text 239-249
  Bedoor K. AlShebli; Eric Gilbert; Karrie Karahalios
We present the findings of an in situ field study conducted using our assisted living system, I-Living, that aims to enable seniors to live in a cost-effective manner independently. Basing the study on both interviews and diaries provided valuable and well-rounded data. Some of the main findings revealed that seniors will wear small health sensors if designed carefully. The study further reveals that delicate and complicated social structures influence the design space in such communities. The primary contribution of this paper is the pilot study conducted at an assisted living facility. It paints a compelling picture of day-to-day life in a healthcare institution and uncovers broad design implications that apply to a wide range of technologies.
Keywords: assisted living; pilot study; seniors; reminder system
Disaster-Response Information Sharing System Based on Cellular Phone with GPS BIBAKFull-Text 250-255
  Masakatsu Aoki; Shunichi Yonemura; Ken-ichiro Shimokura
In disasters, the victims must be provided with various bits of information. The information needed also changes with the situation. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of such information and introduce an information sharing system. A prototype is developed around a cellular phone with GPS and its effectiveness is described.
Keywords: Disaster Information; Information Sharing System; Cellular Phone with GPS; meta-data
Tags for Citizens: Integrating Top-Down and Bottom-Up Classification in the Turin Municipality Website BIBAKFull-Text 256-264
  Franco Carcillo; Luca Rosati
Tags for citizens project aims to empower the citizens' experience within the Turin municipality website (http://www.comune.torino.it) integrating a standard top-down taxonomy with a bottom-up classification by tags. The top-down taxonomy has been conceived following the UK Integrated Public Sector Vocabulary (IPSV 2006 -- an ISO 2788 fully compliant classification scheme) and empirically refined by usability tests with users and by log files monitoring. The bottom-up classification works as a social tagging system. The latter it is not simply added to the former, but completely integrated to it, in order to obtain a coherent system.
Keywords: eGovernment; Metadata; Information Architecture; Social Classification; Folksonomy; IPSV (Integrated Public Sector Vocabulary)
Tracing Conceptual and Geospatial Diffusion of Knowledge BIBAKFull-Text 265-274
  Chaomei Chen; Weizhong Zhu; Brian M. Tomaszewski; Alan M. MacEachren
Understanding the dynamics of knowledge diffusion has profound theoretical and practical implications across a wide variety of domains, ranging from scientific disciplines to education and understanding emergent social phenomena. On the other hand, it involves many challenging issues due to the inherited complexity of knowledge diffusion. In this article, we describe a unifying framework that is designed to facilitate the study of knowledge diffusion through multiple geospatial and semantic perspectives. In particular, we address the role of intrinsic and extrinsic geospatial properties of underlying phenomena in understanding conceptual and geospatial diffusion of knowledge. We illustrate the use of visualizations of geographic distributions of terrorist incidents, the structural evolution of research networks on terrorism and avian flu, and concept-location relations extracted from news stories.
Keywords: knowledge diffusion; geographic mapping; collaboration networks; information visualization
The Differences Between the Influences of Synchronous and Asynchronous Modes on Collaborative Learning Project of Industrial Design BIBAKFull-Text 275-283
  Wenzhi Chen; Manlai You
Understanding communication in collaborative design is helpful for development and selection of communication software and technology in design project. The aim of this article attempts to explore the differences between the influences of synchronous and asynchronous modes on collaborative design learning projects. Two experiment projects were conducted, and the participation record and the content of communication were collected. Both quantitative and content analysis methods used in order to indicate the attributions of different communication mode. Results of this study showed that there have differences in participation and communication pattern between the synchronous and asynchronous modes on collaborative learning project. It should be noted that this study is restricted to the size of sample and uncertain variables. The future research is obviously required.
Keywords: collaborative design; computer mediated communication (CMC); industrial design
Self-Awareness in a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Environment BIBAKFull-Text 284-291
  Kwangsu Cho; Moon-Heum Cho
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of self-awareness (SA) interfaces implemented for writing skill improvement in a computer supported collaborative writing environment called SWoRD [7]. Visualization interfaces to improve SA were developed for SWoRD. Students were provided with opportunities to self-monitor and self-evaluate their writing with the use of multiple peer feedback. The study results show that although all the students did not develop their SA with the interfaces, the students who developed SA drastically improved their writing skills compared to those who did not enhance SA. Finally, the results are discussed and future research topics are suggested.
Keywords: Self-awareness; Peer feedback; Peer review; Writing; CSCL; SWoRD; Self-monitoring
How to See the Beauty That Is Not There: The Aesthetic Element of Programming in the Computer-Based Media Art BIBAKFull-Text 292-300
  Hyunkyoung Cho; Joonsung Yoon
This study is to define aesthetic elements of the programming in the computer-based media art. It can be explained as the totality of the concept and reality in the respect of collaboration of art and science. The programming as aesthetic object deconstructs the traditional notion of art that the aesthetic value is determined by the aesthetic attitude. The code is not just for the computer programming, but for the pleasure. The artistic and creative 'Open Code' must be at the cost of the death of the code closed in a signified, and it lives, improves and changes through additional new functions or algorithms. Like the conceptual art, the programming is both a dematerialization of the object and an immaterialized meaning. It leads us to change the seat of a subject as a signifier. Therefore, 'The beauty of program that is not there' becomes more viable when it involves the application of aesthetics.
Keywords: beauty; aesthetic object; code reading; open code; subject
CNA² -- Communications and Community; Neighborhoods and Networks; Action and Analysis: Concepts and Methods for Community Technology Research BIBAFull-Text 301-314
  Peter Day; Clair Farenden
The purpose of this paper is to examine the challenges and opportunities of employing ICT in a community building/development context through a critical reflection of the experiences of the Community Network Analysis (CNA) and ICT research project in the Poets Corner community of Brighton and Hove, UK. Grounded in community networking, community development and community learning theories, the CNA project aimed to: investigate impacts of ICT on the network ties and social cohesion of community groups; whilst exploring the uses of network technologies in stimulating social capital and promoting community development in Poets Corner.
Toward Machine Therapy: Parapraxis of Machine Design and Use BIBAKFull-Text 315-323
  Kelly Dobson
Machine Therapy is a new methodology combining art, design, psychodynamics, and engineering work in ways that access and reveal the vital relevance of subconscious elements of human-machine interactions. In this paper I present examples of empathic relationships with domestic appliances, roles of wearable and prosthetic apparatuses, and instances of evocative visceral robots that interact with people's understandings of themselves and each other. The Machine Therapy projects facilitate unusual explorations of the parapraxis of machine design and use. These usually unconscious elements of our interactions with machines critically affect our sense of self and our shared development.
Keywords: Machine Therapy; human-robot interaction; human-machine interaction; autonomic; parapraxis; body; organ
Flow Experience of MUD Players: Investigating Multi-User Dimension Gamers from the USA BIBAKFull-Text 324-333
  Anthony Faiola; Alexander E. Voiskounsky
Playing MUDs (Multi-User Dimensions or Multi-User Dungeons, or Multi-User Domain), text-only online gaming environments, may initiate flow experience. Online survey research was administered within the sample population of 13,662 MUD players from the United States of America, using the specially designed questionnaire with four categories of questions related to: flow experience, experience in playing MUDs, interaction patterns, and demographics. Replies of respondents (N = 287) fit a five factor model. All the correlations between the factors are significant (p < 0.05). Since players experienced flow while MUDding, it was proposed that flow is one of the sources of the long-time attractiveness for MUD players.
Keywords: play; online; flow; MMORPG; MUD; interaction; structural equation modeling
Unveiling the Structure: Effects of Social Feedback on Communication Activity in Online Multiplayer Videogames BIBAKFull-Text 334-341
  Luciano Gamberini; Francesco Martino; Fabiola Scarpetta; Andrea Spoto; Anna Spagnolli
Feedback intervention in computer-mediated situations can be interpreted as a way to augment communication. According to this idea, this study investigates the effect of providing a group with a Social Network Analysis-based feedback on communication in an on-line game where players talk to each other via textual chat. Three different situations across two different sessions were compared: an Informed Group with a correct feedback, a not-Informed Group with no feedback and a mis-Informed group with an incorrect feedback. Results show that giving correct information increases the related dimensions of communication, while the absence of feedback and the incorrect feedback were not accompanied by any significant modification.
Keywords: social network analysis; feedback; augmented communication; cooperative online game
Habitat Computing: Towards the Creation of Tech-Enabled Mexican Neighborhoods BIBAKFull-Text 342-351
  Víctor M. González; Luís A. Castro; Kenneth L. Kraemer
The use of personal computers and Internet at home is becoming more and more common in some developing countries such as Mexico, where affordable prices and credit plans have contributed to this trend. Undoubtedly, the presence of information technology in the households has effects in the life of families and their communities; however how beneficial these effects are depends on the way technology is contextualized to support domestic and community practices. Achieving a proper contextualization is the goal of what we call habitat computing. This paper presents the case of Real del Sol, a housing community in Mexico where an implementation of habitat computing is being developed. Houses are built with Internet access and personal computers as part of their basic infrastructure. We analyze here the role, usage and development of the Real del Sol community intranet, which is a key element on supporting the vision of the project.
Keywords: Community Intranets; Security cameras; Online Shopping
Fostering Knowledge Mode Conversion in New Product Development Environment BIBAKFull-Text 352-361
  Eduardo González; David A. Guerra-Zubiaga; Manuel Contero
The creation of new knowledge that comes from Knowledge Mode Conversion (KMC) activities improves New Product Development (NPD) activities. However, there is still limited understanding of "how" a Knowledge Mode Conversion activity varies using collaborative and conversational technologies to improve product development performance. The main contribution of this research is to establish a set of indicators that can be used as guides to help identify effective Knowledge Mode Conversion activities that can be useful for organizations whose performance rely upon effective new product development activities. These indicators are obtained evaluating and comparing documents stored in a Product Data Management System (PDM) for differing levels of semantic significance, applying Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). This provides a linkage between New Knowledge creation and the development of Capabilities for KMC, and a better understanding of "how" design teams improve their performance.
Keywords: Knowledge Mode Conversion; Latent Semantic Analysis; Collaborative Engineering; Knowledge sharing; Product Design
Social Rewarding in Wiki Systems -- Motivating the Community BIBAKFull-Text 362-371
  Bernhard Hoisl; Wolfgang Aigner; Silvia Miksch
Online communities have something in common: their success rise and fall with the participation rate of active users. In this paper we focus on social rewarding mechanisms that generate benefits for users in order to achieve a higher contribution rate in a wiki system. In an online community, social rewarding is in the majority of cases based on accentuation of the most active members. As money cannot be used as a motivating factor others like status, power, acceptance, and glory have to be employed. We explain different social rewarding mechanisms which aim to meet these needs of users. Furthermore, we implemented a number of methods within the MediaWiki system, where social rewarding criteria are satisfied by generating a ranking of most active members.
Keywords: Social Rewarding; Wiki; Online Communities; Motivation; Participation; Contribution
Integrating Digital Library Resources in Elementary School Classrooms -- A Case Study of Social Study Instruction BIBAFull-Text 372-374
  Kuo-Hung Huang
In Taiwan, integrating the computer technology with instruction has been becoming a major effort of the Ministry of Education to improve the quality of the education. However, teachers' willingness and capabilities to use these digital learning resources will have an important impact on the outcomes of the policy. The purpose of this paper is to study the educational applications of the digital library resources in elementary school. Combining the WWW technologies and the Internet resources of National Digital Archives, a web-based learning environment was implemented for classroom instruction. Teachers first developed several learning activities based the framework of situated learning, and then integrated these digital resources in the classroom instruction. The researcher-collected data of learning activities to evaluated the students' achievement and teachers' professional development. The results indicated that, in addition to factual knowledge, students had the opportunities to practice variety of skills such as teamwork, information searching and organization, presentation, and discussion. The teacher also comprehended the meanings and process of constructive learning by supporting students' learning with digital resources and technologies.
Managing Fairness: Reward Distribution in a Self-organized Online Game Player Community BIBAKFull-Text 375-384
  Chyng-Yang Jang
Reward distribution is essential to the wellbeing of self-organized online game player communities. This paper adopted a case-study approach to investigate how a particular player community managed fairness in sharing rewards among members. The results found that the community primarily relied on a raid point based auction system for reward distribution. Perceived fairness was managed as various written policies focusing on two dimensions: behavior regulation and resource management. The guiding principles of fairness management were identified and articulated. So was the role of structural features of the game and the community in triggering policy discussion. Finally, the implications for future research was discussed.
Keywords: Fairness; Distributive justice; Online community; MMORPG
Mobile Social Software for the Developing World BIBAKFull-Text 385-394
  Beth E. Kolko; Erica J. Johnson; Emma J. Rose
This paper discusses how the importance of social networks for performing everyday tasks in the developing world leads to new considerations of the utility of social networking software (SNS). The paper presents some results from a multi-year, multi-method study in Central Asia that tracks patterns of technology adoption and adaptation, as well as shifts in media consumption and information seeking. Our results suggest SNS is a particularly compelling approach in resource-constrained environments (broadly defined) as a way to leverage and systematize the ad hoc processes people develop to navigate their everyday lives and information ecology.
Keywords: Mobile phones; Internet use; technology adoption; Central Asia; social networks; social networking software; information seeking
An E-Health Community of Practice: Online Communication in an E-Health Service Delivery Environment BIBAKFull-Text 395-405
  Elsa Marziali; Tira Cohene
Results of a series of studies of consumer response to online interactive communication and video-based technologies for the delivery of health care services are presented. The studies include development, evaluation and usability studies of two interactive, video conferencing web sites; Caring for Others© [CFO] designed for older adults caring for a family member with a chronic disease, and Caring for Me© [CFM] designed to support an e-health program for obese adolescents. Stages of web site development, usability analyses, and evaluation of consumer response to the customized e-health programs are reported.
Keywords: E-health; Internet; interactive communication; health risks; benefits
A Framework for Inter-organizational Collaboration Using Communication and Knowledge Management Tools BIBAKFull-Text 406-415
  Paul Nuschke; Xiaochun Jiang
Organizations are often involved in joint ventures or coalitions with multiple, diverse partners. While the ability to communicate across organizational boundaries is important to their success, the organizations may have different cultures, processes, and jargon which inhibit their ability to effectively collaborate. The objective of this paper is to identify a framework that enables organizations to communicate complex knowledge across organizational boundaries. It leverages communication and knowledge management tools such as the wiki, and calls for more integration between these tools.
Keywords: HCI; collaboration; wiki; online community; bulletin board; blog; transcriber; organizations; knowledge management
A Mobile Portfolio to Support Communities of Practice in Science Education BIBAKFull-Text 416-425
  Oriel A. Herrera; Sergio F. Ochoa; H. Andrés Neyem; Maurizio Betti; Roberto G. Aldunate; David A. Fuller
Practice activities are a key issue for science education students. Typically, these activities are carried out by a community of practice (practicing students and professors) using physical or centralized electronic portfolios. However, these alternatives are limited when the community members need to share the portfolio resources, any time and anywhere. This limitation is also present when support for high interactivity among these persons is required. This paper presents a new kind of portfolio which is able to work in autonomous, client-server, and peer-to-peer manners. This mobile portfolio is fully distributed; therefore, it improves the flexibility to conduct interactions or share portfolio resources among the members of a community of practice. The functionality and stability of the tool have been tested by the developers and the results obtained are encouraging. The use of this distributed portfolio is expected to help science students and professors to enhance practice activities, interactions and interchange of experiences and resources.
Keywords: Mobile Workspaces; Mobile Portfolios; Communities of Practice; Education
Sociability Design Guidelines for the Online Gaming Community: Role Play and Reciprocity BIBAKFull-Text 426-434
  Yu Chieh Pan; Liangwen Kuo; Jim Jiunde Lee
This study connects two different perspectives, HCI and CMC, and attempts to develop sociability design guidelines for the online community. According to the literature, the results of previous studies related to sociability are either too general or are lacking in focus. Role play and reciprocity are important factors influencing the dynamics of the online community because they can keep the community to development positively and keep the community in the order. The research questions for this study originated from the theoretical framework which combines role play process ideas of impression management with role play models.
Keywords: sociability; role play; reciprocity; design guideline
CINeSPACE: Interactive Access to Cultural Heritage While On-The-Move BIBAFull-Text 435-444
  Pedro Santos; André Stork; María Teresa Linaza; Oliver Machui; Don McIntyre; Elisabeth Jorge
Films are unquestionably a part of Cultural Heritage. Problems of current systems for accessing Cultural Heritage resources which deal with film objects include some of the following aspects: Distributed sources which store huge amounts of information; different formats of the contents ranging from traditional ones such as paper to advanced multimedia objects; and finally, and what is more crucial for the content providers, lack of systems which support currently the needs of the user such as enriched content, interaction with the information, usability, and exchange of experiences with other users. Taking into account these gaps detected by some European cities with a strong connection with the film sector, CINeSPACE a European research project aims at designing and implementing a mobile rich media collaborative information exchange platform, scalable, accessible through a wide variety of networks, and therefore, interoperable and Location-Based for the promotion of Film Heritage, going beyond the current state of the art. CINeSPACE enables users to interact with Location-Based multimedia contents while navigating a city. Audiovisual information will be delivered through a unique and portable low-cost wireless high definition near-to-the-eye display and audio phones. CINeSPACE will also comprise a small camera able to record or send what the user is "seeing". This information can be uploaded to a database through a WLAN hot spot or a 3G connection in order to create collaborative experiences with other end users. This paper presents the current status of development of the project.
The Hidden Order of Wikipedia BIBAKFull-Text 445-454
  Fernanda B. Viégas; Martin Wattenberg; Matthew M. McKeon
We examine the procedural side of Wikipedia, the well-known internet encyclopedia. Despite the lack of structure in the underlying wiki technology, users abide by hundreds of rules and follow well-defined processes. Our case study is the Featured Article (FA) process, one of the best established procedures on the site. We analyze the FA process through the theoretical framework of commons governance, and demonstrate how this process blends elements of traditional workflow with peer production. We conclude that rather than encouraging anarchy, many aspects of wiki technology lend themselves to the collective creation of formalized process and policy.
Keywords: Wikipedia; Governance; Commons; Peer Production
Major HCI Challenges for Open Source Software Adoption and Development BIBAFull-Text 455-464
  Nikos Viorres; Papadopoulos Xenofon; Modestos Stavrakis; Evangelos Vlachogiannis; Panayiotis Koutsabasis; John Darzentas
The aim of the paper is to identify and discuss major challenges for OSS from an HCI perspective, so as to aid the adoption and development processes for end-users, developers and organizations. The paper focuses on four important HCI concerns: product usability, support for user and development communities, accessibility and software usability and proposes areas for further research on the basis of related work and own experiences.
Open Source Communities in China (Mainland): An Overview BIBAFull-Text 465-474
  Yi Wang; Fan Li; Jiguang Song
Open Source Software development has been an important software development way in last decade. Meanwhile, the Open Source Communities also grow fast in these years and become more and more important. This paper presents a preliminary study to China's Open Source Communities. We provide some descriptive results according our survey and point out some problems threatening the further developments of China's Open Source Communities. We also provide a model for assessing the maturity of the Open source community. A case study about one typical China Open Source Community also provided.
Cooperation and Competition Dynamics in an Online Game Community BIBAKFull-Text 475-484
  Ruixi Yuan; Li Zhao; Wenyu Wang
Cooperation and competition are important subjects in social and economical studies. Similar dynamics exists in large-scale online communities. In this paper, we present a quantitative study on the cooperation and competition dynamics of an online gaming community. During a period of four months, we collected a total of over one million data points in an open game room with an online gaming site (www.ourgame.com.cn) for a popular card game "upgrade". The "upgrade" game room provided us an excellent environment to observe how cooperative and competitive relationships are formed in an online community. Through the statistical analysis, we obtain the probability for players with different score tags forming cooperative and competitive relationships with each other. Our analysis shows that all players exhibit preferential bias in their partner selection process, but shows little bias in their selection of competitors. Further, the cooperation bias is the strongest in both the low score and high score ends of the player population. We also discuss the effect of such preferential bias on the population distributions in the game community. To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale quantitative study on the cooperation dynamics in online gaming community. The online game community environment offers us a great proxy to study the same dynamics that is difficult to investigate in the real world social environment. The large, statistically significant amount of data enables us to develop and test many hypotheses.
Keywords: communities; game; cooperation; competition; preferential bias
Rural Internet Centre (RIC) as Catalysts for Building Knowledge-Based Society -- The Case of Northern States of Malaysia BIBAFull-Text 485-490
  Nor Iadah Yusop; Zahurin Mat Aji; Huda Ibrahim; Rafidah Abd. Razak; Wan Rozaini Sheik Osman
The creation of Rural Internet Centre (RIC) by the Malaysian government was to provide opportunity and to empower the rural communities in Malaysia. The RIC provides IT skills training and knowledge acquisition programs to the rural community in Malaysia, including women, the elderly, and children. RIC was launched in March 2000 with two centers: Sungai Ayer Tawar in Selangor and Kanowit in Sarawak. By 2006, 42 RICs have been implemented in thirteen states in the country (KTAK, 2006). The Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications (MEWC), Malaysia Post Berhad and Maju Sedunia Digital (MSD) are responsible for the project. The Malaysian government aim to set up 240 centres by the year 2010 which will eventually reaching an estimated 2.8 million members of the rural communities. The management of the centre's operations and activities are given to the local communities. This creates opportunities to the locals to be employed and also provide the chance for acquisition of IT related skills and qualifications. This paper aims at providing an overview over the current RICs implementation with respect to supporting Malaysia government's aspiration towards building the knowledge-based society by the year 2020. RICs could function as the catalyst to achieve this objective. The initial findings on RICs current situations in Northern of Malaysia show that the centres can be further enhanced in order to function as desired.
SISN: A Toolkit for Augmenting Expertise Sharing Via Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 491-500
  Jun Zhang; Yang Ye; Mark S. Ackerman; Yan Qu
The current study attempts to address the social-technical gap by developing a toolkit that can help information seekers to search for expertise and seek information via their social networks. The focus of the current study is technical development of a toolkit that supports expertise sharing via social networks. Once such a toolkit is in place, it can facilitate researches that are more concerned with applications in social and organizational perspectives. Following a proposed full-fledged social network-powered expert searching and information sharing framework on the theoretical side, the study then reports a toolkit of Seeking Information via Social Networks (SISN), which is a general-purpose toolkit for social network-based information sharing applications that combines techniques in information retrieval, social network, and peer-to-peer system.
Keywords: expertise sharing; social networks
WikiTable: A New Tool for Collaborative Authoring and Data Management BIBAKFull-Text 501-508
  Xianjun Sam Zheng; Ilian Sapundshiev; Robert Rauschenberger
Tables are an efficient tool for organizing complex data. Even though they are pervasively used in all kinds of documentation, current implementations of tables often limit the power of data management because generally they do not support concurrent collaborative authoring; they only allow keyword search, which typically yields poor search performance; and transporting tables among different applications is cumbersome. We present a new table tool, WikiTable, which permits multiple users to work on the same table simultaneously. The content of each table is stored in a database, which enables accurate data inquiry. More importantly, WikiTable is highly portable, permitting easy integration with other applications, such as Wikis or Blogs. An effort to apply the WikiTable in a global collaboration project of software development is also discussed.
Keywords: Tables; spreadsheet; Wiki; collaborative authoring; data organization; sharing; management
Towards Building a Math Discourse Community: Investigating Collaborative Information Behavior BIBAKFull-Text 509-518
  Nan Zhou; Gerry Stahl
We reported a study that analyzes collaborative information behavior of small groups in an online math discourse community. Taking group as the unit of analysis, we analyzed the social interactions of participants engaged in collaborative math problem solving and examined how they seek for information in such context. Participants look for information oriented to the procedure, problem, context, and social aspects. Various resources and methods are observed being used by participants to satisfy their information needs. These findings help us understand social interactions and online communities.
Keywords: Collaborative Information Behavior; Online Community; Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning; Conversation Analysis