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MUM Tables of Contents: 0405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia

Fullname:Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia
Editors:Arkady Zaslavsky; Seng W. Loke; Lars Kulik; Evaggelia Pitoura
Location:Melbourne, Australia
Dates:2014-Nov-25 to 2014-Nov-28
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-3304-7; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: MUM14
Papers:41
Pages:267
Links:Conference Website
Context-based location clustering and prediction using conditional random fields BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Roland Assam; Thomas Seidl
The embrace of pervasive devices accounts for the production of a massive amount of location data. While multitudes of algorithms have been used for location clustering, most of them focus on the proximity clustering of locations rather than on their location contexts. In this work, we propose a novel context-based location clustering technique that clusters locations with similar context by solely using raw GPS data from multi-user trajectories. We introduce a new similarity measure that infers the location context and utilize the inferred contexts during clustering. In addition, we propose a predictive model that employs Conditional Random Fields (CRF), context-based location clusters and social ties for future location prediction. We show the strength and efficiency of our techniques through numerous experiments on two real datasets. Our empirical evaluations demonstrate that our approach performs better than a state-of-the-art work.
Management of crowdsourced first-person video: street view live BIBAFull-Text 11-19
  Steven Bohez; Jens Mostaert; Tim Verbelen; Pieter Simoens; Bart Dhoedt
We present a framework for large-scale crowdsourcing of first-person viewpoint videos recorded on mobile devices. Collecting videos at a massive scale poses a number of major issues in terms of network planning. To improve the scalability with regards to the number of users, videos and geographical area and better cope with restrictions on storage, bandwidth and processing power, the framework is distributed and based on the two-layer cloudlet architecture. To mitigate the limited bandwidth in the access network, a set of decision algorithms is constructed and evaluated that are able to filter out irrelevant videos based on their metadata and given selection criteria. To illustrate the crowdsourcing framework, we present Street View Live, an application for presenting videos based on location, similar to the popular Google Street View but with up-to-date videos covering the location instead of possibly outdated images. In order to have an up-to-date view of every location, the video collection is continuously extended and updated by crowdsourcing videos from mobile devices.
Privacy implications of presence sharing in mobile messaging applications BIBAFull-Text 20-29
  Andreas Buchenscheit; Bastian Könings; Andreas Neubert; Florian Schaub; Matthias Schneider; Frank Kargl
Mobile messaging applications, such as WhatsApp, provide a free alternative for mobile texting on smartphones. Mobile messengers typically also share presence information about users to indicate when a user is online. We investigated the privacy implications of such presence updates, using WhatsApp as an example. We conducted a user study with two independent groups (19 participants in total), in which we collected and analyzed their presence information over four weeks of regular WhatsApp use and conducted follow-up interviews. Our results show that presence information alone is sufficient to accurately identify, for example, daily routines, deviations, times of inappropriate mobile messaging, or conversation partners. We discuss resulting privacy implications of presence information and potential solutions to mitigate these issues.
SPiCa: a social private cloud computing application framework BIBAFull-Text 30-39
  Chii Chang; Satish Narayana Srirama; Sea Ling
Mobile devices are capable of acting as smart assistances not only to serve their users but also to collaborate with each other remotely via wireless Internet to accomplish common goals. The latter is achieved by establishing a Social Private Cloud (SPC). SPC is a cluster formed by a scalable group of social network participants using their mobile devices that are capable of providing their resources to accomplish computational tasks. In this paper, we propose a workflow-based SPiCa framework that enables task delegation in SPC. In order to support adaptive task scheduling based on resource availabilities, a resource-aware task scheduling scheme has been proposed and implemented as a proof of concept. The evaluation demonstrates that the framework is capable of dynamically reacting to runtime changes in order to adjust the task delegation process.
An approach based on activity theory and the SRK model for risk and performance evaluation of human activities in a context-aware middleware BIBAFull-Text 40-47
  Alfredo Del Fabro Neto; Bruno Romero de Azevedo; Rafael Boufleuer; João Carlos D. Lima; Iara Augustin; Marcia Pasin
Even though human activities may involve physical injuries, there is not much discussion in the academy of how ubiquitous computing could assess the risk related to them. This paper proposes an approach to evaluate the risk of activities considering two factors: actions that compose activities and user performance in such activities. Risk management based on composed actions is measured through the analysis of the frequency of each action for a particular user, so that we are able to capture his customary behaviour. The evaluation of the user's performance is accomplished by addressing performance properties, such as: attention, duration, effectiveness, etc.
   Our work has its foundations in the Activity Theory for modeling activities allowing the mediation by tools of the interactions between the subject and the environment and in the behavioural model Skill-Rule-Knowledge for understanding the subject's behaviours. To validate our model we developed a case study to demonstrate the functioning of our work. In this scenario we analyze how activities are detected, actions are evaluated and the performance is inferred. At last, an analysis of the final risk for the activity is presented.
Technicolouring the fridge: reducing food waste through uses of colour-coding and cameras BIBAFull-Text 48-57
  Geremy Farr-Wharton; Jaz Hee-Jeong Choi; Marcus Foth
Domestic food wastage is a growing problem for the environment and food security. Some causes of domestic food wastes are attributed to a consumer's behaviours during food purchasing, storage and consumption, such as: excessive food purchases and stockpiling in storage. Recent efforts in human-computer interaction research have examined ways of influencing consumer behaviour. The outcomes have led to a number of interventions that assist users with performing everyday tasks. The Internet Fridge is an example of such an intervention. However, new pioneering technologies frequently confront barriers that restrict their future impact in the market place, which has prompted investigations into the effectiveness of behaviour changing interventions used to encourage more sustainable practices. In this paper, we investigate and compare the effectiveness of two interventions that encourage behaviour change: FridgeCam and the Colour Code Project. We use FridgeCam to examine how improving a consumer's food supply knowledge can reduce food stockpiling. We use the Colour Code Project to examine how improving consumer awareness of food location can encourage consumption of forgotten foods. We explore opportunities to integrate these interventions into commercially available technologies, such as the Internet Fridge, to: (i) increase the technology's benefit and value to users, and (ii) promote reduced domestic food wastage. We conclude that interventions improving consumer food supply and location knowledge can promote behaviours that reduce domestic food waste over a longer term. The implications of this research present new opportunities for existing and future technologies to play a key role in reducing domestic food waste.
WaterJewel: design and evaluation of a bracelet to promote a better drinking behaviour BIBAFull-Text 58-67
  Jutta Fortmann; Vanessa Cobus; Wilko Heuten; Susanne Boll
A recent study revealed that every fourth German adult drinks less than 1.5 litres a day. Insufficient fluid intake can cause headache, lack of energy and lightheadedness. Signals can be used to be reminded of drinking. However, these are often missed or even deactivated because they are too obvious. On the basis of a participatory design study, we designed the fashionable light bracelet WaterJewel as an awareness display and an unobtrusive reminder for a regular fluid intake. In a four-week 12-participant study, we explored the use of WaterJewel in daily life and how it compared to a prevalent mobile drinking reminder application. Our results show that with WaterJewel participants drank more in total, more often accomplished the daily drinking goal of 2 litres, drank more regularly, and drank more often prior to the reminder event than with the mobile application. Participants rated WaterJewel as very usable and appreciated its practical and discreet design.
SpareEye: enhancing the safety of inattentionally blind smartphone users BIBAFull-Text 68-72
  Klaus-Tycho Foerster; Alex Gross; Nino Hail; Jara Uitto; Roger Wattenhofer
Using mobile phones while walking for activities that require continuous focus on the screen, such as texting, has become more and more popular in the last years. To avoid colliding with obstacles, such as lampposts and pedestrians, focus has to be taken off the screen in regular intervals. In this paper we introduce SpareEye, an Android application that warns the smartphone user from obstacles in her way. We use only the camera of the phone and no special hardware, ensuring that it requires minimal effort from the user to use the application during everyday life. Experimental results show that we can detect obstacles with high accuracy, with only some false positives and few false negatives.
A personalized multimodal tourist tour planner BIBAFull-Text 73-80
  Damianos Gavalas; Vlasios Kasapakis; Charalampos Konstantopoulos; Grammati Pantziou; Nikolaos Vathis; Christos Zaroliagis
Tourists become increasingly dependent on mobile city guides to locate tourist services and retrieve information about nearby points of interest (POIs) when visiting unknown destinations. Although several city guides support the provision of personalized tour recommendations to assist tourists visiting the most interesting attractions, existing tour planners only consider walking tours. Herein, we introduce eCOMPASS, a context-aware mobile application which also considers the option of using public transit for moving around. Far beyond than just providing navigational aid, eCOMPASS incorporates multimodality (i.e. time dependency) within its routing logic aiming at deriving near-optimal sequencing of POIs along recommended tours so as to best utilize time available for sightseeing and minimize waiting time at transit stops. Further advancing the state of the art, eCOMPASS allows users to define arbitrary start/end locations (e.g. the current location of a mobile user) rather than choosing among a fixed set of locations. This paper describes the routing algorithm which comprises the core functionality of eCOMPASS and discusses the implementation details of the mobile application using the metropolitan area of Berlin (Germany) as case study.
Design, implementation and evaluation of an autostereoscopic 3D mobile phonebook BIBAFull-Text 81-88
  Jonna Häkkilä; Maaret Posti; Leena Ventä-Olkkonen; Olli Koskenranta; Ashley Colley
Mobile stereoscopic 3D (S3D) user experience (UX) design has not yet been widely studied. Stereoscopy in today's products is used for visual design purposes, whilst the potential for holistic interaction design and utilitarian aspects have been neglected. In this paper we introduce the design, implementation and evaluation of a mobile S3D phonebook application. In the application stereoscopy was used to augment the 2D user interface (UI) design to provide information related to the time when the last call with each phonebook contact was made. We describe the results of the pilot study charting the design directions, laboratory study of first impressions, and results of a field trial, where 21 participants used the application for a few days. The S3D UI design provoked first impressions related to entertainment and 2D UI to practical qualities, whereas the field study showed that our S3D phonebook design successfully demonstrated that utilitarian value can be incorporated to the design.
Opportunities and challenges of mobile applications as "tickets-to-talk": a scenario-based user study BIBAFull-Text 89-97
  Pradthana Jarusriboonchai; Thomas Olsson; Jarno Ojala; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
This paper presents a scenario-based user study of mobile application concepts that would encourage interaction between people within close proximity. The scenarios demonstrate three themes of digital tickets-to-talk: informing who and what are around, augmenting self-expression, and online interaction encouraging physical interaction. Our interview study explored the opportunities and challenges of such applications in developing into further face-to-face interactions between strangers. Tickets that are related to activities that convey a solid intention that would lead to practical collaboration, such as playing sports or studying together, have the best potential to advance to meaningful face-to-face interaction. Augmenting self-expression and online interaction encouraging physical interaction were found to have potential to create curiosity but seen less credible by our 42 interview participants to motivate face-to-face interaction between strangers. We conclude by discussing the potential of each theme of ticket-to-talk based on our findings as well as related literature.
User experience of proactive audio-based social devices: a wizard-of-oz study BIBAFull-Text 98-106
  Pradthana Jarusriboonchai; Thomas Olsson; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
Social Devices (SDs) are mobile devices that are proactive in social settings and aim to encourage social interaction between co-located people. We conducted a study of people's reactions to SDs with an audio-based interface on a semi-functional prototype. Based on a Wizard-of-Oz simulation, two SDs proactively started talking to each other and to the participants, with an aim to involve the participants to the conversation. We present the resulted social interactions and reactions as well as the participants' opinions about speech-based proactive SDs. Overall, SDs created a collaborative social situation and triggered a broad variety of social interactions, ranging from grounding to lengthy conversations. Meanwhile, the novelty of the technology and its rather dominant social role often shifted the participants' attention from each other to the devices, thus hindering social interaction. We conclude with a discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of audio-based interaction and the social proactivity of technology.
Exploring use and appropriation of a non-moderated community display BIBAFull-Text 107-115
  Marko Jurmu; Jorge Goncalves; Jukka Riekki; Timo Ojala
We report a pre-study and a three-week in-the-wild deployment of a non-moderated interactive public display prototype designed as a communication extension for an established community. A pre-study was conducted to map existing practices in order to ground the design. We explore the adoption process of the display prototype as well as rhythms of usage. We discuss findings related to extensions of presence within the community, the impact of the display on the community's activities, as well as aspects of appropriation and co-design. We illustrate how the display was used to extend one's presence within the community in addition to existing means of communication. This opens up new design possibilities when social dynamics are carefully negotiated.
Blending history and fiction in a pervasive game prototype BIBAFull-Text 116-122
  Vlasios Kasapakis; Damianos Gavalas
Pervasive games represent an exciting development in gaming which leverages the use of sensor, visualization and networking technologies to provide immerse live-action game experiences. The field of pervasive games has been intensively researched in the recent years, as evidenced from the proliferation of available prototypes. Existing pervasive game projects commonly do not enable relocation of the game space while also overlooking several aspects which critically affect user acceptance and game experience such as scenario design, usability of employed technologies, game duration and intensity. This article introduces Barbarossa, an outdoor pervasive role-playing game. Barbarossa addresses the abovementioned issues featuring several portable game modes. It also takes into account concrete technology usage requirements for each game mode according to the game session duration and player effort required. Further, game experience is enhanced through incorporating several contextual parameters. User evaluation trials indicated warm reception of Barbarossa by players and confirmed that the main game design objectives have been largely achieved.
A field study on the usability of a nearby search app for finding and exploring places and events BIBAFull-Text 123-132
  Florian Knip; Christian Bikar; Bernd Pfister; Bernd Opitz; Timo Sztyler; Michael Jess; Ansgar Scherp
Commercial apps for nearby search on mobile phones such as Qype, AroundMe, Foursquare, or Wikitude have gained huge popularity among smartphone users. Understanding the way how people use and interact with such applications is fundamental for improving the functionality and the user interface design. In our two-step field study, we developed and evaluated mobEx, a mobile app for faceted exploration of social media data on Android phones. mobEx unifies the data sources of related commercial applications in the market by retrieving information from various providers. The goal of our study was to find out, if the subjects understood the metaphor of a time-wheel as novel user interface feature for finding and exploring places and events and how they use it. In addition, mobEx offers a grid-based navigation menu and a list-based navigation menu for exploring the data. Here, we were interested in gaining some qualitative insights about which type of navigation approach the users prefer when they can choose between them. We have collected qualitative user feedback via questionnaires. We also conducted a quantitative user study, where we evaluated user-generated logging data over a period of three weeks with a group of 18 participants. Our results show that the time-wheel can serve as an intuitive way to explore time-dependent resources such as events. In addition, it seems that the grid-based navigation approach is the preferable choice when exploring large spaces of faceted data.
PriPref broadcaster: enabling users to broadcast privacy preferences in their physical proximity BIBAFull-Text 133-142
  Bastian Könings; Sebastian Thoma; Florian Schaub; Michael Weber
While privacy is often treated as an information centric issue, privacy issues in ubiquitous and mobile computing also encompass physical or territorial aspects, i.e., the right to be left alone or undisturbed. Disturbances that affect privacy often stem from persons nearby and their mobile devices, e.g., ringing phones, loud phone calls, or sounds of mobile games. We propose PriPref Broadcaster, a smartphone-based approach for communicating personal privacy preferences to persons in physical proximity. Our approach further supports automatic adaptation of mobile device settings based on the dominating preferences in the current environment. Results from a usability study and a five-day field trial with 28 participants show that broadcasting privacy preferences is perceived as meaningful and has the potential to support privacy signaling in many everyday situations.
Proximal and social-aware device-to-device communication via audio detection on cloud BIBAFull-Text 143-150
  Jakob Mass; Satish Narayana Srirama; Huber Flores; Chii Chang
Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is a potential strategy to release the mobile network from unnecessary data transfer, accelerate the responsiveness of end-to-end apps, and decentralize the provisioning of traditional services. D2D coordination is a critical challenge, which cannot be overcome without the explicit intervention of the user as D2D communication represents a threat for user's privacy. However, social attributes can be leveraged to equip the devices with trusted mechanisms that can automate D2D communication. In this paper, we build and design a mobile cloud system that relies on audio data obtained from user's environment to determine whether a set of devices are located in proximity. Audio analysis is performed on the cloud using classical machine learning principles, and the cloud instance (server) also informs the devices about the coordination plan to establish D2D communication. The framework is evaluated using a smartphone app for sharing files and the evaluation shows that the approach is feasible in practice.
Juxtaposing mobile webcasting and ambient video for home décor BIBAFull-Text 151-159
  Mudassar Ahmad Mughal; Jinyi Wang; Oskar Juhlin
In order to invent and investigate new approaches for the use of enjoying live video, we suggest a combination of emerging mobile webcasting with artistic ambient video, which would enable a form of user generated broadcasts from individually selected cherished places for home decoration. Drawing on the approach of Research through Design we present a study of people who have occasional access to highly appreciated geographical locations, a design instantiation and prototype called LiveNature, as well as a system implementation. We present the result of a technical evaluation, which was conducted during two weeks of deployment. It shows that mobile webcasting provide continuous and stable streams of such a quality that it can be presented for home decoration, and that the video can be combined with real time sensor data to generate aesthetically interesting hybrid media. We also learned that the use of mobile webcasting for home decoration raises new challenges in order to provide unobtrusive and glance based interaction.
Evaluating usage patterns and adoption of an interactive video installation on public displays in school contexts BIBAFull-Text 160-169
  Maximilian Müller; Nuno Otero; Aris Alissandrakis; Marcelo Milrad
Recent years have seen a growing interest in supporting learning activities/scenarios that go beyond the traditional classroom context as well as the development of pervasive computing scenarios supported by display installations. In order to explore such interactive scenarios that span video-based learning activities across school contexts, we have developed two web-based functional prototypes of public display applications and performed a field evaluation during an initial test-deployment. The system consists of a public display endpoint providing video content enriched with quizzes related to this content, and a mobile endpoint providing interactivity and user participation. During a three weeks test-deployment at two Swedish schools, the display system was evaluated and important requirements for the next iterations were gathered. This work presents the results of the test-deployment and the users' adoption (usage patterns), and discusses the specialties of introducing such a system into educational environments. The deployment and the corresponding study enabled us to validate in real settings the overall technical approach and to test different perspectives of display usage. The conclusions point to the need to further understand how to promote an integrated view of display utilization in schools.
Automated creation of mobile video remixes: user trial in three event contexts BIBAFull-Text 170-179
  Jarno Ojala; Sujeet Mate; Igor D. D. Curcio; Arto Lehtiniemi; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
This paper describes a user evaluation study of automated creation of mobile video remixes in three different event contexts. The evaluation contributes to the design process of the Automatic Video Remixing System, deepening knowledge to wider usage context. The study was completed with 30 users in three different contexts: a sports event, a music concert and a doctoral dissertation. It was discovered that users are motivated to provide their material to the service when knowing they get an automatically created remix containing many capturers' content in return. Automatic video remixing was stated to ease the task of editing videos and to improve the quality of amateur videos. The study reveals requirements for pleasurable remix creation in different event contexts and details the user experience factors related to the content capturing, sharing, and viewing of captured content and the remixes. The results provide insights into media creation in small event-based groups.
An application of mobility aids for the visually impaired BIBAFull-Text 180-189
  Natacsha Raposo; Hélio Rios; David Lima; Bruno Gadelha; Thais Castro
This article presents an exploratory case study with a mobile application devised to promote social inclusion of visually impaired people through collaborative mapping considering changes in the local environment. General strategies and technological resources used in tools like this provide greater independence and social inclusion for people with disabilities. Test results suggest that this application can support and expand communication and mobility in physical spaces such as schools, public institutions and the community at large.
Exploring the augmented home window: user perceptions of the concept BIBAFull-Text 190-198
  Leena Ventä-Olkkonen; Jonna Häkkilä; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
In the future, transparent displays can be utilized as information and communication channels in our everyday environments. Home windows form an interesting, yet unexplored platform, which could be utilized in the future e.g. as a mixed reality display or a personal or family communication channel. We explored the early user perceptions of an augmented home window through two user studies. In the first study 21 participants from 12 households commented our concept ideas and created their own. In the second study (12 households, 12 participants), developed concept ideas were assessed in a diary and a user study based on probes. The probes were used as experiential probes to gather perceptions of an augmented home window concept. Based on the studies, we present four communication modes for the augmented home window. The detailed findings reveal that contextual relevance of the content is highly important in the augmented home window, and that pragmatic use cases were valued, whereas social features were less appreciated.
Facilitating direct and ubiquitous mobile computer vision BIBAFull-Text 199-207
  Hanno Wirtz; Jan Rüth; Klaus Wehrle
Computer Vision (CV) approaches, e.g., as the basis for mobile Augmented Reality (AR), depend on continuous Internet access for image uploads and large-scale Internet databases to perform image recognition against comparison images. This dependency impedes the ubiquity of applying CV in spontaneous, real-world mobile scenarios as users may not have continuous Internet access. Furthermore, the underlying databases are inherently volatile and may only afford sporadic coverage.
   We hence propose DMCV (Direct Mobile Computer Vision), leveraging the proliferation of wireless communication capabilities in mobile and stationary devices to remove this dependency and to transmit CV image descriptors directly between mobile devices and recognizable objects. Building on 802.11 and Bluetooth, we explore the design space of local wireless CV information discovery and provision and evaluate to which degree each technology affords ubiquitous mobile CV. We show the feasibility and performance of our approach on commodity phones and evaluate the benefits provided by ubiquitous direct CV.
SIB: noise reduction in fingerprint-based indoor localisation using multiple transmission powers BIBAFull-Text 208-211
  Paul Crane; Zhiyi Huang; Haibo Zhang
Research efforts into indoor localisation have focused on improving the accuracy of location estimates. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called SIB that uses RSSI values from low-power transmissions to exclude the noisy measurements from usual high-power RSSI measurements. SIB can effectively reduce the effect of noise in fingerprint-based localisation according to our analysis on the function of power loss ratio to transmission distance. Our results, based on evaluation in a real-world environment with noisy data, show a decrease in the geometric error of 85% in our indoor localisation.
VDIM: vector-based diffusion and interpolation matrix for computing region-based crowdsourced ratings: towards safe route selection for human navigation BIBAFull-Text 212-215
  Samuel Elsmore; Irwan Fario Subastian; Flora Dilys Salim; Margaret Hamilton
When users consult a trip planner, map or navigation system for directions, they are presented with several route options which often are evaluated based on shortest path or shortest duration. However, in some cases, users may require the choices of route to be evaluated on other criteria, such as safest route, particularly if users are new visitors to the city. With recent introductions of different platforms to crowdsource public experience and perceptions of safety, this data can be used to calculate safe route selection. However, such user generated contents are often inconsistent, sparse, or may not have a complete spatial coverage. This paper proposes Vector-based Diffusion and Interpolation Matrix (VDIM), a novel method to diffuse and interpolate information on spatial grid cells to calculate safety ratings of regions, which could be used to calculate the route safety.
Learner-battery interaction in energy-aware learning multimedia systems BIBAFull-Text 216-219
  Syed Asim Jalal; Nicholas Gibbins; David Millard; Bashir M. Al-Hashimi; Naif Radi Aljohani
Using online multimedia content on mobile devices is a power hungry activity and drains battery power very quickly. This poses a big challenge in using mobile devices with limited battery power for learning purposes using online educational multimedia. Multimedia adaptation techniques have been developed that preserve battery power by lowering multimedia quality. These adaptation techniques do not provide users with any power-saving options and the adaptation is done automatically without involvement of users. In this paper, we propose a Learner-Battery Interaction model that suggests involving learners in the adaptation process. The idea is to provide learners with power-saving options and relevant feedback about the form of adapted multimedia in advance. This will help learners in making informed power-saving decisions for adaptation. We implemented the model in a prototype system and conducted an evaluation in the form of a user study.
A simple localization system for ad-hoc indoor meetings through wireless connection points BIBAFull-Text 220-223
  Sangyeop Lee; Egemen Tanin; Lars Kulik
Wireless sensor technologies have become popular in recent years as the cost of electronics decreases. In addition, various sensors were incorporated into a smartphone, which caused the integration of many applications into one device. Navigation is a typical application of a smartphone. A common assumption in navigation is that a person's position has to be known exactly so most papers have focused on the localization process itself rather than customizing it for a specific application. In this paper we will show that complex systems or algorithms are not necessary for the purpose of getting two parties to meet in indoor situations. A robust localization system was implemented using popular sensors in a smartphone and simple localization techniques. We show that this system can localize a person with room-level accuracy to help two people to meet each other in a building.
Meeting scheduling across heterogeneous calendars and organizations utilizing mobile devices and cloud services BIBAFull-Text 224-227
  Varvana Myllärniemi; Olli Korjus; Mikko Raatikainen; Terho Norja; Tomi Männistö
Finding a suitable time for a meeting is a common practical problem. The existing software solutions either cannot be used across heterogeneous calendar systems and organizations, or require manual effort and waiting. We employ design science to study how meetings can be scheduled over organizational and calendar system boundaries; the scheduling should be effortless while ensuring the user control and privacy of the calendar data. The resulting artifact utilizes heterogeneous calendar data from the mobile devices and the cloud calendars; the aim is to aid the organizer in making better decisions regarding the meeting times.
Information wall: evaluation of a gesture-controlled public display BIBAFull-Text 228-231
  Ville Mäkelä; Tomi Heimonen; Matti Luhtala; Markku Turunen
Public displays that allow users to interact with them through mid-air gestures are still relatively rare, as many applications rely on touch-based interaction. This paper introduces Information Wall, a gesture-controlled public information display that provides multi-user access to contextually relevant local information using remote pointing and mid-air gestures. The application has been studied in two settings: a lab-based user study and several short-term deployments. Based on our results, we present practical guidelines for gesture-controlled public display design.
Unsupervised inference of significant locations from WiFi data for understanding human dynamics BIBAFull-Text 232-235
  Thanh-Binh Nguyen; Thuong Nguyen; Wei Luo; Svetha Venkatesh; Dinh Phung
Motion and location activities are essential to understanding human dynamics. This paper presents a method for discovering significant locations and individuals' daily routines from WiFi data, a data source considered more suitable for analyzing human dynamics than GPS data. Our method determines significant locations by clustering access points in close proximity using the Affinity Propagation algorithm. We demonstrate the method on the MDC dataset that includes more than 30 million WiFi scans. The experimental results show a high clustering performance for most of the users. The discovered location trajectories revealed interesting mobility patterns of mobile phone users. The human dynamics of participants is reflected through the entropy of the location distributions which shows interesting correlation with the age and occupations of users. Quantitative results are presented to support our proposed approach.
A context-aware do-not-disturb service for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 236-239
  Yujue Qin; Tanusri Bhattacharya; Lars Kulik; James Bailey
Modern sensor-equipped smartphones have attracted significant research interest in the pervasive community for recognizing and creating context-aware applications at a personal or community scale level. In this paper, we propose a proof of concept Do-Not-Disturb (DND) service that can a) determine a user's context relevant for DND service from the built-in smartphone sensors and b) correctly predict the DND status based on the given context such as being in a meeting, sleeping, or working at the office. In this preliminary study, we investigate whether sensor data can be clustered to represent user contexts. We use standard machine learning techniques to learn the relationship between a user's context and the corresponding DND status (available or unavailable). Given a user's current context, the DND service predicts a DND status and configures the mobile device accordingly. Our preliminary experiment demonstrates that the proposed system can achieve a prediction accuracy of up to 90% when trained with sufficient data.
Is this you?: identifying a mobile user using only diagnostic features BIBAFull-Text 240-243
  Anthony Quattrone; Tanusri Bhattacharya; Lars Kulik; Egemen Tanin; James Bailey
Mobile smart phones capture a great amount of information about a user across a variety of different data domains. This information can be sensitive and allow for identifying a user profile, thus causing potential threats to a user's privacy. Our work shows that diagnostic information that is not considered sensitive, could be used to identify a user after just three consecutive days of monitoring. We have used the Device Analyzer dataset to determine what features of a mobile device are important in identifying a user.
   Many mobile games and applications collect diagnostic data as a means of identifying or resolving issues. Diagnostic data is commonly accepted as less sensitive information. Our experimental results demonstrate that using only diagnostic features like hardware statistics and system settings, a user's device can be identified at an accuracy of 94% with a Naive Bayes classifier.
Day type classification using cell tower connectivity data from smartphones BIBAFull-Text 244-247
  Amin Sadri; Flora Dilys Salim
Human activity modeling from large-scale sensor data is an emerging domain. We present a framework to classify days into two groups: weekends and weekdays. The data collected by Device Analyzer, an Android application managed by University of Cambridge, includes cell tower connectivity data, from which physical location can be derived. Since the location information is removed from the datasets, the semantic of places needs to be inferred from the connectivity patterns. In this particular experiment, we use cell tower data to identify weekends and weekdays. By processing data collected over a long period of time by Device Analyzer, we find the cell towers which are mainly used in weekends or weekdays and then take advantage of them to identify the day type.
User experience and expectations of haptic feedback in in-car interaction BIBAFull-Text 248-251
  Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Jani Heikkinen; Ahmed Farooq; Grigori Evreinov; Erno Mäkinen; Roope Raisamo
Haptic feedback based on the sense of touch and movement is a promising area of human-computer interaction in the car context. Most user studies on haptic feedback in the car have been controlled experiments of specific types of haptic stimuli. For the study presented in this paper, twelve participants tried novel haptic feedback prototypes and evaluated communication scenarios in the physical car context. Our aim was to understand user experiences and usage potential of haptic feedback in the car. The qualitative results show that haptic feedback may offer support for safety and social communication, but can be hard to interpret. We propose design considerations for in-car haptics such as simplicity, subtleness and directionality.
mLearn4web: a web-based framework to design and deploy cross-platform mobile applications BIBAFull-Text 252-255
  Janosch Zbick; Isabella Nake; Marc Jansen; Marcelo Milrad
This paper presents a web-based framework that allows the creation and deployment of mobile learning activities. We present an authoring tool that allows not-technically skilled persons to design mobile learning tasks and deploy them as a web-based mobile application. Since the presented approach is based exclusively on web-technologies, the deployed mobile application can be executed via a mobile browser and therefore is platform independent. Despite previous research efforts carried out in this domain, few of the projects have addressed this course of actions from a purely web-based perspective. Through the latest development of web technologies, mobile applications have access to internal sensors like camera, microphone and GPS and therefore allow data collection within web-applications. In order to validate whether the proposed framework can be applied in educational settings, we conducted a pilot study with experienced teachers and present the results of these efforts in this paper.
Phone based fall detection by genetic programming BIBAFull-Text 256-257
  Hoang Anh Dau; Flora D. Salim; Andy Song; Lachlan Hedin; Margaret Hamilton
Elderly people are prone to fall due to the high rate of risk factors associated with ageing. Existing fall detection systems are mostly designed for a constrained environment, where various assumptions are applied. To overcome these drawbacks, we opt to use mobile phones with standard built-in sensors. Fall detection is performed on motion data collected by sensors in the phone alone. We use Genetic Programming (GP) to learn a classifier directly from raw sensor data. We compare the performance of GP with the popular approach of using threshold-based algorithm. The result shows that GP-evolved classifiers perform consistently well across different fall types and overall more reliable than the threshold-based.
Developing an interactive social cinema concept with a tangible UI BIBAFull-Text 258-259
  Jonna Häkkilä; Yana Dubovskaya; Julia Gabauer; Niko Hailuoto; Laura Stolz; Maaret Posti; Ashley Colley
We present an interactive cinema concept, where the audience can interact with the movie through an interactive pillow. We report on a background study (n=30) and a study evaluating a simulated tangible UI concept (n=10). Our findings indicate that tangible UIs have potential as a non-distractive interaction medium, e.g. as they don't create light pollution, can be used in different postures, and allow detection of spontaneous input actions such as squeezing. The results also show that people are interested in seeing records of not only their own performance, but also of the reactions and highlights experienced by their fellow spectators.
CityWatch: the personalized crime prevention assistant BIBAFull-Text 260-261
  Cristina Kadar; Irena Pletikosa Cvijikj
Motivated by rising levels of crime against property and findings in criminology research, we are developing CityWatch -- the first mobile application that supports crime prevention behavior at community level. CityWatch leverages data on past crime incidents, which are sourced both from trustworthy sources, like the national census and the insurance industry, and from its users through crowd-sourcing. It applies machine learning algorithms to analyze the past incidents together with further data characterizing the living areas and learns common patterns of crime. These patterns are then leveraged in a general forecasting component, as well as in generating personalized risk profiles and crime prevention tips for registered users based on their account information. The results are visualized in an interactive map, where users can analyze past crime in their neighborhood and view predictions of future crime. Users can report a new crime and opt to receive notifications about new incidents in their proximity or area of residence.
A feasibility study of context-adaptive visualizations in public transport information systems BIBAFull-Text 262-263
  Diana Lemme; Romina Kühn; Alexandra Funke; Thomas Schlegel
Public displays serve as an ubiquitous source of information in public space. In context of public transport information systems, they commonly advice impersonal departure and arrival timetables. Since most displayed information is very generic, users often have problems to find the specific information they need. We propose an approach for context-aware public displays to improve personalized information access according to a user's language, location, time or other individual preferences. In our research we analyze how users access information concerning their personal trips in the field of public transport. We carried out a user survey to examine the requirements for adapted content on public displays, in preparation for a quantitative user study with focus on the visualization of specific content.
Navigating multiple augmented reality overlays through occlusion-based triggers BIBAFull-Text 264-265
  Naman Thakar; Flora Dilys Salim; Stefan Greuter
Most Augmented Reality applications feature an information overlay over physical objects that consists of text, images, and animated 3-D models. We go a step further by using an AR-menu and linking multiple overlays using occlusion-based triggers that help navigate between the different overlays. This paper describes the development of an AR-based tutorial for a common real-world scenario. Using multiple overlays allows us to design a comprehensive AR tutorial by presenting more information on the same physical object in a hierarchical manner with a narrative structure. We describe the design features in an attempt to elucidate the issues related to the development of the AR tutorials.
Hey Peratama: a breeding game with spoken dialogue interface BIBAFull-Text 266-267
  Xin Xu; Jianming Wu; Kengo Fujita; Tsuneo Kato; Fumiaki Sugaya
In this paper, we designed a breeding game application for smartphone with a spoken dialogue interface. Though there are some public deployments of speech interface on mobile devices, the habitual and continual use still remains a difficult issue. We propose a novel design concept of breeding a dialogue agent, an animated character, through taking care and having dialogues, to establish intelligent and useful conversations. Setting the 20s-40s females as the initial target users, a new spoken dialogue application in the form of breeding game was designed by means of Human-Centered Design. The game scenario was efficiently developed from the proposed concept according to the target users' experiences of using smartphones and playing mobile games. Scenario-based acceptability evaluation verified that the game scenario is highly accepted by the target users. We released the game on Google Play recently. The real-world log data proved the novelty of our design, in which over 23.3% users were keeping speaking in the game continually.