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MUM Tables of Contents: 0405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia

Fullname:Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia
Editors:David Doermann; Ramani Duraiswami; David Doermann; Ramani Duraiswami
Location:College Park, Maryland
Dates:2004-Oct-27 to 2004-Oct-29
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 1-58113-981-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: MUM04
Papers:36
Pages:262
Links:Conference Website
bYOB [Build Your Own Bag]: a computationally-enhanced modular textile system BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Gauri Nanda; Adrian Cable; V. Michael Bove; Moneta Ho; Han Hoang
We present bYOB (Build Your Own Bag), a flexible, computationally enhanced modular textile system from which to construct smart fabric objects. bYOB was motivated by a desire to transform everyday surfaces into ambient displays for information and to make building with fabric as easy as playing with Lego blocks. In the realm of personal architecture, bYOB is an interactive material that encourages users to explore and experiment by creating new objects to seamlessly integrate into their lives. The physical configuration of the object mediates its computational behavior. Therefore, an object built out of the system of modular elements understands its geometry and responds appropriately without any end-user programming. Our current prototype is a bag built out of the system that understands it is a bag when the handle is attached to the mesh of modules, responds by illuminating its fabric and inner contents when the sun goes down (Fig 1), communicates the presence of objects placed in the bag, and interacts with the user via speech. We describe how bYOB contributes to and differs from existing work in modular based systems and fabric interfaces. We discuss our development process in respect to physical, electronic, and conceptual design. We also describe salient features and future applications enabled by this new construction kit.
Alternate feature location for rapid navigation using a 3D map on a mobile device BIBAFull-Text 5-9
  Maximino Bessa; António Coelho; Alan Chalmers
Finding one's way around an unfamiliar city can be a major challenge. While maps can provide a very good abstract representation of our world, and a simple and efficient way to navigate within that world, they are of little use when, for example, the absence of road signs prevents us from locating where we are on the map. Mobile devices offer the potential for providing relevant 3D information to enable us to locate ourselves, rapidly navigate around an unfamiliar environment and explore it interactively. However, mobile devices are constrained by resources such as bandwidth, storage and small displays. In this paper we investigate which is the most important visual information for position location within an unfamiliar urban environment and show how we can use this knowledge to provide a perceptually high quality 3D virtual environment on existing mobile devices.
Exploring the potentials of combining photo annotating tasks with instant messaging fun BIBAFull-Text 11-17
  Yuechen Qian; Loe M. G. Feijs
The combination of photo annotation tasks and with instant messaging fun offers great potentials to both end-users and researchers. In this paper, we first describe our prototype system that allows users to share and annotate digital photos over the Internet while they are chatting online. In addition to manual annotation, our system can extract information from conversations to generate extra annotations. The advantage of using our system is that the boring and tedious task of annotating photos is turned into an essential part of an attractive fun activity, viz. online chatting. Extracting meaningful information from instant messages is challenged by abbreviations, pronouns, jargon, ellipsis, grammatical errors, ambiguities and asynchrony, all of which frequently appear in message conversations. In the paper we provide a roadmap, i.e. a systematic analysis of linguistic aspects of automated interpretation of message conversations.
Pocket PhotoMesa: a Zoomable image browser for PDAs BIBAFull-Text 19-24
  Amir Khella; Benjamin B. Bederson
Small devices such as Palm and Pocket PC have gained wide popularity with the advance and affordability of mobile technologies. Image browsers are among popular software applications on small devices. The limitations introduced by these devices such as screen resolution, processing power and storage impose a challenge for multimedia applications designed for larger displays to adapt to small screens. For an image browser, layout of images and navigation between them are critical factors of the users' experience.
   Motivated by these challenges, we developed Pocket PhotoMesa: an image browser for the pocket pc that employs quantum strip Treemaps for laying out images and Zoomable User Interfaces for navigation. In this paper, we discuss the development of Pocket PhotoMesa and we describe a usability study comparing the performance and users' experience using Pocket PhotoMesa and ACDSee image browser (a current commercial offering) for the Pocket PC.
Enabling fast and effortless customisation in accelerometer based gesture interaction BIBAFull-Text 25-31
  Jani Mäntyjärvi; Juha Kela; Panu Korpipää; Sanna Kallio
Accelerometer based gesture control is proposed as a complementary interaction modality for handheld devices. Predetermined gesture commands or freely trainable by the user can be used for controlling functions also in other devices. To support versatility of gesture commands in various types of personal device applications gestures should be customisable, easy and quick to train. In this paper we experiment with a procedure for training/recognizing customised accelerometer based gestures with minimum amount of user effort in training. Discrete Hidden Markov Models (HMM) are applied. Recognition results are presented for an external device, a DVD player gesture commands. A procedure based on adding noise-distorted signal duplicates to training set is applied and it is shown to increase the recognition accuracy while decreasing user effort in training. For a set of eight gestures, each trained with two original gestures and with two Gaussian noise-distorted duplicates, the average recognition accuracy was 97%, and with two original gestures and with four noise-distorted duplicates, the average recognition accuracy was 98%, cross-validated from a total data set of 240 gestures. Use of procedure facilitates quick and effortless customisation in accelerometer based interaction.
The Road Rager: making use of traffic encounters in a mobile multiplayer game BIBAFull-Text 33-39
  Liselott Brunnberg
We present Road Rager, a prototype built in order to explore our hypothesis that proximity and a possibility to identify other players during temporary encounters could spur social interaction and enhance a mobile gaming experience. In this case, it is a multiplayer game designed to enable passengers in different cars to play against each other during a meeting in traffic. Using such meetings as resource opens new interesting possibilities for novel and engaging mobile experiences. In this paper we present the game concept, the implementation and the possibilities to interact -- designed to successfully benefit from the dynamic and vivid mobile context created during a traffic encounter. We also present a technical test and some initial user feedback on the gaming experience.
UMAR: Ubiquitous Mobile Augmented Reality BIBAFull-Text 41-45
  Anders Henrysson; Mark Ollila
In this paper we discuss the prospects of using marker based Augmented Reality for context aware applications on mobile phones. We also present the UMAR, a conceptual framework for developing Ubiquitous Mobile Augmented Reality applications which consists of research areas identified as relevant for successfully bridging the physical world and the digital domain using Mobile Augmented Reality. A step towards this we have successfully ported the ARToolkit to consumer mobile phones running on the Symbian platform and present results around this. We also present three sample applications based on UMAR and future case study work planned.
The GapiDraw platform: high-performance cross-platform graphics on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 47-53
  Johan Sanneblad; Lars Erik Holmquist
The GapiDraw platform supports the creation of high-performance graphical applications across a variety of handheld hardware configurations, including Palm, Symbian and Windows Mobile devices. Handheld computers makes it possible to create applications and services not possible with stationary computers, thus there is a need for a high performance development platform for rapid prototyping on mobile devices. Unlike desktop computers there has not yet evolved a single standard for graphics on handheld devices. Typically, handheld computers only provide direct frame buffer access, and there are major differences in implementation details across different hardware configurations, making it difficult to use mobile devices for prototyping. Using GapiDraw, developers can re-use the same code across a variety of devices and do not have to focus on device-specific implementation details. GapiDraw is actively used as an enabler platform in numerous research labs, and has also been used in over one hundred commercial games. We give an overview of the platform, and highlight some new mobile application concepts made possible through the use of GapiDraw.
Middleware design issues for ubiquitous computing BIBAFull-Text 55-62
  Tatsuo Nakajima; Kaori Fujinami; Eiji Tokunaga; Hiroo Ishikawa
Our daily lives will be dramatically changed by embedded small computers in our environments. The environments are called ubiquitous computing environments. To realize the environments, it is important to reduce the cost to develop ubiquitous computing applications by encapsulating complex issues in middleware infrastructures that are shared by various applications.
   In this paper, we describe three middleware infrastructures for supporting ubiquitous computing, that have developed in our projects. Our infrastructures have tried to hide some complexities to make it easy to develop ubiquitous computing applications in an easy way. We also show some lessons learned in our projects.
Plug-and-play application platform: towards mobile peer-to-peer BIBAFull-Text 63-69
  Erkki Harjula; Mika Ylianttila; Jussi Ala-Kurikka; Jukka Riekki; Jaakko Sauvola
While peer-to-peer (P2P) has emerged as a new hot communication concept among the Internet users, mobile usage of P2P applications is still taking its first steps. This article first elaborates the evolutionary process that P2P architectures are going through. Challenges and requirements for mobile P2P are then identified, followed by a definition of a novel Plug-and-Play Application Platform (PnPAP). This platform enables dynamic selections between diverse P2P and session management protocols while preserving the best available network connectivity through Holistic Connectivity (HCon) management. On-the-fly reconfiguration and run-time parameter optimization can be done with a lightweight interpretable state machine. The concept enables flexible and seamless communications for mobile devices in P2P networks.
Survey of requirements and solutions for ubiquitous software BIBAFull-Text 71-78
  Eila Niemelä; Juhani Latvakoski
Ubiquitous computing embeds computer technology in our everyday environment, providing a human with information services and applications through any device over different kinds of networks. Ubiquitous computing can be seen as a prerequisite for pervasive computing that emphasizes mobile data access and the mechanisms needed for supporting a community of nomadic users. Ubiquitous software is the software required in ubiquitous computing environments. This paper surveys the challenges and state-of-the-art software technologies applicable to ubiquitous computing environments. Ubiquitous wireless world systems trigger a set of requirements, e.g. interoperability, adaptability and mobility, for ubiquitous system and software technologies. The main challenges of ubiquitous software are a uniform and adaptive middleware technology, interoperability of services and networks, and the enabling technologies required in their development. Furthermore guaranteeing secure transactions between service providers, content providers and users is essential in worldwide pervasive computing environments. Although standards, reference architectures and generic software technologies provide the basis for future ubiquitous software development, new kinds of micro architectures and software technologies, and development methods are needed.
Utilizing context-awareness in office-type working life BIBAFull-Text 79-84
  Marika Tähti; Ville-Mikko Rautio; Leena Arhippainen
This paper presents a context-aware mobile application for office-type working purposes. Via the user tests we have evaluated if this kind of application can support worker's daily life. In the experiments we had real users in real working environment. Our investigation illustrates that workers could utilize context-aware features to ease up their working routines such as keeping presentations. The results of this paper can help designers and developers to envision and implement future ubiquitous devices and environments.
Towards connectivity management adaptability: context awareness in policy representation and end-to-end evaluation algorithm BIBAFull-Text 85-92
  Jun-Zhao Sun; Jukka Riekki; Jaakko Sauvola; Marko Jurmu
An infrastructure based on multiple heterogeneous access networks is one of the leading enablers for the emerging pervasive and ubiquitous computing paradigm, in which the optimal management of diverse networking resources is a challenging problem. This paper presents a context-aware policy mechanism and related end-to-end evaluation algorithm for adaptive connectivity management of multi-access wireless networks. A policy is used to express the criteria for adaptive selection of the best local and remote network interfaces. The best connection can then be used for the establishment of a channel as well as the maintenance of on-going data transmission. Rich context information is considered in the policy representation with respect to user profile and preference, application characteristics, device capability, and network QoS condition. The decision of the best access networks to be used is made on the basis of an end-to-end evaluation process. The decision can be made in both Master-Slave and Peer-to-Peer modes. The paper focuses on the methods for policy representation and connection evaluation algorithm. A case study is presented to show the usability of the proposed policy mechanism and decision-making algorithm in the adaptive management of heterogeneous networking resources.
Usage patterns of FriendZone: mobile location-based community services BIBAFull-Text 93-100
  Asaf Burak; Taly Sharon
How do users accept, and use, for a long period of time, location based services (LBS) on their mobile handsets? FriendZone, a suite of mobile Location-based Community Services has been launched. The services included Instant Messaging and Locator (IM&L), Location-based Chat, and Anonymous Instant Messaging (AIM), with supporting Privacy Management.
   A 21 month usage survey of more than 47,000 users, most of them young adults, followed by user interviews, is reported herein. The results indicate that AIM is the most popular and used service, more than IM&L, with lower use of Chat. The interviews showed that young adults are interested in immediate stimulations and therefore use AIM, which could lead them to face-to-face meetings. In addition, IM&L is limited to one carrier and hence is less attractive. Lastly, young adults using this service are more interested in sharing their location than in their privacy.
Fast watermark detection scheme for camera-equipped cellular phone BIBAFull-Text 101-108
  Takao Nakamura; Atsushi Katayama; Masashi Yamamuro; Noboru Sonehara
Digital watermarking technology would be very useful as part of a related service introduction system (RSIS); this system provides related information to content, and the function of watermark in RSIS is analogous to that of barcode, i.e., watermark binds content ID to analog content such as an image on printed material.
   In this paper, we focus on a camera-equipped cellular phone used as a terminal for RSIS, and propose a fast watermark detection scheme from a captured image. The proposed scheme consists of two processes, one is to correct geometric distortion of the captured image, and the other is to detect watermark information from the rectified image. We also propose a new watermarking algorithm which is robust against small geometric distortion and suitable for the proposed scheme. Moreover, we introduce a quantitative evaluation method for indicating detection reliability, which is indispensable for RSIS service.
   Finally, we show that the proposed scheme enables users to detect embedded information in approximately one second, even when implemented as a Java application on a cell phone with limited resources, and report experiments that confirm the proposed scheme's efficiency.
New high-speed frame detection method: Side Trace Algorithm (STA) for i-appli on cellular phones to detect watermarks BIBAFull-Text 109-116
  Atsushi Katayama; Takao Nakamura; Masashi Yamamuro; Noboru Sonehara
We developed a system that enables a camera-equipped cellular phone to read digital watermarks embedded in various media in real time, and that presents to the user a link to a Web page, video, or music associated with that watermark information. A picture captured by a camera is the result of applying a projective transformation combining rotation, scaling, and tilting to the original picture, The picture must be subjected to an inverse projective transformation prior to reading the watermark in order to return it to the same geometric form as the original picture. This inverse transformation requires transformation parameters, and the corners of the picture outline can be used as feature points for determining these parameters. In this paper, we propose a Side Trace Algorithm (STA) that reduces the processing time required to find corners of the picture less than 1/100 that when using the Hough transform and the conventional pattern matching, and present results of its implementation.
Automatic video production of lectures using an intelligent and aware environment BIBAFull-Text 117-123
  Michael Bianchi
This paper makes the case that much of the promise of ubiquitous multimedia depends on the availability of valued material. In business and academic environments the "presentation in a lecture room with laptop graphics" is a common way of communicating, but making a presentation readily available outside of the room is still a challenge because of the complexities of capturing and distributing the material. The AutoAuditorium™ System creates a multi-camera video program of a lecture in real time, without any human control beyond turning the system on and off. The system reduces the opportunity costs of making such a program to the point that it gets used for events previously not seen as candidates for video. Thus an event does not need nearly as many viewers to be considered worth capturing and many more events are seen by many more people.
   This paper presents a quick overview of the AutoAuditorium System technology and operational characteristics, a history of it's ancestry, development and use, and some usage experiences that demonstrate its current utility and future potential.
   The AutoAuditorium System is an example of an "intelligent and aware environment." In particular, it is:
  • intelligent -- about creating multi-camera television programs of lectures,
       in real time, with one or more people on a stage using projected visuals.
  • aware -- of the motion and gesturing of the people on stage.- of changes in
       the projected visuals. Originally created in the early- and mid-1990s as a research project [1] at Bellcore (Bell Communications Research, now Telcordia Technologies), it has been available as a commercial product from Foveal Systems since 1999.
  • A novel video coding scheme for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 125-131
      Yi Wang; Houqiang Li; Chang Wen Chen
    In this paper, we propose a novel video coding profile for the multimedia applications oriented for mobile wireless communication. Because mobile devices generally have limited computational capability and constrained power consumption, we have considered jointly both video coding efficiency and implementation feasibility when developing the proposed video coding scheme. We achieve a good trade-off between coding efficiency and complexity by minimizing the video reconstruction distortion caused by adopting reduced complexity algorithms. A number of experiments have been conducted and the results have shown the efficiency of the proposed profile. A demo implemented on the Nokia 6600 cell phone demonstrates the feasibility of video coding scheme for mobile devices in wireless communication applications.
    Utilising context ontology in mobile device application personalisation BIBAFull-Text 133-140
      Panu Korpipää; Jonna Häkkilä; Juha Kela; Sami Ronkainen; Ilkka Känsälä
    Context Studio, an application personalisation tool for semi-automated context-based adaptation, has been proposed to provide a flexible means of implementing context-aware features. In this paper, Context Studio is further developed for the end users of small-screen mobile devices. Navigating and information presentation are designed for small screens, especially for the Series 60 mobile phone user interface. Context ontology, with an enhanced vocabulary model, is utilized to offer scalable representation and easy navigation of context and action information in the UI. The ontology vocabulary hierarchy is transformed into a folder-file model representation in the graphical user interface. UI elements can be directly updated, according to the extensions and modifications to ontology vocabularies, automatically in an online system. A rule model is utilized to allow systematic management and presentation of context-action rules in the user interface. The chosen ontology-based UI model is evaluated with a usability study.
    Design and evaluation of mProducer: a mobile authoring tool for personal experience computing BIBAFull-Text 141-148
      Chao-Ming (James) Teng; Chon-In Wu; Yi-Chao Chen; Hao-hua Chu; Jane Yung-jen Hsu
    Personal experience computing is about computing support for recording, storing, retrieving, editing, analyzing, and sharing of personal experiences. In this paper, we present our design, implementation and evaluation of a mobile authoring tool called mProducer. mProducer enables a user to generate personal experience content using a mobile device anytime, anywhere. To address challenges in both limited system resources and user interface constraints on a mobile device, mProducer provides several innovative system techniques and UI designs. (1) The Storage Constrained Uploading (SCU) algorithm uploads large multimedia data to remote servers, in order to alleviate the problem of limited storage on a mobile device. (2) Sensor-Assisted Automated Editing utilizes a tilt sensor on the mobile device to automate the detection and removal of blurry frames resulting from excessive amount of camera shaking. This sensor-based solution requires small processing overhead, and it is considered a good alternative to computational-expensive image processing techniques for detecting shaking artifacts. (3) Map-based content management interface incorporates a GPS receiver on a mobile device to record location meta-data for each recording captured by a user, and enables easy, intuitive content navigation on a small screen. (4) Keyframe-based editing enables a user to edit content using only keyframes. We have conducted user studies to evaluate overall editing experience, user satisfaction in the editing quality, task performance time, ease-of-use, and learnability. The results of user studies have shown that keyframe-based editing works best with a storyboard interface. In general, users have found mProducer to be both fun and easy to use on a mobile device.
    Mobile kärpät: a case study in wireless personal area networking BIBAFull-Text 149-156
      Timo Ojala; Jani Korhonen; Tiia Sutinen; Pekka Parhi; Lauri Aalto
    The advanced smartphones entering the mass market are capable of playing audio and video files back, which paves the way for new types of rich mobile multimedia services. However, these services impose high data rate requirements on the wireless link, which can not necessarily be satisfied with the current mobile phone networks. This can be compensated with a wireless personal area network based for example on Bluetooth connectivity, or with a wireless local area network. This paper presents a case study demonstrating complementary distribution of static and dynamic multimedia content with Bluetooth equipped WPAN service points, a wireless local area network and mobile phone networks. The empirical evaluation conducted in the real environment of use shows that the proposed service is meaningful with commercial potential.
    Configuring gestures as expressive interactions to navigate multimedia recordings from visits on multiple projections BIBAFull-Text 157-164
      Giulio Jacucci; Juha Kela; Johan Plomp
    The wide availability of digital recording devices leads to investigate how multimedia content can be navigated beyond a desktop computer set up. We present a system and a variety of applications, to navigate multimedia recordings from visits making use of: large multiple projections, location information to organise media and re-experience aspects of visits, physical interfaces as gesture-based interaction and other interfaces that render media more tangible and therefore more readily available. Analysing field trials we discuss the expressiveness and experiential aspects of gesture based interfaces as important features in navigating multimedia in "immersive" environments.
    IP network for emergency service BIBAFull-Text 165-170
      K. K. A. Zahid; L. Jun; K. Kazaura; M. Matsumoto
    Internet has become the primary means for worldwide communications. In terms of recreation, business, and various imaginative reasons for information distribution it is the most used communication method today. In recent times, it is a big issue of how we can make the best use of Internet in an emergency period. The goal of this paper is to ensure Internet's best effort services to help during emergencies without any major changes in existing technology. Here, we present a system architecture that reflects a general overview of how it can work parallel to the authorized Emergency Telecommunications Services (ETS). To detect location information in a loosely coupled network environment is the most challenging aspect using IP's flat address model. Our conceptual view of the system architecture shows how the service can be provided extending DHCP, XML with existing core technology. In succession, a simulation of the system is shown to realize call setup delay and end to end VoIP packet delay over the IP network.
    Mobile multimedia services development: value chain perspective BIBAFull-Text 171-178
      Jari Karvonen; Juhani Warsta
    This paper describes and analyses the mobile value chain development, value generation and mobile application development processes. The study is based on eight small multimedia and software companies that use the latest technological possibilities provided by the mobile Internet. The development processes analyzed give a good understanding of how the mobile value chain is made up as seen from the perspective of the development of state-of-the-art mobile multimedia service and content applications (MMS) within the companies studied. The mobile multimedia applications in question were games, short films, music videos, still pictures, and advertisement videos. The processes were scrutinized in order to find out how the different groups of developers act together with their value net partners according to the preset project plan as they develop new applications and content in the mobile multimedia environment. The essential elements, actors as well as their roles in the MMS development processes were analyzed in order to depict the structure of a mobile value network.
    User experiences on combining location sensitive mobile phone applications and multimedia messaging BIBAFull-Text 179-185
      Jonna Häkkilä; Jani Mäntyjärvi
    Quickly emerging usage of multimedia messages offers new approach for mobile and collaboration between users and services by providing a mature and easy accessible technology. This paper investigated possibilities of location related messaging, where pictorial and textual information are combined. We present a model involving contextual information delivery for a mobile user, and evaluate it by user tests with location sensitive multimedia messaging representing different application categories. The results show that the functionality and social acceptance varies between different message categories. It is suggested that distinct information elements should employ sharing and access right management, and a commonly agreed categorization system is required for successful information filtering.
    Digital rights management & protecting the digital media value chain BIBAFull-Text 187-191
      Marvin L. Smith
    Digital media that is readily & illegally distributed over the Internet and related digital networks has posed major problems for the members of the digital media value chain. Ubiquitous mobile communication devices such as media capable handsets and PDAs have made the problem even larger.
       Technical approaches to controlling illegal distribution -- commonly known as Digital Rights Management (DRM) -- have been varied and inconsistent since the shift from analogue media to digital media; but in recent years, the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) has made huge contributions to the efforts to standardize the DRM effort, especially as it pertains to the sharing of media using mobile devices. The OMA has released DRM Enabler Release 1.0 and 2.0 DRM 1.0 was a first attempt to apply control to digital media and DRM 2.0 is a more sophisticated continuation of 1.0, allowing the owners of digital assets to control their use while attempting to provide the end user with the perceived rights and privileges acquired over the evolution of digital media. While challenges lay ahead for the developers of DRM, OMA DRM is a move toward better standardized control of digital media.
    Bandwidth optimization by reliable-path determination in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks BIBAFull-Text 193-198
      Sriram Raghavan; Srikanth Akkiraju; Santhosh Sridhar
    A Mobile Ad Hoc Network is typically characterized by two sets of nodes, one set being more stationary than the other. It is observed that identifying this set of relatively stationary nodes critically facilitates the dual purpose of reducing the routing overhead and providing larger data bandwidth. It is therefore both interesting and expedient to study the behavior of a typical Mobile Ad Hoc Network and identify the sub-graph which can impact these improvements where the application demands are high. It is particularly enlightening when scaled to a larger network, as one of the substantial factors affecting cost in an Ad Hoc network is the routing overhead. In this paper, a method is proposed to determine, dynamically, the most reliable path for routing in a Mobile Ad Hoc scenario and ensure that packets are routed along that path to guarantee enhanced data traffic routed per unit time owing to savings from route-discovery and to decrease normalized routing overhead. The Mobile Ad Hoc Network is modeled as a graph with the mobile units denoting the nodes of the graph and the set of reachable units as its neighbors and identifying the weakly connected sub-dominion of that graph, which is the most reliable path for routing. The proposed algorithm recognizes those set of weakly connected nodes which are relatively more stable when compared to the other nodes hence requiring less routing and thus resulting in more number of data packets and ensuring better bandwidth utilization. Our algorithm proposes and confirms the dual betterments namely improvement in the utilization of bandwidth and reduction in the normalized routing overhead in any given network scenario.
    atMOS: self expression movie generating system for 3G mobile communication BIBAFull-Text 199-206
      Satoru Tokuhisa; Taku Kotabe; Masa Inakage
    This research focuses on movies as a new communication tool, and proposes a self expression movie generating system "atMOS". The purpose of this research is to encourage mobile movie communication. Therefore, this system adopts the concept of exchangeability, expressivity and reproducibility for mobile movie contents.
       In "atMOS", based on the sub-concept of "self packaging movie", users can make an original promotion movie of themselves which can be viewed on 3G cellular phones. Users can enjoy the original movie not only by themselves but also with other people by exchanging these movies as a communication tool, using the cellular phone.
    The challenges of wireless and mobile technologies: the RFID encourages the mobile phone development BIBAFull-Text 207-211
      Taro Hori; Mitsuji Matsumoto
    The progress of ICT has brought us numerous benefits, and the concept of ICT has continuously been extended from "network" to "global network," then to "ubiquitous network." The infrastructure of broadband environment such as ADSL or FTTH in Japan has been effectively developed. Likewise, mobile phones have become extremely popular and widely used. Ninety percent of all the mobile phones in Japan are browser phones, and they are contributing to forming a high-mobility society. In this paper, we would like to present possibilities of mobile terminals, especially mobile phones utilizing the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology. The RFID technology has increased the capacities in memory, widened reading ranges, and accelerated processing speeds. Based on the premise of the RFID technology, we would like to discuss the challenges in operating wireless devices from the customers' perspectives.
    Context-aware middleware for mobile multimedia applications BIBAFull-Text 213-220
      Oleg Davidyuk; Jukka Riekki; Ville-Mikko Rautio; Junzhao Sun
    We present a context-aware middleware for mobile multimedia applications. The middleware offers functionality for service discovery, asynchronous messaging, publish/subscribe event management, storing and management of context information, building the user interface, and handling the local and network resources. It supports a wide range of context information including location, time, and user's preferences. Further, it allows controlling the connectivity of the device; the middleware is capable of switching traffic from one network connection to another. It can locate the services and software components as well. It facilitates development of multimedia applications by handling such functions as capture and rendering, storing, retrieving and adapting of media content to various mobile devices. The middleware offers facilities for media alerts, which are multimedia messages that are generated when predefined context is recognized. With these capabilities, it enables development of complex context-aware multimedia applications for mobile devices.
    Middleware support for implementing context-aware multimodal user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 221-227
      Pertti Repo; Jukka Riekki
    In context-aware pervasive networking (Capnet) environments the user interface of a service application has to be adapted to whatever type of a device the user is using, taking into account the situation at hand, i.e. the user's current context, as well as user's personal preferences. In addition, new and more natural interaction styles have to be provided for the user. When designing and implementing user interfaces, or generating them automatically at runtime, some a priori knowledge of the capabilities of user's device and her personal preferences are required. Furthermore, runtime adaptation calls for mechanisms for recognizing context and delivering it. This paper presents the support that could be provided in middleware level for implementing context-aware multimodal user interfaces and the Capnet middleware user interface architecture model for providing that support. Adaptation algorithms are not discussed. The Capnet middleware backbone provides support for context-awareness via context recognition and automatic delivery of context data through a notification mechanism. For multimodal input and output third party components are required. The proposed architecture model is partly implemented and tested with software prototypes.
    Efficient method for multiple compressed audio streams spatialization BIBAFull-Text 229-235
      Abdellatif Benjelloun Touimi; Marc Emerit; Jean-Marie Pernaux
    This paper deals with the spatialization of multiple compressed audio streams. A new approach is proposed based on the combination of subband-domain filtering methods with linear decomposition methods of HRTFs filters, and more generally the filters used by sound spatialization techniques (binaural, transaural, ambisonic, etc). Such a combination allows both computation complexity reduction and memory size saving for sound spatialization systems of multiple compressed audio signals. These advantages are very useful for any implementation on limited capabilities terminals (computation power and memory size) which is the case of mobile and portable devices.
    Digital photo similarity analysis in frequency domain and photo album compression BIBAFull-Text 237-244
      Yang Lu; Tien-Tsin Wong; Pheng-Ann Heng
    With the increasing popularity of digital camera, organizing and managing the large collection of digital photos effectively are therefore required. In this paper, we study the techniques of photo album sorting, clustering and compression in DCT frequency domain without having to decompress JPEG photos into spatial domain firstly. We utilize the first several non-zero DCT coefficients to build our feature set and calculate the energy histograms in frequency domain directly. We then calculate the similarity distances of every two photos, and perform photo album sorting and adaptive clustering algorithms to group the most similar photos together. We further compress those clustered photos by a MPEG-like algorithm with variable IBP frames and adaptive search windows. Our methods provide a compact and reasonable format for people to store and transmit their large number of digital photos. Experiments prove that our algorithm is efficient and effective for digital photo processing.
    Multiple embedding using robust watermarks for wireless medical images BIBAFull-Text 245-250
      Dominic Osborne; Derek Abbott; Matthew Sorell; Derek Rogers
    Within the expanding paradigm of medical imaging and wireless communications there is increasing demand for transmitting diagnostic medical imagery over error-prone wireless communication channels such as those encountered in cellular phone technology. Medical images must be compressed with minimal file size to minimize transmission time and robustly coded to withstand these wireless environments. It has been reinforced through extensive research that the most crucial regions of medical images must not be degraded and compressed by a lossless or near lossless algorithm. This type of area is called the Region of Interest (ROI). Conversely, the Region of Backgrounds (ROB) may be compressed with some loss of information to achieve a higher compression level. This type of hybrid coding scheme is most useful for wireless communication where the 'bit-budget' is devoted to the ROI. This paper also develops a way for this system to operate externally to the Joint Picture Experts Group (JPEG) still image compression standard without the use of hybrid coding. A multiple watermarking technique is developed to verify the integrity of the ROI after transmission and in the situation where there may be incidental degradation that is hard to perceive or unexpected levels of compression that may degrade ROI content beyond an acceptable level. The most useful contribution in this work is assurance of ROI image content integrity after image files are subject to incidental degradation in these environments. This is made possible with extraction of DCT signature coefficients from the ROI and embedding multiply in the ROB. Strong focus is placed on the robustness to JPEG compression and the mobile channel as well as minimizing the image file size while maintaining its integrity with the use of semi-fragile, robust watermarking.
    A mediation framework for multimedia delivery BIBAFull-Text 251-256
      Onyeka Ezenwoye; Raimund K. Ege; Li Yang; Qasem Kharma
    We present a conceptual mediation framework that features three layers of mediators: presence, integration, and homogenization layers that work together in a peer-to-peer (p2p) manner to facilitate the delivery of multimedia data. On arrival of each request for data from a client, a global-mediator is elected from a group of integration layer mediators to service that request. Using distributed hash table (DHT), the global-mediator dispatches the request to other integrator mediators to track down the data sources. Upon receipt of the results, from the source(s), the global-mediator presents the data to the client via a presence-mediator. The presence-mediator may need to reformat the data to suit the execution context of the client. This mediation process is context-aware, adaptive and dynamically structured. Quality of service (QoS) factors are taken into consideration in the retrieval and presentation of data.
    Task computing for ubiquitous multimedia services BIBAFull-Text 257-262
      Zhexuan Song; Ryusuke Masuoka; Jonathan Agre; Yannis Labrou
    The Task Computing framework is designed to operate in dynamic ubiquitous environments in which a mobile computing user dynamically discovers the current set of available semantically defined services. Task Computing allows the end-user to easily and seamlessly integrate and manipulate services found on their own computer, the nearby devices and relevant remote web services. The user can create, execute and monitor complex tasks resulting from compositions of these services. In this paper, how Task Computing addresses some issues in mobile and ubiquitous multimedia applications and some of the multimedia related semantic services currently implemented in this framework are described.