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Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services

Fullname:Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services
Editors:Reinhard Oppermann; Markus Eisenhauer; Matthias Jarke
Location:Bonn, Germany
Dates:2009-Sep-15 to 2009-Sep-18
Standard No:ISBN 1-60558-281-6, 978-1-60558-281-8; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: MOBILEHCI09
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Camera-based interaction
  2. Gesture-based interaction
  3. Input techniques
  4. Pedestrian navigation
  5. Safe and sound
  6. Innovative applications
  7. On the move
  8. Welcome to the social network
  9. Touch and feel
  10. Interacting with multimedia
  11. Merging the physical and the virtual
  12. Demos & experiences
  13. Industrial case studies
  14. Posters
  15. Doctoral consortium
  16. Workshops

Camera-based interaction

Text versus speech: a comparison of tagging input modalities for camera phones BIBAKFull-Text 1
  Mauro Cherubini; Xavier Anguera; Nuria Oliver; Rodrigo de Oliveira
Speech and typed text are two common input modalities for mobile phones. However, little research has compared them in their ability to support annotation and retrieval of digital pictures on mobile devices. In this paper, we report the results of a month-long field study in which participants took pictures with their camera phones and had the choice of adding annotations using speech, typed text, or both. Subsequently, the same subjects participated in a controlled experiment where they were asked to retrieve images based on annotations as well as retrieve annotations based on images in order to study the ability of each modality to effectively support users' recall of the previously captured pictures. Results demonstrate that each modality has advantages and shortcomings for the production of tags and retrieval of pictures. Several guidelines are suggested when designing tagging applications for portable devices.
Keywords: audio tagging, camera phones, personal image search, photo tagging, text tagging
Fixed in time and "time in motion": mobility of vision through a SenseCam lens BIBAKFull-Text 2
  Siân E. Lindley; Richard Harper; Dave Randall; Maxine Glancy; Nicola Smyth
SenseCam is an automatic wearable camera, often seen as a tool for the creation of digital memories. In this paper, we report findings from a field trial in which SenseCams were worn by household members over the course of a week. In interviews with these users, it became apparent that the way in which SenseCam images were played back, the manner of which might be described as a stilted movie, affected the values that were realised within them. The time-lapse nature of the image stream led participants to romanticise the mundane and find sentimentality in unexpected places, and was particularly effective at portraying personality and play. In so doing, SenseCam images enlivened the visual recording of everyday scenes. These values influenced what the participants sought to capture and view, and have implications for technologies that might support lifelogging or the development of user-generated content.
Keywords: automatic, camera, creativity, experience, gaze, lifelogging, looking, mobile, mundane, passive, photography, play, sentiment, strange, time-lapse, user-generated content (UGC), value, wearable
Practices in creating videos with mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 3
  Arto Puikkonen; Jonna Häkkilä; Rafael Ballagas; Jani Mäntyjärvi
Mobile phones with integrated video cameras have become ubiquitous tools that people use both to document everyday surroundings and to express themselves artistically. In this paper we report the findings of a user study on user created mobile videos, where the actions of 11 active mobile video users were documented for 2 weeks, the collected material including diaries, device logs, and altogether 255 videos. We describe the patterns related to the creation, sharing and consuming mobile videos, revealing characteristics of both context and content of the video material.
Keywords: mobile multimedia, mobile phones, mobile video, user created content, user studies

Gesture-based interaction

HoverFlow: expanding the design space of around-device interaction BIBAKFull-Text 4
  Sven Kratz; Michael Rohs
In this paper we explore the design space of around-device interaction (ADI). This approach seeks to expand the interaction possibilities of mobile and wearable devices beyond the confines of the physical device itself to include the space around it. This enables rich 3D input, comprising coarse movement-based gestures, as well as static position-based gestures. ADI can help to solve occlusion problems and scales down to very small devices. We present a novel around-device interaction interface that allows mobile devices to track coarse hand gestures performed above the device's screen. Our prototype uses infrared proximity sensors to track hand and finger positions in the device's proximity. We present an algorithm for detecting hand gestures and provide a rough overview of the design space of ADI-based interfaces.
Keywords: around-device interaction, gestures, mobile devices, proximity sensors, wearable devices
Dual-Surface input: augmenting one-handed interaction with coordinated front and behind-the-screen input BIBAKFull-Text 5
  Xing-Dong Yang; Edward Mak; Pourang Irani; Walter F. Bischof
Interaction patterns with handheld mobile devices are constantly evolving. Researchers observed that users prefer to interact with mobile device using one hand. However, only few interaction techniques support this mode of operation. We show that one-handed operations can be enhanced with coordinated interaction using for input the front and back of a mobile device, which we term as Dual-Surface interaction. We present some of the design rationale for introducing coordinated Dual-Surface interactions. We demonstrate that several tasks, including target selection, benefit from Dual-Surface input which allows users to rapidly select small targets in locations that are less accessible when interacting using the thumb with one-handed input. Furthermore, we demonstrate the benefits of virtual enhancements that are possible with behind-the-display relative input to perform complex tasks, such as steering. Our results show that Dual-Surface interactions offer numerous benefits that are not available with input on the front or the back alone.
Keywords: Dual-Surface interaction, behind-the-screen input, front input, interaction techniques, novel interactions
Head tilting for interaction in mobile contexts BIBAKFull-Text 6
  Andrew Crossan; Mark McGill; Stephen Brewster; Roderick Murray-Smith
Developing interfaces for mobile situations requires that devices are useable on the move. Here, we explore head tilting as an input technique to allow a user to interact with a mobile device 'hands free'. A Fitts' Law style evaluation is described where a user acquires targets, moving the cursor by head tilt. We explore d position and velocity control cursor mechanisms in both static and mobile situations to see which provided the best level of performance. Results show that participants could successfully acquire targets using head tilting. Position control was shown to be significantly faster and more accurate in a static context, but exhibited significantly poorer accuracy and longer target acquisition times when the user was on the move. We further demonstrate how analysis of user's gait shows consistent targeting biases at different stages in the gait cycle.
Keywords: Fitts' law, accelerometer, hands-free interaction, mobile

Input techniques

Designing phrase builder: a mobile real-time query expansion interface BIBAKFull-Text 7
  Tim Paek; Bongshin Lee; Bo Thiesson
As users enter web queries, real-time query expansion (RTQE) interfaces offer suggestions based on an index garnered from query logs. In selecting a suggestion, users can potentially reduce keystrokes, which can be very beneficial on mobile devices with deficient input means. Unfortunately, RTQE interfaces typically provide little assistance when only parts of an intended query appear among the suggestion choices. In this paper, we introduce Phrase Builder, an RTQE interface that reduces keystrokes by facilitating the selection of individual query words and by leveraging back-off query techniques to offer completions for out-of-index queries. We describe how we implemented a small memory footprint index and retrieval algorithm, and discuss lessons learned from three versions of the user interface, which was iteratively designed through user studies. Compared to standard auto-completion and typing, the last version of Phrase Builder reduced more keystrokes-per-character, was perceived to be faster, and was overall preferred by users.
Keywords: auto-completion, interactive query expansion, mobile, real-time
A model of two-thumb chording on a phone keypad BIBAKFull-Text 8
  Nirmal Patel; James Clawson; Thad Starner
When designing a text entry system for mobile phone keypads, a designer needs to overcome the ambiguity that arises from mapping the 26 letters of the roman alphabet to only 12 keys (0-9, *, #). In this paper, we present a novel two-thumb chording system for text entry on a standard 12-key mobile phone keypad and introduce a performance model based on Fitts' Law for an expert user. The model provides a behavioral description of the user and predicts a text entry rate of 55.02 wpm.
Keywords: Fitts' law, chording, mobile text entry
Pressure-based text entry for mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 9
  Stephen A. Brewster; Michael Hughes
This paper describes the design and evaluation of a touch screen-based pressure keyboard to investigate the possibilities of pressure as a new method of input for mobile devices. A soft press on the touchscreen generated a lowercase letter, a hard press an uppercase one. The aim was to improve input performance when entering mixed-case text, or shifted characters often used for emoticons, etc. An experiment compared two different forms of pressure input (Dwell and Quick Release) against a standard shift key keyboard, with users both sitting and walking. Results showed that Quick Release was the fastest for input of mixed case text with Dwell being the most accurate, even when users were mobile. The results demonstrate that pressure input can outperform a standard shift-key keyboard design for mobile text entry.
Keywords: keyboard, multimodal interaction, pressure input, text entry
Coupa: operation with pen linking on mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 10
  Kun Yu; Feng Tian; Kongqiao Wang
This paper proposes Coupa, a novel pen interaction design to support operations of users on portable devices. The design arranges a plurality of labels on the interface, each of which has an identity. The user forms a coupling by linking two graphical items together, and thus performs an action dependent on the identities of the coupled items. During the course of operation, any item on the screen is ready for linking and coupling. To reduce mal-operations, two principles for linking are proposed, with their effectiveness proved in the usability tests. Compared with traditional systems with hierarchical menu structure and point-and-click interaction, the proposed design prominently improves the efficiency and accuracy of pen-based systems with enhanced usability.
Keywords: coupled graphical items, labels, linking, menu hierarchy
GraspZoom: zooming and scrolling control model for single-handed mobile interaction BIBAKFull-Text 11
  Takashi Miyaki; Jun Rekimoto
A pressure sensing based single-handed interaction model is presented in this paper. Unlike traditional desktop GUI model, mobile UI model has not been established yet. For example, Apple iPhone proposed "Pinch" operation, which use two fingers to zoom-in and zoom-out objects. However, in a today's hand-held situation, manipulation methods using two fingers are not always good solution because they require two hands in order to hold the device itself in most cases. We propose a single-handed UI scheme "GraspZoom": multi-state input model using pressure sensing. Force Sensitive Resistor (FSR) attached on backside of a mobile phone was employed in order to evaluate effectiveness of pressure based control model. We also describe example applications which enable intuitive and continuous zooming and scrolling. By using tiny thumb gesture input along with this pressure sensing method, bi-directional operations (e.g., zoom-in and -out) are also achieved.
Keywords: input devices, interaction techniques, mobile device, pressure sensing, single-handed

Pedestrian navigation

Sweep-Shake: finding digital resources in physical environments BIBAKFull-Text 12
  Simon Robinson; Parisa Eslambolchilar; Matt Jones
In this article we describe the Sweep-Shake system, a novel, low interaction cost approach to supporting the spontaneous discovery of geo-located information. By sweeping a mobile device around their environment, users browse for interesting information related to points of interest. We built a mobile haptic prototype which encourages the user to explore their surroundings to search for location information, helping them discover this by providing directional vibrotactile feedback. Once potential targets are selected, the interaction is extended to offer an hierarchy of information levels with a simple method for filtering and selecting desired types of data for each geo-tagged location. We describe and motivate our approach and present a short field trial to situate our design in a real environment, followed by a more detailed user study that compares it against an equivalent visual-based system.
Keywords: gestures, haptics, location-aware, mobile computing
Exploring the use of landmarks for mobile navigation support in natural environments BIBAKFull-Text 13
  Caroline Snowdon; Christian Kray
Landmarks are a key element in navigation and have been used extensively to provide navigation support to pedestrians through mobile devices in urban areas. Natural environments differ significantly from built environments in a number of ways including, for example, the degree of structure and regularity, the types and density of landmarks, and the way in which people navigate in those environments. In this paper, we investigate how people currently navigate 'in the wild', and whether landmark-based navigation support through mobile devices is a feasible option in such settings. We present results from two studies: a questionnaire-based study focussing on current practice and the use of landmarks, and a qualitative lab-based study using immersive panoramic photographs and photographs of (natural) landmarks investigating the feasibility of landmark-based navigation support in natural environments. The results indicate that a small number of means are currently used for navigation in the wild, and that certain types of landmarks might be feasible for navigation support on mobile devices. We also found initial evidence that immersive panoramic photographs may constitute a promising way to evaluate mobile applications.
Keywords: landmarks, mobile guides, natural environments, navigation, user studies
PhotoMap: using spontaneously taken images of public maps for pedestrian navigation tasks on mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 14
  Johannes Schöning; Antonio Krüger; Keith Cheverst; Michael Rohs; Markus Löchtefeld; Faisal Taher
In many mid- to large-sized cities public maps are ubiquitous. One can also find a great number of maps in parks or near hiking trails. Public maps help to facilitate orientation and provide special information to not only tourists but also to locals who just want to look up an unfamiliar place while on the go. These maps offer many advantages compared to mobile maps from services like Google Maps Mobile or Nokia Maps. They often show local landmarks and sights that are not shown on standard digital maps. Often these 'You are here' (YAH) maps are adapted to a special use case, e.g. a zoo map or a hiking map of a certain area. Being designed for a fashioned purpose these maps are often aesthetically well designed and their usage is therefore more pleasant. In this paper we present a novel technique and application called PhotoMap that uses images of 'You are here' maps taken with a GPS-enhanced mobile camera phone as background maps for on-the-fly navigation tasks. We discuss different implementations of the main challenge, namely helping the user to properly georeference the taken image with sufficient accuracy to support pedestrian navigation tasks. We present a study that discusses the suitability of various public maps for this task and we evaluate if these georeferenced photos can be used for navigation on GPS-enabled devices.
Keywords: 'you are here' maps, GPS, mobile camera devices, pedestrian navigation

Safe and sound

User evaluation of lightweight user authentication with a single tri-axis accelerometer BIBAKFull-Text 15
  Jiayang Liu; Lin Zhong; Jehan Wickramasuriya; Venu Vasudevan
We report a series of user studies that evaluate the feasibility and usability of light-weight user authentication with a single tri-axis accelerometer. We base our investigation on uWave, a state-of-the-art recognition system for user-created free-space manipulation, or gestures. Our user studies address two types of user authentication: non-critical authentication (or identification) for a user to retrieve privacy-insensitive data; and critical authentication for protecting privacy-sensitive data. For non-critical authentication, our evaluation shows that uWave achieves high recognition accuracy (98%) and its usability is comparable with text ID-based authentication. Our results also highlight the importance of constraints for users to select their gestures. For critical authentication, the evaluation shows uWave achieves state-of-the-art resilience to attacks with 3% false positives and 3% false negatives, or 3% equal error rate. We also show that the equal error rate increases to 10% if the attackers see the users performing their gestures. This shows the limitation of gesture-based authentication and highlights the need for visual concealment.
Keywords: accelerometer, authentication, gesture, user study
Evaluating mobile phones as risk information providers BIBAKFull-Text 16
  Stephan von Watzdorf; Florian Michahelles
Information about health, disease or environmental conditions is increasingly becoming available. We investigate the suitability of using mobile phones as an interface to provide information about risk-related events or conditions to the user. We approach the problem by conducting an online survey in order to match the requirements on a risk information service with the capabilities of the mobile phone and to evaluate different notification mechanisms, the usage frequency, and the influence of costs. Based on the results of the survey we confirm the suitability of the mobile phone to provide risk-related information as well as the user's willingness to pay for the service.
Keywords: mobile phone, risk information, smart-alerts, technology-acceptance study
Using an ecological framework to design mobile technologies for pediatric asthma management BIBAKFull-Text 17
  Hee Young Jeong; Rosa I. Arriaga
Mobile technologies, due to their ubiquitous nature, play an important role in supporting health care. However, it is not easy to design useful integrated mobile services without a systematic understanding of users, and this is especially true for children. Therefore, we propose a new theoretical perspective for generating design concepts in the early stage of the design process. Our ecological model is based on Ecological Systems Theory which approaches development in terms of the child's relationships and environmental context. It leverages the fact that mobile technologies are deeply involved with users' circumstances. We argue that the ecological model can provide a heuristic to help researchers understand users' needs in context and generate concepts logically and creatively. Here we explore pediatric asthma management as a case study for this model. Finally, five promising mobile technology concepts are provided as examples for further development of mobile technologies related to pediatric asthma management.
Keywords: design, environment, health, mobile technologies, pediatric asthma management, psychology

Innovative applications

Using handheld devices for mobile interaction with displays in home environments BIBAKFull-Text 18
  Andreas Lorenz; Clara Fernandez De Castro; Enrico Rukzio
An increasing number of households are equipped with a large number of TV sets and more and more of them are large high-resolution displays. Furthermore, we see the integration of web browsing and email functionalities in these devices, which are then often controlled via a wireless mouse and keyboard. The latter were rather designed for the usage on a desk, rather then by a person sitting on their sofa in a living room. Therefore, this paper investigates the usage of a PDA, as a replacement which can be used for controlling a remote cursor and for text input. The results of the experimental comparison of these input devices show, as expected, the superiority of mouse and keyboard (as the study participants were very experienced with them). Surprising results were the task completion time and usability satisfaction when using the mobile device. These results show the applicability of using a mobile device for controlling an application on a remote screen. Using a mobile device provides the advantages that every person can e.g. use their own mobile phone or that these devices can be used in multi-user scenarios.
Keywords: interaction with handheld devices, mobile interaction with displays, remote interaction in home environments
Exploring shopping information and navigation strategies with a mobile device BIBAKFull-Text 19
  David Wilfinger; Astrid Weiss; Manfred Tscheligi
In this article a field trial is presented that explores shopping information and navigation strategies and evaluates if the spectacles camera is beneficial as mobile device for this research context. The spectacles camera, a small camera installed in a pair of glasses, was used as exploration instrument in a shopping mall where passers-by could take part in a field trial on a voluntary basis. The goal of the field trial was twofold: 1.) Gaining insights on shoppers' behavior. 2.) Investigating the feasibility of the spectacles camera as exploration instrument. The field trial gave insights on navigation patterns and constituting elements of interest points of participants' shopping behavior, while the spectacles camera proved its value for investigating shopping strategies in the field.
Keywords: evaluation, field trial, mobile device, navigation strategies, shopping behavior, spectacles camera
A mobile tool for in-situ prototyping BIBAKFull-Text 20
  Marco de Sá; Luís Carriço
Mobile interaction design introduces added challenges when compared with the usual design process for fixed technologies. In particular, it benefits greatly from the ability to take the design process out of the lab, creating, designing and evaluating applications within their natural usage context. However, this process requires new and deeply refined approaches to traditional techniques which are demanding and still avoided by designers. This paper presents a tool that overcomes some of these issues by offering means to support in-situ design. The tool supports prototyping of mobile applications and user interfaces on real scenarios, also providing evaluation features that allow the logging and analysis of usage information. We describe the tool's concept, goals and design implications, focusing, in particular, its out-on-the-field, in-situ design and prototyping features.
Keywords: mobile prototyping, participatory design, usability evaluation

On the move

Ubikequitous computing: designing interactive experiences for cyclists BIBAKFull-Text 21
  Duncan Rowland; Martin Flintham; Leif Oppermann; Joe Marshall; Alan Chamberlain; Boriana Koleva; Steve Benford; Citlali Perez
This paper charts the distinctive challenges of designing mobile experiences for cyclists and presents two studies of mobile cycle-based experiences: one a heritage tour; the other an exploration of a city at dusk involving recording and listening to personal stories. To understand the cyclists' experiences questionnaires, interviews and observations are drawn on to derive eight lessons for designing cycle-based interaction including: cycling proficiency, physicality, impact of the environment, media and hardware design, collaboration, and safety. The conclusion is that design has to respect the distinctive nature of cycling as a mode of transport and needs to carefully interweave moments of interaction with it.
Keywords: audio, bicycle, cycling, mobile applications, safety, tours
pieTouch: a direct touch gesture interface for interacting with in-vehicle information systems BIBAKFull-Text 22
  Ronald Ecker; Verena Broy; Andreas Butz; Alexander De Luca
Touch-sensitive displays seem like a natural and promising option for dealing with the increasing complexity of current in-vehicle information systems (IVIS), but since they can hardly be used without visual attention conventional point touch systems are rarely considered in cars. To ensure road safety, the drivers' visual attention needs to be focused almost entirely to the road. In order to integrate touch screens successfully into cars, new concepts are needed to reduce visual demand. The adaptation of pie menus serving as a visualisation of gestures reduces the user's cognitive load, and we were able to achieve an almost blind interaction with the IVIS. We compared our design to a generic touch system using a dual task evaluation method (Lane Change Task [18][20]), and the results regarding total task completion time, lane deviation and subjective preferences confirm a higher usability and efficiency, as well as an added hedonic quality of pieTouch.
Keywords: automotive HCI, automotive user studies, in-vehicle information system (IVIS), pie menu, touch screens
Supporting map-based wayfinding with tactile cues BIBAKFull-Text 23
  Martin Pielot; Niels Henze; Susanne Boll
Paper maps are a proven means for navigating in unfamiliar environments, however, they do not prevent people from getting lost or taking unwanted detours. A well-known issue is interpreting the map's geocentric content, which is known to become prone to errors when the map is not aligned to the environment. In this paper we report our investigation of providing a cue about the destination's location from an egocentric perspective in order to improve the interpretation of the map. We used a vibrotactile belt to continuously indicate a destination's direction relative to the user's orientation. In an outdoor field study we compared the performance of map-based navigation with and without the added tactile cue. We found evidence that people take shorter routes, consult the map less often, and were less often disoriented with the tactile cue. Furthermore, females found the tactile cue more useful and used it more often.
Keywords: pedestrian navigation, tactile display, wayfinding

Welcome to the social network

Glancephone: an exploration of human expression BIBAKFull-Text 24
  Richard Harper; Stuart Taylor
In this paper, we describe the design and ethnographic study of a phone developed so as to allow people to glance at each other, rather than simply message or voice call. Glancephones work through having a form factor that allows them to be placed upright when a user wants to be available for glancing, and support a web-based application that allows glances, bitmap images, to be taken and sent to a remote viewer on request, via GPRS connections. Glancephones were originally invented to allow callers to see if it is appropriate to call or interrupt and thus act like normal glances in face-to-face situations. Ethnographic studies of the use indicate that people prefer using the devices not to support greeting sequences, however, but to enable others to glance at them. It was found that Glacephones were used to draw attention to oneself, not to encourage better control of interruption and greeting sequences. The paper uses this data to remark on the concepts of human expression that underscore much of the research reported in Mobile HCI, and it proposes Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and relatedly, distinction, as explanatory tools for this and other evidence about expression enabled by mobile and other technologies of communication.
Keywords: ethnography, glancephones, habitus, human expression, mobile phones
Studying multi-user settings for pervasive games BIBAKFull-Text 25
  Karin Leichtenstern; Elisabeth André
Whenever a pervasive game has to be developed for a group of children an appropriate multi-user setting has to be found. If the pervasive game does not support the children with an adequate multi-user setting, unintended situations can emerge, such as a single user can dominate the game while the other users are bored and disinterested. In our research we approach that problem by investigating various multi-user settings that are characterized by a different distribution of interaction devices. We describe three multi-user settings, a pervasive game which we used as a test bed, and a user study with 18 children to find out how the multiuser settings influence the children's social behaviour as expressed by the level of activity for all group members, the off-task behaviour and the level of task-related conversations.
Keywords: mobile interaction techniques, multi-user settings, pervasive applications, user study
Acceptable intrusiveness of online help in mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 26
  Ohad Inbar; Talia Lavie; Joachim Meyer
The aim of this study was to examine how users perceive help on a mobile device with respect to the presentation format and the severity of the scenario the user encounters. We examined how 92 participants responded to four different formats of help offered for five different scenarios varying in their severity level using static images displayed in a web browser. The intrusiveness of the help format and the severity of the scenario affected participants' interest in receiving help. In certain conditions it may be helpful to suggest help, in particular when users do not know how to ask for it but show interest in receiving it when offered.
Keywords: help format, mobile assistance, mobile devices
Friendlee: a mobile application for your social life BIBAKFull-Text 27
  Anupriya Ankolekar; Gabor Szabo; Yarun Luon; Bernardo A. Huberman; Dennis Wilkinson; Fang Wu
We have designed and implemented Friendlee, a mobile social networking application for close relationships. Friendlee analyzes the user's call and messaging activity to form an intimate network of the user's closest social contacts while providing ambient awareness of the user' social network in a compelling, yet non-intrusive manner.
Keywords: ambient awareness, intimate networks, mobile social networking, recommendations

Touch and feel

Expectations for user experience in haptic communication with mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 28
  Jani Heikkinen; Thomas Olsson; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
The haptic modality -- the sense of touch -- is utilized very limitedly in current human-computer interaction. Especially in mobile communication, the haptic modality could provide a means for richer multimodal and emotional communication between users over distance. Haptic user interface prototypes have been developed but their user experience has not been studied extensively. We conducted seven focus group sessions to study users' expectations for user experience of haptic interaction, specifically focusing on mobile communication. The paper presents the user experience factors that were regarded by potential users as salient in haptic interaction: subjective quality of the haptic stimuli, privacy, intimacy and spontaneity. Also the possibilities, restrictions and suitability of the haptic mobile communication are discussed. Most appropriate use cases for haptic communication were found to be conveying emotions and binary information. As the main conclusion, we present design guidelines for haptic mobile communication that were drawn up based on the findings.
Keywords: communication, focus group study, guidelines, haptics, mobile, user experience
A language of tactile motion instructions BIBAKFull-Text 29
  Daniel Spelmezan; Anke Hilgers; Jan Borchers
Tactile motion instructions are vibrotactile feedback patterns delivered across the entire body that indicate how to move during physical activities. This work investigates the perception and identification of such patterns, based on two different metaphors, under stationary and active situations. We further combine and sequentially trigger different patterns to explore whether tactile motion instructions are understandable as a simple language. A tactile language could represent motion sequences to guide students during demanding exercises. Finally, the presented studies provide insights into perception and interpretation of tactile feedback and help to inform a design space for full-body vibrotactile cues.
Keywords: motor skill learning, physical activities, real-time instructions, sports training, tactile language, vibrotactile feedback
Emotion sharing via self-composed melodies on mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 30
  Alireza Sahami Shirazi; Florian Alt; Albrecht Schmidt; Ari-Heikki Sarjanoja; Lotta Hynninen; Jonna Häkkilä; Paul Holleis
In their role as personal communication devices, mobile phones are a natural choice for sharing and communicating emotions. However, their functionalities are currently very limited in power to express affective messages. In this paper, we describe the design of a system that allows users to easily compose melodies and share them via mobile phones. We show that by using these melodies information about the current emotional state of the sender can be expressed and recognized synchronously by the receiver in a simple, quick, and unobtrusive way. Further, we reveal that self-composed melodies have a stronger impact than pre-composed or downloaded messages, similar to crafted pieces of art offered to a beloved person. We then present findings from a user study that assesses the implementation of a functional prototype and the adequacy of the system for emotional communication.
Keywords: composer, emotion sharing, mobile phone, synchronous
User expectations and user experience with different modalities in a mobile phone controlled home entertainment system BIBAKFull-Text 31
  Markku Turunen; Aleksi Melto; Juho Hella; Tomi Heimonen; Jaakko Hakulinen; Erno Mäkinen; Tuuli Laivo; Hannu Soronen
Home environment is an exciting application domain for multimodal mobile interfaces. Instead of multiple remote controls, personal mobile devices could be used to operate home entertainment systems. This paper reports a subjective evaluation of multimodal inputs and outputs for controlling a home media center using a mobile phone. A within-subject evaluation with 26 participants revealed significant differences on user expectations on and experiences with different modalities. Speech input was received extremely well, even surpassing expectations in some cases, while gestures and haptic feedback were almost failing to meet the lowest expectations. The results can be applied for designing similar multimodal applications in home environments.
Keywords: SUXES, gestures, haptic feedback, speech recognition
A study of direct versus planned 3D camera manipulation on touch-based mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 32
  Fabrice Decle; Martin Hachet
Mobile interfaces are evolving towards touch-based approaches. This allows users to interact with their thumb directly on the screen. Such kind of direct approaches may be fussy for 3D interaction tasks, in particular because of thumb occlusions. In this paper, we introduce a new 3D user interface for the control of a planned trackball, where the users sketch horizontal or vertical movements to observe an object. A user study revealed no significant difference for error rate between this new approach and a standard trackball control. Despite a better completion time with the direct control, the study showed that the subjects preferred using the planned version of the trackball because it limits disorientation.
Keywords: 3D rotation, interaction technique, mobile devices, user study

Interacting with multimedia

Hands on music: physical approach to interaction with digital music BIBAKFull-Text 33
  Janne Bergman; Jarmo Kauko; Jaakko Keränen
Mobile users listen to large digital music libraries with thousands of songs. Browsing such libraries in mobile contexts is difficult due to constraints of the context and devices. We explore the usage of physical interaction with digital music to overcome these limitations. Our solution is to utilize the physical orientation of a mobile device as a tool for exploring music. We focus on allowing users to manage their music for easier mobile access. We present a novel bimanual interaction method for mapping items from a music library into different orientations of the mobile device. An experiment was conducted to test our prototype, focusing on efficiency and impact on users' ability to recall locations of items in the mapping. The interaction method was found to be significantly faster than using a touch screen without the mobile device. Subjectively users valued the bimanual method in ease of use, efficiency, and pleasantness.
Keywords: bimanual interaction, graspable interfaces, interaction techniques, mobile music
User acceptance of mobile TV services BIBAKFull-Text 34
  Eija Kaasinen; Minna Kulju; Tuomo Kivinen; Virpi Oksman
Mobile digital television technology facilitates broadcast TV on a mobile phone as well as interactive add-on services provided on top of the selected TV channel. In this paper we describe the results of a six-month field trial where 27 users were evaluating commercially available mobile TV services and 10 different pilot services. Mobile TV found a role in the everyday lives of the users as an extension to ordinary TV. The users appreciated easy and continuous access to TV contents. The results highlight that short usage situations typical to mobile TV use are hindering the adoption of new add-on services. The adoption can be supported by using content, appearance or functionality familiar from other media. The main problems with add-on services were related to knowing about the mere existence of these services and their contents as well as understanding the concept of services available only during a certain TV show.
Keywords: field trial, interactive services, mobile TV, user acceptance
The collaborative work of producing meaningful shots in mobile video telephony BIBAKFull-Text 35
  Christian Licoppe; Julien Morel
In this paper we report on the first study of the uses of mobile video telephony based on the collection and analysis of naturally occurring mobile video telephony. We show how a characteristic feature of mobile video telephony, which makes it differ from any other kind of mediated interaction, is that: a) the participants may orient the camera at will to shoot almost any feature within their environment; and b) what they actually show at a given moment may be (and usually is) inspected by the recipient for its relevance to the ongoing interaction, and is produced with an orientation towards such scrutiny. A specific concern of mobile video call users at any time is therefore what they should or should not show. We demonstrate how a partial solution to that problem is the reliance on a particular (full) portrait-like 'talking heads' format as an expected default mode for interaction in mobile video calls. Finally, we discuss the implications, for design, of such an empirically grounded understanding of the specific practical concerns of mobile video telephony users.
Keywords: conversation analysis, mobile phone, mobility, privacy, video mediated communication, video telephony

Merging the physical and the virtual

Touch & connect and touch & select: interacting with a computer by touching it with a mobile phone BIBAKFull-Text 36
  Khoovirajsingh Seewoonauth; Enrico Rukzio; Robert Hardy; Paul Holleis
Exchanging data between a mobile phone and a computer such as a laptop is still a very cumbersome process. This paper presents two different techniques, touch & connect and touch & select, designed help to overcome this problem and facilitate and speed up spontaneous interactions between such devices. Using touch & connect, the user can physically touch a computer in order to pair a Bluetooth connection and initiate a file transfer between these two devices. Touch & select extends this concept in that users can select a specific object or location on the computer screen by simply touching it with the mobile phone. We report the implementation of these interaction techniques based on Near Field Communication (NFC) tags and present a formal, comparative study focusing on transferring images. The results provide clear evidence of the advantages of touch & connect and touch & select when compared with current Bluetooth-based implementations. Considering task completion time for uploading and downloading pictures, touch & select was 43% and touch & connect 31% faster than the conventional Bluetooth-based approach.
Keywords: display, interaction, mobile, picture sharing, touch
Improving the accessibility of NFC/RFID-based mobile interaction through learnability and guidance BIBAKFull-Text 37
  Gregor Broll; Susanne Keck; Paul Holleis; Andreas Butz
NFC and RFID technologies have found their way into current mobile phones and research has presented a variety of applications using NFC/RFID tags for interaction between physical objects and mobile devices. Since this type of interaction is widely novel for most users, there is a considerable initial inhibition threshold for them. In order to get novice users started with this physical interaction and its applications, we have designed different ways to increase the learnability and guidance of such applications. Their effectiveness was evaluated in a qualitative and quantitative user study with 40 participants, who interacted with NFC-equipped posters in different ways. We report on the types of usage errors observed and show that future designs of NFC/RFID-based mobile applications should consider using a dedicated start-tag for interaction.
Keywords: NFC, RFID, accessibility, evaluation, guidance, learnability, multi-tag interaction, physical mobile interaction, usability
Impact of item density on magic lens interactions BIBAKFull-Text 38
  Michael Rohs; Georg Essl; Johannes Schöning; Anja Naumann; Robert Schleicher; Antonio Krüger
We conducted a user study to investigate the effect of visual context in handheld augmented reality interfaces. A dynamic peephole interface (without visual context beyond the device display) was compared to a magic lens interface (with video see-through augmentation of external visual context). The task was to explore objects on a map and look for a specific attribute shown on the display. We tested different sizes of visual context as well as different numbers of items per area, i.e. different item densities. We found that visual context is most effective for sparse item distributions and the performance benefit decreases with increasing density. User performance in the magic lens case approaches the performance of the dynamic peephole case the more densely spaced the items are. In all conditions, subjective feedback indicates that participants generally prefer visual context over the lack thereof. The insights gained from this study are relevant for designers of mobile AR and dynamic peephole interfaces by suggesting when external visual context is most beneficial.
Keywords: camera phones, dynamic peephole, magic lens, mobile devices, small displays, visual search

Demos & experiences

Two NFC interaction techniques for quickly exchanging pictures between a mobile phone and a computer BIBAKFull-Text 39
  Khoovirajsingh Seewoonauth; Enrico Rukzio; Robert Hardy; Paul Holleis
Uploading and downloading pictures between a mobile phone and a computer is still a very cumbersome process. Because of this, many users actually do not copy, move or backup their pictures onto another computer until the storage capacity of the mobile phone is reached. This paper presents the prototypes (and respective implementation details) of the touch & connect and touch & select interaction techniques. Both techniques allow the quick and easy exchange of pictures by touching the computer with the mobile device. The first interaction technique: touch & connect, allows the user to touch a computer with their mobile phone in order to establish a Bluetooth connection and initiate a file transfer between the two devices. The second interaction technique: touch & select, extends this concept and allows the selection of a specific picture or location on the computer screen by touching it with the mobile phone. The interaction techniques were implemented using Near Field Communication (NFC) tags attached to the computer and an NFC phone capable of reading those tags.
Keywords: display, interaction, mobile, picture sharing, touch
overView: physically-based vibrotactile feedback for temporal information browsing BIBAKFull-Text 40
  Steven Strachan; Grégoire Lefebvre; Sophie Zijp-Rouzier
An approach to providing tangible feedback to users of a mobile device in both highly visual touchscreen-based and eyes-free interaction scenarios and the transition between the two is presented. A rotational dynamical systems metaphor for the provision of feedback is proposed, which provides users with physically based feedback via the audio, tactile and visual senses. By using a consistent metaphor in this way it is possible to support the seamless movement between highly visual touch-based interaction and eyes-free gestural interaction.
Keywords: eyes-free, feedback, haptic, interaction, vibrotactile
Tacticycle: a tactile display for supporting tourists on a bicycle trip BIBAKFull-Text 41
  Benjamin Poppinga; Martin Pielot; Susanne Boll
Cycling is a common leisure time sports in touristic regions. For us it was the question how tourists actually find their paths in the area and what kind of navigation aids might be helpful to them. In a requirements study on a touristic island we learned that tourists rather explore the environment spontaneously than efficiently navigating from on place to another such as the beach or the light house, and just cycle on without much map or navigation aid. While exploring the area, the cyclists however, sometimes lose their orientation which they compensate for by accepting detours. We designed and developed an orientation aid, Tacticycle that does not influence the cycling experience but improve the orientation and awareness of the overall direction. In order to ensure the cyclists' safety two vibrotactile actuators are used to indicate directions and announce the presence of interesting places. In two field studies we showed that despite the accuracy of the indicated direction being rather coarse, the tactile user interface allows cyclists to reach a presented destination easily. The visitor of the demo can experience a virtual cycling tour supported by the Tacticycle demonstrator.
Keywords: bicycle, exploration, tactile display, tourists
Hoverflow: exploring around-device interaction with IR distance sensors BIBAFull-Text 42
  Sven Kratz; Michael Rohs
By equipping a mobile device with distance sensing capabilities, we aim to expand the interaction possibilities of mobile and wearable devices beyond the confines of the physical device itself to include the space immediately around it. Our prototype, an Apple iPhone equipped with six IR distance sensors, allows for rich 3D input, comprising coarse movement-based hand gestures, as well as static position-based gestures. A demonstration application, HoverFlow, illustrates the use of coarse hand gestures for interaction with mobile applications. This type of interaction, which we call Around-Device Interaction (ADI) has the potential to help to solve occlusion problems on small-screen mobile devices and scales well to small device sizes.
Minimizing mobile phone disruption via smart profile management BIBAKFull-Text 43
  Amnon Dekel; Dan Nacht; Scott Kirkpatrick
In this paper, we describe the Smart Profile Management application that was designed to help minimize mobile phone disruptions. The system achieves the goal using a machine learning based algorithm that switches the phone profile automatically. A prototype was developed in Python for S60 and an informal usability test was run for a period of 7 days. Results show that a large proportion of profile suggestion changes were accepted by subjects, suggesting that such an application can in fact lower disruptions.
Keywords: context based computing, minimizing disruptions, mobile phones, profile management, smart interfaces
View & share: supporting co-present viewing and sharing of media using personal projection BIBAKFull-Text 44
  Andrew Greaves; Enrico Rukzio
Viewing and sharing media on mobile devices are popular scenarios, however, the limited screen size results in multiple users having to gather around a single display leading to an undesirable viewing experience. Similarly, sharing a single image with a single person is cumbersome and requires several steps to complete. This demonstration paper presents an approach in which a mobile phone is coupled with a personal projector to overcome the output limitations of mobile phones. The large mobile projected display allows several users to simultaneously view media. We also present a group based sharing approach allowing users to intuitively and easily share media between mobile devices. We reverse the typical role of sharing and introduce a technique whereby the receiver of the media is responsible for performing the sharing interaction. This allows sharing with a single member or multiple members of the group. Sharing with every member of the group is also easily possible.
Keywords: co-present, personal projection, view & share
Information empowerment through mobile learning BIBAKFull-Text 45
  Raymond Koon Chuan Koh; Henry Xin Liong Tan; Henry Been-Lirn Duh
Information empowers those who make sense from its successful interpretation; this is especially true on the subject of weather where the recipient is required to have prior forms of fundamental understanding towards the natural occurring phenomenon and its effects. This study facilitates the learning of complex weather phenomena for children using a unique educational approach using mobile technology. The initiative runs under Singapore's National Weather Study Project (NWSP), which already operates a network of mini weather stations in schools across the state to promote environmental awareness and support dynamic interactions with real time data. Its data is accessible via Web, Microsoft SensorMap and Google Earth interfaces. IWIS, an application for the recent Google Android mobile platform taps onto the fusion of mapping and the weather project server's data to present to children accessible local multi-variate weather data depicted using visual metaphors and propagates the development of mobile learning applications in the imminent future.
Keywords: information design, information visualization, knowledge management, mobile learning, visual cognition
Elastic mobility: stretching interaction BIBAKFull-Text 46
  Lucia Terrenghi; Thomas Lang; Bernhard Lehner
Based on a consideration of usage and technological computing trends, we reflect on the implications of cloud computing on mobile interaction with applications, data and devices. We argue that by extending the interaction capabilities of the mobile device by connecting it to external peripherals, new mobile contexts of personal (and social) computing can emerge, thus creating novel contexts of mobile interaction. In such a scenario, mobile devices can act as context-adaptive information filters. We then present Focus, our work in progress on a context-adaptive UI, which we can demonstrate at the MobileHCI demo session as a clickable dummy on a mobile device.
Keywords: cloud computing, human-computer interaction, mobile computing, ubiquitous computing, user interface design
PocketDRAGON: a direct manipulation video navigation interface for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 47
  Thorsten Karrer; Moritz Wittenhagen; Jan Borchers
We present PocketDRAGON, a demonstrator prototype that allows direct manipulation video navigation on mobile touchscreen devices. In contrast to traditional video navigation techniques, PocketDRAGON does not require any overlay UI elements that occupy valuable screen real estate and obstruct the users' view on the video. Also, direct manipulation video navigation techniques have been shown to compare favorably to the established timeline slider interfaces in terms of performance times, intuitiveness, precision, and perceived ease of use. Our demonstrator system still uses a backend server for the computationally expensive parts of the algorithms but delivers the full-fledged user experience on the mobile device.
Mobile implementation of a web 3D carousel with touch input BIBAKFull-Text 48
  Christoffer Björkskog; Giulio Jacucci; Bruno Lorentin; Luciano Gamberini
Mobile devices such as the iPhone provide state of the art interaction capabilities also for web browser applications. Our mobile development is targeted to a Energy Awareness application that provides playful access to detailed and realtime information on energy consumption of appliances of a household. Using the available Safari Browser that adopts W3C web standards we demonstrate the implementation of a 3D carousel giving access to cards on a web page where each card gives access to information on one appliance. The carousel can be browsed using the multitouch capability of the iPhone. We describe the programming approach and discuss the lesson learned in developing the touch interaction with the carousel.
Keywords: 3D interface, CSS3, HCI, Javascript, MultiTouch interaction, W3C, WebKit, XHTML, carousel, iPhone, mobile device
Wavelet menus: a stacking metaphor for adapting marking menus to mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 49
  Jeremie Francone; Gilles Bailly; Laurence Nigay; Eric Lecolinet
Exploration and navigation in multimedia data hierarchies (e.g., photos, music) are frequent tasks on mobile devices. However, visualization and interaction are impoverished due to the limited size of the screen and the lack of precise input devices. As a result, menus on mobile devices do not provide efficient navigation as compared to many innovative menu techniques proposed for Desktop platforms. In this paper, we present Wavelet, the adaptation of the Wave menu for the navigation in multimedia data on iPhone. Its layout, based on an inverted representation of the hierarchy, is particularly well adapted to mobile devices. Indeed, it guarantees that submenus are always displayed on the screen and it supports efficient navigation by providing previsualization of the submenus.
Keywords: marking menus, menu techniques, mobile devices, wave menus

Industrial case studies

Automatic mobile menu customization based on user operation history BIBAKFull-Text 50
  Yusuke Fukazawa; Mirai Hara; Masashi Onogi; Hidetoshi Ueno
Mobile devices are becoming more and more difficult to use due to the sheer number of functions now supported. In this paper, we propose a menu customization system that ranks functions so as to make interesting functions, both frequently used functions and rarely used functions, easy to access. Concretely, we define the features of phone functions by extracting keywords from the manufacturer's manual, and propose the method that ranks the functions based on user operation history by using Ranking SVM (Support Vector Machine). We conduct a home-use test for one week to evaluate the efficiency of customization and the usability of menu customization. The results show that the average rank of used functions on the last day of the test is half of that of first day and almost 70% of the users are satisfied with the ranking provided by menu customization and the usability of menus. In addition, interviews show that automatic mobile menu customization is more appropriate for mobile phone beginner rather than the master users.
Keywords: SVM, mobile menu, personalization, recommendation, support vector machine
Bridging the gap between useful and aesthetic maps in car navigation systems BIBAKFull-Text 51
  Julia Schreiber
Thanks to the development in the field of minicomputers high resolution photo realistic maps can be shown in real time on car navigation systems. These graphics are aesthetically pleasing to the viewer. However, they also have a high impact on the user's cognitive load so the effort for their usage rises.
   This paper describes an approach for the integration of complex maps in car navigation systems without harming its function. Referring to an empirical research, we can support the thesis that the function of a map and its aesthetic perception heavily depends on the user's situational cognitive load. This thesis is confirmed by the Cognitive load theory. In the following, we introduce a concept for the adaptation of a map's function and its design according to the changing situations in the automotive context.
Keywords: aesthetics, automotive, cognitive load, digital map, map design, map function
Usability evaluation of OpenWeb transcoding BIBAKFull-Text 52
  Elizabeth Uruchurtu; Ellie Lockley; Chris Roast; Inge De Bleecker
This paper describes collaborative work between industry and academia aimed at supporting the design and assessment of a transcoding service to support mobile phone internet browsing. The work demonstrates how research informed by user based assessment can be effectively and efficiently employed to inform and support industry. The paper describes a series of small scale, relatively rapid, evaluation studies that have focused on the comparative assessment of alternative transcoding approaches. These studies have: informed the design of OpenWeb transcoding; developed a number of easily efficient empirical assessment methods for mobile browsing; and provided a basis for focusing future user experience studies.
Keywords: mobile phone, transcoding, usability, web browsing
Industrial case study of the MICA support system for warehouse workers BIBAKFull-Text 53
  Christian R. Prause; Markus Eisenhauer; Lukas Gillmann
Returns caused by the delivery of incorrect items constitute a major problem for non-automated warehouses. Returns not only create extra costs, they also aggravate customers. Most errors in logistics occur during the picking process. MICA -- a mobile assistance system for warehouse workers -- unobtrusively navigates the worker on his way through the warehouse and effectively prevents picking errors using RFID technology. Therefore, MICA reduces error rates, job training periods, and the time required for picking and packing, leading to lower costs for warehouse operators and increased customer satisfaction.
   In this paper you will read about a case study where the MICA prototype was field-tested in the warehouse of a medium-sized enterprise.
Keywords: RFID, assistance system, industrial case study, navigation, warehouse
Security and usability research using a microworld environment BIBAKFull-Text 54
  Noam Ben-Asher; Joachim Meyer; Yisrael Parmet; Sebastian Moeller; Roman Englert
Technological developments and the addition of new features to existing applications or services require the inclusion of security mechanisms to protect the user. When using these mechanisms the user faces a tradeoff between more risky and more efficient or safer and less efficient use of the system. We discuss this tradeoff and present a novel complementary experimental system which provides researchers and corporations the ability to explore and model the usability and security tradeoff in the context of user interaction with security systems and psychological acceptability, even before the actual development and implementation processes have ended.
Keywords: alerts, experimental system, security, security settings, usability


Socio-scientific analysis of user requirements in mobile learning: a case study on marginalised young people BIBAKFull-Text 55
  Elisabeth Unterfrauner; ilse Marschalek
Although marginalised young people have been proved to have less access to Information and Communication Technologies such as the Internet, their access to mobile phones does not differ from non-marginalised young people. Since mobile phones seem to play an important role in youth's life, delivering learning programmes via this piece of technology seems a promising idea. Thereby, to analyse the requirement of the future users of learning programmes to be designed is fundamental since little about their characteristics and needs is known. A triangulation of data, consisting of academic literature review, expert interview data and focus group data, led to valuable conclusions.
Keywords: marginalised young people, user centred design, user requirements
Immediate user performances with touch Chinese text entry solutions on handheld devices BIBAKFull-Text 56
  Ying Liu; Kai Ding; Ning Liu
"Immediate usability" is more important for mobile text entry solutions [7]. We compared immediate user performance of four touch Chinese text entry solutions on mobile devices including two Chinese handwriting recognition (HWR: full screen and 3-box) and two pinyin virtual keyboard (VKB: consonant plus vowel and QWERTY) solutions with novice users. It was found that users make more errors with Chinese HWR solutions than VKB solutions although there are no significant differences between the two solutions in each category. Users are significantly slower with the consonant plus vowel pinyin keyboard than the other three solutions although the consonant plus vowel keyboard is better on the measure of key stroke per character (KSPC).
Keywords: Chinese, handheld device, handwriting recognition, usability, virtual keyboard
Optimizing user interaction for mobile web browsing BIBAFull-Text 57
  Dong Zhou; Ajay Chander; Hiroshi Inamura
The small form-factor of mobile handsets and the longer, variable latency of cellular networks negatively affect user experience in mobile web related activities. In this paper we describe the design and prototype implementation of a framework for improving mobile web interaction based on monitored interaction history and runtime interaction context. Our framework predicts future interaction sequences and optimizes predicted user interactions with navigation shortcuts and automatic text copying and formfilling
An evaluation of authoring interfaces for image-based navigation BIBAKFull-Text 58
  Benjamin Walther-Franks; Dirk Wenig; Rainer Malaka; Barbara Grüter
We present the development and evaluation of an authoring system for image-based pedestrian navigation which lets authors take pictures and annotate instructions on the go in three interface variants. Results indicate that a freehand manner of photograph annotation is fastest, while authors strive toward visually pleasing annotation compositions.
Keywords: evaluation, mobile navigation, user-created content
New business to business interaction: shake your iPhone and speak to it BIBAKFull-Text 59
  Daniel Porta; Daniel Sonntag; Robert Neßelrath
We present a new multimodal interaction sequence for a mobile multimodal Business-to-Business interaction system. A mobile client application on the iPhone supports users in accessing an online service marketplace and allows business experts to intuitively search and browse for services using natural language speech and gestures while on the go. For this purpose, we utilize an ontology-based multimodal dialogue platform as well as an integrated trainable gesture recognizer.
Keywords: mobile business services, multimodal interaction, productivity, usability, user experience
Effects of co-player visualization in a location-based chase-and-catch game BIBAKFull-Text 60
  Gunnar Misund; Harald Holone; Håkon Tolsby; Joakim Karlsen; Aleksander Toppe
In our FoxHunt game, virtual foxes are chased on a playground. Foxes and hunters are rendered on a map displayed on GPS-enabled mobile phones. We collected data from three field tests, totalling 130 participants. Approximately half of the players were provided with positions and scores for the other hunters. In the rest of the games, only the foxes and the players' own avatars were rendered. Providing co-player information did not have a direct impact on gaming scores. However, it increased the reported fun factor.
Keywords: FoxHunt, GPS, location-based gaming, mobile, player awareness
Examining human values in adopting ubiquitous technology in school BIBAKFull-Text 61
  Minna Isomursu; Mari Ervasti; Marianne Kinnula; Pekka Isomursu
This paper summarizes value analysis of adopting technology-supported attendance control service in a primary school. The results are based on a case study that explored a 14-week trial where two classes of elementary school children used an attendance control system that was implemented using networked technology components, including smart cards, NFC enabled mobile phones and card readers, a web-portal, and SMS messaging. The findings from the trial are analyzed from the viewpoint of three end user groups, namely children, parents and teachers. Value modeling adopted from social psychology is used for interpreting the perceived value for each user group.
Keywords: evaluation methods, school attendance control, user experience evaluation, value based design
Lessons learned from an interaction-kiosk for open selection of input devices of a gaming application BIBAKFull-Text 62
  Andreas Lorenz; Ferry Pramudianto; Andreas Zimmermann
Traditional computer applications understand mouse and keyboard input for controlling the behavior of the system. Depending on the goal, task and situation of the user, other input devices can be more appropriate to meet the user's personal attributes. To demonstrate the value of enabling the user to select an input device according to personal preferences, this work combines a device independent control mechanism with a game application. The paper illustrates seven lessons learned from observing users in playing the game with six devices that feature different modalities.
Keywords: input devices, remote user interface
A camera-based tangible controller for cellular phones BIBAKFull-Text 63
  Haruhisa Kato; Tsuneo Kato
This paper proposes a novel easy-to-use camera-based tangible controller for cellular phone applications. It realizes continuous analog input by tracking a marker at the top end of a controller device attached to the embedded camera. In contrast to the conventional keypad which enables limited operability to four discrete directions, the proposed controller brings not only an unconstrained continuous input to arbitrary directions but also continuous input for depth and for a rotation angle. In order to evaluate operability, we conducted a user experiment of time trial for path tracing, and the results showed that the subjects completed the task with the proposed controller in 27.9% less than with the conventional keypad input.
Keywords: camera-based controller, cellular phones, human machine interface, tangible device, video analysis
Gestures all around us: user differences in social acceptability perceptions of gesture based interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 64
  Julie Rico; Stephen Brewster
Gesture based interfaces provide a new way for us to interact with mobile devices, but also require us to make new decisions about how we feel about this new technology and which gestures we decide are usable and appropriate. These decisions are based on the social and public settings where these devices are used on a daily basis. Our ideas about which gestures are socially acceptable or not are an important factor in whether or not these gestures will be adopted. The ways in which users evaluate social acceptability is not only highly variable, but with drastically different results amongst different users. These differences are not dependant on factors such as age, gender, occupation, geographic location, or previous technology usage. Future work into the social acceptability perceptions of users will focus on personality traits as a new way of understanding how social acceptability is determined.
Keywords: gesture based interfaces, mobile interfaces, social acceptability
Using semantic descriptions for adaptive mobile games UIs BIBAKFull-Text 65
  Pascal Bihler; Holger Mügge; Mark Schmatz; Armin B. Cremers
Mobile devices became powerful recently and wireless Internet access is becoming standard. One important class of networked, mobile applications are location based games, making extensive use of device sensors to adapt their application logic and user interface to the numerous, spontaneous and fast changing contexts. To simplify the developers' task of designing adaptable user interfaces, we propose the use of semantic user interface description. By going beyond formbased applications, we argue that the approach comes especially at hand when used in the context of modular reconfigurable mobile games: The interfaces fusion can simplify the generation of complex adaptable game UIs and form an integral aspect of a mobile game development kit.
Keywords: location based games, semantic driven UI adaptation
Mobile educational game: adventure anywhere BIBAKFull-Text 66
  Milovanovic Milos; Minovic Miroslav; Lazovic Miroslav; Starcevic Dusan
Main topic of this work is development of educational games that can be used on mobile devices. Paper describes a novel approach to educational game defining and interpretation. Idea is based on extracting knowledge, game rules and scenarios outside the program thus enabling reusability. On the other hand by applying a layered approach to educational game interpretation we enable use of the same educational game on different devices and platforms. Purpose of this is to take learning outside classrooms and homes and provide a fun and interesting way of learning anytime, anywhere. Paper shows an example adventure game that is created following this methodology.
Keywords: educational games, m-learning, mobile devices
Exploring the urban environment with a camera phone: lessons from a user study BIBAKFull-Text 67
  Norman Höller; Arjan Geven; Manfred Tscheligi; Lucas Paletta; Katrin Amlacher; Patrik Luley; Dusan Omercevic
We present a study investigating two novel mobile services supporting querying for information in the urban environment using camera equipped smart phones as well as two different ways to visualize results -- icon-based visualization and text-based visualization. Both applications enable the user to access information about an object by snapping a photo of it. We investigate how users would use a photo-based tourist guide in a free exploration setting in general as well as the acceptance/preference of two different ways to visualize results.
Keywords: augmented reality, computer vision, mobile devices
A context-sensitive security model for privacy protection on mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 68
  Julian Seifert; Alexander De Luca; Bettina Conradi
In this paper we present a context-sensitive security model for privacy protection on mobile phones. We describe the system TreasurePhone which implements this security model. The Privacy Protection is realized by spheres, which represent the user's context specific need for privacy. That is, users can create any number of spheres and define which services and data are accessible in each sphere. TreasurePhone integrates context information for supporting authentication and activation of spheres by locations and actions. A basic hierarchy is used for determining which location should be activated based on the associated sensor value.
Keywords: data security, mobile phone, privacy
iPiccer: automatically retrieving and inferring tagged location information from web repositories BIBAFull-Text 69
  Benjamin Proß; Johannes Schöning; Antonio Krüger
We present iPiccer, a system that allows mobile camera phones users to interact with meta-tagged image material available from web repositories, such as flickr in two novel ways. Users of the system are able to infer photo tags from their location and orientation, but are also able to infer their location and orientation from their spatial photo tags. An implementation of iPiccerTaker is outlined, and the potential of this new form of interaction with web repository data is discussed.
Mobile phone web browsing: a study on usage and usability of the mobile web BIBAKFull-Text 70
  Grischa Schmiedl; Markus Seidl; Klaus Temper
Browsing the Web on mobile phones has finally hit the mass. The visualization of websites on latest mobile phone models comes close to what we are used from desktop computers. Tailoring websites for mobile phones seems to be not mandatory anymore. But still the small display size limits the user experience when browsing the web on these devices. As a result although access to the full web is reasonably well working a tendency to providing additional versions of mobile optimized versions of websites can be observed. This paper presents a multidimensional study where usage scenarios as well as the usability of mobile tailored compared to full websites were investigated. The results show clearly that users prefer and effectively do benefit from mobile optimized versions. However content providers sometimes do not understand the mobile scenarios in which their sites are used and consequently begin optimizing the functionality at the wrong end.
Keywords: mobile web, survey, usability, usage scenarios
Please touch the exhibits!: using NFC-based interaction for exploring a museum BIBAKFull-Text 71
  Magdalena Blöckner; Svetlana Danti; Jennifer Forrai; Gregor Broll; Alexander De Luca
Museums often use mobile devices and applications to let visitors explore their exhibits and interact with them in order to make the user experience more immersive and enjoyable. This paper presents a mobile museum guide based on the physical interaction with a dynamic NFC-display, consisting of a grid of NFC-tags and a projected GUI. Visitors can browse tours on the public display, download them onto their mobile devices and use them for the exploration of the museum. The paper presents the design of the museum guide, a first prototype and a preliminary evaluation of its usability and the interaction with a dynamic NFC-display.
Keywords: NFC, learning environments, mobile guide, multi-tag interaction
Kartta: extracting landmarks near personalized points-of-interest from user generated content BIBAKFull-Text 72
  Arttu Perttula; Scott Carter; Laurent Denoue
Most mobile navigation systems focus on answering the question, "I know where I want to go, now can you show me exactly how to get there?" While this approach works well for many tasks, it is not as useful for unconstrained situations in which user goals and spatial landscapes are more fluid, such as festivals or conferences. In this paper we describe the design and iteration of the Kartta system, which we developed to answer a slightly different question: "What are the most interesting areas here and how do I find them?"
Keywords: media, mobile, navigation
Poker surface: combining a multi-touch table and mobile phones in interactive card games BIBAKFull-Text 73
  Alireza Sahami Shirazi; Tanja Döring; Pouyan Parvahan; Bernd Ahrens; Albrecht Schmidt
In this paper, we introduce the design and implementation of a digital card game that combines mobile phone gestures and multi-touch tabletop interactions. Conceptually based on interactions in traditional card games, our Poker game application explores different natural ways of interaction, including touching the table as well as tilting, throwing, and shaking a mobile phone. By exemplarily translating traditional gestures into the digital domain, we provide a use case to discuss useful gestures combing mobile phones with tabletop surfaces, as well as to explore a private-public display setting for digital card games at interactive tables. Additionally, the mobile phone provides a tangible feeling similar to physical cards. The preliminary user study showed that users preferred using mobile phones for interaction compared to direct interaction on the multi-touch table.
Keywords: card games, gestures, interactive surfaces, mobile phone
Designing a mobile task based UI for tourists BIBAKFull-Text 74
  Lieve Laporte; Peter Eyckerman; Bieke Zaman
Substantial research effort has been devoted to the design of mobile tourist guides. Although a lot of these guides already provide some naturalness and intelligence in the interaction with users, their user interfaces are mostly object-based. In this article we will argue that, due to the users' limited attention capacity and the great variety of tasks they have to perform on their trips, more emphasis should be put on the integration of tasks within the users' context of activity. Based on the preliminary results of a qualitative user & task analysis, we suggest concrete guidelines and a task hierarchy for a mobile tourist guide UI.
Keywords: electronic tourist guides -- task-based interfaces
Inspire, guide, and entertain: designing a mobile assistant for runners BIBAKFull-Text 75
  Ekaterina Kurdyukova
The paper presents the design of a mobile assistant for runners. We propose visual and auditory user interface for a mobile assistant, called Mobota. The system supports navigation on a new track, provides competition against a virtual rival, monitors real time user performance, entertains and encourages runners. We introduce entertaining and inspiring community notes that convey emotional messages from other sportsmen who exercise on the same track. The design and evaluation of Mobota provides an insight into the specifics of visual and auditory design of running assistants.
Keywords: auditory design, mobile UI, mobile sports, training assistant
RECON: capturing mobile and ubiquitous interaction in real contexts BIBAKFull-Text 76
  Kasper Løvborg Jensen
Evaluating the user experience of mobile and ubiquitous applications is a challenging task. They are becoming increasingly complex and tightly interwoven into the fabric of everyday life and thus cannot easily be taken out of context and evaluated in controlled experimental environments. Methods for studying the user experience of such applications in the field tend to be cumbersome and expensive with regard to time and manpower, and they generally do not scale well with number of users and duration of studies. RECON addresses these challenges and provides an addition to the methodological and practical toolbox from which researchers and practitioners can draw when conducting field experiments. It facilitates automated capture of general usage and application specific interaction augmented with information about the context in which it occurs. RECON enables researchers and practitioners to conduct large scale remote studies of mobile and ubiquitous applications in real contexts.
Keywords: capture, context, field study, in situ, interaction, mobile, tool, ubiquitous, usability, user experience
Supporting mobile work processes in logistics with wearable computing BIBAKFull-Text 77
  Ingrid Rügge; Carmen Ruthenbeck; Jakub Piotrowski; Christian Meinecke; Felix Böse
Logistics is a very dynamic and heterogeneous application area which generates complex requirements regarding the development of information and communication technologies (ICT). For this area, it is a challenge to support mobile workers on-site in an unobtrusive manner. In this contribution, wearable computing technologies are investigated as basis for a "mobile worker supporting system" for tasks at an automobile terminal. The features of wearable computing technologies are checked against the requirements of the application area to come to an usable and acceptable mobile solution in an user-centred design process.
Keywords: autonomous control, logistics, mobile usability, mobile work processes, user-centred design, wearable computing
Familiarity as a factor in designing finger gestures for elderly users BIBAKFull-Text 78
  Christian Stößel
Older adults often struggle with everyday technology which is not designed to accommodate their special needs and adapted to their specific cognitive, sensory and motor abilities. Recently, a new generation of mobile devices has been equipped with multitouch and acceleration sensors that allow for novel ways of interacting with these devices. Interaction occurs through gestures, such as finger movements on the device surface or movement patterns of the device itself, which trigger the device functions. It remains unclear, however, whether this gesture-based interaction indeed facilitates technology interaction, especially with regard to elderly users, or whether it further decreases accessibility and usability of such devices for this user group. In the present study we compare younger and older users on a set of 42 simple gestures with varying complexity and available gesture space regarding accuracy and velocity scales. Results indicate that older users are slower, but not necessarily less accurate, and that further factors such as familiarity can influence gesture performance differentially for older and younger users.
Keywords: gesture-based interaction, interface design, older users
The use of mobile contact list applications and a context-oriented framework to support their design BIBAKFull-Text 79
  Andreas Komninos; Dimitrios Liarokapis
Contact lists are one of the most frequently used applications on mobile devices. They are used not only as contact detail repositories, but also as temporary information storage for unrelated items, such as PINs or passwords. Users are reluctant to delete or remove contacts from their repositories. As such, these become increasingly large, sometimes measuring several hundred entries. In this paper we present our findings from early investigations into the use of mobile Contact Lists. We also propose a context oriented design framework to aid the speed and efficacy of the information seeking and retrieval process during the use of the Contact List application.
Keywords: context awareness, mobile PIM, user studies
A preliminary evaluation of head and facial feature tracking for input on mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 80
  Kathryn Carnegie; Stuart Fleming; Esfandiar Ammirahimi; Andreas Komninos
This paper discusses the concept of using head and facial feature tracking as an input mechanism for mobile devices. We present our concept and ideas, along with preliminary findings from two prototype implementations. Suggestions for further work and implications are presented in the final sections of the paper.
Keywords: computer vision, mobile device interfaces, text input
A mobile starfield visualization with space compression capabilities BIBAKFull-Text 81
  Stefano Burigat; Luca Chittaro
In this paper, we present MoStarD, a mobile application that couples starfield displays with dynamic queries to support user exploration of large datasets. A novel space compression technique enables users to compress areas of the starfield display to optimize screen space usage and easily focus on specific subsets of a dataset.
Keywords: information visualization, small-screen devices, starfield displays
Designing a mobile application to capture everyday activity BIBAKFull-Text 82
  Lynne Baillie; Lee Morton; Gillian MacLellan; Gemma Ryde
Despite the importance of physical activity to health, many people do not meet the recommended guidelines for physical activity. In order to gain a greater understanding of people's activity levels and patterns in everyday life we designed a mobile activity monitoring application, which resides on mobile phones which utilizes the accelerometer and GPS (either as an externally attached component or as in internal component) data. We designed the system to be used by any member of the public and then redesigned the system given continuous feedback from three sets of local authority workers who were just about to commence a walking led scheme. We logged their activity over a week long period.
Keywords: GPS, mobile phone applications, monitoring, tracking
SeCuUI: autocomplete your terminal input BIBAKFull-Text 83
  Max-Emanuel Maurer; Alexander De Luca
With SeCuUI we present a solution that aims to increase security of data entry on public terminals. The user can enter all data requested by the terminal using her mobile device. Sensitive data can be hidden from prying eyes by exclusively showing it on the user's mobile. To speed up the whole process, the SeCuUI-client stores previously entered data on the mobile device to provide auto form filling capabilities.
Keywords: mobile phones, privacy, public terminals, security
The mobile Oracle: a tool for early user involvement BIBAKFull-Text 84
  Charlotte Magnusson; Martin Pielot; Margarita Anastassova; Kirsten Rassmus-Gröhn; Konrad Tollmar; Samuel Roselier
This paper describes a novel tool for eliciting user requirements early in the design process of mobile applications. The "Mobile Oracle", as we have called it, is intended to help developers and designers obtain a better understanding of what the user wants at different points in space and time. It is an extension of a lo-fi version of the well-established Wizard of Oz technique, but it adds an "on demand" component to force users to explicitly request the information they need. The technique has been tested in an investigation involving 15 users (sighted, visually impaired, and elderly). Our preliminary results show it to generate valuable information concerning the ways people ask about directions and distances, as well as the services they would like to have in future mobile applications.
Keywords: design, on demand, user requirements, wizard of oz
Touch based interaction using a three display interface design BIBAKFull-Text 85
  Sandra Dittenberger; Arjan Geven; Manfred Tscheligi; Markus Mayer
In this poster we present findings of a study focusing on touch based interaction using a three display interface design on a mobile phone. We aimed to reveal users' individual preferences and methods for mobile device personalization; to find out to which extent users have already adopted the method of touch based interaction; and finally to investigate users' acceptance of location-based idle screens. Using our new interaction concept for a mobile device, we found out that participants perceive the possibility to personalize their mobile phones as important due to emotional bonding reasons with their mobile device and still the method of touch based interaction has not been fully adopted.
Keywords: location based idle screen, personalization, touch display interaction
Context-aware communication support system with pictographic cards BIBAKFull-Text 86
  Gunhee Kim; Jukyung Park; Manchul Han; Sehyung Park; Sungdo Ha
We present a context-aware pictographic display system that facilitates the search for communication cards that bear some relation to the location and goal of the user. The system consists of a server and a mobile device: the server searches for relevant cards on the basis of the context, and then prioritizes them in terms of their relatedness; the mobile device displays pictographic cards according to the priority. This system can help people who have speech-language difficulties by reducing the searching time and difficulties, when the user wants to find the pictographic cards.
Keywords: communication, context-awareness, pictographic card, speechlanguage difficulties
Eyes-free overviews for mobile map applications BIBAKFull-Text 87
  David McGookin; Stephen Brewster
We outline two new auditory interaction techniques which build upon existing visual techniques to display off-screen points of interest (POI) in map based mobile computing applications. SonicPie uses a pie menu and compass metaphor, allowing a user to scroll around the environment, hearing off-screen POIs in a spatialised auditory environment. EdgeTouch integrates with the Wedge technique of Gustafson et al. [2], sonifying the POIs as the user comes into contact with them when moving his or her finger around a "sonification border".
Keywords: auditory display, digital maps, off-screen data presentation
Contextual push-to-talk: a new technique for reducing voice dialog duration BIBAKFull-Text 88
  Garrett Weinberg
We present a technique in which physical controls have both normal and voice-enabled activation styles. In the case of the latter, knowledge of which physical control was activated provides context to the speech recognition subsystem. This context would otherwise be established by one or more steps in a voice dialog initiated by a conventional, single "push-to-talk" button.
Keywords: push-to-talk, speech recognition, voice dialogs
'Do you smell rotten eggs?': evaluating interactions with mobile agents in crisis response situations BIBAKFull-Text 89
  Andi Winterboer; Henriette S. M. Cramer; Gregor Pavlin; Frans C. A. Groen; Vanessa Evers
In this paper, we present ongoing research concerning the interaction between users and autonomous mobile agents in the environmental monitoring domain. The overarching project, DIADEM, deals with developing a system that detects potentially hazardous situations in populated industrial areas using input from both a distributed sensor network and humans through mobile devices. We propose a model of interaction with the gas detection system where concerned citizens communicate with a mobile agent to inform the gas monitoring system about unusual smells via their mobile phones. Next, we present a preliminary user requirements analysis based on 40 phone calls from members of the public to an environmental monitoring agency. Finally, we introduce measures to study the delicate long-term social relationship between users and the gas monitoring system.
Keywords: adaptivity, evaluation, sensor networks, social aspects, trust
User experience with in-car GPS navigation systems: comparing the young and elderly drivers BIBAKFull-Text 90
  Abdullah Al Mahmud; Omar Mubin; Suleman Shahid
This paper outlines the design requirements of a GPS car navigation system for the elderly and the young by proposing a set of new guidelines for designing such systems. Our study revealed that younger drivers had a more positive user experience as compared to the elderly drivers. This paper also identifies a number of advanced features that a routing system should have for satisfying both the elderly and younger drivers on road. In conclusion, we will discuss the key design recommendations that were derived from the study.
Keywords: GPS navigation system, elderly, user experience, young
Phototropic memories BIBAKFull-Text 91
  Claudio L. Midolo
This paper illustrates the thesis research and process that led me to conceive, design and evaluate the Phototropic Memories device, a novel interface supporting the intimate sharing of personal visual memories over spatial and temporal distance, between two emotionally bound persons.
Keywords: affective, context aware, digital photography, slow tech, symbolic, telecommunication
Improving the recommendation of mobile services by interpreting the user's icon arrangement BIBAKFull-Text 92
  Matthias Böhmer; Gernot Bauer
The aether soon will be pervaded with a high density of digital services for usage on mobile phones. Personalization plays a crucial role for the success and acceptance of such systems. In this paper, we present work in progress on a new approach for improving the personalization of recommender systems for pervasive services. Mobile utilization is extended from services inherent in devices to pervasive services. We describe a new concept for collaborative and content-based filtering based on the users' service rankings given by arrangement of menu icons and discuss different models for interaction with a varying icon menu.
Keywords: context-awareness, personalization, touch-based interaction
Flashlight interaction: a study on mobile phone interaction techniques with large displays BIBAKFull-Text 93
  Alireza Sahami Shirazi; Christian Winkler; Albrecht Schmidt
In this paper, we introduce Flashlight interaction, a new approach to light-based interaction between mobile phones and large screens by using the phone camera flashlight. Using a mobile phone as an interaction device with large screens has been explored in various projects. Mobile phones are enhanced with different sensors and provide opportunities to be used as an interaction device with other devices such as a large display. Our approach supports to set up a private-public display setting and provide simple means for interaction without a wireless connectivity. Our user study results indicate that the interaction is easy to perform and understand due to the direct mapping between the phone movement and the response on the screen.
Keywords: interaction, light, mobile phone, public display
Detecting physical shock by a mobile phone and its applications in security and emergency BIBAKFull-Text 94
  Hamed Ketabdar
In this paper, we propose a method for detecting physical shock by a mobile phone and its applications in security and emergency scenarios. We use acceleration signal provided by accelerometers integrated in a mobile phone to detect shocks. The shock is identified by analysis of acceleration pattern using statistical signal processing methods. We propose to use such a shock detection application for increasing security of data access in a mobile phone, as well as identifying scenarios which user of mobile phone experiences risky emergency events.
Keywords: acceleration signal, emergency, mobile phone, physical shock, security

Doctoral consortium

Emotional factors influencing technology acceptance particularly with regard to mobile service usage BIBAFull-Text 95
  Elisabeth Platzer
In December 2008 the 4 billion mark of mobile phone subscribers has been passed. All these people use their mobile phones in different ways and with varying objectives often guided or influenced by their emotions. Substantial profits are no longer gained with standard services like voice calls or SMS but with data services (e.g. Mobile TV or Location based services). Lots of these services are not initially successful even though their high level of usability was pre-estimated by means of traditional test procedures. Hence there is a huge demand for a method to examine individuals' adoption and usage decisions that provides acceptance explanations that are valid regarding reality not only statistics.
Developing principles for outdoor mobile multimedia guides in cultural heritage settings BIBAKFull-Text 96
  Heloisa Candello
This study aims to develop design principles for outdoor mobile multimedia guides in cultural heritage.
Keywords: handheld and cultural heritage, mobile, usability
Designing mobile patient-centric self-help terminals for people with diabetes BIBAKFull-Text 97
  Naoe Tatara
The aim of this PhD-project is to establish new knowledge in design methodology of user-interface on mobile terminal-based self-help tools that are easy and intuitive to use and unobtrusive in daily life, and that enhance motivation in self-management of diabetes.
Keywords: diabetes, health care, mobile terminal, user interface
User-centered design of mobile wellness applications BIBAFull-Text 98
  Aino Ahtinen
The PhD research explores the design space of mobile wellness applications by utilizing design research methods. Several case studies are included in the research, e.g. [1],[2],[3],[4]. The main focus of the research is on the aspects, considerations and solutions related to motivational and persuasive mobile wellness applications. The research draws from the multifaceted combination of theories of human behavior, motivation and knowledge of technological possibilities, especially from the user experience perspective.
Designing for mobile interaction: looking for a pragmatic middleground BIBAFull-Text 99
  Elena Nazzi
The theme of this PhD project is designing for mobile interaction with devices and services, for the accessing, making, and sharing of information, taking into account the dynamic physical and social settings that embrace this interaction. To narrow down this theme, the whole project focuses on the exploitation of social interaction -- in particular among senior citizens -- to enhance and support mobile interaction.
Harnessing accelerometer technology for inclusive mobile learning BIBAKFull-Text 100
  Tracey J. Mehigan
The goal of this research is the establishment of a usable and accessible mobile learning system for the inclusion of both blind and vision-impaired students within mainstream education through independent, collaborative and ubiquitous mobile learning environments. An essential component of this work is the enhancement of the field to enable all students to work successfully together despite vision disabilities for the achievement of a learning outcome.
   Given the advancements in mobile technologies, and the personal nature of mobile devices, there is a lot to be gained, especially for the vision-impaired, by harnessing new technologies for education. Some technological advances can increase the divide between such students and their fully sighted peers. However the incorporation of technologies such as the accelerometer, now standard within many modern mobile phones, provides an opportunity to develop new inclusive mobile learning applications.
   The accelerometer could enable us to present a vision impaired student with the capability to successfully play and interact directly with their fully sighted peers within a collaborative game to achieve a single outcome. This could be achieved without the heavy reliance on visual interfaces that were a necessary part of earlier mLearning models. The student would interact with the game through specific movements of their mobile handheld device. The device, for example, would be moved in one direction to give a specific command, while tilting and shaking the device would be used to command separate specific functions of the game. The student's interaction through the accelerometer could be enhanced through the provision of both haptic and audio feedback as they twist and tilt the handheld mobile device to interact with a learning game, removing altogether the need for the incorporation of a visual interface. The incorporation of wireless technologies such as Bluetooth, would allow for the provision of a collaborative environment for mobile learning, allowing all students to communicate via their handheld device, regardless of the disabilities faced by individual learners.
   Providing the ability to create an engaging, level playing field for such students could reduce the digital divide currently in existence for the future success of mobile learning environments.
Keywords: accelerometers, interaction, learner styles, mobile learning, vision impaired
Mobile application framework for the next billion mobile users BIBAKFull-Text 101
  Jörg Dörflinger
Every day about 1 million people become mobile phone users -- 85% of these live in the developing world. The biggest potential of future mobile development will not be in the already saturated 1st economy market but in the market of about one billion potential mobile users in emerging economies. In contrast to the impressive rise of mobile phone usage, the mobile services and applications provided for this new market are far behind expectations. Due to infrastructural (low, erratic and expensive bandwidth, low end devices) and social (illiteracy, novice ICT users) impediments a copy&paste approach of well known application and architecture concepts from the 1st economy will not work. My research goal is the development of a Mobile Application Framework (MAF) containing guidelines, concepts, and best practices to provide novice IT users in rural areas of emerging economies with the most appropriate access to ICT according to the infrastructural and cultural impediments.
Keywords: ICT4D, mobile HCI, mobile application, next billion
Mobile attachment: emotional attachment towards mobile devices and services BIBAKFull-Text 102
  Alexander Meschtscherjakov
In my thesis I address the topic of mobile attachment. I provide a theoretical framework for mobile attachment together with influencing factors that indicate user's emotional attachment (EA) to mobile devices and services. I investigate how the concept of user experience (UX) and EA are linked together and I outline how user behavior driven experience sampling can be exploited to measure mobile attachment. My research will result in design suggestions how the creation of EA to mobile devices and services can be facilitated.
Keywords: ages, experience sampling method, mobile attachment


Sharing Experiences with Social Mobile Media BIBAKFull-Text 103
  Jari Multisilta; Marcelo Milrad
In this workshop we are interested in usability, context and user practices related to uses of social mobile media for sharing human experiences. There is a growing trend pointing to life publishing and life logging using mobile devices. Users are sharing their experiences and their life with friends in real-time by posting blog notes, images and video clips from their phones to social media services. In addition, people are tagging content either by manually or using sensory data with their phones. An interesting question to be asked is; How users are experiencing these applications and what issues make them to be successfully adopted? This workshop will offer an interdisciplinary discussion forum for both practitioners and academics interested in conceptualizing, designing and evaluating emerging social mobile media concepts and applications. The workshop, through a series of interactive presentations, will facilitate discussions aiming at identify and summarize main theoretical and interaction design concerns related to the increasing use of social mobile media in a variety of settings. The main goal of the workshop is to find out ideas that suggest promising directions for future research on social mobile media.
Keywords: context, design, evaluation, experiences, experiments, life publishing, life-logging, mobile, sharing, social media, usability
SiMPE: Fourth Workshop on Speech in Mobile and Pervasive Environments BIBAKFull-Text 104
  A. A. Nanavati; N. Rajput; A. I. Rudnicky; M. Turunen; A. L. Kun; T. Paek; I. Tashev
With the proliferation of pervasive devices and the increase in their processing capabilities, client-side speech processing has been emerging as a viable alternative.
   SiMPE 2009, the fourth in the series, will continue to explore issues, possibilities, and approaches for enabling speech processing as well as convenient and effective speech and multimodal user interfaces. One of our major goals for SiMPE 2009 is to increase the participation of speech/multimodal HCI designers, and increase their interactions with speech processing experts.
   Multimodality got more attention in SiMPE 2008 than it has received in the previous years. In SiMPE 2007 [3], the focus was on developing regions. Given the importance of speech in developing regions, SiMPE 2008 had "SiMPE for developing regions" as a topic of interest. We think of this as a key emerging area for mobile speech applications, and will continue this in 2009 as well.
Keywords: mobile computing, pervasive computing, speech processing
Community Practices and Locative Media BIBAKFull-Text 105
  Katharine S. Willis; Keith Cheverst; Claudia Mueller; Pablo Abend; Cornelius Neufeldt
The development of locative media applications is not simply about the physical location or social setting in which the interaction occurs, but rather about situating the media within a community of practice. This workshop will provide the environment for researchers to explore the potential for locative media applications to support community practices. The workshop will highlight the many open areas that require research attention, identify key problems that need to be addressed, and also discuss approaches for solving these issues. In particular the workshop will focus on appropriate methodologies for identifying requirements, evaluating behaviour and integrating locative media in specific real-world community structures.
Keywords: community, ethnography, locating, media, practices
Mobile Interaction with the Real World BIBAKFull-Text 106
  Andreas Zimmermann; Niels Henze; Xavier Righetti; Enrico Rukzio
The workshop on Mobile Interaction with the Real World (MIRW 2009) will invite papers which focus on new mobile and wearable input and output interfaces which allow simpler and straightforward interactions with mobile services and applications. An inherit problem of current mobile devices are their limited output and input capabilities. This workshop continues a successful series of workshops (2006-2008) that focus on new approaches to overcome these issues. Examples are the usage of external visual interfaces (e.g. projector phones, public displays, interactive surfaces) and additional input capabilities (e.g. gestures, on-body interfaces, pointing) and innovative feedback mechanisms (e.g. tactile feedback). The workshop combines technical presentations with the presentation of prototypes and focused discussions to drive interaction between participants.
Keywords: mobile device, mobile interaction, real world, smart objects, wearable computing
Mobile Living Labs 09: Methods and Tools for Evaluation in the Wild: http://mll09.novay.nl BIBAKFull-Text 107
  Henri ter Hofte; Kasper Løvborg Jensen; Petteri Nurmi; Jon Froehlich
In a Mobile Living Lab, mobile devices are used to evaluate concepts and prototypes in real-life settings. In other words, the lab is brought to the people. This workshop provides a forum for researchers and practitioners to share experiences and issues with methods and tools for Mobile Living Labs. In particular, we seek to bring together people who have applied methods for Mobile Living Labs and people who build tools for those methods.
   The aim of the workshop is twofold. First, to make an up-to-date overview of current methods and tools for conducting user studies in Mobile Living Labs -- highlighting their individual strengths and weaknesses. Second, to uncover challenges that are not adequately addressed by current methods and tools and to come up with ideas and requirements that could fill this gap thus serving as beacons for further research and development in this area.
Keywords: field study, in-situ evaluation, living labs, methods, mobile, tools, user experience
Context-Aware Mobile Media and Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 108
  Jonna Häkkilä; Albrecht Schmidt; Jani Mäntyjärvi; Alireza Sahami; Panu Åkerman; Anind K. Dey
Context-awareness is one of the rising trends of future mobile technology, and due to advances in technology development, new application and service concepts are being developed and demonstrated in an ever-increasing manner. This workshop brings together researchers and practitioners working on humancomputer interaction (HCI) aspects of context-aware mobile technology and communities to present their insights and research on new concepts, interaction design for mobile context-awareness, usability challenges, collaborative context-aware services and applications for supporting communities, and other topics related to HCI with mobile context-aware technology.
Keywords: context-awareness, human-computer interaction, mobile computing, social networks
Measuring Mobile Emotions: Measuring the Impossible? BIBAKFull-Text 109
  Arjan Geven; Manfred Tscheligi; Lucas Noldus
Emotions as such is a research topic with a lot of coverage in various domains (neuroscience, psychology, medicine, criminology and more recently in user experience research). This workshop addresses multidisciplinary approaches, discussing ways of implementing mobile research about emotions. Particularly, this workshop aims to improve the assessment of emotions in the mobile context of field research. The workshop addresses particularly the state-of-the-art in emotion measurement and investigates the possibilities to apply and adopt these methods in the field of mobile HCI.
Keywords: emotions, mobile evaluation methods, mobile measurement, physiology, user experience