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MOBILEHCI Tables of Contents: 02030405060708091011121314

Proceedings of 7th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services

Fullname:Proceedings of the 7th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services
Editors:Manfred Tscheligi; Regina Bernhaupt; Kristijan Mihalic
Location:Salzburg, Austria
Dates:2005-Sep-19 to 2005-Sep-22
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 1-59593-089-2; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: MOBILEHCI05
Papers:89
Pages:390
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Social communication
  2. Designing mobile interaction
  3. Multimodal, multidevice and beyond
  4. Input and visualisation
  5. Dimensions of context
  6. Guiding and navigating
  7. Toward social mobility
  8. Interaction techniques
  9. Fact finding
  10. Optimising navigation
  11. Capturing context
  12. Evaluating mobile content
  13. Posters
  14. Workshops
  15. Tutorials
  16. Demos
  17. Panel

Social communication

Dynamic privacy management: a plug-in service for the middleware in pervasive computing BIBAFull-Text 1-8
  Dan Hong; Mingxuan Yuan; Vincent Y. Shen
Context-aware applications can better meet users' needs when sensing agents installed in the environment automatically provide input relevant to the application. However, this non-intrusive context usage may cause privacy concerns since sensitive user data could be leaked to unauthorized parties. Therefore, data privacy protection becomes one of the major issues for context-aware applications. In this paper, in order to provide services based on various levels of privacy concerns, we extend the Platform for Privacy Preferences of W3C and define a specification for representing user privacy preferences for context-aware applications. We also propose a privacy infrastructure, which could be installed as a plug-in service for middleware supporting context-aware applications. This infrastructure enables the middleware to automatically generate a privacy policy and the user preference file according to the current context. The middleware simply matches these two files to decide whether to proceed with the application. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach through a prototype implementation.
Towards improving trust in context-aware systems by displaying system confidence BIBAFull-Text 9-14
  Stavros Antifakos; Nicky Kern; Bernt Schiele; Adrian Schwaninger
For automatic or context-aware systems a major issue is user trust, which is to a large extent determined by system reliability. For systems based on sensor input which are inherently uncertain or even uncomplete there is little hope that they will ever be perfectly reliable. In this paper we test the hypothesis if explicitly displaying the current confidence of the system increases the usability of such systems. For the example of a context-aware mobile phone, the experiments show that displaying confidence information increases the user's trust in the system.
Searching common experience: a social communication tool based on mobile ad-hoc networking BIBAFull-Text 15-22
  Michimune Kohno; Jun Rekimoto
As small digital cameras become more popular, opportunities to take photos are rapidly increasing. Photo sharing is a great way to maintain and revitalize relationships between families and friends, and is a major motivator for content sharing. While photo sharing has been well studied, little work exists on sharing multiple photo sets contained in spontaneously connected handheld devices.
   This paper provides an algorithm to extract photos, based on common memories collected in an ad hoc group. It automatically searches for and presents photos that could become the starting point of a conversation. We found that our mechanism has more uses than simply organizing photos in chronological order.
   This paper describes our prototype system realized using the above algorithm. We also implemented a synchronized shutters mechanism, that provides a new photo sharing experience. Through subjective tests, we found that our method promotes conversation, even though the users did not know each other beforehand.
Just-for-us: a context-aware mobile information system facilitating sociality BIBAFull-Text 23-30
  Jesper Kjeldskov; Jeni Paay
Mobile computer technologies are increasingly being appropriated and used to facilitate people's social life outside the work domain. Addressing this emerging domain of use, we present the design of a context-aware mobile information system prototype facilitating sociality in public places: Just-for-Us. The design of the prototype system was informed by two empirical studies: an architectural analysis of a recently built public space in Melbourne, Australia and a field study of small groups socialising there. We describe these two studies and illustrate how findings informed our prototype design. Finally, we outline an ongoing field study of the use of the Just-for-Us prototype.
Building social discourse around mobile photos: a systemic perspective BIBAFull-Text 31-38
  Risto Sarvas; Antti Oulasvirta; Giulio Jacucci
Camera phones have been viewed simplistically as digital cameras with poor picture quality while neglecting the utility of the two key functionalities of mobile phones: network connection and access to personal information. This is the first HCI paper to examine mobile photos from a systemic perspective: how assignment of phases of mobile photo lifecycle to different platforms affects social discourse around shared photos. We conducted a 6-week user trial of MobShare, a tripartite system with dedicated functions and task couplings for a mobile phone, a server, and a PC browser. We analyze how MobShare's couplings and distribution of functionalities affected the observed types of social discourse that formed around mobile photos: in-group post-event discourse, self-documents and reports, greetings and thanks. Several central design issues arising from the systemic view are discussed: heterogeneity of environments, integration and distribution of functionalities, couplings and decouplings of interaction tasks, notification mechanisms, and provision of necessary UI resources for different tasks.

Designing mobile interaction

SEREFE: serendipitous file exchange between users and devices BIBAFull-Text 39-46
  Juwon Ahn; Jeffrey S. Pierce
At work and at play, people need access to the right information, and they frequently need to share that information with others. While current tools such as electronic mail and USB flash drives provide powerful mechanisms for managing and sharing information, they too often require that users anticipate what information they might share (e.g. so they have it on their flash drive) and when they might share it (e.g. so they bring the flash drive with them). These tools thus provide excellent support for planned sharing but inadequate support for serendipitously sharing digital information with others. In this paper we discuss eight design goals that a successful system for serendipitous sharing should meet, and we present SEREFE, a new architecture for SEREndipitous File Exchange that we designed to meet those goals. SEREFE extends an instant messaging architecture to allow users to use any of their devices, including a cell phone, to share information stored on any of their devices with other users or to copy it to another of their devices. We describe the SEREFE user experience, implementation, and initial evaluation results.
Exploring bluetooth based mobile phone interaction with the hermes photo display BIBAFull-Text 47-54
  Keith Cheverst; Alan Dix; Daniel Fitton; Chris Kray; Mark Rouncefield; Corina Sas; George Saslis-Lagoudakis; Jennifer G. Sheridan
One of the most promising possibilities for supporting user interaction with public displays is the use of personal mobile phones. Furthermore, by utilising Bluetooth users should have the capability to interact with displays without incurring personal financial connectivity costs. However, despite the relative maturity of Bluetooth as a standard and its widespread adoption in today's mobile phones, little exploration seems to have taken place in this area -- despite its apparent significant potential. This paper describe the findings of an exploratory study involving our Hermes Photo Display which has been extended to enable users with a suitable phone to both send and receive pictures over Bluetooth. We present both the technical challenges of working with Bluetooth and, through our user study, we present initial insights into general user acceptability issues and the potential for such a display to facilitate notions of community.
A comparison of feedback cues for enhancing pointing efficiency in interaction with spatial audio displays BIBAFull-Text 55-62
  Georgios Marentakis; Stephen A. Brewster
An empirical study that compared six different feedback cue types to enhance pointing efficiency in deictic spatial audio displays is presented. Participants were asked to select a sound using a physical pointing gesture, with the help of a loudness cue, a timbre cue and an orientation update cue as well as with combinations of these cues. Display content was varied systematically to investigate the effect of increasing display population. Speed, accuracy and throughput ratings are provided as well as effective target widths that allow for minimal error rates. The results showed direct pointing to be the most efficient interaction technique; however large effective target widths reduce the applicability of this technique. Movement-coupled cues were found to significantly reduce display element size, but resulted in slower interaction and were affected by display content due to the requirement of continuous target attainment. The results show that, with appropriate design, it is possible to overcome interaction uncertainty and provide solutions that are effective in mobile human computer interaction.
Placing links in mobile banking application BIBAFull-Text 63-68
  Tuuli Hyvärinen; Anne Kaikkonen; Mika Hiltunen
This study compares two alternative ways to organize links as navigation elements in mobile banking applications. For the comparison, two alternative banking applications were tested. The applications that were tested had the same content but different ways to navigate with links. One of them provided a system where the user was required to use specific menu pages for navigation and where there were no cross-navigation enabling links on content pages. The other application had cross-navigation enabling links on content pages. The comparison was done by conducting a usability test with 30 test users. The users' performance and subjective feedback were measured in the test. The application with links hierarchically beneath each other on menu pages and having no cross-navigating links on content pages was considered better by the test users than the application with cross-navigation enabling links on content pages. In addition to their academic contribution, the study results can guide the development of current mobile banking services for the participating bank and the development of mobile application guidelines for the participating handset manufacturer. We also believe that the study results can be generalized over other mobile internet applications.
Design requirements for mobile TV BIBAFull-Text 69-76
  Hendrik Knoche; John D. McCarthy
In this paper we examine the interaction and delivery requirements for Mobile TV. By comparing the features of traditional TV with current Mobile TV services we outline the design requirements for a future Mobile TV interface. The proposed design is implemented on an iPAQ and evaluated with end-users in a field trial. Preliminary results of the user study suggest that use of the interface is intuitive and successful in giving a TV-like experience. As a secondary study we investigate the bandwidth requirements for different types of TV content on a 3G phone and a PDA. The results reveal marked differences in bandwidth requirements for different content types. The findings are discussed in the context of future Mobile TV services.

Multimodal, multidevice and beyond

Supporting cognitive walkthrough with video data: a mobile learning evaluation study BIBAFull-Text 77-82
  Silvia Gabrielli; Valeria Mirabella; Stephen Kimani; Tiziana Catarci
Although expert-based evaluation techniques such as heuristic evaluation and cognitive walkthrough are often inexpensive and quick to apply, they have not proved to be effective in capturing contextual factors that arise in real-world settings. It is no trivial issue to understand how such evaluation techniques could be modified or differently applied so as to better take into account context, without loosing the advantages inherent in those techniques. This paper explores a possible way of addressing the trade-off between application of cognitive walkthrough and low cost improvements of its contextual validity. In particular, we propose and investigate the benefits of supporting cognitive walkthrough with video data about user interaction with an eLearning course on mobile device. Initial results from this study indicated that video data provided evaluators with a more detailed understanding of user characteristics and interaction contexts, leading to an improvement of their assessments in terms of the total number of system's flaws detected. Video data was regarded by experts as both relevant and useful, especially for tuning the evaluation focus on types of difficulties they would normally not have experienced because of differences in terms of abilities, knowledge and background with those of the target user group.
Dynamic generation of web migratory interfaces BIBAFull-Text 83-90
  Renata Bandelloni; Giulio Mori; Fabio Paternò
In this paper, we present a solution for dynamic generation of Web user interfaces that can dynamically migrate among different platforms. The solution is based on a migration/proxy server able to automatically convert a desktop service into a service accessible from a different platform, such as a mobile one. This solution can support new environments where users can freely move about and change interaction device while still continuing task performance and accessing the application in a usable manner.
Tool-supported single authoring for device independence and multimodality BIBAFull-Text 91-98
  Rainer Simon; Florian Wegscheider; Konrad Tolar
With the growing proliferation of mobile computing devices, the vision of the web anytime, anywhere and on any device is rapidly becoming a reality. Technologies enabling device-independent presentation and new interaction modalities like voice or gesture are moving from research to commercially available products. As a result, developers are faced with the increasing challenge of providing user interfaces that match the capabilities of the different devices available. Within this paper we present our application-oriented research that has investigated single authoring of multimodal interfaces on mobile devices. After an overview of related work that explains the motivation behind our approach, we present a prototype authoring tool for the development of graphical as well as multimodal web-based user interfaces for multiple devices. We conclude by discussing the relation of our work to established web markup standards and point out noteworthy issues related to their application within our work.
VirHKey: a VIRtual Hyperbolic KEYboard with gesture interaction and visual feedback for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 99-106
  Benoît Martin
The VirHKey is a new text entry method for mobile devices using a simple Unistroke-like alphabet. Gesture recognition is accomplished not through pattern recognition but through sequences of flicks with low required angular accuracy: 2p/5 in radians. This means that the full stroke path is unimportant and recognition is highly deterministic, enabling good accuracy. All during the interaction, an optional visual feedback is provided at least for the learning stage. This is done with a focus and context display based on the hyperbolic geometry. To illustrate the possibilities of the VirHKey, a prototype application was developed and usability tests demonstrated the overall good performances of the proposition with a text entry rate from 18 to 25 words per minute and a high satisfaction of users.
Augmenting audio messages with visual directions in mobile guides: an evaluation of three approaches BIBAFull-Text 107-114
  Luca Chittaro; Stefano Burigat
Supporting users' navigation is a fundamental feature of mobile guides. This paper presents an experimental evaluation comparing three different ways of providing navigation guidance by combining visual and audio directions during guided city tours. The three considered solutions differ in the way audio directions are augmented with visual directions: a traditional map-based solution, a combination of a map and photographs of the area, a combination of large arrows and photographs.
   The results of our evaluation show that when the map is combined with photographs that clearly indicate the direction to the user or when the map is replaced by a combination of directional arrows and photographs, users' performance is significantly better. Moreover, the combination of map and photographs was highly preferred by users.

Input and visualisation

Evaluating mobile text entry strategies with finite state automata BIBAFull-Text 115-121
  Frode Eika Sandnes
In this paper a methodology for representing text-input strategies for miniature and mobile devices is proposed. The methodology is based on representing text-input strategies as graphs. Graph representations allow different static mobile text-input strategies to be represented in a uniform manner. Further, different strategies are easily compared as the graph representation allows various characteristics to be extracted. The methodology incorporates KSPC (KeyStrokes Per Character), checking for error recoverability and correctness. We also propose an error recovery measure -- the mean error recovery distance (MERD). The methodology can be expanded to include additional evaluation measures and it is feasible to implement design-tool support. Finally, the methodology is demonstrated on several text entry designs from the literature.
Mobile text entry: relationship between walking speed and text input task difficulty BIBAFull-Text 122-128
  Sachi Mizobuchi; Mark Chignell; David Newton
The effect of key size on text entry on a handheld device while walking and standing was examined in order to answer the following questions: 1) Will the additional workload of walking amplify the effect of input difficulty? and 2) Can walking speed be used as a secondary task measure of mental workload during mobile text entry? 13 participants (7 males and 6 females) input well known sayings (sentences) in English into a handheld device in each of four size conditions, with the text input box ranging in width between 2 and 5 millimetres (mm). Text input speed increased with larger size of text box up to a size of 3mm, and text input speed was faster when standing (vs. walking). The effect of size did not depend on whether participants were walking or standing. Errors were significantly higher for the 2mm size condition but did not vary for the wider sizes, while subjective ease of input increased with increasing input box width, only crossing the midpoint of the rating scale (i.e., more easy than difficult) at an input box width of 3mm. Based on these results it is recommended that a minimum text input box width of 3mm be used for handheld text input. Walking speed during text entry in this study was relatively low (with a mean of 1.77 km/h) but width of text input box had no additional effect on walking speed over and above the general slowing caused by text entry. Thus the answers to both of the main questions posed in this study were in the negative, although the fact that people had to enter text slowed walking speed by a fixed amount (independent of level of input difficulty) that varied between individuals. Implications for measuring workload in mobile text entry tasks are discussed.
ZuiScat: querying and visualizing information spaces on personal digital assistants BIBAFull-Text 129-136
  Thorsten Büring; Harald Reiterer
ZuiScat is a visualization concept for querying large information spaces on Personal Digital Assistants (PDA). Retrieval results are presented in a dynamic scatterplot, which is enhanced by geometric and semantic zoom techniques to provide smooth transitions from abstract visual encodings to data content. The same visualization is also used to manage bookmarks and to serve as a powerful query history tool. User feedback suggests that ZuiScat provides intuitive and efficient data access but still needs further improvement in terms of zoom usability and visual mapping.
Spatial interactive visualization on small screen BIBAFull-Text 137-144
  Tero Hakala; Juha Lehikoinen; Antti Aaltonen
The amount of data stored in personal digital devices increases rapidly as their memory capacities increase. These devices are usually equipped with relatively small displays, which makes presenting the information a challenge. We set out to explore the spatial design space for small screen user interfaces by incorporating additional dimensions into the visual representation, and investigate techniques that may be used to display more information at once. We focus on interactive visualization, with a document manager as a target application. We present the design factors and a simulated application running on a desktop computer. We also report a formative usability study with promising results.

Dimensions of context

Using context to navigate through a photo collection BIBAFull-Text 145-152
  Julien Pauty; Paul Couderc; Michel Banâtre
In this article we present an application to navigate through a photo collection, using context. This application proposes two navigation schemes: physical and virtual navigation. Physical navigation permits the user to seamlessly access to photos that were taken near him. Virtual navigation permits the user to virtually explore the surroundings by jumping from one photo to another.
   This application relies on a definition of context which is based on a notion of proximity. Proximity can be determined according to one or several dimensions. For example, with this definition the user's context can be represented by the photos that were taken near him during a precise period like the Second World War. Such a context permits the user to physically navigate the photo collection nowadays and to get photos of the surroundings that were taken during another time period. Our application offers other services, such as temporal navigation to get different views of a place, route planing or virtually entering into closed buildings.
Context-based design of mobile applications for museums: a survey of existing practices BIBAFull-Text 153-160
  Dimitrios Raptis; Nikolaos Tselios; Nikolaos Avouris
This paper includes a review of mobile applications used in museum environments, focusing on the notion of context and its constituent dimensions. Museums are a representative example in which the context influences interaction. During a museum visit, the visitors interact with the exhibits through mobile devices. We argue that, effective interaction design needs to take into consideration multiple dimensions of the context. Since context is often misinterpreted, superficially used or poorly defined, we attempt to analyze a number of existing mobile applications used in museum environments, through this perspective. The point of analysis is to evaluate those applications against various context dimensions. We argue that these results can be useful in other kinds of applications, in which the impact of context is not taken for granted.
SenseMS: a user-centered approach to enrich the messaging experience for teens by non-verbal means BIBAFull-Text 161-166
  A. K. Amin; B. T. A. Kersten; O. A. Kulyk; P. H. Pelgrim; C. M. Wang; P. Markopoulos
This paper reports the user study and design of a concept to improve mobile messaging for teens. A study of current mobile phone use by teens (16-18) showed that, while they prefer communicating by Short Message Service (SMS), they miss expressiveness in this application. An enhanced SMS application, SenseMS, is designed to support affective communication. An evaluation of a SenseMS prototype has shown that enhancing text messages with contextual information and human embodiment can result in a more pleasant experience for both the sender and receiver. Especially for negative emotions, contextual and emotional information are essential for interpreting the message. The study also showed different usage scenarios, in that SenseMS is preferred for emotion-rich messages, whereas SMS is more appropriate for fast and emotion-poor messages.
ContextContacts: re-designing SmartPhone's contact book to support mobile awareness and collaboration BIBAFull-Text 167-174
  Antti Oulasvirta; Mika Raento; Sauli Tiitta
Acontextuality of the mobile phone often leads to a caller's uncertainty over a callee's current state, which in turn often hampers mobile collaboration. We are interested in re-designing a Smartphone's contact book to provide cues of the current situations of others. ContextContacts presents several meaningful, automatically communicated situation cues of trusted others. Its interaction design follows social psychological findings on how people make social attributions based on impoverished cues, on how self-disclosure of cues is progressively and interactionally managed, and on how mobility affects interaction through cues. We argue how our design choices support mobile communication decisions and group coordinations by promoting awareness. As a result, the design is very minimal and integrated, in an "unremarkable" manner, to previously learned usage patterns with the phone. First laboratory and field evaluations indicate important boundary conditions for and promising avenues toward more useful and enjoyable mobile awareness applications.
CANVIS: context-aware network visualization using smartphones BIBAFull-Text 175-182
  Keith Mitchell; Nicholas J. P. Race; Michael Clarke
This paper describes a prototype application which enables the real-time monitoring and visualization of large Wide Area Networks (WANs) using smartphone devices. The techniques employed allow field engineers to rapidly gain access to a large information repository through the use of a camera equipped mobile phone. More specifically, the use of visual codes [11] attached to networking hardware and infrastructure cabling enables the real-time visualization of network traffic and statistics to be triggered by the capturing of images from a personal device. Moreover, the location and orientation of the phone are used as contextual parameters in order to control the specific information to be retrieved. The prototype described in this paper is currently under evaluation by Information Systems Services (ISS) which is responsible for network support across Lancaster University, the student residences network and also a large regional WAN spanning the whole of the North West of England. Our aim was to establish whether or not this user interaction technique could be harnessed for a real world application that would benefit field engineers who are responsible for maintaining a live production network interconnecting tens of thousands of hosts.

Guiding and navigating

Walk 'n scroll: a comparison of software-based navigation techniques for different levels of mobility BIBAFull-Text 183-190
  Bonnie MacKay; David Dearman; Kori Inkpen; Carolyn Watters
In this paper, we present a field study comparing software-based navigation techniques (scrollbars, tap-and-drag, and touch-n-go) on mobile devices. In particular, we were interested in exploring the efficiency and user preference of these navigation techniques for different levels of mobility (sitting, walking, and standing) in a naturalistic environment. Results show that while there was no significant difference in performance between tap-and-drag and touch-n-go, both techniques significantly outperformed scrollbars for simple, multi-directional navigation tasks. In addition, the users preferred the touch-n-go technique over the other two methods. The results also revealed that users' interactions and preferences differed between the levels of mobility.
Understanding the role of image recognition in mobile tour guides BIBAFull-Text 191-198
  Nigel Davies; Keith Cheverst; Alan Dix; Andre Hesse
Users of mobile tour guides often express a strong desire for the system to be able to provide information on arbitrary objects they encounter during their visit -- akin to pointing to a building or attraction and saying "what's that?" to a human tour guide. This paper reports on a field study in which we investigated user reaction to the use of digital image capture and recognition to support such functionality. Our results provide an insight into usage patterns and likely user reaction to mobile tour guides that use digital photography for real-time object recognition. These results include the counter-intuitive observation that a significant class of users appear happy to use image recognition even when this is a more complex, lengthy and error-prone process than traditional solutions. Careful analysis of user behavior during the field trails also provides evidence that it may be possible to classify tourists according to the methods by which they prefer to acquire information about tourist attractions in their vicinity. If shown to be generally true these results have important implications for designers of future mobile tour guide systems.
TGH: a case study of designing natural interaction for mobile guide systems BIBAFull-Text 199-206
  Weining Yue; Shu Mu; Heng Wang; Guoping Wang
The digital mobile guide, being able to provide users with geographic information services (GIS) at any time from anywhere, is an important way to ease the plight of visitors. However, the limitations of handheld terminals and the cognitive interference from the environment pose great challenges for user interaction. Naturalness and intelligence in communication between users and mobile guide applications are therefore crucial for the usability requirement. This article presents our efforts on the interaction design and evaluation of a hypermedia mobile tour guide system TGH. Users' cognitive behavior in mobile environment is characterized in a coherent psychology framework from the perspective of cognitive skill and attention interference. Correspondingly a context-sensitive multimodal interaction framework is proposed to describe the major components and data flow on the level of technology. Such interaction style is implemented in TGH and deployed into the context of authentic use to be tested. We discuss our techniques, interface facilities, and the result of user evaluations. The improvement of interaction efficiency and reduction of user efforts are measured.
Toward bridge building: mapping the landscape of telecommunication tools BIBAFull-Text 207-214
  Robert Miller; Elizabeth Roche
We can successfully identify the goodness of future mobile telecommunication options only if we consider mobility as one part of the landscape of contemporary communication tools, mobile or otherwise. We discuss a process for identifying opportunities by focusing on beneficial functional bridges between tools. The Dialogue Process, an adaptive online survey, was used to elicit users' opinions of the factors affecting their choices in the current market of communication tools. Fourteen factors were identified; five have universal appeal, nine others depend on a user's circumstances. To analyze these factors, a heuristic evaluation of each tool was used to build "suitability maps" and to examine how user needs are met by today's tools individually, in pairs, and in aggregate. This work represents a first step toward future "bridge building.

Toward social mobility

The effects of a wireless on-line community network on social capital BIBAFull-Text 215-218
  Mark McNally; Majella Bannon; John Greaney; Aisling Hickey; Marian McDonnell; Mark Riordan
Across the developed world there has been a noticed decrease in Social capital. This decrease has also been noted in third level students. In finding ways to combat this decrease technology particularly Computer Mediated Communication and On-line Community Networks have been suggested as possible ways to do so. Examining the day to day activities of students it was noted that wireless and mobile technology may facilitate greater communication and engagement (elements of social capital) in the student community. A group of class representatives were given access to wireless technology and an on-line community network. It was established that usage of these did increase communication and engagement. A positive relationship between usage of the network and social capital was also found.
'It's like if you opened someone else's letter': user perceived privacy and social practices with SMS communication BIBAFull-Text 219-222
  Jonna Häkkilä; Craig Chatfield
This paper presents a study examining users' perceptions of privacy relating to mobile phone usage, and more specifically on the use of short message service (SMS) messages. The study also looks at the reasons for mobile phone ownership, and user perceptions on possibilities for added privacy with mobile messaging communication. The user study consisted of a written survey of 119 people and ten interviews. Results confirm that most respondents feel mobile phones are private and personal devices, and that SMS messages are perceived as more private than normal calls. This research found user privacy is guarded by widely accepted, unwritten rules of treating phones and messages as confidential.
Three applications for mobile epidemic algorithms BIBAFull-Text 223-226
  Paul Tennent; Malcolm Hall; Barry Brown; Matthew Chalmers; Scott Sherwood
This paper presents a framework for the pervasive sharing of data using wireless networks. 'FarCry' uses the mobility of users to carry files between separated networks. Through a mix of ad-hoc and infrastructure-based wireless networking, files are transferred between users without their direct involvement. As users move to different locations, files are then transmitted on to other users, spreading and sharing information. We examine three applications of this framework. Each of these exploits the physically proximate nature of social gatherings. As people group together in, for example, business meetings and cafes, this can be taken as an indication of similar interests, e.g. in the same presentation or in a type of music. MediaNet affords sharing of media files between strangers or friends, MeetingNet shares business documents in meetings, and NewsNet shares RSS feeds between mobile users. NewsNet also develops the use of preemptive caching: collecting information from others not for oneself, but for the predicted later sharing with others. We offer observations on developing this system for a mobile, multi-user, multi-device environment.
Mobile 'tsunagari-kan': always-on, casual telecommunication BIBAFull-Text 227-230
  Toru Nakamura; Takumi Watanabe
In mobile communications, people can be contacted by anyone, anywhere, and anytime, but this might interrupt them. We propose a new mobile telecommunication style, called mobile 'Tsunagari-Kan', where users exchange situational cues constantly and casually so they can imagine the situation of the other party. To make this possible, we must decrease users' mental workload caused by frequent communications. We considered that the mental workload could be decreased by exchanging situational cues casually to achieve true 'always-on' communications. To link the 'flip action' of a cell phone with a communicational behavior, we have developed a test system called the Flip Communicator System based on the Tsunagari-kan concept. This prototype system enables users to exchange situational cues on their cell phones. We carried out a communication field test between seven sets of Japanese mothers and their children. The results indicate that our method can strengthen the ties between a mother and a child.
Telelogs: a social communication space for urban environments BIBAFull-Text 231-234
  Brian Davis; Karrie Karahalios
This paper presents a novel idea for a system known as Telelogs. Utilizing the ubiquity of mobile devices, Telelogs functions as a service by which individuals in an urban environment can establish a better sense of community awareness. In addition, this system could serve as a medium through which these individuals can communicate their thoughts and ideas with others within their environment. This would result in a better sense of community solidarity. Telelogs is targeted towards those persons in society that come across one another on a consistent basis but rather than establishing a direct line of communication, they maintain a relationship that could be characterized as one of courteous detachment. In other words, these individuals are known as familiar strangers. There is strong potential for this relationship to be augmented with a mediated communication space. Telelogs would act as a space through which individuals learn more about themselves while reciprocally gaining a better understanding of those persons present in their environment. Telelogs transfers the essence of the blog into an audio form as an extension for mobile devices. A first prototype of Telelogs is presented and accompanied by feedback after a demonstration. In addition, details of a first cell phone implementation follow.

Interaction techniques

Comparing two one-handed access methods on a PDA BIBAFull-Text 235-238
  Lei Dong; Carolyn Watters; Jack Duffy
Users of mobile devices often need to use those devices in contexts which leave only one hand available for manipulating the device, such as holding another device or manual, walking or operating some machinery.
   In this paper we discuss the results of a comparison of the effectiveness, efficiency and preference users have for map navigation tasks on a PDA, where they are restricted to one handed use. One method uses a tilt sensor and touch screen and the other uses multifunction buttons and the touch screen.
   The results of this study indicate that neither method was significantly more effective (accurate), efficient, or preferred by the users for one handed manipulation of three maps. We did find indications, however, that the tilt method helped users create better cognitive overviews of the maps.
Just point and click?: using handhelds to interact with paper maps BIBAFull-Text 239-242
  Derek Reilly; Michael Welsman-Dinelle; Colin Bate; Kori Inkpen
We present preliminary results from two studies examining the selection techniques suitable for paper maps using handheld computers or cellphones as interaction devices. An informal mockup exploration indicated a strong tendency toward point-and-click style interaction when participants were asked to envision how a range of queries might be expressed. A subsequent study involving a functional prototype and a short training session showed that participants were receptive to other interaction styles, including tracing paths, circling regions, constraining queries with paper menus, and selecting multiple non-adjacent map icons. The contrasting results underline the importance of using a range of design evaluation techniques when developing applications involving handheld devices as interactors.
Providing support for mobile calendaring conversations: a wizard of oz evaluation of dual-purpose speech BIBAFull-Text 243-246
  Kent Lyons; Christopher Skeels; Thad Starner
We present a Wizard of Oz evaluation of dual-purpose speech, a technique designed to provide support during a face-to-face conversation by leveraging a user's conversational speech for input. With a dual-purpose speech interaction, the user's speech is meaningful in the context of a human-to-human conversation while providing useful input to a computer. For our experiment, we evaluate the ability to schedule appointments with our calendaring application, the Calendar Navigator Agent. We examine the relative difference between using speech for input compared to traditional pen input on a PDA. We found that speech is more direct and our participants can use their conversational speech for computer input. In doing so, we reduce the manual input needed to operate a PDA while engaged in a calendaring conversation.
Creation and application of mobile media design drivers BIBAFull-Text 247-250
  Timo-Pekka Viljamaa; Akseli Anttila; Rob van der Haar
In this paper, we describe how we used user studies, interviews and ethnographic methods to create a set of general design drivers for media consumption in a mobile context of use, and applied them to a particular media domain: data enhanced mobile FM radio. We designed and evaluated a number of application concepts on showing FM radio program related information in different parts of the mobile phone UI. Our evaluation results showed that users wanted to quickly and easily see at least the artist and the song name of the current playing song. We also show that it is beneficial to use general design drivers to assist domain specific design work.
A personal-area network of low-power wireless interfacing devices for handhelds: system and hardware design BIBAFull-Text 251-254
  Lin Zhong; Mike Sinclair; Niraj K. Jha
Handhelds, such as smart-phones and Pocket PCs, have the potential to become the computing, storage, and connectivity hub, or Digital Hub, for pervasive computing. However, their current interfacing paradigms fall short of achieving this goal. To meet this challenge, we present the system and hardware design for a Bluetooth-based personal-area network (PAN) of low-power wireless interfacing devices. The network consists of a wrist-watch, single-hand single-tap multi-finger keypad, smart speech portal, and GPS receiver. These devices serve a handheld in a synergistic fashion, collectively providing the user with immediate and more natural access to computing power and enabling more and better services.

Fact finding

Opportunities and challenges for location aware computing in the construction industry BIBAFull-Text 255-258
  Andrew May; Val Mitchell; Sarah Bowden; Tony Thorpe
This paper describes the opportunities for location aware computing to enhance information capture and use within the construction industry. The construction industry is characterized as being slow to take up innovative mobile ICT, despite the highly mobile workforce who must collaborate with a range of on and off-site personnel, and make use of large volumes of information. Based on fieldwork and workshop activities within COMIT (a large-scale mobile IT project within the construction industry), the information used within two key business processes -- health and safety audits, and site design problem resolution -- is outlined, and the opportunities for support by location aware computing discussed. Some potential challenges are also identified, as is the need to understand how to provide real value (as opposed to just information) to the end user.
Customer expectation level in mobile data services BIBAFull-Text 259-262
  Deok Kyun Yun; Ki Young Kim; Han Seo Ko
Mobile telecommunication companies in Korea provide a lot of mobile data services, but there are no definitions for quality attributes and customers' expectation levels, which are important issues in quality management. In this paper, we define the quality attributes of eight major mobile data services used by mobile communication subscribers and measure customer expectation levels. Research progress follows QFD (quality function deployment). FGI (focused group interview) was used to define quality attributes and experiments, benchmarking and surveys were used to decide customers' expectation levels.
Stroke break analysis: a practical method to study timeout value for handwriting recognition input BIBAFull-Text 263-266
  Yanqing Cui; Vuokko Lantz
Handwriting recognition (HWR) input method has been considered to be one of the most usable text entry methods for handheld devices, especially for languages with large and complicated character sets such as Chinese. The paper studies stroke break times within handwritten characters and presents a new method for setting HWR timeout by examining the break time distributions. For multi-stroke character HWR input, a timeout is widely used as a segmentation technique to initiate the recognition process. In this paper, we examine the largest stroke break time in each character and explore the relationship between break time distribution and optimal HWR timeout. The study used Chinese as test material and the test independent variables were writing condition (input box, full screen) and user's posture while they were writing (hold device in hand, keep device on table). The main findings are: (1) the stroke break times are similar in full screen and input box conditions, though the users tend to write larger characters in full screen condition. (2) The stroke break times fit into a tight distribution. It is feasible to estimate optimal HWR timeout by studying stoke break time distribution. A nonparametric histogram method was used to model the stroke break distributions and it showed that typical Chinese HWR default timeouts are around 99% percentile in the distribution. (3) Differences in HWR stroke break distributions are very significant between individual users. The stroke break time analysis can also be applied to design HWR timeout customization scale.
Gather customer's real usage on mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 267-270
  Rachel Demumieux; Patrick Losquin
This paper describes an application implemented on mobile phones with open OS (Windows CE and Symbian 6 and 7 compatible). Without any constraint for users, this tool gathers functionalities used (directory, calendar, SMS' number received and sent...), durations and navigations (presses on the keypad and history of windows opened). In addition, it allows to carry out experimentations, remote tests with real customers. With people having a mobile phone compatible, a first field trial achieved to test the tool. An operation description and different results obtained are presented. Furthermore, the limits and advices are also described.
Visualizing use context with picture scenarios in the design process BIBAFull-Text 271-274
  Sonja Pedell; Frank Vetere
The context in which a device is used has a major impact on mobile device design. Despite this, there are few system design methods that assist user interface designers to represent use context in a useful and systematic manner throughout the whole design process. Current scenario-based design approaches are able to represent context, but still present a challenge to support a shared understanding of the rich context in which activities take place and in encoding dynamic use context due to time issues such as sequential and parallel actions. This paper reports on a method called Picture Scenarios. The method was used by four design teams whilst designing mobile information devices for use in a public square. Results show that picture scenarios provide an effective way of communicating and debating use context with design partners. The suggested format of the picture scenarios facilitates to represent use context during design activities in a systematic way. These scenarios are easy to create, easy to use, and capture important contextual details about activity that is difficult to represent otherwise.

Optimising navigation

GpsTunes: controlling navigation via audio feedback BIBAFull-Text 275-278
  Steven Strachan; Parisa Eslambolchilar; Roderick Murray-Smith; Stephen Hughes; Sile O'Modhrain
We combine the functionality of a mobile Global Positioning System (GPS) with that of an MP3 player, implemented on a PocketPC, to produce a handheld system capable of guiding a user to their desired target location via continuously adapted music feedback. We illustrate how the approach to presentation of the audio display can benefit from insights from control theory, such as predictive 'browsing' elements to the display, and the appropriate representation of uncertainty or ambiguity in the display. The probabilistic interpretation of the navigation task can be generalised to other context-dependent mobile applications. This is the first example of a completely handheld location-aware music player. We discuss scenarios for use of such systems.
Navigation control for mobile virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 279-282
  Gary Marsden; Nicholas Tip
In this paper, we describe a project which uses PDAs to provide an interactive experience with a virtual environment. In particular, we focus on the navigational aspects of allowing the users to move through, and view, the environment. As this system will be deployed in a museum, it was crucial that the navigation be as intuitive as possible. To that end, we developed and evaluated two prototypes: one was based purely on gesture, whilst the other used a combination of gesture and keypad. For the purposes of our application, the combination of keypad and gesture provided the most effective.
Rolling, rotating and imagining in a virtual mobile world BIBAFull-Text 283-286
  Lynne Baillie; Harald Kunczier; Hermann Anegg
New mobile devices can be difficult to use because they give users access to powerful computing devices through small interfaces, which typically have limited input facilities. One way of overcoming these shortcomings is to think of new interaction methods that could be utilized by the user. We report in this paper on a new interaction method for mobile devices in which the user can point his or her mobile device at a building and view a virtual representation of it. In addition, the user can view the building at different times in its past and literally see it morphing into its current state. Another interesting aspect of our prototype is that as the user moves the device the view they see on their mobile interface moves with them, thus allowing the user to experience the real and the virtual world at the same time.
Landmarks: yes; but which?: five methods to select optimal landmarks for a landmark- and speech-based guiding system BIBAFull-Text 287-290
  Reinhard Sefelin; Michael Bechinie; Regine Müller; Verena Seibert-Giller; Peter Messner; Manfred Tscheligi
Navigation aids based on landmarks have been successfully investigated over the last years. There seems to be little doubt that navigation systems using landmarks clearly outperform those systems, relying only on distance specifications. Little, however, is known about the optimal selection of landmarks that are used to lead the user through an environment. This paper presents five methods to select landmarks that are visually and semantically distinguishable and which are suited to lead the user to his/her goal. The paper also discusses the lessons learned from the application of these methods. It shows the results that can be expected and it highlights also their possible traps and drawbacks.
Survey of position location techniques in mobile systems BIBAFull-Text 291-294
  Thanos Manesis; Nikolaos Avouris
The growth of mobile technology has made recording of user's location possible. The systems that intent to use location in order to register user's movement and to use the generated data for extracting useful knowledge define a new area of research that has technological as well as theoretical underpinnings. Many location based systems have been developed until now and some first directions and experiences have emerged. In this paper we focus on how some representative examples of these systems collect location information, what parameters use for tracking location and motion, how they model location, and thus tendencies appear on locating persons and objects.

Capturing context

Life is sharable: blogging life experience with RFID embedded mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 295-298
  Yun-Maw Cheng; Wai Yu; Tzu-Chuan Chou
Recent development and proliferation of mobile devices, wireless communication, and sensor technologies have prompted a new vision of social interactions in the world in which we inhabit. For example, the number of mobile phones that are capable of capturing users' spontaneous life experiences not only in pictures but also in audio and video clips is on the increase. In addition, captured experiences can be sent and shared with others over wireless networks such as WiFi, GSM, GPRS, EDGE, or recently commenced third-generation (3G) protocols. Other technology trends such as weblog and peer-to-peer communication provide a ubiquitous platform and a model of motivating users to share life experiences with other people. The hypothesis is that everyone can be an owner of a weblog which records their experience about place, people, and things that interest them. Initial form of peer-to-peer communication, centralized directory service, can help authors of weblogs attain widespread of popularity and increase the level of participation in this type of interaction. The convergence of these technologies provides new design opportunities for computer-mediated communications. The aim of this paper is to share our experiences in designing and implementing a novel physical prototype which incorporates peer-to-peer communication, weblog, RFID, wireless networking, and mobile phone technologies to enhance social quality of shared life experience.
ISeeU: camera-based user interface for a handheld computer BIBAFull-Text 299-302
  Misook Sohn; Geehyuk Lee
"Tilt scrolling" and "peephole display" are popular user interface ideas for small computers, and inertial sensors were often the choice for the realization of such ideas. Inertial sensors, however, have two fundamental limitations; the frame of reference is not the user but the earth, and drifting errors are difficult to overcome. A possibly better solution, free from such limitations, is machine vision. Machine vision was a luxury for small computers but is becoming a practical solution because a camera is now a common component of small computers and the required vision algorithm is already running in optical mice. The vision algorithm of our prototype, which we called ISeeU, tracks simple features in the user's face and calculates lateral displacements and changes in distance, which in turn are used to control scrolling and zooming. An informal test with scrolling tasks indicates that its performance is comparable with a user interface using arrow keys.
Context awareness via a single device-attached accelerometer during mobile computing BIBAFull-Text 303-306
  Ji Soo Yi; Young Sang Choi; Julie A. Jacko; Andrew Sears
Interest in context-aware computing has expanded the use of sensing technologies. The accelerometer is one of the most widely used sensors for capturing context because it is small, inexpensive, lightweight, and self-operable. In efforts to obtain behavioral patterns, many studies have reported the use of multiple accelerometers attached to the human body. However, this is difficult to implement in real-life situations and may not fully address the context of user interaction. In contrast, the present study employed a single tri-axial accelerometer attached to a handheld computing device instead of to a user. The objective was to determine what contextual information could be obtained from this more feasible, albeit limited, source of acceleration data. Data analyses confirmed that changes in both mobility and lighting conditions induced statistically significant differences in the output of the accelerometer.

Evaluating mobile content

Cultural difference and mobile phone interface design: icon recognition according to level of abstraction BIBAFull-Text 307-310
  Ji Hye Kim; Kun Pyo Lee
Mobile phone market has widened to a global scale and consequently mobile phones are distributed throughout the world. This tells that the user interface in mobile phones inevitably confronts cultural difference as much as other products and consequently the user interface suited to each cultural trait is required. To clarify the relation between cultural traits and mobile phone interface, UI elements which would be influenced by cultural traits in interaction between user and mobile phone were extracted and hypotheses related to the UI elements were proposed. For a pilot study, 20 subjects (10 subjects each from America and Korea) participated in the icon recognition test. The test parameters were task completion time, recognition rate, preference. The results show that Korean subjects performed significantly better in the set of concrete icons while American counterparts showed quite the opposite tendencies. No significant differences in preference according to icon style were found. The results suggest a possibility of cultural impact on icon recognition according to the level of abstraction.
Mobile access to personal digital photograph archives BIBAFull-Text 311-314
  Cathal Gurrin; Gareth J. F. Jones; Hyowon Lee; Neil O'Hare; Alan F. Smeaton; Noel Murphy
Handheld computing devices are becoming highly connected devices with high capacity storage. This has resulted in their being able to support storage of, and access to, personal photo archives. However the only means for mobile device users to browse such archives is typically a simple one-by-one scroll through image thumbnails in the order that they were taken, or by manually organising them based on folders. In this paper we describe a system for context-based browsing of personal digital photo archives. Photos are labeled with the GPS location and time they are taken and this is used to derive other context-based metadata such as weather conditions and daylight conditions. We present our prototype system for mobile digital photo retrieval, and an experimental evaluation illustrating the utility of location information for effective personal photo retrieval.
Mystery in the museum: collaborative learning activities using handheld devices BIBAFull-Text 315-318
  Jorge Simarro Cabrera; Henar Muñoz Frutos; Adrian G. Stoica; Nikolaos Avouris; Yannis Dimitriadis; Georgios Fiotakis; Katerina Demeti Liveri
In this paper, we describe the experience of designing a collaborative learning activity for a traditional historical/cultural museum. The activity, based on a "Mystery in the Museum" story, involves collaboration of small groups of students through mobile handheld devices. An application has been built that permits authoring of such activities, while a usability evaluation study was performed that revealed some of the limitations of the design. The reported findings can be of use to those interested in following similar approaches in cultural and educational settings, and draw conclusions of general interest relating to interaction and collaboration through mobile technology.

Posters

MAUSE-COST294: a community of interest and practice BIBAFull-Text 319-320
  Effie L.-C. Law; Ebba T. Hvannberg; Regina Bernhaupt; Reinhard Sefelin; Jan H. Skjetne
MAUSE-COST294 is a community of interest with its members sharing a common goal of bringing more science to bear on usability evaluation methods. This goal is being realized through systematic collaborative efforts of a network of usability experts and learners. Scientific activities are being coordinated under the respective frameworks of four Working Groups (WGs) with each of them having specific objectives, inputs and anticipated outputs. Further, MAUSE partners' research projects on usability will be integrated into the WGs. Specifically, several partners are actively involved in researching the usability of mobile user interfaces.
A support system for finding lost objects using spotlight BIBAFull-Text 321-322
  Toyohisa Nakada; Hideaki Kanai; Susumu Kunifuji
We propose a support system for finding lost objects indoors. The system employs active RFID and ultrasonic position detection to detect the position of a lost object. The system illuminates the position by using Movinglight, which is normally employed in stage lighting. From an experiment, the way of notification by light is better than that by sound in some situations.
Transforming data broadcast contents to fit different user interfaces: generating a readout service for mobile DTV receiver BIBAFull-Text 323-324
  Kinji Matsumura; Kenjiro Kai; Hiroyuki Hamada; Nobuyuki Yagi
In this paper we describe a method that transforms data broadcast contents on the receiver side into various formats fitting different user interfaces. The method performs accurate transformations by utilizing the fact that most data broadcast contents have a pattern derived from the template used in the broadcaster's production process. The method can also reconfigure content independently of its original structure. We implemented this method on an experimental mobile DTV receiver that transformed actual broadcast content into a news readout service using speech synthesis.
A collaborative environment for enhanced information access on small-form-factor devices BIBAFull-Text 325-326
  Zhigang Hua; Yutaka Kidawara; Hanqing Lu; Katsumi Tanaka
This paper proposes to establish a collaborative environment to achieve enhanced information access on the small-form-factor devices. We designed a distributed user interface that crosses devices to cooperatively present information adaptable to small displays. We applied our system to the document and webpage that are ubiquitously available media content on mobile devices.
Field-based mLearning: who wants what? BIBAFull-Text 327-328
  Paul Ryan; Enda Finn
The real needs of end users of software technology are often neglected until it is too late. An approach is outlined that puts people before technology, and investigates the real needs of field-based workers in relation to the concept of a computer system for just-in-context, or field-based mobile learning. A scenario based approach is used to elicit real-world requirements, with further data captured through user profiling, task analysis and context definition using experts in relevant domains. Specific scenarios and profiles are analysed and generic requirements proposed as an initial step to encourage user need before unsolicited software design is imposed.
Mobile maze: a comparison of camera based mobile game human interfaces BIBAFull-Text 329-330
  Sam Bucolo; Mark Billinghurst; David Sickinger
This paper presents the findings of a comparative study investigating different input interfaces for a mobile phone games application. A standard mobile phone joystick interface is compared with a phone camera interface to detect the phone translation and tilt to control a ball's movement within various levels of difficulty of a virtual maze game. Results indicate that the joystick control provided the fastest completion times for each game, but with the lowest levels of user engagement. The Tilt interface, although perceived as challenging by the participants, provided the greatest level of user involvement, independent of game complexity. The design of appropriate human interfaces which go beyond the standard phone keypad is suggested.
Interacting with virtual reality scenes on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 331-332
  David Mountain; Fotis Liarokapis
This paper discusses alternative approaches for interacting with virtual reality scenes on mobile devices, based upon work conducted as part of the locus project [4]. Three prototypes are introduced that adopt different interaction paradigms for mobile virtual reality scenes: interaction can be via the screen only, movement and gestures within the real world environment, or a mixture of these two approaches. The paper concludes by suggesting that interaction via movement and gestures within the may be a more intuitive approach for mobile virtual reality scenes.
Improving system recommendations using localization feedbacks BIBAFull-Text 333-334
  Federica Cena; Sonia Modeo; Stefano Annese; Andrea Ghittino; Guido Levi
In this paper we described UbiquiTO, an agent-based system that acts as an expert tourist guide for mobile users, providing different information according to the device, the user and the context. The system uses feedbacks coming from localization to acquire the knowledge required to provide location-based services and to update the user model.
User-centred system design: addressing user needs with a mobile information system BIBAFull-Text 335-336
  Christoph Herrmann; Jürgen Kawalek; Annegret Stark
As mobile information systems (MISs) penetrate public facilities more and more, the way we deal with objects will continuously be changed by these technologies. Therefore, an understanding of users' natural behaviour within an environmental context becomes critical for an appropriate user interface. As part of a user-centred development approach [3], structured field interviews were conducted in a science museum. The main question was: What attributes must a MIS offer to meet visitors' needs? The interviews were analysed qualitatively and reveal a strong demand for flexible and adaptable information systems within a mobile context.
Ubiquitous cognition: mobile environment achieved by migratable agent BIBAFull-Text 337-338
  Kohei Ogawa; Tetsuo Ono
We propose a concept of Ubiquitous Cognition and introduce an integrated agent for communication (ITACO) system based on the concept. To realize our proposed concept, the ITACO system tries to appropriately support a user using a migratable agent which is context-sensitive and gives continuous assistance. The key factor in this system is the construction of a relationship between the user and the agent, and to carry on this relationship between the user and the object that the agent has migrated to. Psychological experiments were carried out to verify this succession of the relationship between media. The results of the experiments showed that the subjects' attachment to the media as well as the relationship was succeeded through the media by the agent migration.
Reversible display: content browsing with reverse operations in mobile computing environments BIBAFull-Text 339-340
  Satoshi Nakamura
This paper introduces a novel mobile device and interaction technique for mobile computing. The proposed method uses a reversible display system and reverse operations for content browsing. The reversible display system is constructed with two displays. One is on the front surface and the other is on the back. Both displays show digital content. The user can view either display by simply reversing the screen. Our method uses the reverse directions, turn forward, turn backward, turn left or turn right, to change the displayed area. For example, when users read a map showing their current location on one display, the area to the north of the current location can be viewed by turning the display forward. When reading digital books, users can see the next page by turning the display to the right, and the previous page by turning it to the left. Our method is suitable for use in the mobile computing environment because people can browse contents with it while walking, looking around, and doing other activities.
Beyond photoblogging: new directions of mobile communication BIBAFull-Text 341-342
  Hsiu-Chuan Wang; Yi-Shin Deng; Sean Chiu
To explore new directions for future mobile communication, we investigate users' experiences in one of the popular technology-mediated communication, Weblogs. We argue that the existing blogging activity could provide insights into users' personal needs and expectations, and suggest new directions for future mobile communication. This paper presents a preliminary study of users' blogs experience in Taiwan. A contextual inquiry with interpretation process is conducted in this study to understand the needs beneath users' blogging activities. Three key findings including personal stage, event gatherers, and extension of social intercourse, are discussed in terms of how to direct the future development of mobile technology.
AIRE: an ambient interactive and responsive environment for mobile image management BIBAFull-Text 343-344
  Zhigang Hua; Xiang-Jun Wang; Xing Xie; Qingshan Liu; Hanqing Lu; Wei-Ying Ma
This paper proposes an ambient interactive and responsive environment (AIRE) to improve user's image browsing experiences on the small-form-factor devices. This solution is characterized as two aspects: (1) establishing an ambient interactive communication across various devices; and (2) designing a distributed interface that crosses various devices to overcome the display constraint in mobile devices. In the AIRE system, a two-level image browsing scheme is designed to meet users' various image browsing needs.
Audio feedback on a mobile phone for number dialing BIBAFull-Text 345-346
  Hannu Korhonen
Mobile phones are often used in situations in which user's attention is diverted away from the screen. Talking on the phone while walking or driving a car is easy, but dialing a number without looking at the screen or keypad is much harder. We developed two different interaction models to support eyes-free use of number dialing task. Speech and non-speech sounds were used as a substitute for visual feedback. We present prototypes of interaction models running in a mobile phone. Results from a usability study showed that audio feedback is efficient and participants preferred a simple interaction model for eyes-free use.
Supporting information retrieval on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 347-348
  Ernesto William De Luca; Andreas Nürnberger
We present a search interface that has been designed for the use on mobile devices in order to provide improved navigation and visualization of result sets. Besides automatic context switching, the interfaces provide methods to store prior search results in a structured way and to annotate documents with respect to user interests and the query. These methods enable a user to retrieve documents with fewer interactions and less data traffic, which is especially important for mobile devices.
Using cascade method for table access on small devices BIBAFull-Text 349-350
  Rui Zhang; Carolyn Watters; Jack Duffy
Users increasingly expect access to Web data from a wide range of devices, both wired and wireless. The goal of our research is to inform the design of applications that support data access by providing reasonably seamless migration of Web data among internet-compatible devices with minimal loss of effectiveness and efficiency. This study focuses on the tables of data on small mobile devices. In this paper we report on the results of a user study that compare effectiveness, efficiency and preference of two methods for the display and use of tables on small screens: Column/Row Expansion and Cascade, a cell based expansion method.
Pr@senZ -- P@CE: mobile interaction with virtual reality BIBAFull-Text 351-352
  Matthias Weber; Thies Pfeiffer; Bernhard Jung
Recently videoconferencing has been extended from human face-to-face communication to human machine interaction with Virtual Environments [2]. Relying on established videoconferencing protocol standards this thin client solution does not require specialized 3D soft- or hardware and scales well to multimedia enabled mobile devices. This brings a whole range of new applications to the mobile platform. To facilitate our research in mobile interaction the Open Source project P@CE has been started to bring a full-featured videoconferencing client to the Pocket PC platform.

Workshops

AIMS 2005: artificial intelligence in mobile systems BIBAFull-Text 353-354
  Christian Kray; Jörg Baus
AIMS 2005 is the sixth workshop in a series of events that investigate various topics at the intersection of applied artificial intelligence and mobile computing. The main goal of this year's workshop is to discuss AI methods and approaches that enable adaptive and intelligent user interfaces in a mobile setting. Relevant topics include (but are not limited to) context awareness, resource adaptation and interaction metaphors in mobile and/or ubiquitous systems. The workshop combines technical presentations with focussed discussion to drive interaction between participants.
Context in mobile HCI BIBAFull-Text 355-356
  Manfred Tscheligi
This workshop aims to explore recent research and findings on context in the face of mobile HCI. The goal of the workshop is to raise discussions on the topics, and leverage a share of experiences among people addressing the aspects from different perspectives, e.g. human-computer interaction, ubiquitous computing, ambient environments, psychology, cognitive science, communication science, design, etc.
Enabling and improving the use of mobile e-services BIBAFull-Text 357-358
  Bruno von Niman; Martin Böcker; Matthias Schneider-Hufschmidt; Margareta Flygt; Pascale Parodi; Pekka Ketola; David Williams; Michael Tate
The present workshop addresses ongoing standardization issues for user education and setup procedures, enabling and improving the startup and use of mobile e-services.
4th international workshop on: "HCI in mobile guides" BIBAFull-Text 359-360
  Keith Cheverst; Barbara Schmidt-Belz
This fourth workshop in the series of workshops on 'HCI in Mobile Guides' once again aims to bring together both researchers and practitioners who develop and evaluate mobile guides, i.e. systems designed to guide a user who is moving in a physical environment by giving directions and supplying relevant information and access to services via some form of mobile device. Application examples of mobile guides include: mobile tourism services, museum/exhibition guides, support for building communities and context-aware directory services. The particular focus of this workshop is on establishing guidelines for fostering the development of usable mobile guide systems based on practical experience and evaluations. Following review by the program committee, accepted papers will be presented and discussed at the workshop.
MOBILE MAPS 2005 interactivity and usability of map-based mobile services BIBAFull-Text 361-362
  Alexander Zipf; Liqiu Meng
The workshop attempts to promote interdisciplinary exchange around the central task of generating mobile maps and map-based services in an "optimal" way for different users and tasks with a particular focus on interactivity and usability.

Tutorials

Designing with the human memory in mind BIBAFull-Text 363-364
  Thomas T. Hewett
This tutorial provides a "hands-on" (actually, "minds-on") exploration of several basic processes and phenomena of human memory. The emphasis is on developing both intuitive and formal knowledge that can serve as background knowledge which will be useful in interpreting design guidelines and in making educated design judgments when design guidelines fail, conflict, or are nonexistent. The demonstrations used emphasize basic general phenomena with which any theory of memory must deal. In addition, the tutorial suggests some of the implications of these phenomena for designing interactive computing systems.
Development of interactive applications for mobile devices BIBKFull-Text 365-366
  Enrico Rukzio; Michael Rohs; Daniel Wagner; John Hamard
Keywords: HCI, J2ME, interactive applications, mobile device, pocket PC, symbian, tutorial
Handheld usability: design, prototyping, & usability testing for mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 367-368
  Scott Weiss
This tutorial presents handheld device UI design, prototyping, and usability strategies. Handheld devices include pagers, PDAs, and mobile telephone handsets. Hardware UI, operating environments, and wireless networking will be presented. Information architecture, paper prototyping, and usability testing of handheld devices will be taught with team exercises.
Mobile interaction design tutorial BIBAFull-Text 369-370
  Matt Jones; Gary Marsden
The tutorial explores interesting and empowering mobile design philosophies, principles and methods as well as giving specific guidance on key emerging consumer application areas such as image browsing and information access.
How to set-up a corporate user experience team: key success factors, strategic positioning, and sustainable organisational implementations BIBAFull-Text 371-372
  Peter Messner; Tobias Herrmann
This tutorial addresses strategic and organisational aspects of user experience work in companies, based on experiences in the mobile service industry. It focuses on the question of how to successfully set-up a Corporate User Experience Team in the areas of conflict between top management, marketing, sales, IT, customer service, and product development. Besides the presentation of general motivations and drivers for corporate user experience work and several concepts for doing so, the tutorial in particular represents the authors' experiences in setting-up such a team, discusses key success factors, and the role of selected strategic concepts (ROI, BSC). The organisers will provide an insight into Austria's largest telecom & mobile service providing company -- mobilkom austria -- and the role of user experience there within. The tutorial provides attendees with the information required in order to be successful in establishing user experience work, and with insights and ideas for strategic positioning.
Data collection and analysis tools for mobile HCI studies BIBAFull-Text 373-374
  Tobias Heffelaar; Rüdiger Beer
This tutorial offers participants an intensive half-day course in video technology, software tools and integrated solutions for mobile HCI studies. After this tutorial participants will be up to date with the latest proven methods and tools for mobile data collection and analysis.

Demos

BuddyBeads: techno-jewelry for non verbal communication within groups of teenage girls BIBAFull-Text 375-376
  Ruth Kikin-Gil
The extremity in teenagers' attitudes and actions coupled with the opportunities of mobile communication creates new behaviors and re-shapes existing ones. But however meaningful the phone is in teenagers' lives, it is not designed to support their need for emotional communication and group identity. The BuddyBeads project suggests alternative communication forms among teenagers, which emphasize their social structures, behaviors and needs. BuddyBeads are techno-jewelry items that facilitate non-verbal and emotional communication among group members, through codes and signals which the group decided upon together. Each group member has a matching jewelry piece and can use it to communicate her emotional state to the other group members.
Headphones with touch control BIBAFull-Text 377-378
  Vincent Buil; Gerard Hollemans; Sander van de Wijdeven
The Touch Headphones are meant for portable music players and aim to present an improvement to the conventional remote control in the headphone wire, and a solution for controls on wireless in-ear type headphones. Two capacitive touch sensors per earpiece sense when earpieces are being tapped on, and being put in or out.
Intellectual teamwork on smartphones BIBAFull-Text 379-380
  Nadya Belov; Colin Koeck; Werner Krandick; Joshua Shaffer; Thomas Hewett
We demonstrate a software system that runs on smartphones and allows two or more geographically dispersed participants to collaborate on the solution of mathematical problems. We show how participants can create and join a collaborative session, how they can use a virtual whiteboard for the exchange of geometrical drawings and of mathematical formulas, and how they can communicate using text messages. We demonstrate the turn-management mechanism provided by our system, and we show how the system facilitates cross-referencing within the session.
Personal microdevices for wide-area location via mobile gateways BIBAFull-Text 381-382
  F. J. Gil-Castiñeira; F. J. González-Castaño; J. M. Pousada-Carballo
Diverse social applications rely on remote location of personal devices: house arrest tracker systems, remote monitoring of alcoholic persons, child locator devices and remote protection of victims of domestic abuse are some examples. However, existing personal location devices either depend on a fixed station (a domestic gateway) -thus limiting user mobility-, or include a full cell phone -thus increasing weight, cost and power consumption-. In this demonstration, we present a new system we have developed for the Galician regional government (Spain) to track domestic abusers and their victims. It consists of two units, namely a personal low-cost light microdevice (bracelet in the sequel) and a commercial cell phone. The latter acts as a mobile gateway, which the bracelet accesses via a PAN. By doing so, we benefit from the advantages of the two previous approaches: the small size of bracelets for fixed gateways and the full mobility of those including a full cell phone. Wide-area location capability may reside either in the bracelet (as a GPS modem) or in the mobile gateway (either as a GPS modem or via core network-assisted location). If the bracelet leaves mobile gateway PAN range, the latter alerts the user and/or sends an alarm to a remote monitoring station.
SMMART: using context-awareness in m-commerce BIBAFull-Text 383-384
  Stan Kurkovsky; Vladimir Zanev; Anatoly Kurkovsky
A new class of m-commerce applications is emerging due to the unique features of handheld devices, such as mobility, personalization and location-awareness. We present SMMART, a context-aware, adaptive and personalized m-commerce application designed to deliver targeted promotions to the users of mobile wireless devices. Promotions distributed by SMMART are personalized by matching the user's shopping interests to current promotions available at a retail site. SMMART adapts to changing interests of its user by monitoring his or her shopping habits. We describe a fully functional prototype of SMMART built for Pocket PCs running Windows CE with .NET Compact Framework. The main focus of the proposed demonstration is on the aspects of the user interaction with SMMART and its diverse features.
Visual object detection from mobile phone imagery for context awareness BIBAFull-Text 385-386
  Patrick Morris Luley; Lucas Paletta; Alexander Almer
We describe a system which proposes a solution for multi-sensor object awareness and positioning to enable stable location awareness for a mobile service in urban areas. The system offers technology of outdoors vision based object recognition that will extend state-of-the-art location and context aware services towards object based awareness in urban environments. In the proposed application scenario, tourist pedestrians are equipped with a GPRS or UMTS capable camera-phone. They are interested whether their field of view contains tourist sights that would point to more detailed information. Multimedia type data about related history might be explored by a mobile user who is intending to learn within the urban environment. Ambient learning is in this way achieved by pointing the device towards an urban sight, capturing an image, and consequently getting information about the object on site and within the focus of attention, i.e., the user's current field of view. The described mobile system offers multiple opportunities for application in both mobile business and commerce, and is currently developed as an industrial prototype.

Panel

Mobile presence: what needs to be considered? BIBAFull-Text 387-388
  Byeong-cheol Hwang; Ian E. Smith; Hisun Kim; Elisa Vargas; Jaakko T. Lehikoinen
The latest development in the concept of Mobile Presence within the mobile industry and HCI/UI community has promised yet another drastic change in the way we communicate with one other and lead our every-day lives. When Presence was limited to the Instant Messaging (IM) space, users could only know the status of others while they were at the computer (e.g. busy, away, etc). In contrast, mobile devices can be carried around at any time with their owner, so this discreet method of communicating is taking an interesting turn. Mobile Presence is much more ambitious: it could let others know your preferred method of communication based on your device's offerings (e.g. SMS, voice call, IM, video telephony, or even Push-to-Talk), alert you to where your friends are located at this moment, sense what mood others are in (thus whether it's appropriate to contact them at all), or even allow you to view a video clip broadcasting someone's profile before you attempt to contact them. In a perfect world, Presence will guarantee the most timely, convenient and appropriate communication at anytime, anywhere, to anyone in your "buddy list." But what's behind all these promises? Do you feel creepy being watched by others even if they are your friends and family? What if the government or any kind of "Big Brother" can easily sneak a look at presence information? Where do we see the fine line between the benefits of presence and invasion of privacy? How can we in the Mobile HCI community help shaping the future of Mobile Presence? In this panel, we discuss the factors to be considered for the design of mobile presence.