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Proceedings of 2004 Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services

Fullname:Mobile HCI 2004: 6th International Symposium on Mobile Human-Computer Interaction
Editors:Stephen Brewster; Mark Dunlop
Location:Glasgow, United Kingdom
Dates:2004-Sep-13 to 2004-Sep-16
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3160
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/b100594 hcibib: MOBILEHCI04; ISBN: 978-3-540-23086-1 (print), 978-3-540-28637-0 (online)
Papers:76
Pages:243
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Full Papers: Screen and Power Limitations
  2. Full Papers: User Differences and Navigation
  3. Full Papers: Evaluation and Evaluation Techniques
  4. Full Papers: Tilt, Touch, and Text Entry
  5. Full Papers: Auditory Interactions
  6. Full Papers: Device Differences and Web Pages
  7. Full Papers: Novel Interaction Techniques
  8. Short Papers
  9. Posters
  10. Tutorials and Workshops
  11. Panels

Full Papers: Screen and Power Limitations

What Can You Say with Only Three Pixels? BIBAFull-Text 1-12
  Christopher Campbell; Peter Tarasewich
The size limitations of mobile devices can make information display especially difficult. Micro-displays must take into account the viability of different sizes and configurations for informing users, the flexibility they provide for different types of messages, and under which conditions these results are achieved. An experiment was performed to measure user learning and comprehension of five sets of messages of increasing information size and complexity on a simulated three-light visual display. Results show that these "pixel-based" displays can transmit detailed, information-rich messages up to 6.75 bits in size with minimal training.
Investigating the Relationship Between Battery Life and User Acceptance of Dynamic, Energy-Aware Interfaces on Handhelds BIBAFull-Text 13-24
  Lance Bloom; Rachel Eardley; Erik Geelhoed; Meera Manahan; Parthasarathy Ranganathan
In a 24 x 7 mobile world experiencing a proliferation of handheld devices, battery life can be a limiting factor. In particular, handheld displays consume substantial battery power. One strategy to potentially reduce display battery consumption and support a positive user experience is to adopt emerging display technologies (e.g., OLEDs) that support energy-aware interfaces. The research reported here, the second investigation in a series, assessed user expectations regarding handheld battery life and explored the relationship between battery life and user acceptance of energy-aware, handheld interfaces. Twelve experienced handheld users engaged dynamic, prototype energy-aware interfaces to complete a scenario comprised of 5 representative tasks. Users identified battery life as an important handheld issue, were positive regarding a display-based approach to reducing battery consumption and varied consistently in their enthusiasm for specific interfaces. The findings highlight themes for the research and design of future energy-aware interfaces.

Full Papers: User Differences and Navigation

Mental Models of a Cellular Phone Menu. Comparing Older and Younger Novice Users BIBAFull-Text 25-37
  Martina Ziefle; Susanne Bay
The interrelationship between mental models of a cellular phone menu and performance depending on users' age was under study. The mental representation was assessed through card-sorting technique in 32 novice users (16 aged 20-32, 16 50-64 years). First, they had to process four common tasks on two simulated mobiles enabling online logging of users' actions. None of the older participants had a correct mental representation of the route to be taken to solve a task, and some were not even aware of the hierarchical nature of the phone menu. Younger participants, in contrast, had a fairly correct mental model. Furthermore, it was shown that the better the mental map of the menu, the better the performance using the device. In conclusion, the awareness of the hierarchical structure of the menu is of central importance to use a cellular phone properly. Therefore, it should be made more transparent to the user.
Using Landmarks to Support Older People in Navigation BIBAFull-Text 38-48
  Joy Goodman; Phil Gray; Kartik Khammampad; Stephen Brewster
Although landmarks are an integral aspect of navigation, they have rarely been used within electronic navigation aids. This paper describes the design of a pedestrian navigation aid for a handheld computer, which guides the user along a route using photographs of landmarks, together with audio and text instructions that reference these landmarks. This aid was designed with older users in mind who often find their mobility hampered by declines in sensory, cognitive and motor abilities. It was tested against the standard paper map for the test area with both younger and older people and their performance and subjective workload were measured. The results show that such an aid can significantly outperform a paper-based map and that older people derive substantially more benefit from it than do younger people.

Full Papers: Evaluation and Evaluation Techniques

Heuristic Evaluation and Mobile Usability: Bridging the Realism Gap BIBAFull-Text 49-60
  Shirlina Po; Steve Howard; Frank Vetere; Mikael B. Skov
Heuristic evaluation (HE) is problematic when applied to mobile technologies, in that contextual influences over use are poorly represented. Here we propose two lightweight variants of HE: the Heuristic Walkthrough (HW) combines HE with scenarios of use, and the Contextual Walkthrough (CW) involves conducting the HW in the field. 11 usability experts were asked to use one of these three approaches to evaluate a mobile device and the usability flaws discovered were compared across technique. HW discovered more critical usability flaws than HE. CW revealed some unique problems relating to I/O and ambient lighting not encountered in the other two approaches. Though contextualizing heuristic evaluation improves the assessment of mobile devices, it appears that it is possible to introduce contextual detail, i.e. to bridge the 'realism gap', with scenarios rather than expensive in-situ testing.
Is It Worth the Hassle? Exploring the Added Value of Evaluating the Usability of Context-Aware Mobile Systems in the Field BIBAFull-Text 61-73
  Jesper Kjeldskov; Mikael B. Skov; Benedikte S. Als; Rune T. Høegh
Evaluating the usability of mobile systems raises new concerns and questions, challenging methods for both lab and field evaluations. A recent literature study showed that most mobile HCI research projects apply lab-based evaluations. Nevertheless, several researchers argue in favour of field evaluations as mobile systems are highly context-dependent. However, field-based usability studies are difficult to conduct, time consuming and the added value is unknown. Contributing to this discussion, this paper compares the results produced by a laboratory- and a field-based evaluation of the same context-aware mobile system on their ability to identify usability problems. Six test subjects used the mobile system in a laboratory while another six used the system in the field. The results show that the added value of conducting usability evaluations in the field is very little and that recreating central aspects of the use context in a laboratory setting enables the identification of the same usability problem list.
Home Is Where Your Phone Is: Usability Evaluation of Mobile Phone UI for a Smart Home BIBAFull-Text 74-85
  Tiiu Koskela; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Lauri Lehti
Many home activities are mobile within the home. Now, in the beginning of the era of smart homes, the mobility of home activities can be taken even further. Networking technologies enable inhabitants of a smart home to access home functions from a distance. A mobile device, in specific the mobile phone, can act as a "remote control" UI for the smart home functions. This paper presents the results of research in which the usability and acceptability of a mobile phone as an UI to smart home functions were evaluated. Evaluation was done through focus groups, usability tests of a mobile UI prototype and a three-month usage experience of a young couple living in a smart apartment. The results indicate that the mobile phone is especially an attractive UI when instant control of both within-home and over-the-distance functions is needed. Furthermore, users liked the increased convenience and feeling of safety as the mobile phone enabled them to "feel home" from the distance.
User Validation of a Nomadic Exhibition Guide BIBAFull-Text 86-97
  Barbara Schmidt-Belz; Fabian Hermann
This paper reports on the user-oriented development of a nomadic exhibition guide for trade fair visitors. The system is situation aware, and personalized, supporting all phases from planning at home, over the mobile situation when visiting the exhibition, until the evaluation afterwards. The prototypical implementation of the system at a trade fair was basis for a final user evaluation. Users rated the importance of information retrieval, interactive, location aware maps and tour planning very high, while sophisticated features such as pro-active personalized tips, web-cam pictures, or locating colleagues were considered less important. Evaluation results concerning map visualization on small screens and egocentric navigation support are reported in more detail.
Social Networks and Mobile Games: The Use of Bluetooth for a Multiplayer Card Game BIBAFull-Text 98-107
  Chris Baber; Oliver Westmancott
In this paper, we consider mobile game playing from the perspective of social network analysis. A multiplayer card game (BELKA) has been designed. The game allows players to select between trading, playing or pairing with other players. The game was played using playing-cards or using HP Ipaq devices equipped with Bluetooth, and players were either seated around a table or encouraged to move around the room. Activities during play were recorded and these data are analysed in terms of social networks. It was found that while the playing-cards led to attempts to apply the same type of activity in both seated and mobile conditions, the use of PDA led to differences in play. These differences were due to both technical, i.e., availability of players in the Bluetooth network , and social, i.e., visibility of players in the world and the activity of the Dealer. It is proposed that the manner in which the game was played changes when a mobile device is used whilst moving around, and that this is different to when the same device is used when sitting down.
Eye Movement Study of Reading on a Mobile Device Using the Page and RSVP Text Presentation Formats BIBAFull-Text 108-119
  Gustav Öquist; Anna Sågvall Hein; Jan Ygge; Mikael Goldstein
We present findings from a balanced repeated-measurement evaluation where 16 subjects read texts of similar length and difficulty using the traditional Page and the dynamic Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) format on a mobile device. Apart from monitoring reading speed, comprehension, and NASA-TLX task load, we also devised a system that enabled us to keep track of subjects eye movements. The results indicate no significant differences in reading speed or comprehension, but for task load, RSVP increased the Temporal task load factor. However, the most striking differences were found in the eye movement recordings. RSVP was found to decrease the overall number of eye movements significantly. But, RSVP was also found to significantly increase the number of regressions, although it decreased the number of saccades. These findings contradict common claims and their implications for the improvement of readability on mobile devices are discussed.

Full Papers: Tilt, Touch, and Text Entry

Tilt-Based Automatic Zooming and Scaling in Mobile Devices -- A State-Space Implementation BIBAFull-Text 120-131
  Parisa Eslambolchilar; Roderick Murray-Smith
We provide a dynamic systems interpretation of the coupling of internal states involved in speed-dependent automatic zooming, and test our implementation on a text browser on a Pocket PC instrumented with an accelerometer. The dynamic systems approach to the design of such continuous interaction interfaces allows the incorporation of analytical tools and constructive techniques from manual and automatic control theory. We illustrate experimental results of the use of the proposed coupled navigation and zooming interface with classical scroll and zoom alternatives.
An Evaluation of Techniques for Browsing Photograph Collections on Small Displays BIBAFull-Text 132-143
  Dynal Patel; Gary Marsden; Steve Jones; Matt Jones
In this paper we evaluate techniques for browsing photographs on small displays. We present two new interaction techniques that replace conventional scrolling and zooming controls. Via a single user action, scrolling and zooming are inter-dependently controlled with AutoZoom and independently controlled with GestureZoom. Both techniques were evaluated in a large-scale, 72-subject usability experiment alongside a conventional thumbnail grid image browser. Performance with the new techniques was at least as good as that with the standard thumbnail grid, even though none of the subjects had prior experience with such systems. In a number of cases -- such as finding small groups of photos or when seeking for images containing small details -- the new techniques were significantly faster than the conventional approach. In addition, AutoZoom and GestureZoom supported significantly more accurate identification of subsets of photographs. Subjects also reported lower levels of physical and cognitive effort and frustration with the new techniques in comparison to the thumbnail grid browser.
Variability in Wrist-Tilt Accelerometer Based Gesture Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 144-155
  Andrew Crossan; Roderick Murray-Smith
In this paper we describe a study that examines human performance in a tilt control targeting task on a PDA. A three-degree of freedom accelerometer attached to the base of the PDA allows users to navigate to the targets by tilting their wrist in different directions. Post hoc analysis of performance data has been used to classify the ease of targeting and variability of movement in the different directions. The results show that there is an increase in variability of motions upwards from the centre, compared to downwards motions. Also the variability in the x axis component of the motion was greater than that in the y axis. This information can be used to guide designers as to the ease of various relative motions, and can be used to reshape the dynamics of the interaction to make each direction equally easy to achieve.

Full Papers: Auditory Interactions

Mobile Note Taking: Investigating the Efficacy of Mobile Text Entry BIBAFull-Text 156-167
  Joanna Lumsden; Andrew Gammell
When designing interaction techniques for mobile devices we must ensure users are able to safely navigate through their physical environment while interacting with their mobile device. Non-speech audio has proven effective at improving interaction on mobile devices by allowing users to maintain visual focus on environmental navigation while presenting information to them via their audio channel. The research described here builds on this to create an audio-enhanced single-stroke-based text entry facility that demands as little visual resource as possible. An evaluation of the system demonstrated that users were more aware of their errors when dynamically guided by audio-feedback. The study also highlighted the effect of handwriting style and mobility on text entry; designers of handwriting recognizers and of applications involving mobile note taking can use this fundamental knowledge to further develop their systems to better support the mobility of mobile text entry.
The Personal Audio Loop: Designing a Ubiquitous Audio-Based Memory Aid BIBAFull-Text 168-179
  Gillian R. Hayes; Shwetak N. Patel; Khai N. Truong; Giovanni Iachello; Julie A. Kientz; Rob Farmer; Gregory D. Abowd
Sound is an important medium in our lives, but its ephemeral nature can be problematic when people cannot recall something they heard in the past. Motivated by everyday conversational breakdowns, we present the design of a continuous, near-term audio buffering application: the Personal Audio Loop (PAL). PAL was designed as a truly ubiquitous service to recover audio content from a person's recent past. Initial brainstorming and prototyping for PAL revealed major aspects of the design space that require further investigation, including potential usefulness in everyday life, the level of ubiquity required, the usability features for any instantiation of the service, and the social and legal considerations for potential deployment. We present a design of PAL, informed by a controlled laboratory study, diary study, and examination of pertinent legislation. We conclude with an analysis of the results and some initial observations of the deployment of a prototype developed for a Motorola i730 handset.
A Study on Gestural Interaction with a 3D Audio Display BIBAFull-Text 180-191
  Georgios Marentakis; Stephen A. Brewster
The study reported here investigates the design and evaluation of a gesture-controlled, spatially-arranged auditory user interface for a mobile computer. Such an interface may provide a solution to the problem of limited screen space in handheld devices and lead to an effective interface for mobile/eyes-free computing. To better understand how we might design such an interface, our study compared three potential interaction techniques: head nodding, pointing with a finger and pointing on a touch tablet to select an item in exocentric 3D audio space. The effects of sound direction and interaction technique on the browsing and selection process were analyzed. An estimate of the size of the minimum selection area that would allow efficient 3D sound selection is provided for each interaction technique. Browsing using the touch screen was found to be more accurate than the other two techniques, but participants found it significantly harder to use.

Full Papers: Device Differences and Web Pages

A Study of Application and Device Effects Between a WAP Phone and a Palm PDA BIBAFull-Text 192-203
  Jiraporn Buranatrived; Paul Vickers
Technologies like Java 2 Micro Edition and Microsoft's .NET framework allow applications to be developed and deployed across a range of mobile devices without having to significantly change the source code. However, mobile devices have very different interfaces and capabilities and it is not clear whether these generic deployment technologies adversely affect the usability of applications by ignoring individual device characteristics. This paper describes an experiment that aimed to see whether users of two applications written with J2ME and deployed on two devices experienced any differences in the usage of the applications on the different devices. Our findings indicate that usability can be maintained through multi-platform deployment, but that there are may also be usability advantages if the specific interaction paradigms of different mobile platforms are taken into account. This would require means of separating not just the interface from the functionality, but also the interface functionality from the interface data.
Personalization-Based Optimization of Web Interfaces for Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 204-215
  Michael Hinz; Zoltán Fiala; Frank Wehner
Developing personalized applications for the ubiquitous Web assumes to provide different user interfaces addressing heterogeneous capabilities of device classes. Major problems are the lack of sufficient presentation space and the diversity of interaction techniques, both requiring adaptive intelligent user interfaces. To meet this challenge this paper introduces an approach for the personalization-based optimization of Web interfaces for mobile devices. On the basis of a user model different adaptation issues are discussed. Firstly, static adaptation mechanisms affecting the structure of Web documents as well as layout managers enabling a device independent definition of Web presentations for heterogeneous devices are introduced. Then an interactive mechanism for dynamically predicting user preferences for hiding unnecessary information through content adaptation is presented. As a proof of concept an architecture realized by a pipeline-based document generator was developed for static/dynamic adaptation, which is partly explained in this paper.
Mixed-Initiative, Trans-modal Interface Migration BIBAFull-Text 216-227
  Renata Bandelloni; Silvia Berti; Fabio Paternò
This paper presents our solution to supporting runtime migration of Web application interfaces among devices offering different interaction modalities, in particular graphic to vocal platform migration and vice versa. Migrating between platforms implies keeping track of the user interactions in order to retrieve the runtime state of the interface and maintaining interaction continuity on the target device. The system can serve user-issued migration requests containing the identifier of the selected target device, and can also automatically start the migration procedure when environment conditions require it. In automatic migration the target platform has to be automatically selected as well. To this aim, we consider devices belonging to a restricted environment and have defined selection rules in order to identify the most suitable available target for the ongoing migration.
Web Page Transformation When Switching Devices BIBAFull-Text 228-239
  Bonnie MacKay; Carolyn Watters; Jack Duffy
With network and small screen device improvements, such as wireless abilities, increased memory and CPU speeds, users are no longer limited by location when accessing on-line information. We are interested in studying the effect of users switching from a large screen device, such as a desktop or laptop to use the same web page on a small device, in this case a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant). We discuss three common transformation approaches for display of web pages on the small screen: Direct Migration, Linear and Overview. We introduce a new Overview method, called the Gateway, for use on the small screen that exploits a user's familiarity of a web page. The users in an initial study prefer using the Gateway and Direct Migration approach for web pages previously used on the large screen, despite the common Linear approach used by many web sites.
Mobile Context Aware Systems: The Intelligence to Support Tasks and Effectively Utilise Resources BIBAFull-Text 240-251
  Russell Beale; Peter Lonsdale
The complex usage of mobile devices coupled with their limited resources in terms of display and processing suggests that being able to understand the context of the user would be beneficial. In this paper we present a model that describes context as a dynamic process with historic dependencies. We also describe software architecture to support this model, and evaluate its effectiveness in a mobile learning scenario. Preliminary results from our evaluation suggest important issues for consideration in the continuing development of context aware systems and interfaces, including the need for appropriate representation of contextual data to the user, and maintaining a balance between effective support and intrusion.

Full Papers: Novel Interaction Techniques

Usability of MobiVR Concept: Towards Large Virtual Touch Screen for Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 252-263
  Tiiu Koskela; Inka Vilpola
The size of the display is one of the major obstacles to fluent information presentation and management on current mobile devices. The user may not be able to perform basic data handling tasks, such as to find and to compare information, in an efficient and satisfying way. This paper presents a usability study of a novel user interface concept -- the MobiVR -- and its early prototype with a large virtual display and a finger pointing input method. The purpose of the usability study was to find target applications of the MobiVR concept and the features that need to be developed before the advantages of the concept can be fully utilized. The research was conducted with focus group sessions and usability tests. The study showed the MobiVR concept to suit well for spontaneous information retrieval, for example using mobile Internet. The results will direct the further development of the prototype towards a "virtual touch screen".
Handy: A New Interaction Device for Vehicular Information Systems BIBAFull-Text 264-275
  Gennaro Costagliola; Sergio Di Martino; Filomena Ferrucci; Giuseppe Oliviero; Umberto Montemurro; Alessandro Paliotti
The design of interfaces for automotive information systems is a critical task. In fact, such design must take into account that user is busy in the primary driving task, and any visual distraction determined by telematics systems can cause serious safety problems. To limit such distraction and enhance safety, in this paper we propose a novel multimodal user interface. The key element of the proposal is a new interaction device, named Handy, conceived to exploit the driver's tactile channel to minimize the workload of visual channel. Moreover Handy is suitably integrated with the graphical user interface, which is characterized by a reduced number of choices for each state and has been designed in agreement with the self-revealing approach.
Interactive Positioning Based on Object Visibility BIBAFull-Text 276-287
  Christian Kray; Gerd Kortuem
In this paper we describe a new method and user interface for interactive positioning of a mobile device. The key element of this method is a question-answer style dialogue between system and user about the visibility of nearby objects and landmarks; answers given by the user provide clues about the relative position of the user and allow the verification or falsification of hypotheses about the user's absolute location. This new approach combines the respective strengths of a human user (i. e. fast and reliable object recognition) and a mobile system (i. e. fast computation of numerical data). It enables accurate positioning without requiring any other positioning technologies. A particular advantage of this approach is that it lends itself to the implementation on camera-equipped mobile phones, where it can be used to increase the accuracy of cell-based localisation methods.
IDeixis -- Searching the Web with Mobile Images for Location-Based Information BIBAFull-Text 288-299
  Konrad Tollmar; Tom Yeh; Trevor Darrell
In this paper we describe an image-based approach to finding location-based information from camera-equipped mobile devices. We introduce a point-by-photograph paradigm, where users can specify a location simply by taking pictures. Our technique uses content-based image retrieval methods to search the web or other databases for matching images and their source pages to find relevant location-based information. In contrast to conventional approaches to location detection, our method can refer to distant locations and does not require any physical infrastructure beyond mobile internet service. We have developed a prototype on a camera phone and conducted user studies to demonstrate the efficacy of our approach.

Short Papers

The Use of Landmarks in Pedestrian Navigation Instructions and the Effects of Context BIBAFull-Text 300-304
  Tracy Ross; Andrew May; Simon Thompson
The beneficial effects of using landmarks in vehicle navigation systems (improved user confidence and navigation performance) have been well-studied and proven. The study reported here aimed to investigate the effects of adding landmark information to basic pedestrian navigation instructions (i.e. those which included distance to turn and street name only). The study found that the results replicate that for vehicle navigation systems. User confidence was raised to a consistently high level as a result of landmark inclusion and errors were greatly reduced. The results also indicate the types of manoeuvre that should benefit most from the inclusion of landmarks.
A Paper Prototype Study of the Interface for a Children's Collaborative Handheld Learning Application BIBAFull-Text 305-309
  Jason T. Black; Lois W. Hawkes; Jean-Pierre Ketly; Isaac, II Johnson; Marvin Lee
The use of handheld computers in the classroom environment is an area generating much interest among researchers. The questions of how to manage power and graphics while handling small screen space remain issues to be examined. In this study, a paper prototype test of the collaborative interface features was implemented using five user tasks: logging in, reading a text, answering text related questions, chatting, and entering data into a personal workbook. The test results illustrated the need for clear instructions and menu options for younger users, and that speech and written input were preferred over other methods. The feedback obtained from the test will drive the development of the actual system in future studies.
Ubibus: Ubiquitous Computing to Help Blind People in Public Transport BIBAFull-Text 310-314
  Michel Banâtre; Paul Couderc; Julien Pauty; Mathieu Becus
Ubibus is an application designed to help blind or visually impaired people to take public transport. The application allows the user to request in advance the bus of his choice to stop, and to be notified when the right bus has arrived. The user may use either a PDA (equipped with a WLAN interface) or a Bluetooth mobile phone.
   The system is designed to be integrated discretely in the bus service via ubiquitous computing principles. It tries to minimize both the amount of required changes in the service operation, and explicit interactions with the mobile device. This is done by augmenting real-life interactions with data processing, through a programming paradigm called spatial programming.
Improving the Effectiveness of Mobile Application Design: User-Pairs Testing by Non-professionals BIBAFull-Text 315-319
  Titti Kallio; Aki Kekäläinen
The nature of mobile applications requires a fast and inexpensive design process. The development phase is short because the life cycle of an application is limited, mobile technology is developing rapidly, and the competition is heavy. Existing design methods are time-consuming and require expertise (e.g. Contextual Design). We suggest a design approach where focus groups are followed by usability tests in pairs carried out by non-professional moderators. With this approach CHI departments can benefit from market research resources, and improve collaboration with marketing people. We evaluated this approach with a case called News Client. The findings show that in paired-user tests near half of the usability problems were found compared to individual usability testing. The results are not too profound but enough for industry needs. Another interesting point is that our findings do not support the earlier reported results according to which the interaction between two participants can bring out more input than a single participant thinking aloud.
Pen-Based Gestures: An Approach to Reducing Screen Clutter in Mobile Computing BIBAFull-Text 320-324
  Mark Nicholson; Paul Vickers
Mobile computing is an area of high growth despite having some serious design issues. It is difficult to increase the size of the screen because of the device's physical constraints. Consequently, as mobile applications have incorporated more functionality, screen clutter has increased. One method of reducing clutter is to remove visual controls and use pen-based gestures instead. We describe a cinema listing application for a Palm OS device that implements pen-based gestures as the main input method. Two methods are used to communicate the options available on each screen: audio cues and small visual prompts. Preliminary results suggest that buttons can be removed from the screen without detriment to task accuracy or user performance.
Dynamic Primitives for Gestural Interaction BIBAFull-Text 325-330
  Steven Strachan; Roderick Murray-Smith; Ian Oakley; Jussi Ängeslevä
We describe the implementation of an interaction technique which allows users to store and retrieve information and computational functionality on different parts of their body. We present a dynamic systems approach to gestural interaction using Dynamic Movement Primitives, which model a gesture as a second order dynamic system followed by a learned nonlinear transformation. We demonstrate that it is possible to learn models, even from single examples, which can simulate and classify the gestures needed for the Body Space project, running on a PocketPC with a 3-degree of freedom linear accelerometer.
Touch Detection System for Mobile Terminals BIBAFull-Text 331-336
  Jani Mäntyjärvi; Kjell Nybergh; Johan Himberg; Kari Hjelt
Knowledge when the terminal is in the hand of the user is important information that can be exploited in mobile applications. We present a touch detection system for mobile terminals based on impedance measurements. Experiments for recognizing touch of various objects are presented. The results show that the system is capable of recognizing if the device is touched with different objects such as bare hands, cotton (used e.g. in pockets of trousers) and leather carrying case.
Mobile Text Input with Soft Keyboards: Optimization by Means of Visual Clues BIBAFull-Text 337-341
  Laurent Magnien; Jean Léon Bouraoui; Nadine Vigouroux
Soft keyboards are one of the most popular methods to input text for mobile pen-based computing. They allow text input to be performed through an onscreen graphical representation of a standard desk keyboard. Besides standard QWERTY keyboard layout, some researchers have proposed optimized alternative key organizations to improve user performances with soft keyboards. In this paper we propose and evaluate a solution using visual clues to facilitate the acceptance of these optimized layouts by novices.
Watch-Top Text-Entry: Can Phone-Style Predictive Text-Entry Work with Only 5 Buttons? BIBAFull-Text 342-346
  Mark D. Dunlop
This paper presents an initial study into the viability of text entry on a watch face using four alphabetic buttons and a central space key. The study includes a technical evaluation of likely error rates using a large text corpus and user studies on palmtop emulated mobile phone and watch. The results, though in favour of the phone pad, are encouraging and show such a method is feasible.
Pair-wise Variability Index: Evaluating the Cognitive Difficulty of Using Mobile Text Entry Systems BIBAFull-Text 347-350
  Frode Eika Sandnes; Hua-Li Jian
A modified pair-wise variability index for evaluating the cognitive difficulty of using mobile text entry systems is proposed. The index is easy to compute from keystroke logs acquired from typing experiments where keystroke times are recorded. The effectiveness of the pair-wise variability index is demonstrated on the keystroke logs acquired using three different text entry strategies.
Xaudio: Results from a Field Trial Study on a Technology Enhancing Radio Listeners' User Experience BIBAFull-Text 351-355
  Reinhard Sefelin; Verena Seibert-Giller; Manfred Tscheligi
This paper discusses a field trial of a technology (Xaudio), which connects two different types of media: The mobile internet and the radio. Inaudible signals (watermarks) are broadcasted via the sound of the radio, are received by a mobile device and decoded. This information then is used to take the listener directly to a mobile application (Xaudio application) that is relevant to the radio content currently broadcasted. Ten persons participated in a field trial study on this technology. The paper presents the results of this field trial. In particular it compares different kinds of applications and analyses the reasons for their success or failure. Furthermore proposals to improve the service of Xaudio for future uses are discussed briefly.
O2 Active: Enhancing User Experience on Mobile Phones BIBAFull-Text 356-360
  Anat S. Amir
Mobile operators are providing customers a range of data services, extending beyond the traditional voice services. These aim to empower the handheld device or mobile phone as a central means of communication, information and socialization, changing the way people use and perceive them. The following paper describes the user interface concept of the O2 Active Menu. This unique mobile software application, launched in the UK in February 2004, provides an innovative interface on mobile phones, integrating between operator data services and the device functionality. It deals with the key user experience challenges of the mobile Internet environment, enhancing accessibility, presentation and usability.
A Prototype for Remote Vehicle Diagnostics BIBAFull-Text 361-365
  Jonas Kuschel; Henrik Fagrell; Carl Johan Andersson
The field of Remote Vehicle Diagnostics can be described as the remote management of vehicles equipped with electronic control systems. Despite the great potential that is ascribed Remote Vehicle Diagnostics there are few practical applications that address the needs of end-users. This paper asks how service mechanics remotely can get detailed vehicle data when the driver is concerned about the vehicle's behaviour, or the vehicle's internal control system detects an error. We describe a prototype that enables service mechanics to remotely receive notifications of vehicle diagnostics trouble codes, read realtime usage parameters, and periodic log parameters according to specified rules and filters. The paper concludes with a future outlook on how the architecture can support new kinds of services.
Adaptive Portal Aggregation for Pervasive Client Devices BIBAFull-Text 366-372
  Ming Li; Marion Blount
Accessing portals using pervasive client devices, such as PDAs, smart phones, etc., has become very important to mobile users. The characteristics of pervasive devices, such as small form factor, screen geometry diversity, low processing power, weak network connectivity, etc., impose many challenges for accessing portals on the pervasive devices. A major overlooked challenge is the difference in user attention on a desktop system and the user attention on a pervasive device. In this paper, we propose an adaptive portal aggregation framework to minimize the user attention demands for accessing portals on pervasive devices. We propose two specific techniques and a general approach that uses client context information for adaptive portal aggregation for pervasive client devices. We have tested these approaches in an embedded portal that runs on a PDA.
Supporting Mobile Applications with Real-Time Visualisation of GPS Availability BIBAFull-Text 373-377
  Anthony Steed
Many mobile applications rely on the Global Positioning System (GPS) to provide position and location information. However, there are many problems with using GPS in urban environments due to the variable nature of GPS's accuracy and availability. This paper introduces a simple tool that visualises the current state of GPS availability in real-time. This tool can be used for scenario planning for certain types of mobile applications and as aid for analysis of location logs.
Bringing the Office to the Stables BIBAFull-Text 378-382
  Stefan Wagner
This short paper presents partial results from a research project aiming at uncovering the potential for introducing mobile computing support in the Danish Agricultural sector. Using a commercial research project as the staging point, several prototypes are developed and presented to farmers in a user study, combined with an on-site field study aimed at gathering information on the present usage of computer application support, as well as uncovering potential relevant usages for existing mobile technology devices, like PDAs and cell phones. The main lesson learned from this research project is not to replace existing tools and technologies with new mobile technology at any cost, but rather utilize these new devices to supplement and augment the existing infrastructure already in place.
Comparison of Mobile and Fixed Use of SmartLibrary BIBAFull-Text 383-387
  Markus Aittola; Pekka Parhi; Maria Vieruaho; Timo Ojala
Finding books in large libraries can be difficult for novice library users. This paper presents the current status of SmartLibrary, a web-based guidance application helping library customers in this task. We present a comparative evaluation where users tested the service in the main library of University of Oulu with fixed and mobile devices. The evaluation confirmed that SmartLibrary is a useful service for novice library customers; more experienced patrons prefer the traditional shelf classification. The users considered the service easiest to use with a public desktop terminals. However, the possibility of using the guidance in a PDA or a mobile phone in larger libraries was appreciated.
Automatic Partitioning of Web Pages Using Clustering BIBAFull-Text 388-393
  Richard Romero; Adam Berger
This paper introduces a method for automatically partitioning richly-formatted electronic documents. An automatic partitioning system has many potential uses, but we focus here on one: dividing web content into fragments small enough to be delivered to and rendered on a mobile phone or PDA. The segmentation algorithm is analyzed from a theoretical and an empirical basis, with a suite of measurements.
Acoustic Features for Profiling Mobile Users of Conversational Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 394-398
  Dave Toney; David Feinberg; Korin Richmond
Conversational interfaces allow human users to use spoken language to interact with computer-based information services. In this paper we examine the potential for personalizing speech-based human-computer interaction according to the user's gender and age. We describe a system that uses acoustic features of the user's speech to automatically estimate these physical characteristics. We discuss the difficulties of implementing this process in relation to the high level of environmental noise that is typical of mobile human-computer interaction.
Butler: A Universal Speech Interface for Mobile Environments BIBAFull-Text 399-403
  Botond Pakucs
Speech interfaces are about to be integrated in consumer appliances and embedded systems and are expected to be used by mobile users in ubiquitous computing environments. This paper discusses some major usability and HCI related problems that may be introduced by this development. It is argued that a human-centered approach should be employed when designing and developing speech interfaces for mobile environments. Further, the Butler, a generic spoken dialogue system developed according to the human-centered approach is described. The Butler features a dynamic multi-domain approach.

Posters

Learnability and Automatic Clustering of Images in Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 404-408
  Aino Ahtinen; Malin Andersson
Today's imaging phones create new challenges of managing large amount of images. The user has to be able to browse, find and organize media in an effortless way on a small display and with limited navigation possibilities. We present a mobile application, which clusters images automatically based on date and location. We conducted a user study with the application in order to find out what users think of automatic clustering and how they learn to use it. The results revealed that our application with automatic clustering of images helps users to manage a large amount of images.
UbiquiTO: A Multi-device Adaptive Guide BIBAFull-Text 409-414
  Ilaria Amendola; Federica Cena; Luca Console; Andrea Crevola; Cristina Gena; Anna Goy; Sonia Modeo; Monica Perrero; Ilaria Torre; Andrea Toso
This paper describes UbiquiTO, an adaptive tourist guide, conceived as a "journey companion" for mobile users in Turin, aimed, for the current prototype, at supporting mobile workers helping them to organize their late afternoon and evening in town. The paper is intended to emphasize the most relevant feature of the system, that is the integration of different adaptation strategies in order to allow high flexibility in terms of device used, localization technology, user preferences and context conditions.
Visualizing the Thematic Update Status of Web and WAP Sites on Mobile Phones BIBAFull-Text 415-420
  Luca Chittaro
The primary goal of people accessing the Web from mobile phones is to find specific pieces of information (PoI, hereinafter), not to surf. Well-designed sites for mobile users help them by minimizing the path needed to reach the desired PoI. We propose a further improvement, based on visualizing thematic update status (i.e., how many PoI have been added in each category and when). This can prevent unfruitful navigation of the site and also allow users to compare different sites to choose which one better suits their needs.
Adapting Web-Pages for Mobile / PC Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 421-425
  Hui-Na Chua; Simon. D. Scott; See-Leng Ng; Michael Gardner; Anuroop Shahi; Peter Blanchfield
Web-based collaboration between mobile devices and PCs requires web-pages to be adapted to multiple devices. The paper begins by reviewing the considerations taken into account by existing web-content adaptation engines in adapting web-pages for the single-user browsing task. Next, the differences between single-user browsing and co-browsing are discussed along with the concept of shared view point and personal view point. Finally, a framework for adapting web-content for the purpose of co-browsing on different devices is outlined.
EMG as a Subtle Input Interface for Mobile Computing BIBAFull-Text 426-430
  Enrico Costanza; Alberto Perdomo; Samuel A. Inverso; Rebecca Allen
Rather than merely imitating the desktop metaphor for mobile devices, new interface paradigms that take into account the particular characteristics of mobility, need to be developed. In this paper an input device based on the electromyographic (EMG) signal is proposed as a controller for mobile interaction. The interface can be considered subtle or intimate because individuals are able to interact privately without causing distraction to their immediate environment. The results from a preliminary study are presented to show the feasibility of the proposed system.
Mobile Support for Team-Based Field Surveys BIBAFull-Text 431-435
  Malcolm Hall; Philip Gray
This paper describes a study of the use of multimedia networked location-aware mobile computers to support team-based survey-oriented fieldwork. Existing systems do not provide fully integrated support for collaborative data capture and review, or access to distributed real time information on survey progress and status, all of which are crucial for the conduct and management of surveys often carried out under inflexible time constraints. We developed a mobile system to address these shortcomings and performed an evaluation in an archaeological field survey, supporting over two-hundred data collection incidents over five days, and providing further insight into the field work data collection process.
"Please Turn ON Your Mobile Phone" -- First Impressions of Text-Messaging in Lectures BIBAFull-Text 436-440
  Matt Jones; Gary Marsden
Previous work by Draper and Brown [3] investigated the use of specialized handsets to increase interactivity in lecture settings. Inspired by their encouraging findings we have been exploring the use of conventional mobile phones and text-messaging to allow students to communicate with the lecturer as the class proceeds. In our pilot-study, students were able to respond to MCQs and send free-text comments and questions to the lecturer via SMS. Through observations and interviews with students and lecturers, we gained useful impressions of the value of such an approach. Students enjoyed the opportunity to be more actively involved but voiced concerns about costs.
A Stereoscopic Image Rendering Method for Autostereoscopic Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 441-445
  Daehee Kim; Hoonjong Kang; Chunghyun Ahn
A novel stereoscopic image rendering method for autostereoscopic mobile devices is presented in this paper. The system to implement the proposed method consists of autostereoscopic display system and the stereoscopic rendering software engine for mobile devices. First, we mount a parallax barrier, which is made by a twisted nematic (TN) panel, on the liquid crystal display (LCD) to display stereoscopic 3-D images generated by the proposed stereoscopic rendering software engine. In addition, we present the stereoscopic rendering algorithm for 3-D graphic models. The proposed algorithm generates left-view images and right-view images from 3-D graphic models. Therefore, the proposed rendering system provides autostereoscopic views in order that users can enjoy three dimensional effects without any special glasses.
The Effects of Mobile Pedestrian Navigation Systems on the Concurrent Acquisition of Route and Survey Knowledge BIBAFull-Text 446-450
  Antonio Krüger; Ilhan Aslan; Hubert Zimmer
In this paper we report results of an experiment that investigates the effects of mobile pedestrian navigation systems on the development of route and survey knowledge acquired by the users. In the experiment directions were presented incrementally step-by-step in different modalities (i.e. audio, graphics) and through different media (PDA, clip-on display). The experiment has been carried out in the field in a Wizard-of-Oz like study. Results show that as expected all subjects had problems in building up survey knowledge of the environment. In contrast, route knowledge was learned much better. We also observed a slight gender effect showing that women had an advantage of a visual presentation condition, whereas for men the presentation mode didn't matter. Finally, we discuss some implications on the design of pedestrian navigation systems.
Supporting Museum Co-visits Using Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 451-455
  Yann Laurillau; Fabio Paternò
The goal of this work is to provide tools that promote social interactions between visitors through cooperative and educational games. In this paper, we describe how to support collaborative learning in museum visits and show an example application based on mobile palmtop systems. To this end, we have developed a system that is able to support collaborative and independent activities, and offer context-aware content.
Chording as a Text Entry Method in Mobile Phones BIBAFull-Text 456-460
  Seongil Lee; Sang Hyuk Hong
A chording input method on mobile phones, using two thumbs simultaneously, was examined. This paper addresses advantages and disadvantages in chording applied to text input and control using keypads of mobile phones. Chording can be a good input and control method in that it can provide more options with limited number of keys, and that it can provide mobile users with extended usability and functionality. The chording input method on a mobile keypad showed comparable performances in choice reaction times and error rates with conventional single keying method, even though certain chording seemed to cause troubles in finger coordination, resulting in longer reaction times and more errors.
Engaging Learners with Everyday Technology: A Participatory Simulation Using Mobile Phones BIBAFull-Text 461-465
  Peter Lonsdale; Chris Baber; Mike Sharples
Mobile text messaging provides a novel opportunity to engage learners in collaborative learning experiences. This study describes the use of mobile text messaging to engage learners in an interactive role-playing game based on the water cycle. Learners were guided through their role in this participatory simulation using SMS messages sent to their mobile phones. Learners' physical positions in the game triggered particular events and precluded others, thus enabling an interactive simulation that was more than just a series of messages sent out at fixed intervals. Results indicated that the learners' understanding of the topic was at least as good as in a comparative conventional teaching condition, despite being given far less causal information. Furthermore, a set of learners who answered a test of water cycle knowledge without any teaching gave different responses to the SMS group, suggesting that the SMS game is at least a viable and entertaining alternative to lesson-based teaching for appropriate topics.
One-Push Sharing: Facilitating Picture Sharing from Camera Phones BIBAFull-Text 466-470
  Gary Look; Robert Laddaga; Howard Shrobe
We present a "one-push" sharing feature for camera phones that allows camera phone owners to easily email pictures from their camera phone. Our approach compares favorably to that of camera phones today, which require users to navigate through a tedious series of menus. This work was the result of examining current camera phone use and designing a feature that facilitates the ways camera phones are used. The design was refined by feedback in an iterative design process. We discuss the rationale behind this feature, describe a camera application we implemented with this one-push sharing feature, and present some of the feedback users gave us during the iterative design process.
Delivering Personalized Local Services BIBAFull-Text 471-475
  László Márai; Javier Lafuente; Gábor Márton; Timo Perälä; Mikko Tarkiainen
Aspects of delivering personalized local services are briefly investigated, such as content delivery, authentication, attribute exchange, payment and user privacy. The main emphasis is on services that reach the users from their physical vicinity via their mobile handsets. The proposed solutions are demonstrated by showcasing a local service at an imaginary music store, with two alternatives of content presentation: XHTML browsing and Java MIDlet.
Mobility Mapping -- A Discount Technique for Exploring User Needs for Future Mobile Products and Services BIBAFull-Text 476-480
  Val Mitchell; Susan Harker; Ken Eason
This paper describes a 'low cost' or discount technique termed 'Mobility Mapping' designed to explore user needs for future mobile products and services during concept design and user requirements specification. It can be used to help designers and human factors practitioners encapsulate in scenario form the variability in usage patterns and usage contexts that must be considered within mobile product and service design. Mobility Mapping can also be used to complement field studies by providing a framework for stretching consideration of the context of mobile product use beyond the normal temporal and practical bounds of observation and shadowing activities. This paper introduces the technique and the rationale behind its development.
Memojog -- An Interactive Memory Aid Incorporating Mobile Based Technologies BIBAFull-Text 481-485
  Kenny Morrison; Andrea Szymkowiak; Peter Gregor
Memory problems are often associated with ageing and are among the most common effects of brain injury. Such problems can severely disrupt daily life and put huge strain on family members and carers. Electronic devices have been used successfully to provide short and timely reminders to memory-impaired individuals. The Memojog project has developed and evaluated a mobile, interactive communication and memory-aid system with elderly and memory-impaired people. The system utilizes current and easily available technology such as the internet and GPRS mobile telephony. This paper will look at the design as well as the successes and limitations of the Memojog system.
JIKUKAN-POEMER: Geographic Information System Using Camera Phone Equipped with GPS, and Its Exhibition on a Street BIBAFull-Text 486-490
  Yasuto Nakanishi; Masashige Motoe; Shohei Matsukawa
In this paper, we introduce a geographic information system using camera phone equipped with GPS and its exhibitions. We have proposed a new kind of interface to see lost of pictures which have location information, and in the exhibition, we projected our system onto a shopping street in Japan and held it as a photography exhibition. We studied 700 pictures sent for the exhibition and three peculiar motifs were found.
Visual Object Detection for Mobile Road Sign Inventory BIBAFull-Text 491-495
  Christin Seifert; Lucas Paletta; Andreas Jeitler; Evelyn Hödl; Jean-P. Andreu; Patrick Luley; Alexander Almer
For road sign inventory and maintenance, we propose to use a mobile system based on a handheld device, GPS sensor, a camera, and a standard mobile GIS software. Camera images are then analysed via object recognition algorithms which results in an automated detection, i.e., localisation and classification of the signs. We present here the localisation of points and regions of interest, the fitting of geometrical constraints to the extracted set of interest points, and the matching of content information from the visual information within the sign plate. From the preliminary operational state of the vision based road sign detection system we conclude that the selected methodology is efficient enough to achieve the requested high quality in object detection and classification.
Integrated Care Plan and Documentation on Handheld Devices in Mobile Home Care BIBAFull-Text 496-500
  Isabella Scandurra; Maria Hägglund; Sabine Koch
Mobile work situations within home care of the elderly require immediate and ubiquitous access to patient-oriented data. We have developed a PDA based prototype that provides both access to the current care plan and an intuitive way for home help personnel to document the performed measures during mobile work. System development was conducted according to a user centered design approach in interdisciplinary working groups consisting of home help personnel, nurses, physicians, medical informaticians, system developers and usability experts. In this paper, we describe how the development of the prototype was performed and present our design considerations as well as the resulting prototype.
CENTAUR: A Two-Panel User Interface for Mobile Document Access BIBAFull-Text 501-506
  Greg Schohn; Adam Berger
This paper introduces a novel user interface designed to mitigate some of the usability problems in mobile web access. The interface consists of two side-by-side panels for representing a richly-formatted document (e.g. a web page). In one panel is a "wide angle" view of the entire document, partitioned into regions. In the other panel is a "zoomed in" view of the currently-active region. We describe a prototype system, called Centaur, which automatically and in real-time reformats electronic documents into this side-by-side view.
Smartphone Views: Building Multi-device Distributed User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 507-511
  Micael Sjölund; Anders Larsson; Erik Berglund
This paper introduces a prototype of a distributed user interface (DUI) on dual devices, a workstation and a Windows Mobile-powered smartphone. By porting the XML-compliant GUI system Views to the smartphone platform, we explore one possibility of distributing GUI components among heterogeneous devices. We describe problems and conclusions from designing and implementing the system.
Keywords: Distributed user interfaces; ubiquitous computing; XML GUI description; mobile computing; adaptive user interfaces; smartphone; Views
The Lack of Intelligent Design in Mobile Phones BIBAFull-Text 512-516
  Georg Strom
This paper describes how the organization of the development of mobile phones may reduce usability and user satisfaction, and it suggests possible improvements to the development process. It compares the evolution of mobile phones with the evolution of animals and plants, and it describes how the evolution of mobile phones is driven by the competition between specific characteristics of phones; similar to the way organic evolution is driven by the competition between genes. It describes how characteristics of mobile phones compete both in markets and in development organizations, and criteria that determine which characteristics survive and spread in development organizations.

Tutorials and Workshops

Visual and Interaction Design for 3G Mobile Phone Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 517-518
  Anders Norman; Sofia Svanteson; Jesper Wiking
This is a full day tutorial regarding visual and interaction design for 3G mobile phones. The first part of the day will be spent discussing the total user experience, user modes, information architecture, visual concepts and visual graphics such as iconography, widget design, fonts, colors and page design. The second part of the day will be spent on an exercise where the participants will design their own GUI concepts in groups.
Handheld Usability: Design, Prototyping, and Usability Testing for Mobile Phones, PDAs, and Pagers BIBAFull-Text 519-520
  Scott Weiss
This tutorial presents handheld device UI design, prototyping, and usability strategies. Handheld devices include pagers, PDAs, and mobile telephone handsets. Hardware UI, operating environments, and wireless networking will be presented. Information architecture, paper prototyping, and usability testing of handheld devices will be taught with team exercises.
3rd International Workshop on: "HCI in Mobile Guides" BIBAFull-Text 521-522
  Keith Cheverst; Barbara Schmidt-Belz
In recent years, we have witnessed a proliferation in research related to mobile guide systems. This is in part due to the increasing availability and affordability of the required enabling technologies and a growing acceptance of the potential for mobile guides in the market place. However, the complex issues surrounding the human factors issues associated with the use of mobile guides still requires considerable investigation if the 1st generation of marketed mobile guide systems are to be usable and offer real value to the user. In this third workshop on 'HCI in mobile guides', the key aim is to provide a vehicle to enable researchers and practitioners to continue to share their understanding and findings relating to HCI with mobile guides.
Interaction Design for CSCL in Ubiquitous Computing BIBAFull-Text 523-524
  Lucia Terrenghi; Carla Valle; Giorgio De Michelis
This workshop aims to share interdisciplinary experiences and perspectives in the field of CSCL in the area of Ubiquitous Computing. In particular, interaction and interface design for distributed education; new interaction patterns within and among distributed learning communities: learning experience evaluation; accessibility of learning material in different contexts are the main focus of discussion.
Mobile HCI 2004 Workshop on Location Systems Privacy and Control BIBAFull-Text 525-526
  Ian Smith; Giovanni Iachello; Mika Raento
People are increasingly carrying location-aware devices (i.e., able to determine their own location, and therefore that of the user, in physical space). A variety of such location systems are currently deployed or under development, from the global mobile telephony infrastructure [4] to schemes based on infrared badges, Bluetooth, GPS, or WiFi (802.11).
Mobile HCI and Sound BIBAFull-Text 527-528
  Simon Holland; Robert Day; Grégory Leplâtre; Alistair Edwards
Sound plays an increasingly varied and vital role in mobile and ubiquitous user interaction. One reason is the limited screen real-estate available in typical mobile devices. Another reason is that many mobile devices are used in minimal attention situations These are situations in which the user has only limited attention available for the interface: the user's eyes may be busy elsewhere; and the user may be busy avoiding the normal hazards of moving around, and engaging with real-world tasks. In many circumstances, such interactions will involve non-speech audio and gesture to afford natural means of access to information, to other people, and to services and situations in the environment.
Second International Workshop on Mobile and Ubiquitous Information Access BIBAFull-Text 529-530
  Fabio Crestani; Matt Jones; Stefano Mizzaro
The recent trend towards pervasive computing and information technology becoming omnipresent and entering all aspects of modern living, means that we are moving away from the traditional interaction paradigm between human and technology being that of the desktop computer. This shift towards ubiquitous computing is perhaps most evident in the increased sophistication and extended utility of mobile devices, such as mobile phones, PDAs, mobile communicators (telephone/PDA) and Tablet PCs. Advances in these mobile device technologies coupled with their much-improved functionality means that current mobile devices can be considered as multi-purpose information access tools capable of complex tasks. This Second Workshop on Mobile and Ubiquitous Information Access aims to be a forum for the presentation of current research and exchange of experiences into technological and usability aspects of mobile information access.

Panels

Mobile Communications Versus Pervasive Communications: The Role of Handhelds BIBAFull-Text 531-535
  Akseli Anttila; Amnon Ribak; Anxo Cereijo Roibás; Sabine Seymour; Sofia Svanteson; Scott Weiss; David Williams
The intent of this panel is to stimulate discussion around the design of HCI for handhelds and related applications in pervasive communication scenarios. The panel will create a provocative framework for future interactive communications and will generate a debate with the audience around the emerging and contentious topic of using mobile devices as main interfaces in a ubiquitous communication experience. It is expected that the panelists will promote inter-disciplinary and multidisciplinary discussion about a range of HCI issues including: management of multiple user interactions, interaction between mobile phones and other devices, the development of usable design models for convergent media, special HCI considerations around media sharing, new applications and new forms of interactive content more suitable in pervasive communication contexts. Other ethical, legal, business and social implications of ubiquitous communications may also be raised. Short position statements will be followed by moderated debate between panelists that will be open to questions from the floor stimulating high interaction with the audience. The panel will conclude with a summarization of the most relevant outcomes of the discussion.
The Myth of the 'Martini Solution' BIBAFull-Text 536-537
  Richard Harper; Abigail Sellen; Tim Kindberg; Phil Gosett; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
Some ten or fifteen years ago there was a well-known TV advert shown in the UK that implied that cool people drank Martini 'anytime, anyplace'. Since then, in the UK at least, the term 'Martini solutions' has been used to describe the products of the mobile industry, where the claim is made that these products are usable anytime, anyplace. Further, that the key value of mobile products and services is that they allow people to do things in time and space that they could never do before.