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Proceedings of 2002 Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services

Fullname:Mobile HCI 2002: 4th International Symposium on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices
Editors:Fabio Paternò
Location:Pisa, Italy
Dates:2002-Sep-18 to 2002-Sep-20
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2411
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/3-540-45756-9 hcibib: MOBILEHCI02; ISBN: 978-3-540-44189-2 (print), 978-3-540-45756-5 (online)
Papers:52
Pages:432
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Invited Speakers
  2. Location Awareness
  3. Design Support for PDAs
  4. Context Dependent Systems
  5. Innovative Case Studies
  6. Usability Evaluation in Small Devices
  7. Novel User Interfaces for Mobile Devices
  8. Short Papers

Invited Speakers

Mobile Devices for Control BIBAFull-Text 1-8
  Brad A. Myers
With today's and tomorrow's wireless technologies, such as IEEE 802.11, BlueTooth, RF-Lite, and G3, mobile devices will frequently be in close, interactive communication. Many environments, including offices, meeting rooms, automobiles and classrooms, already contain many computers and computerized appliances, and the smart homes of the future will have ubiquitous embedded computation. When the user enters one of these environments carrying a mobile device, how will that device interact with the immediate environment? We are exploring, as part of the Pebbles research project, the many ways that mobile devices such as PalmOS Organizers or PocketPC / Windows CE devices, can serve as useful adjuncts to the "fixed" computers in the user's vicinity. This brings up many interesting research questions, such as how to provide a user interface that spans multiple devices that are in use at the same time? How will users and systems decide which functions should be presented and in what manner on what device? How can the user's mobile device be effectively used as a "Personal Universal Controller" to provide an easy-to-use and familiar interface to all of the complex appliances available to a user? How can communicating mobile devices enhance the effectiveness of meetings and classroom lectures? I will describe some preliminary observations on these issues, and discuss some of the systems that we have built to investigate them.
Building Usable Wireless Applications for Mobile Phones BIBAFull-Text 9-20
  Luca Passani
Building usable WAP applications is not simple. Wireless devices have many limitations, and the average user of a WAP application is not technically oriented (and possibly not even used to the Internet). Finally, the interpretation of WML varies greatly between devices from different vendors. This poses an extra challenge to good usability.

Location Awareness

A Diary Study of Rendezvousing: Group Size, Time Pressure and Connectivity BIBAFull-Text 21-35
  Martin Colbert
This paper reports an initial analysis of a diary study of rendezvousing as performed by university students. The study's tentative findings are: (i) usability ratings for communication services are a little worse during a rendezvous (when at least one person is en route) than before (when none have yet departed); (ii) problems rendezvousing caused more stress when the rendezvousing group was large (6 or more participants) than when the group was small, but led to no more lost opportunity. Finding (i) is attributed to the desire for instant communication (which is stronger when users are under time pressure), and the constraints placed upon interaction (which are tighter in public spaces than in personal spaces). Finding (ii) is attributed to the suggestion that large rendezvous include more acquaintances (whose contact details may not be known) and different kinds of subsequent activity. If rendezvousers need anything, this study suggests that they need greater connectivity and service availability, rather than greater bandwidth. Implications for the design of position-aware communications services are discussed.
Automated Multimedia Diaries of Mobile Device Users Need Summarization BIBAFull-Text 36-44
  M. Gelgon; K. Tilhou
This paper addresses a still original issue and a solution that, while emerging from the pattern recognition point of view, certainly shares common goals with mobile HCI research goals. The contribution is at the crossroads of multimedia data analysis for content-based retrieval, and wearable computing. As users are acquiring multimedia content personal mobile devices, they are getting also undergoing information overflow. The problem of structuring the content into time-oriented meaningful episodes is addressed, and we argue that geographical location processing is crucial, as a complement to processing audiovisual material. A technique for model-based temporal structuring of one's trajectory during a day is presented, based on a Bayesian/MAP approach, that generates one or several summaries. Experimental results illustrate the applicative interest of the problem addressed and validates the proposed solution.
Personal Location Agent for Communicating Entities (PLACE) BIBAFull-Text 45-59
  Justin Lin; Robert Laddaga; Hirohisa Naito
Traditionally, location systems have been built bottom-up beginning with low-level sensors and adding layers up to high-level context. Consequently, they have focused on a single location-detection technology. With sharing of user location in mind, we created Personal Location Agent for Communicating Entities (PLACE), an infrastructure that incorporates multiple location technologies for the purpose of establishing user location with better coverage, at varying granularities, and with better accuracy. PLACE supports sensor fusion and access control using a common versatile language to describe user locations in a common universe. Its design provides an alternative approach towards location systems and insight into the general problem of sharing user location information.
Distributing Event Information by Simulating Word-of-Mouth Exchanges BIBAFull-Text 60-68
  Elaine M. Huang; Michael Terry; Elizabeth Mynatt; Kent Lyons; Alan Chen
Word-of-mouth is a persuasive but error-prone and unreliable mode of communicating personally relevant event information in a university environment. In this paper we present a design, early prototype, and the results of preliminary usability tests for Augmented Word-of-mouth Exchange (AWE), a portable system that models and enhances word-of-mouth communications. AWE simulates word-of-mouth exchanges by automatically transmitting accurate and persistent information about community events between physically proximate devices, and by visualizing the popularity of each event. The system uses physical proximity between mobile devices to help users filter incoming information and determine its relevance.

Design Support for PDAs

A New Transcoding Technique for PDA Browsers, Based on Content Hierarchy BIBAFull-Text 69-80
  F. J. Gonzàlez-Castaño; L. Anido-Rifón; E. Costa-Montenegro
This paper presents a new transcoding technique for WWW navigation on small display devices: Hierarchical Atomic Navigation. Unlike previous techniques, Hierarchical Atomic Navigation keeps all original information in a readable way, without imposing the use of a specific browser. To achieve this goal, a navigator page is used to represent original contents in a symbolic way. A set of representative icons replaces unreadable elements. These icons are linked to actual individual contents, as a set of atomic pages. Hierarchical Atomic Navigation can be used on any PDA, regardless of OS and browser choice, since both navigator and atomic pages use widely supported standard formats (e.g. XML, HTML).
Sorting Out Searching on Small Screen Devices BIBAFull-Text 81-94
  Matt Jones; George Buchanan; Harold Thimbleby
Small handheld devices -- mobile phones, PDAs etc -- are increasingly being used to access the Web. Search engines are the most used Web services and are an important user support. Recently, Google™ (and other search engine providers) have started to offer their services on the small screen. This paper presents a detailed evaluation of the how easy to use such services are in these new contexts. An experiment was carried out to compare users' abilities to complete realistic tourist orientated search tasks using a WAP, PDA-sized and conventional, desktop interface to the full Google™ index. With all three interfaces, when users succeed in completing a task, they do so quickly (within 2 to 3 minutes) and using few interactions with the search engine. When they fail, though, they fail badly. The paper examines the causes of failures in small screen searching and proposes guidelines for improving these interfaces.

Context Dependent Systems

Adapting Applications in Mobile Terminals Using Fuzzy Context Information BIBAFull-Text 95-107
  Jani Mäntyjärvi; Tapio Seppänen
Context-aware appliances are able to take advantage of fusing sensory and application specific information to provide proper information for situation, more flexible services, and adaptive user interfaces. Characteristic for mobile devices and their users is that they are continuously moving in several simultaneous fuzzy contexts. We present an approach for controlling context aware applications in the case of multiple fuzzy contexts. The design of controllers and experiments with real user data are presented. Experimental results show that the proposed approach enhances the capability of adapting information representation in a mobile terminal.
Direct Combination: A New User Interaction Principle for Mobile and Ubiquitous HCI BIBAFull-Text 108-122
  Simon Holland; David R. Morse; Henrik Gedenryd
Direct Combination (DC) is a recently introduced user interaction principle. The principle (previously applied to desktop computing) can greatly reduce the degree of search, time, and attention required to operate user interfaces. We argue that Direct Combination applies particularly aptly to mobile computing devices, given appropriate interaction techniques, examples of which are presented here. The reduction in search afforded to users can be applied to address several issues in mobile and ubiquitous user interaction including: limited feedback bandwidth; minimal attention situations; and the need for ad-hoc spontaneous interoperation and dynamic reconfiguration of multiple devices. When Direct Combination is extended and adapted to fit the demands of mobile and ubiquitous HCI, we refer to it as Ambient Combination (AC). Direct Combination allows the user to exploit objects in the environment to narrow down the range of interactions that need be considered (by system and user). When the DC technique of pairwise or n-fold combination is applicable, it can greatly lessen the demands on users for memorisation and interface navigation. Direct Combination also appears to offers a new way of applying context-aware information. In this paper, we present Direct Combination as applied ambiently through a series of interaction scenarios, using an implemented prototype system.
ASUR++: A Design Notation for Mobile Mixed Systems BIBAFull-Text 123-139
  Emmanuel Dubois; Philip Gray; Laurence Nigay
In this paper we present a notation, ASUR++, for describing mobile systems that combine physical and digital entities. The notation ASUR++ builds upon our previous one, called ASUR. The new features of ASUR++ are dedicated to handling the mobility of users and enable a designer to express physical relationships among entities involved in the system. The notation and its usefulness are illustrated in the context of the design of an augmented museum gallery.

Innovative Case Studies

Designing LoL@, a Mobile Tourist Guide for UMTS BIBAKFull-Text 140-154
  Günther Pospischil; Martina Umlauft; Elke Michlmayr
Modern lifestyle corresponds with high personal mobility. People want to work or use leisure-time applications while on the road. Modern mobile communications systems allow to meet these requirements for the first time. Advanced new features like user positioning allow sophisticated applications that are not possible in the fixed Internet or traditional cellular networks. Still, application development for the Mobile Internet is a complex task. Users have special demands because of the mobile environment. Stringent technical constraints are imposed by mobile networks and mobile devices.
   In this paper we present a prototype of a mobile application for UMTS. It is called LoL@ (Local Location Assistant) and implements a tourist guide for users in the city of Vienna. We discuss user interaction and interface design, design process, and technical solutions used to implement the application. Because of the initial lack of powerful PDAs, currently a laptop is used as terminal.
Keywords: Location Based Service; Electronic Guide; Mobile Internet; Semi-Formal Requirements Specification
Location-Aware Shopping Assistance: Evaluation of a Decision-Theoretic Approach BIBAFull-Text 155-169
  Thorsten Bohnenberger; Anthony Jameson; Antonio Krüger; Andreas Butz
We have implemented and tested a PDA-based system that gives a shopper directions through a shopping mall on the basis of (a) the types of products that the shopper has expressed an interest in, (b) the shopper's current location, and (c) the purchases that the shopper has made so far. The system uses decision-theoretic planning to compute a policy that optimizes the expected utility of a shopper's walk through the shopping mall, taking into account uncertainty about (a) whether the shopper will actually find a suitable product in a given location and (b) the time required for each purchase. To assess the acceptability of this approach to potential users, on two floors of a building we constructed a mock-up of a shopping mall with 15 stores. Each of 20 subjects in our study shopped twice in the mall, once using our system and once using a paper map. The subjects completed their tasks significantly more effectively using the PDA-based shopping guide, and they showed a clear preference for it. They also yielded numerous specific ideas about the conditions under which the guide will be useful and about ways of increasing its usability.
handiMessenger: Awareness-Enhanced Universal Communication for Mobile Users BIBAFull-Text 170-183
  Stacie Hibino; Audris Mockus
Successfully contacting colleagues while away from the office is especially difficult without information about their availability and location. HandiMessenger is a service designed to facilitate opportunistic communication by tightly integrating awareness and contact capabilities into a wireless, unified messaging and awareness application. Users can securely access intranet email, instant messages, and other messages from a handheld mobile device (e.g., a wireless PDA). Simultaneously, they are presented with awareness information about the sender to enable a reply in the most appropriate mode, given the situation of the participants. For example, they can read email and reply by initiating a phone call, if the sender is available by phone. Analysis of handiMessenger usage shows that users do request awareness information while inspecting message headers or content, and that users also, at times, respond to a message with a different type or in a different mode than the original message.

Usability Evaluation in Small Devices

An Empirical Study of the Minimum Required Size and the Minimum Number of Targets for Pen Input on the Small Display BIBAFull-Text 184-194
  Sachi Mizobuchi; Koichi Mori; Xiangshi Ren; Yasumura Michiaki
Two experiments were conducted to compare target pointing performance with a pen (stylus) and with a cursor key. on small displays. In experiment 1, we examined participants' performance of target pointing with both input methods at different target sizes. It was found that pen operation is more erroneous than key based operation when target size is smaller than 5 mm, but at a target size of 5 mm, the error rate decreased to the same level as for key input. In experiment 2, we examined the effect of the number of targets. The results showed, with a target size of 5 mm, the pen could point to targets quicker than with key input, when the distance to the target exceeds a path length of 3 steps.
KSPC (Keystrokes per Character) as a Characteristic of Text Entry Techniques BIBAFull-Text 195-210
  I. Scott MacKenzie
KSPC is the number of keystrokes, on average, to generate each character of text in a given language using a given text entry technique. We systematically describe the calculation of KSPC and provide examples across a variety of text entry techniques. Values for English range from about 10 for methods using only cursor keys and a select key to about 0.5 for word prediction techniques. It is demonstrated that KSPC is useful for a priori analyses, thereby supporting the characterisation and comparison of text entry methods before labour-intensive implementations and evaluations.
Lost or Found? A Usability Evaluation of a Mobile Navigation and Location-Based Service BIBAFull-Text 211-224
  Didier Chincholle; Mikael Goldstein; Marcus Nyberg; Mikael Eriksson
Today's wireless devices have the capability to receive information that is tailored to fit customers' needs at a particular location. A location-sensitive prototype service, the Personal Navigation Tool (PNT), including user-solicited information, worldwide maps, route and location guidance, was created for the WAP-enabled Ericsson R380 Smartphone. Seven Smartphone-literate but PNT-naive users were given five typical tasks in an in-door evaluation, in order to evaluate the PNT when running over a circuit-switched GSM network. All users accomplished three tasks targeting retrieval of route directions successfully whereas two tasks targeting retrieval of location information were accomplished successfully by only two and one user, respectively. System speed was rated as inadequate. The download of traditional miniaturised maps contributed little to the mobile user's demands whereas route directions were considered valuable. User attitude towards location-based services was very positive and the potential usefulness is believed to be high.
Towards an Improved Readability on Mobile Devices: Evaluating Adaptive Rapid Serial Visual Presentation BIBAFull-Text 225-240
  Gustav Öquist; Mikael Goldstein
Can readability on small screens be improved by using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) that adapts the presentation speed to the characteristics of the text? In this paper we introduce Adaptive RSVP and also report findings from a usability evaluation where the ability to read long and short texts on a mobile device was assessed. In a balanced repeated-measurement experiment employing 16 subjects two variants of Adaptive RSVP were benchmarked against Fixed RSVP and traditional text presentation. For short texts all RSVP formats increased reading speed by 33% with no significant differences in comprehension or task load. For long texts no differences were found in reading speed or comprehension but all RSVP formats increased task load significantly. Nevertheless, Adaptive RSVP improved task load ratings for most factors compared to Fixed RSVP. Causes, implications and effects of these findings are discussed.

Novel User Interfaces for Mobile Devices

Mobile and Collaborative Augmented Reality: A Scenario Based Design Approach BIBAFull-Text 241-255
  L. Nigay; P. Salembier; T. Marchand; P. Renevier; L. Pasqualetti
In this paper we address the combination of the physical and digital worlds in the context of a mobile collaborative activity. Our work seeks to accommodate the needs of professional users by joining their physical and digital operational worlds in a seamless way. Our application domain is archaeological prospecting. We present our approach of the design process, based on field studies and on the design of scenarios of actual and expected activities. We then describe the conceived and developed interaction techniques via the MAGIC platform.
The Unigesture Approach One-Handed Text Entry for Small Devices BIBAFull-Text 256-270
  Vibha Sazawal; Roy Want; Gaetano Borriello
The rise of small modern handhelds mandates innovation in user input techniques. Researchers have turned to tilt-based interfaces as a possible alternative for the stylus and keyboard. We have implemented Unigesture, a tilt-to-write system that enables one-handed text entry. With Unigesture, the user can jot a note with one hand while leaving the other hand free to hold a phone or perform other tasks. In this paper, we describe a prototype implementation of Unigesture and outline results of a user study. Our results show that individual variations among users, such as hand position, have the greatest effect on tilt-to-write performance.

Short Papers

"Just-in-Place" Information for Mobile Device Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 271-275
  Jesper Kjeldskov
This paper addresses the potentials of context sensitivity for making mobile device interfaces less complex and easier to interact with. Based on a semiotic approach to information representation, it is argued that the design of mobile device interfaces can benefit from spatial and temporal indexicality, reducing information complexity and interaction space of the device while focusing on information and functionality relevant here and now. Illustrating this approach, a series of design sketches show the possible redesign of an existing web and wap-based information service.
Pushing Web Pages into Personal Digital Assistants: Need, Tools and Solutions BIBAFull-Text 276-280
  E. Costa-Montenegro; F. J. González-Castaño; J. García-Reinoso; J. Vales-Alonso; L. Anido-Rifón
In this paper, we analyze the problem of pushing Web contents into Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), with minimum client participation. Typical HTTP or Javascript implementations require periodic client reloads, which impose an inefficient network utilization. We justify the existence of this problem, review existing alternatives, and propose a market-oriented implementation for wireless iPAQ Pocket PCs.
Émigré: Metalevel Architecture and Migratory Work BIBAFull-Text 281-285
  Paul Dourish; André van der Hoek
Migratory work extends traditional mobile work with an innate awareness of, and adaptability to, both technical and social surroundings. We are designing a technical framework, Émigré, that is based on the use of architectural meta-level representations to support rapid development and semi-automated run-time adaptation of migratory work applications.
Interactions Model and Code Generation for J2ME Applications BIBAFull-Text 286-290
  Davide Carboni; Stefano Sanna; Sylvain Giroux; Gavino Paddeu
The Java2 Micro Edition platform can really be considered an emerging standard for new generation embedded software. This article introduces a practical methodology aimed to automatically generate a software prototype starting from an abstract description which defines the dialogue between the user and the application by means of a device independent and abstract description. We will show how an agenda application for cellular phones can be described by means of a visual language called PLANES and present how the personal agenda prototype is implemented by an appropriate generation tool.
An Interface with Weight: Taking Interaction by Tilt beyond Disembodied Metaphors BIBAFull-Text 291-295
  Daniel Fallman
We propose a novel way of using tilt as a style of interaction for palmtop computing, as well as a theoretical base for doing so. Beyond superficial and disembodied metaphors, the force of gravity has been chosen to guide navigation within a space larger than the palmtop's screen. Gravity allows the user to experience 'an interface with weight'; an understanding put forward as embodied which diverge from previous implementations of tilt interaction, as both the input style as well as the interface answer to the physical world.
UML Modelling of Device-Independent Interfaces and Services for a Home Environment Application BIBAFull-Text 296-301
  O. Mayora-Ibarra; E. Carnbranes-Martínez; C. Miranda-Palma; A. Fuentes-Penna; O. De la Paz-Arroyo
In this work, we use the UML language to model and describe an approach for generating graphical (GUI) and speech-based (SUI) user interfaces from a single source in a home environment application. The proposed method introduces a generic dedicated widget vocabulary that aids in defining user interface descriptions written in the UIML language. Subsequently, this generic description may be converted to multiple UI implementation formats suitable for the specific client terminals. These targets include GUI-like formats (e.g. HTML, WML and Java), as well as voice-based formats (VoiceXML).
iTutor: A Wireless and Multimodal Support to Industrial Maintenance Activities BIBAFull-Text 302-305
  Luka Tummolini; Andrea Lorenzon; Giancarlo Bo; Roberto Vaccaro
This paper is focused on the description of the iTutor application. iTutor addresses the increasing needs originating in contemporary industrial workspaces for distribution of electronic information within learning, knowledge transfer and information management processes. In order to achieve the goal of a flexible and adaptable information delivery in the working environment, iTutor integrates a mobile wearable device with a voice and gaze controlled, web-based graphical user interface based on the XML standard. The application is wirelessly integrated with the enterprise information system where the technical information is stored. iTutor is meant to support the working activity of maintainers needing to have hands free in order to complete their tasks.
ArtemisExpress: A Case Study in Designing Handheld Interfaces for an Online Digital Library BIBAFull-Text 306-310
  Kathleen Luchini; Chris Quintana; Elliot Soloway
Learner-Centered Design (LCD) is an approach to building software that supports students as they engage in unfamiliar activities and learn about a new area. LCD has been successfully used to support students using desktop computers for a variety of learning activities, and in this paper we discuss new work to extend LCD to the design of educational software for handheld computers. We discuss some of the challenges of designing handheld software and present a case study of ArtemisExpress, a tool that supports learners using handheld computers for online research.
Addressing Mobile HCI Needs through Agents BIBAFull-Text 311-314
  Gregory O'Hare; Michael O'Grady
Addressing the needs of the mobile computing community in all its guises is one of the critical challenges facing the research community in the coming decade. Given the constraints under which mobile computers must operate, significant effort must be expended to ensure that the end user's experience is satisfactory. In this paper, the selective use of intelligent agents as a means of augmenting the user experience through interfacing with the physical environment and anticipating user requirements is proposed.
Consistent Multi-device Design Using Device Categories BIBAFull-Text 315-318
  Martijn van Welie; Boyd de Groot
Mobile devices differ in many aspects such as screen, keys, browsers, java support and much more. The difficult task designers now face is how to design solutions that take sufficient advantage of specific device characteristics while offering a consistent and similar experience. In this paper we discuss an approach using device categories to tackle this design challenge. Our categorization is based on relevant design considerations rather than device features.
New Generation of IP-Phone Enabled Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 319-323
  Michimune Kohno; Jun Rekimoto
This paper describes how IP-phone communication and real-world user interface can become a new standard for mobile terminals. Current wireless broadband networks such as the 802.11a/b will eventually lead to IP mobile phones. As "smart" appliances emerge on the market, mobile terminals can play a new role in the ubiquitous computing environment. This paper integrates IP-phone communication capability and intuitive user interface into a mobile terminal. It explains the use of the "pick-and-drop" technique as a controlling interface for voice sessions and music streams, enabling both usability and security, important in a practical ubiquitous computing environment. Finally, a prototype implementation will be briefly described.
A Content Provider-Specified Web Clipping Approach for Mobile Content Adaptation BIBAFull-Text 324-328
  Seomin Yang; Hyukjoon Lee; Kwangsue Chung; Hwansung Kim
In this paper a new mobile content adaptation method based on web clipping is introduced. In this method, a clip is automatically extracted from a source page based on a clip specification provided by a content provider and transformed into a target page according to a set of conversion rules. A new XML-based language, WCML (Web Clipping Markup Language) is defined to store the clips in an intermediate meta-language, which are later transformed into multiple presentation pages in different target markup languages. A clip editing tool is designed and implemented to allow the content provider to easily provide clip specifications and preview and work with the layout of target pages through a graphic user interface. Transcoding of image objects in major image file formats is also supported.
Case Study: A PDA Example of User Centered Design BIBAFull-Text 329-333
  Harald Lamberts
A common complaint about software design is that it is often based on the underlying technology rather than designed for end-user tasks. Especially for software for more technical tasks, such as setting up a data connection, designing for user tasks might seem hard since the user's goal is rarely setting up the connection itself but usually performing a task that requires a connection. This paper describes how the Pocket PC connectivity User Interface was redesigned by using scenarios and personas based on field research. The success rate for the task of setting up a data connection in internal usability studies with the resulting design was 90%. This paper focuses on the process of creating and using scenarios to design and evaluate a user interface that supports the core user goals and tasks. Creating the personas from field research data has been a critical factor in making and using realistic and meaningful scenarios.
Leveraging the Context of Use in Mobile Service Design BIBAFull-Text 334-338
  Boyd de Groot; Martij van Welie
User-centered design for mobile devices and services is becoming increasingly difficult. Not only do the devices have inherent usability constraints and widely divergent characteristics, but also the mere mobile context of use presents an array of design challenges. Besides challenges, the mobile context of use also offers opportunities for truly helping people accomplishing their goals more effectively. In this paper we discuss the value of understanding the mobile context of use and propose a structured approach to improve the design of, what is ultimately an user's "ecosystem of connected terminals".
A Ubiquitous Computing Environment for Language Learning BIBAFull-Text 339-343
  Maximiliano Paredes; Manuel Ortega; Pedro P. Sánchez-Villalón; J. Ángel Velázquez-Iturbide
This work presents a piece of research on the methods and mechanisms necessary to bring the Information and Communication Technologies into the traditional classroom. This will be achieved by putting collaborative and Ubiquitous Computing paradigms together to integrate both fields into the educational environment. As a study case we have developed a system for language learning, in particular English as a Foreign Language (EFL).
XHTML in Mobile Application Development BIBAFull-Text 344-348
  Anne Kaikkonen; Virpi Roto
Nokia Research Center conducted a usability test for two XHTML Mobile Profile (MP) applications: a news application and an auction application. The goal of the test was to find out how XHTML MP components should and should not be used in order to build a usable mobile application. To compare different user interface solutions, both applications were designed in three different user interface styles. The findings on user performance, perception, and preference were used to make Mobile Application Development Guidelines.
Understanding Contextual Interactions to Design Navigational Context-Aware Applications BIBAFull-Text 349-353
  Nicholas A. Bradley; Mark D. Dunlop
Context-aware technology has stimulated rigorous research into novel ways to support people in a wide range of tasks and situations. However, the effectiveness of these technologies will ultimately be dependent on the extent to which contextual interactions are understood and accounted for in their design. This study involved an investigation of contextual interactions required for route navigation. The purpose was to illustrate the heterogeneous nature of humans in interaction with their environmental context. Participants were interviewed to determine how each interacts with or use objects/information in the environment in which to navigate/orientate. Results revealed that people vary individually and collectively. Usability implications for the design of navigational context-aware applications are identified and discussed.
Towards Scalable User Interfaces in 3D City Information Systems BIBAFull-Text 354-358
  Teija Vainio; Outi Kotala; Ismo Rakkolainen; Hannu Kupila
A 3D revolution has taken place during the last few years, and it is shifting towards hand-held devices. In this paper, we adapted our 3D City Info for mobile users and built a demonstration of future mobile services. Our main purpose was to study navigation and way finding in a three-dimensional city model that is connected in real-time to a map of the same area and to a database, which contains information from the same area. We have built a fully working mobile laptop version of the 3D City Info with an integrated GPS receiver for our field tests. The three-dimensional model appears to illustrate motion and change of location more clearly than two-dimensional map alone. In the future the possibility to scale, zoom and drag modules and components of the interfaces seems to be useful for different contexts of use.
Mobile Image Messaging -- Anticipating the Outlines of the Usage Culture BIBAFull-Text 359-363
  Anne Soronen; Veijo Tuomisto
The mobile phone culture is moving towards the multimedia messaging era. When mobile camera phones and MMS messages are available, users can take photographs and send them to each other. Later on, it will be possible to attach video clips to MMS messages and maybe even transmit real-time mobile video. In this paper, we present some future outlines of the use of mobile camera phones in the Finnish mobile culture. We study how mobile users conceptualise mobile camera phones and mobile image messaging. Our goal is to identify different meanings that the users relate to mobile camera phones when they do not have actual experience in using them.
Remote Control of Home Automation Systems with Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 364-368
  Luca Tarrini; Rolando Bianchi Bandinelli; Vittorio Miori; Graziano Bertini
Remote control based on mobile devices as mobile phones or PDA's, is considered more and more useful in many computerised applications. This paper deals with the implementation of functions, based on mobile devices, for the remote control of commercial home automation systems. Different solutions are considered and some problems concerning their implementation are discussed. A preliminary development of the interface used to control X10 modules or to interrogate a home database of the device state is here described. Some guide-lines for the interface design are also reported.
Low-Resolution Supplementary Tactile Cues for Navigational Assistance BIBAFull-Text 369-372
  Tomas Sokoler; Les Nelson; Elin R. Pedersen
In this paper we present a mobile navigation device 'displaying' supplementary personalized direction cues by means of a tactile representation. Our prototype, the TactGuide, is operated by subtle tactile inspection and designed to complement the use of our visual, auditory and kinesthetic senses in the process of way finding. Preliminary experiments indicate that users readily map low-resolution tactile cues to spatial directions and that TactGuide successfully can be operated as a supplement to, and without compromising, the use of our existing way finding abilities.
Mobile Interface for a Smart Wheelchair BIBAFull-Text 373-377
  Julio Abascal; Daniel Cagigas; Nestor Garay; Luis Gardeazabal
Smart wheelchairs are designed for severely motor impaired people that have difficulties to drive standard-manual or electric powered-wheelchairs. Their goal is to automate driving tasks as much as possible in order to minimize user intervention. Nevertheless, human involvement is still necessary to maintain high level task control. Therefore in the interface design it is necessary to take into account the restrictions imposed by the system (mobile and small), by the type of users (people with severe motor restrictions) and by the task (to select a destination among a number of choices in a structured environment). This paper describes the structure of an adaptive mobile interface for smart wheelchairs that is driven by the context.
Utilizing Gaze Detection to Simulate the Affordances of Paper in the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Format BIBAFull-Text 378-382
  Gustav Öquist; Staffan Björk; Mikael Goldstein
We present how gaze detection can be used to enhance the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) format, a dynamic text presentation technique suitable for mobile devices. A camera mounted on the device is used to monitor the reader's gaze and control the onset of the text presentation accordingly. The underlying assumptions for the technique are presented together with a description of a prototype, Smart Bailando, as well as our directions for further work.
On Interfaces for Mobile Information Retrieval BIBAFull-Text 383-387
  Edward Schofield; Gernot Kubin
We consider the task of retrieving online information in mobile environments. We propose question-answering as a more appropriate interface than page-browsing for small displays. We assess different modalities for communicating using a mobile device with question-answering systems, focusing on speech. We then survey existing research in spoken information retrieval, present some new findings, and assess the difficulty of the endeavor.
User Requirement Analysis and Interface Conception for a Mobile, Location-Based Fair Guide BIBAFull-Text 388-392
  Fabian Herman; Frank Heidmann
This paper describes the first phase of user-centred design for a mobile, location-based fair guide which is developed in the research project SAiMotion. The user requirements analysis based on a usage scenario and a formalized use case model developed in the beginning. A focus group and interviews were conducted to gain empirical insights on the potentials and probable acceptance of a location-based fair guide. Among the results of these user participation activities, are the integration and visualization of spatial data, temporal data and user-specific information as well as the support of activity planning. On this basis, an interface conception was worked out. One of it's central parts are interactive maps. Derived principles for visual layout and interaction design of maps on small screens are presented.
A Cross-Modal Electronic Travel Aid Device BIBAFull-Text 393-397
  F. Fontana; A. Fusiello; M. Gobbi; V. Murino; D. Rocchesso; L. Sartor; A. Panuccio
This paper describes the design of an Electronic Travel Aid device, that will enable blind individuals to "see the world with their ears." A wearable prototype will be assembled using low-cost hardware: earphones, sunglasses fitted with two CMOS micro cameras, and a palmtop computer. Currently, the system is able to detect the light spot produced by a laser pointer, compute its angular position and depth, and generate a correspondent sound providing the auditory cues for the perception of the position and distance of the pointed surface. In this way the blind person can use a common pointer as a replacement of the cane.
Globalization of Voice-Enabled Internet Access Solutions BIBAFull-Text 398-403
  Cristina Chesta
As voice-enabled Internet access solutions are obtaining an increasing success among the mobile users and at the same time software globalization is becoming an important issue for companies doing business worldwide, a natural emerging area of interest is represented by the application of internationalization and localization techniques to the Voice User Interfaces. The paper addresses the topic from both the software architecture and the human factor perspective and presents our solutions and findings.
Map-Based Access to Multiple Educational On-Line Resources from Mobile Wireless Devices BIBAFull-Text 404-408
  P. Brusilovsky; R. Rizzo
While large volumes of relevant educational resources are available currently online, almost all existing resources have been designed for relatively large screens and relatively high bandwidth. Searching for the proper interface to access multiple resources from a mobile computer we have selected an approach based on self-organized hypertext maps. This paper presents our approach and its implementation in the KnowledgeSea system. It also discusses the ongoing work on using our approach with very narrow screens of Palm-like devices.
Supporting Adaptivity to Heterogeneous Platforms through User Models BIBAFull-Text 409-413
  Luisa Marucci; Fabio Paternò
In this paper we describe an approach to providing adaptive support to applications that can be accessed through multiple interactive devices from various locations. It is based on a user model, which can update information about user preferences and knowledge at run-time. Such information is used to adapt the navigation, presentation and content of each user interface also taking into account users' accesses through different interaction platforms.
Visualizing Bar Charts on WAP Phones BIBAFull-Text 414-418
  Luca Chittaro; Alberto Camaggio
This paper begins to explore the problem of graphically visualizing numerical data on the very small displays of WAP phones. In particular, we consider visualizations in bar chart format, proposing two possible solutions and testing them with time-series data. A controlled experiment has been carried out to point out possible differences in user performance between the two considered visualizations, and is described in the paper.
Structured Menu Presentation Using Spatial Sound Separation BIBAFull-Text 419-424
  Gaëtan Lorho; Jarmo Hiipakka; Juha Marila
This paper describes a technique to support user interaction in a hierarchical menu, based on spatial sound separation. A complex menu structure is represented in space using a limited number of sound positions obtained by stereo panning or 3-D audio processing techniques. Spatial organisation of menu items can be designed in a logical way to provide navigation cues to the user, independent of the menu item nature. Two different strategies for menu presentation and interaction are described and compared in this paper. Finally, an application of this technique to the navigation in a large music collection is considered. This case study is an interesting example of usage situation for which eyes-free interaction would be useful, for instance on a portable audio player using headphones and a small remote control.
"Do as I Say!... But Who Says What I Should Say -- or Do?" On the Definition of a Standard Spoken Command Vocabulary for ICT Devices and Services BIBAFull-Text 425-429
  Bruno von Niman; Catriona Chaplin; Jose-Antonio Collado-Vega; Lutz Groh; Scott McGlashan; Wally Mellors; David van Leeuwen
This paper describes the development of a new ETSI Standard (ES): Generic spoken command vocabulary for ICT devices and services. It's basic approach focuses on simplifying the learning procedure for end-users, thereby allowing for reuse of basic knowledge between different terminal devices and services, leading to a faster and easier adoption of new technologies. The availability of common, basic interactive elements increases the transfer of learning between devices and services and improves the overall usability of the entire interactive mobile environment. Such a transfer becomes even more important in a world of ubiquitous devices and services. In particular, the paper discusses the importance of involving potential users of such products in this process, rather than relying on expert judgment alone to determine what the standard commands should be.