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Interacting with Computers 22

Editors:Dianne Murray
Dates:2010
Volume:22
Publisher:Elsevier Science
Standard No:ISSN 0953-5438
Papers:53
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IWC 2010 Volume 22 Issue 1
  2. IWC 2010 Volume 22 Issue 2
  3. IWC 2010 Volume 22 Issue 3
  4. IWC 2010 Volume 22 Issue 4
  5. IWC 2010 Volume 22 Issue 5
  6. IWC 2010 Volume 22 Issue 6

IWC 2010 Volume 22 Issue 1

Special Issue: Festschrift for John Long

Guest Editors' Introduction BIBFull-Text 1-2
  Alistair Sutcliffe; Ann Blandford
Conceptualizing a possible discipline of human-computer interaction BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  John M. Carroll
This essay is a personal reflection on John Long's keynote address at the BCS People and Computers meeting in Nottingham in the summer of 1989. I try to locate the paper's purpose and significance within the history of human-computer interaction (HCI), both prior to 1989 and subsequently, and particularly with respect to the abiding questions of what sort of enterprise HCI is, and of what sorts of knowledge it uses and produces.
Keywords: Theory / Disciplinary model / Science / Engineering / Craft
Human-computer interaction: A stable discipline, a nascent science, and the growth of the long tail BIBAKFull-Text 13-27
  Alan Dix
This paper represents a personal view of the state of HCI as a design discipline and as a scientific discipline, and how this is changing in the face of new technological and social situations. Going back 20 years a frequent topic of discussion was whether HCI was a 'discipline'. It is unclear whether this was ever a fruitful topic, but academic disciplines are effectively about academic communities and there is ample evidence of the long-term stability of the international HCI/CHI community. However, as in computer 'science', the central scientific core of HCI is perhaps still unclear; for example, a strength of HCI is the closeness between theory and practice, but the corresponding danger is that the two are often confused. The paper focuses particularly on the challenge of methodological thinking in HCI, especially as the technological and social context of HCI rapidly changes. This is set alongside two other challenges: the development of reliable knowledge in HCI and the clear understanding of interlinked human roles within the discipline. As a case study of the need for methodological thinking, the paper considers the use of single person studies in research and design. These are likely to be particularly valuable as we move from a small number of applications used by many people to a 'long tail' where large numbers of applications are used by small numbers of people. This change calls for different practical design strategies; focusing on the peak experience of a few rather than acceptable performance for many. Moving back to the broader picture, as we see more diversity both in terms of types of systems and kinds of concerns, this may also be an opportunity to reflect on what is core across these; potential fragmentation becoming a locus to understand more clearly what defines HCI, not just for the things we see now, but for the future that we cannot see.
Keywords: HCI discipline / Methodology / Theory / Peak experience / Single person study
Longing for service: Bringing the UCL Conception towards services research BIBAKFull-Text 28-42
  Peter J. Wild
There has been an increase in the relevance of and interest in services and services research. There is a acknowledgement that the emerging field of services science will need to draw on multiple disciplines and practices. There is a growing body of work from Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) researchers and practitioners that consider services, but there has been limited interaction between service researchers and HCI. We argue that HCI can provide two major elements of interest to service science: (1) the user centred mindset and techniques; and (2) concepts and frameworks applicable to understanding the nature of services. This second option is of major concern in this paper, where we consider Long's work (undertaken with John Dowell) on a Conception for HCI. The conception stands as an important antecedent to our own work on a framework that: (a) relates the various strands of servicer research; and (b) can be used to provide high-level integrative models of service systems. Core concepts of the UCL Conception such as domain, task, and structures and behaviours partially help to relate systematically different streams of services research, and provide richer descriptions of them. However, if the UCL Conception is moved towards services additional issues and challenges arise. For example, the kinds of domain changes that are made in services differ; services exist in a wider environment; and that effectiveness judgements are dependent on values. We explore these issues and provide reflections on the status of HCI and Service Science.
Keywords: UCL Conception / Service / Services / Frameworks / Cross-disciplinary
Diagnosing co-ordination problems in the emergency management response to disasters BIBAKFull-Text 43-55
  Becky Hill
In the United Kingdom, there is a system for the co-ordination of the emergency services in response to disasters -- The Emergency Management Combined Response System (EMCRS). This is a general management framework with a complex three tier command and control system, set-up by the UK government in response to a need for better co-ordination between agencies, when they respond to disasters.
    This research has developed models of the implementation of the EMCRS for specified disaster scenarios, that support diagnosis of co-ordination problems between agencies. Data for the modelling were acquired by means of training exercises. The co-ordination problems were identified through behaviour conflicts between the agencies. For example: the Fire Service behaviours of setting up a cordon around the disaster site conflict with the Ambulance Service behaviours of accessing the site for treatment of casualties. Model development was achieved through application of an existing framework. The EMCRS models constitute substantive Human Computer Interaction design knowledge, that is, knowledge that is both explicit and supports design. One view of HCI (Long, 1996) is that of an engineering design discipline, whose research validates design knowledge, both substantive and methodological. Design knowledge supports design practice directly, as the diagnosis of design problems and indirectly, as the prescription of design solutions. An initial method for co-ordination design problem diagnosis by means of EMCRS models has been developed. This paper will describe the development of the EMCRS models and will apply the method and show the diagnosis from this application, of one co-ordination design problem.
Keywords: Emergency management / Planning and control / Interactive worksystem / Design problems
Applying the conception of HCI engineering to the design of economic systems BIBAKFull-Text 56-67
  Ian K. Salter
The Long and Dowell conception for HCI design (Long and Dowell, 1989) outlined the general design problem for HCI and contrasted between applied science and engineering disciplines of HCI. Salter (1995) sought to clarify the applied science conception through the application of Kuhn's conception of science. Salter also built upon the work of Long and Dowell to produce a generic conception of engineering design. As part of this work the notion of preference was formalized. Building upon the generic conception a set of criterion for an engineering discipline is established. A general design problem for economics is outlined in order to apply the generic conception to the field of economics. Roth's (2002) implicit conception of economic engineering is analyzed against the criterion and the formalized notion of preferences and found to be a consistent but not complete example of an engineering discipline. The general problem of economic design, based upon Long and Dowell's approach, is employed to analyze a regulatory response (Turner, 2009) to the global financial crisis of 2007+ and develop a design-based solution to the problems. It is argued that the current applied science based responses to the economic crisis are insufficient and that a multi disciplinary engineering approach is necessary. This approach includes consideration of how economic participants interact with computers as part of the financial system.
Keywords: Economic design / Global financial crisis / Human computer interaction / Engineering design / Design principles
Some celebratory HCI reflections on a celebratory HCI festschrift BIBKFull-Text 68-71
  John Long
Keywords: HCI conception / HCI engineering / Design problems / Design principles

IWC 2010 Volume 22 Issue 2

The usability inspection performance of work-domain experts: An empirical study BIBAKFull-Text 75-87
  Asbjørn Følstad; Bente C. D. Anda; Dag I. K. Sjøberg
It is a challenge for usability experts to perform usability inspections of interactive systems that are tailored to work-domains of which these experts have little knowledge. To counter this, usability inspections with work-domain experts have been explored, but little empirical research has been reported on these experts' performance as evaluators. The present study compared the performance of work-domain experts and usability experts with respect to validity and thoroughness. The work-domain experts were characterized by high computer experience and low system experience. The usability experts were recruited from different ICT companies. The usability inspection method applied was group-based expert walkthrough; a method particularly developed to support non-usability experts as evaluators. The criterion for performance comparison was established through user tests. Fifteen work-domain experts and 12 usability experts participated in the study. The work-domain experts generated equally valid but less thorough usability inspection results than did the usability experts. This finding implies that work-domain experts may be used as evaluators in usability inspections without compromising validity. Moreover, the usability inspection performance of nominal groups of evaluators was explored. It was found that nominal groups of work-domain experts produced results of similar quality as did nominal groups of usability experts, given that group size is disregarded. This finding may be used as basis for hypotheses in future studies on the usability inspection performance of nominal groups of work-domain experts.
Keywords: Usability inspection / Work-domain expert / Validity / Thoroughness / Group-based expert walkthrough
Interaction between prior knowledge and concept-map structure on hypertext comprehension, coherence of reading orders and disorientation BIBAKFull-Text 88-97
  Franck Amadieu; André Tricot; Claudette Mariné
The study examined the interaction effects of prior knowledge and hypertexts structure (network vs. hierarchy) on comprehension. Comprehension was investigated analyzing jointly three dependent variables: comprehension outcomes, coherence of the reading sequences and feelings of disorientation. The results supported most of the assumptions showing an interaction effect on each measure. For low prior knowledge readers, a hierarchical structure improved comprehension performance, helped them to follow coherent reading sequences and reduced their feelings of disorientation. For high prior knowledge readers, comprehension performance and feelings of disorientation were not affected by the type of structure. Moreover, prior knowledge was a relevant resource to cope with the cognitive requirements of reading non-linear texts. In the network condition, prior knowledge supported better comprehension, led the readers to follow more coherent reading sequences and limited their feelings of disorientation. The discussion dealt with processes based on prior knowledge involved in hypertext comprehension, and stressed the need for conducting further investigations on the nature of the on-line inferences and on relations between performance, navigation and disorientation.
Keywords: Disorientation / Coherence / Comprehension / Concept map / Hypertext / Prior knowledge
Identification of the optimum resolution specification for a haptic graphic display BIBAKFull-Text 98-106
  Damian Copeland; Janet Finlay
This research seeks to identify the most appropriate resolution for a haptic graphic display based on a pin array utilising active feedback. Initially, fourteen participants from varied social and educational backgrounds participated in a repeated measures experiment to compare the recognition of six simple patterns using three different resolutions. The results demonstrated that a significantly higher proportion of shapes could be identified using the second of the three resolutions when compared with the lowest, but that there was no statistically significant difference between the two higher resolutions. These results led to a second hypothesis: that there was an optimum resolution at which shapes could be identified and that increasing the resolution above this point would not increase the likelihood of recognition. There was, however, the possibility that interference between the pins on the highest resolution may have been affecting the participants' ability to identify shapes at this resolution, so a second experiment was conducted using a resolution slightly lower than the highest. The results demonstrated that the initial findings were correct and supported the hypothesis that there is an optimum resolution that allows the greatest number of shapes to be determined without any significant benefit from increasing the resolution.
Keywords: Haptic graphic displays / Touch interfaces / Resolution / Active pin arrays / Experiment
Guiding the designer: A radar diagram process for applications with multiple layers BIBAKFull-Text 107-122
  Linn Gustavsson Christiernin
Focusing flexibility and experience development, multi-layered design (MLD) separates the applications' graphical user interface into several layers based on the users' abilities, skills and levels of experience. The layer arrangement needs to be organized differently depending on the individual users. Until now design has been performed on a case-to-case basis and there has been no given process to achieve layered structures. This paper presents a radar diagram process for multiple layers (RDPM) that provides a way to map and visualize user parameters, identify user groups and then find mapping functions that can guide the final layered structure. The focus of RDPM is to identify the number of layers and the appropriate arrangement and contents of the layers. Two practical case studies are also presented to show how to apply the process on real user data. Both cases were successful and gave adequate support for how the process could be used. We conclude that RDPM is a viable support process to MLD and other layered arrangements, and that it is ready to be further tuned and tested on a larger scale.
Keywords: Process / Radar diagram / Graphical user interface / Layer design and structure
Spoken Spanish generation from sign language BIBAKFull-Text 123-139
  R. San-Segundo; J. M. Pardo; J. Ferreiros; V. Sama; R. Barra-Chicote; J. M. Lucas; D. Sánchez; A. García
This paper describes the development of a Spoken Spanish generator from sign-writing. The sign language considered was the Spanish sign language (LSE: Lengua de Signos Española). This system consists of an advanced visual interface (where a deaf person can specify a sequence of signs in sign-writing), a language translator (for generating the sequence of words in Spanish), and finally, a text to speech converter. The visual interface allows a sign sequence to be defined using several sign-writing alternatives. The paper details the process for designing the visual interface proposing solutions for HCI-specific challenges when working with the Deaf (i.e. important difficulties in writing Spanish or limited sign coverage for describing abstract or conceptual ideas). Three strategies were developed and combined for language translation to implement the final version of the language translator module. The summative evaluation, carried out with Deaf from Madrid and Toledo, includes objective measurements from the system and subjective information from questionnaires. The paper also describes the first Spanish-LSE parallel corpus for language processing research focused on specific domains. This corpus includes more than 4000 Spanish sentences translated into LSE. These sentences focused on two restricted domains: the renewal of the identity document and driver's license. This corpus also contains all sign descriptions in several sign-writing specifications generated with a new version of the eSign Editor. This new version includes a grapheme to phoneme system for Spanish and a SEA-HamNoSys converter.
Keywords: Spanish sign language (LSE) / Speech generation from LSE / LSE corpus / Sign editor / LSE translation / Driver's license renewal
Mental models for web objects: Where do users expect to find the most frequent objects in online shops, news portals, and company web pages? BIBAKFull-Text 140-152
  Sandra P. Roth; Peter Schmutz; Stefan L. Pauwels; Javier A. Bargas-Avila; Klaus Opwis
In interface development, it is crucial to reflect the users' expectations and mental models. By meeting users' expectations, errors can be prevented and the efficiency of the interaction can be enhanced. Applying these guidelines to website development reveals the need to know where users expect to find the most common web objects like the search field, home button or the navigation. In a preliminary online study with 136 participants, the most common web objects were identified for three web page types: online shops, news portals, and company web pages. These objects were used for the main study, which was conducted with 516 participants. In an online application, prototypical websites had to be constructed by the participants. Data analysis showed that Internet users have distinct mental models for different web page types (online shop, news portal, and company web page). Users generally agree about the locations of many, but not all, web objects. These mental models are robust to demographic factors like gender and web expertise. This knowledge could be used to improve the perception and usability of websites.
Keywords: Web page design / Expectations / Screen design / Mental models / Location of web objects / Schemata

IWC 2010 Volume 22 Issue 3

Usable security: User preferences for authentication methods in eBanking and the effects of experience BIBAKFull-Text 153-164
  Catherine S. Weir; Gary Douglas; Tim Richardson; Mervyn Jack
Multi-factor authentication involves the use of more than one mode in authentication processes and is typically employed to increase security compared to a fixed password (knowledge-based mode). This research compared three different eBanking authentication processes, a two-layer password (1-factor) method and two alternative 2-factor solutions. The 2-factor processes used One-Time-Passcodes (OTPs) delivered either via a small, single-use device or by text message to a mobile phone. The three authentication methods were compared in a repeated-measures experiment with 141 participants. Three user groups were balanced in the experiment to investigate the effect of experience (current users of the service) on perceptions of usability and security. Attitudes toward usability and observations were taken for each process. Other data gathered quality ratings, preferences and ranked comparisons regarding convenience and security issues. Both 2-factor methods scored significantly higher than the 1-factor method for eBanking authentication usability metrics overall, but experienced users gave higher scores to the 1-factor method they currently use. Overall preferences were spread evenly between the three methods. However, the majority of the participant sample perceived the 1-factor method they had most experience with as being the most secure and most convenient option. The results offer insight into customer attitudes important in their selection of authentication options: convenience, personal ownership and habitual experience of processes.
Keywords: Usability engineering / Internet banking / Authentication / Usable security / Empirical evaluation / Experience
Fictional characters in participatory design sessions: Introducing the "design alter egos" technique BIBAKFull-Text 165-175
  George Triantafyllakos; George Palaigeorgiou; Ioannis A. Tsoukalas
In recent years, the discourse concerning the relationship between narrative theory -- storytelling in general -- interactivity, and design is undeniably noteworthy. A significant part of this discourse concerns the use of fictional characters in design. Fictional characters have been used as user representatives, either substituting actual users or supporting idea generation, and their foremost objective is to facilitate the identification of user needs and goals and to support the development of detailed and comprehensive scenarios. Motivated by the aforementioned ongoing discourse and inspired by relevant approaches in the use of fictional characters in design, we aim to investigate the applicability and effectiveness of their use as a creative technique in participatory design sessions. We present a novel approach to using fictional characters in collaborative design of educational software with students, one that asks the participants for the formation and use of their own fictional characters -- we introduce the term "design alter egos" -- as a means to eliciting requirements and design ideas. In order to evaluate our approach, we conducted 20 collaborative design sessions with the participation of 94 undergraduate university students (aged 19-24) for eliciting requirements for the design of an ideal course website. The analysis of the results suggests that the design alter egos technique liberated the majority of the students from the fear of straightforwardly exposing themselves, supported and enhanced their introspection, stimulated their creativity, and helped to establish an informal and constructive atmosphere throughout the design sessions. We suggest the use of design alter egos as an engaging and effective supportive technique for co-designing educational software with students.
Keywords: Design alter egos / Fictional characters / Design in imaginary landscapes / Participatory design / Collaborative software design / Student-centered design
A realistic, virtual head for human-computer interaction BIBAKFull-Text 176-192
  Samuel Marcos; Jaime Gómez-García-Bermejo; Eduardo Zalama
In this paper an interactive and realistic virtual head oriented to human-computer interaction and social robotics is presented. It has been designed following a hybrid approach, taking robotic characteristics into account and searching for a convergence between these characteristics, real facial actions and animation techniques. An initial head model is first obtained from a real person using a laser scanner. Then the model is animated using a hierarchical skeleton based procedure. The proposed rig structure is close to real facial muscular anatomy and its behaviour follows the Facial Action Coding System. Speech synthesis and visual human-face tracking capabilities are also integrated for providing the head with further interaction ability. Using the said hybrid approach, the head can be readily linked to a social-robot architecture. The opinions of a number of persons interacting with this social avatar have been evaluated and are reported in the paper, as against their reactions when interacting with a social robot with a mechatronic face. Results show the suitability of the avatar for on-screen, real-time interfacing in human-computer interaction. The proposed technique could also be helpful in the future for designing and parameterizing mechatronic human-like heads for social robots.
Keywords: Facial animation / Hierarchical skeletons / Human-computer interface / Social robotics
Haptic experience and the design of drawing interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 193-205
  Suziah Sulaiman; Ann Blandford; Paul Cairns
Haptic feedback has the potential to enhance users' sense of being engaged and creative in their artwork. Current work on providing haptic feedback in computer-based drawing applications has focused mainly on the realism of the haptic sensation rather than the users' experience of that sensation in the context of their creative work. We present a study that focuses on user experience of three haptic drawing interfaces. These interfaces were based on two different haptic metaphors, one of which mimicked familiar drawing tools (such as pen, pencil or crayon on smooth or rough paper) and the other of which drew on abstract descriptors of haptic experience (roughness, stickiness, scratchiness and smoothness). It was found that users valued having control over the haptic sensation; that each metaphor was preferred by approximately half of the participants; and that the real world metaphor interface was considered more helpful than the abstract one, whereas the abstract interface was considered to better support creativity. This suggests that future interfaces for artistic work should have user-modifiable interaction styles for controlling the haptic sensation.
Keywords: Haptic feedback / User experience / User perception / Metaphors / Evaluation
Enhancing privacy management support in instant messaging BIBAKFull-Text 206-217
  Sameer Patil; Alfred Kobsa
Instant Messaging (IM) is a useful tool for collaborative work. However, the awareness and communication features of IM pose a tension with privacy desires. Inadequate support for managing privacy could lead to suboptimal use of IM and thereby undermine its benefits. We conducted interviews and an Internet survey to understand privacy attitudes and practices in IM usage. Based on the findings from these studies, we designed an IM plugin to improve the support for privacy management in current IM systems. The plugin detects conflicts in privacy preferences, notifies the parties involved, and allows negotiation of a resolution. It also encrypts the communication channels and archives, allows different privacy preferences for different contact groups, and provides visualizations to facilitate the comparison of one's own IM activities with those of any IM contact group. A usability evaluation of the plugin indicated that it can be expected to succeed in its goal of providing IM users with better privacy management.
Keywords: Privacy / Instant Messaging, IM / Privacy management / Impression management / Computer-supported communication / Computer supported collaborative work, CSCW
The effects of virtual characters on audiences' movie experience BIBAKFull-Text 218-229
  Tao Lin; Shigeo Morishima; Akinobu Maejima; Ningjiu Tang
In this paper, we first present a new audience-participating movie form in which 3D virtual characters of audiences are constructed by computer graphics (CG) technologies and are embedded into a in a pre-rendered movie as different roles. Then, we investigate how the audiences respond to these virtual characters using physiological and subjective evaluation methods. To facilitate the investigation, we present three versions of a movie to an audience -- a Traditional version, its SDIM version with the participation of the audience's virtual character, and its SFDIM version with the co-participation of the audience and her/his friends' virtual characters. The subjective evaluation results show that the participation of virtual characters indeed causes increased subjective sense of spatial presence and engagement, and emotional reaction; moreover, SFDIM performs significantly better than SDIM, due to the co-participation of friends' virtual characters. Also, we find that the audiences experience not only significantly different galvanic skin response (GSR) changes on average -- changing trend over time and number of fluctuations -- but they also show the increased phasic GSR responses to the appearance of their own or friends' virtual 3D characters on the screen. The evaluation results demonstrate the success of the new audience-participating movie form and contribute to understanding how people respond to virtual characters in a role-playing entertainment interface.
Keywords: User experience / Virtual character / Physiological evaluation
Effects of different scenarios of game difficulty on player immersion BIBAKFull-Text 230-239
  Hua Qin; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
This study investigates the effects of game difficulty on player's immersion. Key factors in this study are difficulty of direction changes, including three directions (up and down, down and up, and continuously increasing) and difficulty of rate changes, with three rates (slow, medium, and fast). An experiment was conducted with 48 participants, each playing the same experimental games with different difficulty of direction or rate changes. The results indicate that the players have better immersion when the difficulty changes up and down than when it changes down and up or when the difficulty is continuously increased. And the participants have better immersion when the difficulty changes at a medium rate than when it changes slowly or fast.
Keywords: Difficulty of direction changes / Difficulty of rate changes / Player immersion

IWC 2010 Volume 22 Issue 4

Supportive Interaction: Computer Interventions for Mental Health

Guest editor's introduction BIBFull-Text 241-242
  Gavin Doherty; Timothy Bickmore
Design and evaluation guidelines for mental health technologies BIBAKFull-Text 243-252
  Gavin Doherty; David Coyle; Mark Matthews
It is increasingly recognised that technology has the potential to significantly improve access, engagement, effectiveness and affordability of treatment for mental health problems. The development of such technology has recently become the subject of Human-Computer Interaction research. As an emerging area with a unique set of constraints and design concerns, there is a need to establish guidelines which encapsulate the knowledge gained from existing development projects. We present an initial set of design guidelines extracted from the literature and from a series of development projects for software to support mental health interventions. The first group of guidelines pertain to the design process itself, addressing the limitations in access to clients in mental healthcare settings, and strategies for collaborative design with therapists. The second group considers major design factors in the development of these technologies, including therapeutic models, client factors, and privacy. The third group concerns conduct of the evaluation process, and the constraints on evaluating mental healthcare technologies. We motivate and explain these guidelines with reference to concrete design projects and problems.
Keywords: Mental health / Design guidelines / Design process / Clinical evaluation / Psychotherapy
Problems people with dementia have with kitchen tasks: The challenge for pervasive computing BIBAKFull-Text 253-266
  Joseph P. Wherton; Andrew F. Monk
Technologies from pervasive computing can be used to ameliorate the difficulties that people with dementia have with multi-step tasks. This paper is intended to inform the design of technologies that help people perform daily tasks, by prompting them when they have difficulties, thus fostering independence and quality of life. Six people with mild to moderate dementia were video recorded performing activities of their own choosing in the familiar context of their own kitchens. In total there were 22 video recordings. Activities included making a cup of tea or coffee, a bowl of soup, beans on toast, or coffee with toast. The video recordings were transcribed using an adapted version of the Action Coding System. Incidents, where prompting was judged to be needed were categorised using a data-driven analysis as problems in: Sequencing (intrusion, omission and repetition), Finding things (locating and identifying), Operation of appliances, and Incoherence (toying and inactivity). Detailed examples of each type of incident, and the contexts in which it occurred, are provided as a resource for the design of pervasive computing solutions. What needs to be detected and what form prompts might take is specified for each category.
Keywords: Assistive technology / Dementia / Pervasive computing
Using a touch screen computer to support relationships between people with dementia and caregivers BIBAKFull-Text 267-275
  Arlene J. Astell; Maggie P. Ellis; Lauren Bernardi; Norman Alm; Richard Dye; Gary Gowans; Jim Campbell
Progressive and irreversible cognitive impairments affect the ability of people with dementia to communicate and interact with caregivers. This places a burden on caregivers to initiate and manage interactions to the extent that they may avoid all but essential communication. CIRCA is an interactive, multimedia touch screen system that contains a wide range of stimuli to prompt reminiscing. The intention is that people with dementia and caregivers will explore CIRCA together, using the recollections sparked by the media as the basis for conversations. This paper reports an evaluation of the utility of CIRCA looking particularly at whether CIRCA can meet the needs of both people with dementia and caregivers to engage in mutually satisfying interactions. The findings confirm that people with dementia can use the touch screen system and that the contents prompt them to reminisce. The system also supports caregivers to interact with people with dementia as more equal participants in the conversation. The results suggest that interacting with the touch screen system is engaging and enjoyable for people with dementia and caregivers alike and provides a supportive interaction environment that positively benefits their relationships.
Keywords: Dementia / Communication / Touch screen / Reminiscence / Relationships
Maintaining reality: Relational agents for antipsychotic medication adherence BIBAKFull-Text 276-288
  Timothy W. Bickmore; Kathryn Puskar; Elizabeth A. Schlenk; Laura M. Pfeifer; Susan M. Sereika
We describe an animated, conversational computer agent designed to promote antipsychotic medication adherence among patients with schizophrenia. In addition to medication adherence, the agent also promotes physical activity and system usage, and includes verbal and nonverbal behavior designed to foster a therapeutic alliance with patients. We discuss special considerations in designing interventions for this patient population, and challenges in developing and evaluating conversational agents in the mental health domain. Results from a pilot evaluation study of the agent indicate that it is accepted and effective.
Keywords: Schizophrenia / Embodied conversational agent / Longitudinal study / Health behavior change / Psychiatric nursing / Patient adherence
Response to a relational agent by hospital patients with depressive symptoms BIBAKFull-Text 289-298
  Timothy W. Bickmore; Suzanne E. Mitchell; Brian W. Jack; Michael K. Paasche-Orlow; Laura M. Pfeifer; Julie O'Donnell
Depression affects approximately 15% of the US population, and is recognized as an important risk factor for poor outcomes among patients with various illnesses. Automated health education and behavior change programs have the potential to help address many of the shortcomings in health care. However, the role of these systems in the care of patients with depression has been insufficiently examined. In the current study, we sought to evaluate how hospitalized medical patients would respond to a computer animated conversational agent that has been developed to provide information in an empathic fashion about a patient's hospital discharge plan. In particular, we sought to examine how patients who have a high level of depressive symptoms respond to this system. Therapeutic alliance -- the trust and belief that a patient and provider have in working together to achieve a desired therapeutic outcome -- was used as the primary outcome measure, since it has been shown to be important in predicting outcomes across a wide range of health problems, including depression. In an evaluation of 139 hospital patients who interacted with the agent at the time of discharge, all patients, regardless of depressive symptoms, rated the agent very high on measures of satisfaction and ease of use, and most preferred receiving their discharge information from the agent compared to their doctors or nurses in the hospital. In addition, we found that patients with symptoms indicative of major depression rated the agent significantly higher on therapeutic alliance compared to patients who did not have major depressive symptoms. We conclude that empathic agents represent a promising technology for patient assessment, education and counseling for those most in need of comfort and caring in the inpatient setting.
Keywords: Depression / Relational agent / Embodied conversational agent / Hospital discharge / Therapeutic alliance
The therapist user interface of a virtual reality exposure therapy system in the treatment of fear of flying BIBAKFull-Text 299-310
  Willem-Paul Brinkman; Charles van der Mast; Guntur Sandino; Lucy T. Gunawan; Paul M. G. Emmelkamp
The use of virtual reality (VR) technology to support the treatment of patients with phobia, such as the fear of flying, is getting considerable research attention. Research mainly focuses on the patient experience and the effect of the treatment. In this paper, however, the focus is on the interaction therapists have with the system. Two studies are presented in which the therapist user interface is redesigned and evaluated. The first study was conducted in 2001 with the introduction of the system into the clinic. The original user interface design was compared with a redesign that was based on interviews with therapists. The results of a user study with five therapists and 11 students showed significant usability improvement. In 2008 a follow-up study was conducted on how therapists were now using the redesigned system. Using a direct observation approach six therapists were observed during a total of 14 sessions with patients. The analysis showed that: 93% of the exposures had similar patterns, therapists triggered 20 inappropriate sound recordings (e.g. the pilot giving height information while taking off), and more complex airplane simulation functions (e.g. roll control to make turns with the airplane) were only used by a therapist who was also a pilot. This resulted in a second redesign of the user interface, which allowed therapists to select flight scenarios (e.g. a flight with extra long taxiing, a flight with multiple taking off and landing sessions) instead of controlling the simulation manually. This new design was again evaluated with seven therapists. Again, results showed significant usability improvements. These findings led to five design guidelines with the main tenet in favour of a treatment-focused user interface (i.e. specific flying scenario) instead of a simulation-focused user interface (i.e. specific airplane controls).
Keywords: Virtual reality / Exposure therapy / Fear of flying / Mental health / Design guidelines / User interface

IWC 2010 Volume 22 Issue 5

Modelling user experience -- An agenda for research and practice

Modelling user experience -- An agenda for research and practice BIBFull-Text 313-322
  Effie L.-C. Law; Paul van Schaik
The Usability Metric for User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 323-327
  Kraig Finstad
The Usability Metric for User Experience (UMUX) is a four-item Likert scale used for the subjective assessment of an application's perceived usability. It is designed to provide results similar to those obtained with the 10-item System Usability Scale, and is organized around the ISO 9241-11 definition of usability. A pilot version was assembled from candidate items, which was then tested alongside the System Usability Scale during usability testing. It was shown that the two scales correlate well, are reliable, and both align on one underlying usability factor. In addition, the Usability Metric for User Experience is compact enough to serve as a usability module in a broader user experience metric.
Keywords: Usability / User experience / Scale / Metric
Measuring the dynamics of remembered experience over time BIBAKFull-Text 328-335
  Evangelos Karapanos; John Zimmerman; Jodi Forlizzi; Jean-Bernard Martens
A wealth of studies in the field of user experience have tried to conceptualize new measures of product quality and inquire into how the overall goodness of a product is formed on the basis of product quality perceptions. An interesting question relates to how the perception as well as the relative dominance of different product qualities evolve across different phases in the adoption of a product. However, temporality of experience poses substantial challenges to traditional reductive evaluation approaches. In this paper we present an alternative methodological approach for studying how users' experiences with interactive products develop over time. The approach lies in the elicitation of rich qualitative insights in the form of experience narratives, combined with content-analytical approaches for the aggregation of idiosyncratic insights into generalized knowledge. We describe a tool designed for eliciting rich experience narratives retrospectively, and illustrate this tool by means of a study that inquired into how users' experiences with mobile phones change over the first 6 months of use. We use the insights of the study to validate and extend a framework of temporality proposed by Karapanos et al. (2009b).
Keywords: User experience / Experience-centered design / Qualitative methods / Longitudinal methodology
More than a feeling: Measurement of sonic user experience and psychophysiology in a first-person shooter game BIBAKFull-Text 336-343
  Lennart E. Nacke; Mark N. Grimshaw; Craig A. Lindley
The combination of psychophysiological and psychometric methods provides reliable measurements of affective user experience (UX). Understanding the nature of affective UX in interactive entertainment, especially with a focus on sonic stimuli, is an ongoing research challenge. In the empirical study reported here, participants played a fast-paced, immersive first-person shooter (FPS) game modification, in which sound (on/off) and music (on/off) were manipulated, while psychophysiological recordings of electrodermal activity (EDA) and facial muscle activity (EMG) were recorded in addition to a Game Experience Questionnaire (GEQ). Results indicate no main or interaction effects of sound or music on EMG and EDA. However, a significant main effect of sound on all GEQ dimensions (immersion, tension, competence, flow, negative affect, positive affect, and challenge) was found. In addition, an interaction effect of sound and music on GEQ dimension tension and flow indicates an important relationship of sound and music for gameplay experience. Additionally, we report the results of a correlation between GEQ dimensions and EMG/EDA activity. We conclude subjective measures could advance our understanding of sonic UX in digital games, while affective tonic (i.e., long-term psychophysiological) measures of sonic UX in digital games did not yield statistically significant results. One approach for future affective psychophysiological measures of sonic UX could be experiments investigating phasic (i.e., event-related) psychophysiological measures of sonic gameplay elements in digital games. This could improve our general understanding of sonic UX beyond affective gaming evaluation.
Keywords: Psychophysiology / Sonic user experience (UX) / Entertainment / Emotion / Affective gaming / Action video games
The influence of hedonic and utilitarian motivations on user engagement: The case of online shopping experiences BIBAKFull-Text 344-352
  Heather Lynn O'Brien
User experience seeks to promote rich, engaging interactions between users and systems. In order for this experience to unfold, the user must be motivated to initiate an interaction with the technology. This study explored hedonic and utilitarian motivations in the context of user engagement with online shopping. Factor analysis was performed to identify a parsimonious set of factors from the Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopping Motivation Scale and the User Engagement Scale based on responses from 802 shoppers. Multiple linear regression was used to test hypotheses with hedonic and utilitarian motivations (Idea, Social, Adventure/Gratification, Value and Achievement Shopping) and attributes of user engagement (Aesthetics, Focused Attention, Perceived Usability, and Endurability). Results demonstrate the salience of Adventure/Gratification Shopping and Achievement Shopping Motivations to specific variables of user engagement in the e-commerce environment and provide considerations for the inclusion of different types of motivation into models of engaging user experiences.
Keywords: User experience / Engagement / Motivation / e-Commerce
Needs, affect, and interactive products -- Facets of user experience BIBAKFull-Text 353-362
  Marc Hassenzahl; Sarah Diefenbach; Anja Göritz
Subsumed under the umbrella of User Experience (UX), practitioners and academics of Human-Computer Interaction look for ways to broaden their understanding of what constitutes "pleasurable experiences" with technology. The present study considered the fulfilment of universal psychological needs, such as competence, relatedness, popularity, stimulation, meaning, security, or autonomy, to be the major source of positive experience with interactive technologies. To explore this, we collected over 500 positive experiences with interactive products (e.g., mobile phones, computers). As expected, we found a clear relationship between need fulfilment and positive affect, with stimulation, relatedness, competence and popularity being especially salient needs. Experiences could be further categorized by the primary need they fulfil, with apparent qualitative differences among some of the categories in terms of the emotions involved. Need fulfilment was clearly linked to hedonic quality perceptions, but not as strongly to pragmatic quality (i.e., perceived usability), which supports the notion of hedonic quality as "motivator" and pragmatic quality as "hygiene factor." Whether hedonic quality ratings reflected need fulfilment depended on the belief that the product was responsible for the experience (i.e., attribution).
Keywords: User experience / Human needs / Emotion / Affect / Product evaluation
The roles of conceptual device models and user goals in avoiding device initialization errors BIBAKFull-Text 363-374
  Kimberley Hiltz; Jonathan Back; Ann Blandford
While mistakes, and approaches to design and training that reduce them, have been studied extensively, relatively little work in HCI studies 'slip' errors, which occur when one intends to do a certain action during a skilled task but unintentionally does another. In this article we examine approaches to training that might reduce the occurrence of a slip error referred to as a 'device initialization error'. This error occurs when skilled users of a device forget to perform some initialization action, such as positioning the cursor in a text entry box or setting the device into the correct mode, before entering data or performing some other significant activity. We report on an experiment studying the effects of two training interventions on this error, which aim to manipulate the salience of the error-prone action without making any physical changes to the device. In the first intervention participants were given a particular conceptual model of the device's operation, to evaluate whether having an improved understanding of the effect of each action would lead to fewer errors. In the second, participants were given a new device operation goal requiring them to 'test' the device, to evaluate whether attending to the outcome of initialization actions would lead to fewer errors. Only participants who were asked to 'test' the device and also given enhanced instructions to enter dummy data after completing initialization actions showed a statistically significant improvement in performance. Post-test interviews and evidence from existing literature suggest that when participants forgot the initialization step it was because they were attending to the subsequent data entry steps. This study highlights the central roles that user goals and attention play in the occurrence (or avoidance) of slip errors.
Keywords: Human error / Cognitive slips / Device design / Conceptual models / Task instructions / Task structure
Third-party error detection support mechanisms for dictation speech recognition BIBAKFull-Text 375-388
  Lina Zhou; Yongmei Shi; Andrew Sears
Although speech recognition has improved significantly in recent years, its adoption continues to be limited, in part, by the effort and frustration associated with correcting speech recognition errors. Error detection is a particularly challenging issue in third-party error correction where different individuals are responsible for the original dictation and correcting the resulting text. This research aims to address the difficulty experienced in third-party error detection by developing and evaluating a variety of support mechanisms. Drawing on a growing body of literature on human computer interaction and speech recognition, four support mechanisms were designed and evaluated, namely indexed audio, speech summarization, error prediction, and the presentation of alternative hypotheses. A user study assessed the impact of these support mechanisms on both performance and perceptions during error detection tasks. Performance measures included effectiveness and efficiency, and perception measures included confidence, perceived usefulness, and cognitive workload. The results provide strong support for the use of indexed audio in the context of third-party error detection. The results also confirm that consecutive error rate, or the percentage of recognition errors immediately adjacent to another error, has a negative impact on the effectiveness of third-party error detection. Other support mechanisms failed to improve either effectiveness or perceptions, but they did negate the negative impact as consecutive error rate increased. These findings have significant implications for speech recognition error detection research and the design of error detection support solutions.
Keywords: Speech recognition / Error detection / Indexed audio / Speech summarization / Error prediction / Alternative hypotheses
Revisiting breadth vs. depth in menu structures for blind users of screen readers BIBAKFull-Text 389-398
  Harry Hochheiser; Jonathan Lazar
Numerous studies have investigated task performance times for selection from hierarchical menus, with structures containing many choices at each of a few levels (broad, shallow structures) generally outperforming structures containing fewer choices at each of many levels (narrow, deep structures). To see if these results applied to blind users who rely on screen reader software for computer access, we replicated an earlier published study, using 19 blind screen-reader users. Consistent with earlier studies, broader, shallow hierarchies outperformed narrow, deep hierarchies. Task performance times and hypertext lostness measures were correlated. Although further work will be needed to understand specific determinants of task performance rates, these results support the use of broad, shallow menus for blind as well as sighted users.
Keywords: Blind / Screen reader / Menu structure / Accessibility / Breadth vs. depth / User study
Visual search in dynamic 3D visualisations of unstructured picture collections BIBAKFull-Text 399-416
  Olivier Christmann; Noëlle Carbonell; Simon Richir
We present two empirical studies of visual search in dynamic 3D visualisations of large, randomly ordered, photo collections. The aim is to assess the possible effects of geometrical distortions on visual search effectiveness, efficiency and comfort, by comparing the influence of two perspective representations of photo collections on participants' performance results and subjective judgments. Thumbnails of the 1000 or so photographs in each collection are plastered on the lateral surface of a vertical cylinder, either on the inside (inner view, IV) or on the outside (outer view, OV). IV and OV suggest two different interaction metaphors: locomotion in a virtual space (IV) versus manipulation of a virtual object (OV). They also implement different perspective distortions: enlargement and distortion of lateral columns (IV) versus enlargement of central columns and dwindling plus distortion of lateral columns (OV). Presentation of results focus on the second study, S2, which involved 20 participants and offered them strictly identical interaction facilities with the two views, unlike the initial pilot study, S1 (8 participants and slightly different interaction facilities between the two views).
   Participants in both studies were experienced computer users (average age: 25.15 years, SD: 3.13). They performed two types of basic visual tasks that are carried out repeatedly while navigating photo collections: (i) searching for a photo meeting specific, visual and thematic, criteria, the photo and its location in the collection being unknown to participants (ST1) and (ii) looking for a visually familiar photo, the location of the photo being familiar to participants (ST2). According to post-experiment questionnaires and debriefings, all participants in S2 save one judged both 3D views positively in reference to standard 2D visualisations. Half of them preferred IV over OV, four appreciated OV better, and six expressed no clear opinion. Preferences were mainly motivated by the effects of perspective distortions on thumbnail visibility. They were barely influenced by interaction metaphors (e.g., the feeling of immersion induced by IV). Despite large inter-individual differences in performance, a majority of participants carried out ST1 tasks more effectively and efficiently with IV than with OV, as regards error rates (statistically significant difference) and search times (tendency). Performance results for ST2 tasks were similar with the two views, due, probably, to the simplicity and brevity of ST2 tasks. Perspective distortions seem to have exerted less influence on participants' visual strategies than horizontal scrolling, a dynamic feature common to both views. Qualitative analyses of participants' behaviours suggest that IV has the potential to support spatial memory better than OV, presumably thanks to the locomotion metaphor. These results indicate that perspective views have the potential to facilitate and improve visual search in unstructured picture collections provided that distortions are adapted to users' individual visual capabilities. Further research is needed to better understand: (i) the actual relations between visual exploration strategies and geometrical properties of perspective visualisations and (ii) the influence of the manipulation and locomotion metaphors on spatial memory. This knowledge is necessary to further improve the comfort and effectiveness of visual search in large unstructured picture collections, using 3D visualisations.
Keywords: Interactive 3D visualisations / Interaction metaphors / Picture browsers / Visual search / Ergonomic evaluation / Usability
The impact of progress indicators on task completion BIBAKFull-Text 417-427
  Frederick G. Conrad; Mick P. Couper; Roger Tourangeau; Andy Peytchev
A near ubiquitous feature of user interfaces is feedback on task completion or progress indicators such as the graphical bar that grows as more of the task is completed. The presumed benefit is that users will be more likely to complete the task if they see they are making progress but it is also possible that feedback indicating slow progress may sometimes discourage users from completing the task. This paper describes two experiments that evaluate the impact of progress indicators on the completion of on-line questionnaires. In the first experiment, progress was displayed at different speeds throughout the questionnaire. If the early feedback indicated slow progress, abandonment rates were higher and users' subjective experience more negative than if the early feedback indicated faster progress. In the second experiment, intermittent feedback seemed to minimize the costs of discouraging feedback while preserving the benefits of encouraging feedback. Overall, the results suggest that when progress seems to outpace users' expectations, feedback can improve their experience though not necessarily their completion rates; when progress seems to lag behind what users expect, feedback degrades their experience and lowers completion rates.
Keywords: Web surveys / Progress indicators / Duration perception / Task completion
The effects of trust, security and privacy in social networking: A security-based approach to understand the pattern of adoption BIBAKFull-Text 428-438
  Dong-Hee Shin
Social network services (SNS) focus on building online communities of people who share interests and/or activities, or who are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others. This study examines security, trust, and privacy concerns with regard to social networking Websites among consumers using both reliable scales and measures. It proposes an SNS acceptance model by integrating cognitive as well as affective attitudes as primary influencing factors, which are driven by underlying beliefs, perceived security, perceived privacy, trust, attitude, and intention. Results from a survey of SNS users validate that the proposed theoretical model explains and predicts user acceptance of SNS substantially well. The model shows excellent measurement properties and establishes perceived privacy and perceived security of SNS as distinct constructs. The finding also reveals that perceived security moderates the effect of perceived privacy on trust. Based on the results of this study, practical implications for marketing strategies in SNS markets and theoretical implications are recommended accordingly.
Keywords: Social network services / Perceived privacy / Perceived security / Trust / Web2.0

IWC 2010 Volume 22 Issue 6

Special Issue on Inclusion and Interaction: Designing Interaction for Inclusive Populations

Inclusion and interaction: Designing interaction for inclusive populations BIBFull-Text 439-448
  Patrick Langdon; Harold Thimbleby
Towards analytical evaluation of human machine interfaces developed in the context of smart homes BIBAKFull-Text 449-464
  Belkacem Chikhaoui; Hélène Pigot
Designing human machine interfaces that respect the ergonomic norms and following rigorous approaches constitutes a major concern for computer systems designers. The increased need on easily accessible and usable interfaces leads researchers in this domain to create methods and models that make it possible to evaluate these interfaces in terms of utility and usability. Two different approaches are currently used to evaluate human machine interfaces, empirical approaches that require user involvement in the interface development process, and analytical approaches that do not associate the user during the interface development process. This paper presents a study of user performance on two principal tasks of the contextual assistant's interface, developed in the context of smart homes, to assist persons with cognitive disabilities. We use three different methods to analyze and evaluate this interface, focusing basically on time of execution. Two of the models developed are based on cognitive models, which are ACT-R and GOMS and the third one is based on the Fitts' Law model. The results show that, all models give a good prediction of user performance, even if the cognitive models show better accuracy of the user performance. Furthermore, they provide a better insight into cognitive abilities required to interact with the interface.
Keywords: HMI evaluation / Human-computer interaction / Cognitive modeling / Smart homes / User modeling / User performance
Multimodal interaction: A suitable strategy for including older users? BIBAKFull-Text 465-474
  Anja B. Naumann; Ina Wechsung; Jörn Hurtienne
The major promise of multimodal user interfaces for older users is that they have the choice to select the input modality (or combination of modalities) that best fits their needs and capabilities. Two studies investigated if multimodal interfaces with touch, speech, and motion control fulfil the expectation of being superior to the interaction with single modalities in a mobile device regarding efficiency, robustness, and user satisfaction. The results of both studies show a superiority of multimodality over the single modalities speech and motion control and a slight advantage over touch, which was the modality most frequently used even in the multimodal condition in which any modality or a modality combination could be chosen. Differences between old and young users were only shown for motion control which turned out to be less suitable for older people. The major promise of multimodality for inclusive design thus does not seem warranted so far. However, other applications and contexts of use need to be investigated.
Keywords: Intuitive Interaction / Usability / User experience / Multimodal interaction / Inclusive design
Physical gestures for abstract concepts: Inclusive design with primary metaphors BIBAKFull-Text 475-484
  Jörn Hurtienne; Christian Stößel; Christine Sturm; Alexander Maus; Matthias Rötting; Patrick Langdon; John Clarkson
Designers in inclusive design are challenged to create interactive products that cater for a wide range of prior experiences and cognitive abilities of their users. But suitable design guidance for this task is rare. This paper proposes the theory of primary metaphor and explores its validity as a source of design guidance. Primary metaphor theory describes how basic mental representations of physical sensorimotor experiences are extended to understand abstract domains. As primary metaphors are subconscious mental representations that are highly automated, they should be robustly available to people with differing levels of cognitive ability. Their proposed universality should make them accessible to people with differing levels of prior experience with technology. These predictions were tested for 12 primary metaphors that predict relations between spatial gestures and abstract interactive content. In an empirical study, 65 participants from two age groups (young and old) were asked to produce two-dimensional touch and three-dimensional free-form gestures in response to given abstract keywords and spatial dimensions of movements. The results show that across age groups in 92% of all cases users choose gestures that confirmed the predictions of the theory. Although the two age groups differed in their cognitive abilities and prior experience with technology, overall they did not differ in the amount of metaphor-congruent gestures they made. As predicted, only small or zero correlations of metaphor-congruent gestures with prior experience or cognitive ability could be found. The results provide a promising step toward inclusive design guidelines for gesture interaction with abstract content on mobile multitouch devices.
Keywords: Gesture interaction / Multi-touch interaction / Image schema / Conceptual metaphor / Inclusive design / Older adults
Playful persuasion to support older adults' social and physical activities BIBAKFull-Text 485-495
  Natalia Romero; Janienke Sturm; Tilde Bekker; Linda de Valk; Sander Kruitwagen
In this paper we describe a case study in which we examine how to develop playful persuasive solutions to motivate older adults to maintain or increase their social and physical activities. By including various stakeholders (older adults, family, and care givers) and by designing for transitions in life we intend to create solutions that can be used by many different user groups. Based on a playful interaction framework and user studies we are designing playful persuasive solutions that incorporate social and physical activities as mutual motivators. Furthermore, the persuasive solutions should be relevant for the life transitions of losing partners or friends, of having to move to a care facility and of declining physical and cognitive capabilities. We describe our experiences with involving older adults in a design process. Finally, we present our initial concept the 'Activator', that provides awareness about upcoming activities and own performances and goals, and provides opportunities for older adults based on physical or social motivators to keep and extend their social circle, and to perform activities of lower and higher physical demand.
Keywords: Persuasion / Inclusive design / Independent living / Design for older adults / Awareness / Playful interaction
It is normal to be different: Applying inclusive design in industry BIBAKFull-Text 496-501
  Ian Hosking; Sam Waller; P. John Clarkson
This paper describes the case for inclusive design developed by the Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge. This is based on 10 years experience researching inclusive design and promoting it in industry. The approach is a pragmatic one, bridging from where many companies currently are to a more inclusive approach. This paper uses the starting point that 'it is normal to be different' with regards to a person's capabilities, in order to reframe the argument from a disability focus to one that examines population diversity as a whole. A practical commercial response to this diversity is described by representing capability variation using traditional market segments and personas. Finally different design responses are discussed that address the range of capabilities in the population.
Keywords: Inclusive design / Business case / Diversity / Disability
Influencing technology adoption by older adults BIBAKFull-Text 502-509
  Vicki L. Hanson
With the advent of a digital economy, an emphasis on digital products and services has emerged. Those who are not using current technologies will become excluded, however, from this revolution. Older adults represent one such group in danger of exclusion. In some cases, older adults have been disinterested in new technologies. In other cases, however, the technologies fail to take into consideration the strengths and weaknesses of older users that would promote this usability. This paper examines components of information search by younger and older adults. These are considered in terms of long-term implications of designing for older users, with current problems viewed as foreshadowing future trends.
Keywords: Older adults / Design / Inclusion / Technology acceptance / Digital economy / Information seeking
Developing a model of cognitive interaction for analytical inclusive design evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 510-529
  Patrick Langdon; Umesh Persad; P. John Clarkson
Inclusive design is a user-centred approach that examines designed product features with particular attention to the functional demands they make on the perceptual, thinking and physical capabilities of diverse users, including those with impairments and ageing. An analytic approach to the evaluation of designs mitigates the need for observational trials with products by relating data about the prevalence of capability ranges in the population with an analysis of the demands made by product properties and features. This enables a quantification of the number of users who can use a specific design. To date, there has been some success in identifying data sets and appropriate impairment and capability models for perception and movement in this novel "inclusive" research context. However, previous attempts to do so for cognitive aspects of product feature interaction have encountered a lack of suitable data and models. We propose some necessary requirements for a complete model of inclusive cognitive interaction and establish four criteria for what would constitute a good framework for the purpose of developing a research approach that could be used to construct and test predictive tools for design. Taking into account the immediately relevant literature, we examine some candidate approaches that may satisfy these requirements with reference to some of our own research findings. The results of the analysis suggest that this combined approach to cognitive demand is, in principle, capable of satisfying the proposed criteria in conjunction. It has also been successful in driving a research effort to identify important predictive variables and relate these to an underlying model of interaction. The utility of such a framework will ultimately be judged by empirical tests of the accuracy of the developed model and tools in predicting specific exclusion and difficulty during cognitive interaction. This will allow further iterative improvement of the model and will also permit modification of the development framework. A further test will be whether designers can use the resulting tools to help create designs for ICT products that are more inclusive in that they are usable by people with a wider range of functional capabilities.
Keywords: Inclusive design / Universal access / Cognitive psychology / Cognitive modelling / User testing / User modelling
Understanding user preferences based on usability and aesthetics before and after actual use BIBAKFull-Text 530-543
  Sangwon Lee; Richard J. Koubek
Designing a highly preferred product or system is a crucial issue for better information-services and product sales. We attempted to understand the process of users' preference-making based on usability and aesthetics. In the present study, we examined the relationships among usability/aesthetics features, perceived usability/aesthetics, and user preference through an experiment using four simulated systems with different levels of usability and aesthetics. The results showed that, before actual use, user preference was significantly affected by the differences in aesthetics but marginally affected by the differences in usability. On the other hand, after actual use, user preference was significantly influenced by the differences in both usability and aesthetics. Regardless of the occurrence of actual use, user preference was highly correlated with both perceived usability and perceived aesthetics, which were strongly interrelated. Finally, actual use had a significant effect on perceived usability, perceived aesthetics, and user preference. The findings emphasize the importance of considering both perceived usability and perceived aesthetics. They also demonstrate the need for discriminating users' interactions before and after actual use, in developing a more preferable computer-based application.
Keywords: User preference / Usability / Aesthetics / Perceived usability / Perceived aesthetics / Actual use
Audio makes a difference in haptic collaborative virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 544-555
  Jonas Moll; Yingying Huang; Eva-Lotta Sallnäs
In this paper a study is presented which aimed at exploring the effects of audio feedback in a haptic and visual interface supporting collaboration among sighted and people who cannot see. A between group design was used and the participants worked in pairs with one sighted and one blindfolded in each. The application used was a haptic 3D environment in which participants could build composed objects out of building blocks. The building blocks could be picked up and moved around by means of a touch feedback pointing device. In one version of the application, used by half of the groups, sound cues could be used to tell the other person where you were, and to get feedback on your own and the other person's actions. Results showed that sound cues together with haptic feedback made a difference in the interaction between the collaborators regarding their shared understanding of the workspace and the work process. Especially, sound cues played an important role for maintaining awareness of ongoing work -- you knew what was going on, and you got a response on your own actions.
Keywords: Haptic / Audio / Multimodal interfaces / Collaboration / Problem solving
Using interactive 3-D visualization for public consultation BIBAKFull-Text 556-568
  Paul van Schaik
3-D models are often developed to aid the design and development of indoor and outdoor environments. This study explores the use of interactive 3-D visualization for public consultation for outdoor environments. Two visualization techniques (interactive 3-D visualization and static visualization) were compared using the method of individual testing. Visualization technique had no effect on the perception of the represented outdoor environment, but there was a preference for using interactive 3-D. Previously established mechanisms for a preference for interactive 3-D visualization in other domains were confirmed in the perceived strengths and weaknesses of visualization techniques. In focus-group discussion, major preferences included provision of more information through interactive 3-D visualization and wider access to information for public consultation. From a users' perspective, the findings confirm the strong potential of interactive 3-D visualization for public consultation.
Keywords: Virtual reality / Visualization / Public consultation / Outdoor environment / e-Government
Increasing the expressive power of task analysis: Systematic comparison and empirical assessment of tool-supported task models BIBAKFull-Text 569-593
  Sybille Caffiau; Dominique Scapin; Patrick Girard; Mickaël Baron; Francis Jambon
Task analysis is a critical step in the design process of interactive systems. The large set of task models available today may lead to the assumption that this step is well supported. However, very few task models are tool-supported. And in this latter category, few of them are based on a clear semantics (in this article, the word semantics is used with the following definition: "the meaning of a word, phrase, sentence, or text" from Compact Oxford English Dictionary®). This paper focuses on tool-supported task models and provides an assessment of the features that have been considered as essential in task modelling. It compares the different tool-supported methods, and evaluates the actual use of these features in K-MADe, a tool aimed at contributing to the incorporation of ergonomics into the design process of interactive systems through activity and task analysis. The originality of the K-MADe tool is to be based on a model whose expressive power lies on computable syntax while trying to be usable by every modelling knowledge designer. This facilitates task description and analysis, but also model query and the migration within software engineering models and software lifecycle steps. Evaluation results demonstrate the usefulness of an increased expressive power for task models, and their acceptance by users. They also enlighten some weaknesses in the K-MAD method and suggest further improvements.
Keywords: Task models / Tool-supported task modelling / Empirical assessment
User experience to improve the usability of a vision-based interface BIBAKFull-Text 594-605
  Cristina Manresa-Yee; Pere Ponsa; Javier Varona; Francisco J. Perales
When we develop an input device for users to communicate with computers, we have to take into account that end-users must consider the utilization of the device to be effective, efficient and satisfactory. Users whose expectations are unmet by the interface will tend to abandon it. In this paper we present a vision-based interface for motor-impaired users; a multidisciplinary group developed this interface. The user's preferences are a critical issue when selecting an access device; therefore, user requirements should be included in the design. Usability evaluation should be integrated into relevant phases of software development. In order to evaluate the design, we present a process with multiple user studies at different development stages. We describe the combination of a development project and its implementation, with user experience considerations embedded in the process. Finally, we studied the performance of the interface through several tests, paying special attention to satisfaction and fatigue. From our results we observed that although several users found the interface tiring, their satisfaction level was encouraging, suggesting the interface is usable.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction / Usability / Vision-based interfaces / Accessibility
The impact of voice characteristics on user response in an interactive voice response system BIBAKFull-Text 606-614
  Rochelle E. Evans; Philip Kortum
System voice within interactive voice response systems (IVRs) was investigated in order to determine if voice impacts a user's input responses. In a medical setting, it is possible that a particular voice personality and/or gender may induce more or less disclosure, thus driving a patient to relay more or less sensitive information. In the IVR setting, one could determine this via examination of a user's button-press responses. In this study, a male and female voice personality expressing an upbeat, professional, and sympathetic personality recorded a script for a medical IVR. Users were randomly assigned to one of these voice personalities when completing a health survey over that IVR. It was found that disclosure rates were not affected by the type of voice heard, nor did they differ by user gender. Additionally, disclosure was higher on the IVR version of the health survey than on a web-based version, further recognizing the privacy offered by IVRs. These findings indicate that designers of IVRs may not have to put additional effort into the selection of voice talent and can instead focus on the design of the IVR, itself.
Keywords: Interactive voice response / Persona / Voice / Disclosure / MDASI