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ISWC Tables of Contents: 1314-114-215

Adjunct Proceedings of the 2014 International Symposium on Wearable Computers

Fullname:ISWC 2014: 18th International Symposium on Wearable Computers Adjunct Program
Editors:Lucy Dunne; Tom Martin; Michael Beigl
Location:Seattle, Washington
Dates:2014-Sep-13 to 2014-Sep-17
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-3048-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: ISWC14-2
Papers:45
Pages:266
Links:Conference Website
  1. ISWC 2014-09-13 Volume 2
    1. Demos
    2. Design exhibition
    3. Doctoral school
    4. Workshop on Atelier of Smart Garments and Accessories (ASGA)
    5. "Are we crossing the chasm in wearable AR?" -- 3rd Workshop on Wearable Systems for Industrial Augmented Reality Applications (WEARIA)
    6. Workshop on Smart Garments: Sensing, Actuation, Interaction, and Applications in Garments (WOSG)

ISWC 2014-09-13 Volume 2

Demos

Including affect-driven adaptation to the Pac-Man video game BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Ahbiya Harris; Alyza Villa; Andrew Hoch; Maria Elena Chavez-Echeagaray; Ryan Kral; Javier Gonzalez-Sanchez; Michael Teposte; Robert K. Atkinson
Building affect-driven adaptive environments is a task geared toward creating environments able to change based on the affective state of a target user. In our project, the environment is the well-known game, Pac-Man. To provide affect-driven adaptive capabilities, diverse sensors were utilized to gather a user's physiological data and an emotion recognition framework was used to fuse the sensed data and infer affective states. The game changes driven by those affective states aim to improve the user experience by keeping or increasing player's engagement.
Contents-aware gesture interaction using wearable motion sensor BIBAFull-Text 5-8
  Tsukasa Ike; Toshiaki Nakasu; Yasunobu Yamauchi
Gesture interaction has become a major role as intuitive control of remote devices. Motion-based hand gesture recognition using a wearable motion sensor equipped on the wrist-band helps decreasing recognition errors compared with that of video-based recognition systems. However, the user interaction is often interrupted even in the low-error conditions because an inappropriate gesture recognition mode is applied on the system or user can't find out how to handle it using gestures. We propose a novel gesture interaction technique using visual attention to suggest user an appropriate gesture on the condition of selectable contents on the screen. We applied this interaction method on the content navigation interface for the TV and found it essential to realize natural and intuitive gesture interactions.

Design exhibition

Baroesque barometric skirt BIBAFull-Text 9-14
  Rain Ashford
The Baroesque Barometric Skirt visualises data from the wearer's environment alongside physiological data of the wearer. The skirt changes visually as the wearer moves around environments and also as the body reacts to its present situation. This garment-device starts a conversation around the connections between the environmental and physiological data of the wearer. This short paper charts the evolution of the Baroesque Barometric Skirt from purpose to design, to making the skirt and constructing the electronics and code that become integral to it. The Baroesque Barometric skirt contributes a new way of sensing and presenting environmental and physiological data together.
Innovative explorations in apparel design to create engineered outfits with lighting technologies BIBAFull-Text 15-19
  Eric Beaudette; Juan Hinestroza; Lina Sanchez-Botero; Huiju Park; Susan Ashdown
The future of innovation in clothing lies within wearable technologies, advanced design development processes and advanced construction techniques. The integration of functional apparel design and engineering has attracted a lot of attention in the last decade. The objective of our work is to explore new avenues that connect design and technology, and to improve upon traditional techniques in apparel product development and construction. We will discuss the techniques used in our research project to explore fast prototyping techniques including laser cutting, 3D body scanning, draping on a half scale mannequin, 3D printing, and the inclusion of wearable electronics. The use of these fast prototyping techniques can reduce the cost in production and simplify the development process [1].
S.A.R.A.: synesthetic augmented reality application BIBAFull-Text 21-25
  Margarita Benitez; Markus Vogl
S.A.R.A. -- (synesthetic augmented reality application) is an App exploring the potential of using a mobile device as a unique and wearable musical interface.
Jackit: power generating jacket BIBAFull-Text 27-32
  Buondi Davide; Equizi Giacomo; Bolognesi Linda; Fazzi Maria Adelaide
Today our life is dominated by technology. It happens often that we trust our devices too much and when they run down we are completely floored. In this case we just desire a bit of extra energy to solve our troubles.
   Jackit is a jacket made of a new textile combination of knitted copper and constantan and a textile fiber that can change depending on the use of the jacket. This textile uses the Seebeck effect to produce energy and recharges a power bank connected inside the jacket. The See beck effect uses the different temperature between the one of the human body and the external temperature to produce energy.
   The energy of the power bank can then be used to charge various electric devices. The amount of energy obtained depends on the outside air temperature.
NAERO light your energy BIBAFull-Text 33-38
  Marta Cecconi; Beatrice Baruzzo; Giovanni Caputo; Rudy Faletra
Naero is a practical wearable object that helps managing the physical exercise in a more efficient way. It is composed of two parts: a t-shirt made in a smart fabric that transforms the lactate present in sweat into energy and an electric circuit with an accelerometer and a Light Emitting Diode (LED) that works as interface. The purpose of Naero is to warn about the passage to the anaerobic respiration, and help the person who's doing the physical activity to prevent muscle pain and tiredness. When the LED is on it means that the fabric is starting to produce energy from the sweat, and the comparison with the data of the accelerometer gives important information about the performance of the user. This smart object can help a varied target, from professional athletes to aged persons or people doing physical rehabilitation. The presence of lactate in sweat is an important indicator and today athletes measure its value with an invasive medical test. With Naero this information can be checked by the user himself, in a pleasant and simple way.
Fiori in aria: air quality indicator BIBAFull-Text 39-42
  Elena Fabrizi
Indoor air pollution can provoke temporary uneasiness, headache, sometimes sore throats or burning eyes and noses, but in the long term it can cause serious health problems both for young people, for the elderly and for those with existing diseases. It's easy to understand that knowing the quality of the air we are breathing is valuable. But most of all, having an easy readable object that shows you if you are in an unhealthy situation can simplify the task. A textile flower that opens and closes if the air quality is good or not could be a pleasurable object to wear and a indicator of the air quality.
TWINY emotional logging BIBAFull-Text 43-48
  Sara Ferraro; Alice Meniconi; Sara Gianguzza; Giulia Pistolesi
Taking stress out of people's lives is a great step to a better life in the future. To create a healthier lifestyle it is important to prevent stress related illnesses. The goal of this project is to make people aware of their state of mind and conscious of how they feel. Twiny is an elastic bracelet that gathers physical parameters through sensors: connecting emotions to physical state, Twiny gives the possibility to learn how to control mood, organizing time and trying to make people feel comfortable. Matching feelings data with calendar and health state, Twiny is able to build a grid of feelings, suggesting how to react to a bad mood or, for instance a constant migraine. Twiny attempts to correlate data down to every physical rash caused from stress to the body. Making people aware of their unconscious feelings will help them build a better lifestyle. Twiny, which wirelessly sends data to an application, allows users to control their own parameters every time they need.
Ballet hero: building a garment for memetic embodiment in dance learning BIBAFull-Text 49-54
  James Hallam; Alison McKenna; Emily Keen; Mudit Gupta; Christa Lee
This paper describes the analysis and design of a wearable technology garment intended to aid with the instruction of ballet technique to adult beginners. A phenomenological framework is developed and used to assess physiological training tools. Following this, a garment is developed that incorporates visual feedback inspired by animation techniques that more directly convey the essential movements of ballet. The garment design is presented, and a discussion is provided on the challenges of constructing an e-textile garment using contemporary materials and techniques.
'TellMe': therapeutic clothing for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in daily life BIBAFull-Text 55-58
  Helen Koo
Special education and treatment methods in the early ages are the keys to relieving Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms. These smart clothing items 'TellMe' are designed to treat ASD symptoms in boys by encouraging them to speak out and express themselves while playing with and enjoying the clothing. Therapeutic functions, including different types of sensors (a flexible film-like pressure sensor, a light sensor, and a motion sensor) and actuators (LEDs, a DC motor, and a vibration motor), are incorporated to the clothing. By playing with the interactive robot characters on the clothing, such as speaking into the microphone or activating the sensors and other actuators, a child wearing the garment can naturally learn and practice how to express his feelings, emotions, and opinions.
Oiko-nomic threads BIBAFull-Text 59-64
  Marinos Koutsomichalis; Afroditi Psarra; Maria Varela
Oiko-nomic Threads is a collective art project for an algorithmically controlled knitting machine and open data. The installation represents a system commenting on the notion of work through the production of a textile in real-time. By means of rethinking, modifying and redefining the functionality of an obsolete knitting machine and employing financial data from the databases of the Greek National Manpower Employment Offices as well as selected patterns inspired by Greek folk art, a textile is generated algorithmically. This way, the woven textile is to be understood as both a document of its own making as well as a dynamic base of archival resources which presents a computer-generated interpretation of the original financial data.
MUVIB: music and vibration BIBAFull-Text 65-70
  Bruno La Versa; Luca Diamanti; Isabella Peruzzi; Marco Zemolin
The idea behind this design is to create a design with which it is possible to change the perception that the individual has with music, changing therefore their relationship with it. The result is a product of the category design for all, to be used by both deaf and able-bodied individuals without difference. MUVIB is composed of two mutually connected bracelets that allow music to transform into vibration. To the able bodied, the interaction with the sound, and in our particular case with a particular type of sound, music as can be of various nature. For the deaf the concept changes, while this diverse ability does not allow them to enjoy all the physical and mental benefits that music put in place. For all these reasons we decided to work on this issue, thinking of a device that could flatten this difference in perception, placing both targets on a level field. Thanks to MUVIB the hearing and the deaf will be able to benefit from the effects that these two vibrators bracelets bring the entire body, creating different situations where come into play factors such as pleasure, relaxation and adrenaline. MUVIB is an open source project created with components readily available on the market, in order to allow everyone the reconstruction. In this way, the end user is involved in the production of the product, excluding the need to have a company producing and multiplying the possibility' for the dissemination of the product.
HALEY: sound around the clock BIBAFull-Text 71-76
  Alessandra Lucherelli; Giulia Querci; Corrado De Pinto; Marta Balloni
Haley is a digital clock with acoustic function. It notices sounds and transmits information to an app. The app creates a mapping area with different classes of sound level in different places, to have a complete panning shot of the noise in your life location.
   You can use it like a simple time marker to take with you, on your jeans pocket or on your bag like an accessory, and when you press a button it can quantify the dB (decibel) around you. With this object you can control the noise pollution in your surrounding space and choose places on the basis of your acoustic needs.
   An example: if you look for a quiet place for your lunch break, you can use It to find a silent place around you to stop and eat something.
2013 e-textile swatchbook exchange: the importance of sharing physical work BIBAFull-Text 77-81
  Anja Hertenberger; Jie Qi; Meg Grant; Barbro Scholz; Katharina Childs; Melissa Coleman; Beam Contrechoc; Kristi Kuusk; Mika Satomi; Becky Stewart; Lynsey Calder; Mili Tharakan; Ebru Kurbak; Marina Toeters; Pauline Vierne; Hannah Perner-Wilson; Marta Kisand; Sara Robertson; Irene Posch; Martijn ten Bhömer; Sarah Taylor; Isabel Cabral; Maurin Donneaud; Troy Robert Nachtigall
The E-Textile Swatch Exchange is a platform for sharing physical work samples in the field of electronic textiles. The exchange wishes to emphasize the importance of physicality and quality workmanship in an increasingly digital world. Individuals and collaborative efforts participate in the exchange by submitting a unique swatch design of their own, and in turn receive a compiled collection of everybody else's swatches. This means that everybody participating needs to make as many multiples of their swatch as the total number of participants. There are no guidelines defining what the swatches could or should be, only that they relate to the field of E-Textiles.
Flowers on a pond BIBAFull-Text 83-86
  Anna Lingling Perry
A solar powered LED dress with two lighting models is presented in the following section.
Argot: a wearable one-handed keyboard glove BIBAFull-Text 87-92
  Anna Peshock; Lucy E. Dunne; Julia Duvall
The Argot glove is a one-handed, wearable input device that allows a user to type all English letters, numbers, and symbols without use of a traditional keyboard. The device design considers variables and constraints such as dexterity, feedback, mobility, learnability, speed of input, errors and false inputs, permanence, and comfort, as well as previous user knowledge. The glove design was informed by experimental investigations aimed at balancing tradeoffs between physical variables (reach, dexterity, haptics) and cognitive variables (learnability, text-entry method). It uses weak magnetic interactions during "key" presses to provide passive haptic feedback and reduce the need for precision in proprioceptive hand positioning.
Digital lace: a collision of responsive technologies BIBAFull-Text 93-97
  Sarah Taylor; Sara Robertson
Designing with properties such as colour-change and light using electronics and digital control brings new challenges within art and design, and a range of new possibilities for aesthetics, tactility and functionality. Heimtextil 2014 (accessed April 2014) [1] promotes emerging materials and technologies as one of four trends which highlight the increasing demand for unique products utilizing novel material properties and digital making. However, there is still limited insight into the creative potential of these materials that are fundamental to the exploitation of 'smart' material properties, the development of new 'responsive' surfaces and digital tools that facilitate designing with colour-change and light-emitting properties specific to textiles. This submission to the Fiber arts category presents new material concepts as Digital Lace: a novel, multifaceted textile which will be presented as an interactive table runner for a digitally manufactured console table. Digital Lace explicitly pools together the digital-craft skills base and disparate expertise of printed textile practitioner and thermochromic specialist, (name) and constructed textile practitioner and light-emitting optical fibre specialist, (name). Within the context of 'smart', material development and experimentation, Digital lace exploits and amalgamates the responsive technologies of dye and fibre with digital-control.

Doctoral school

Responsive and emotive wearables: devices, bodies, data and communication BIBAFull-Text 99-104
  Rain Ashford
I examine the possibility that wearable technology can be used to create new forms of non-verbal communication via physiological data, in particular how data can be drawn from the body and then amplified and broadcast to those interacting with the wearer. I introduce two new terms as sub-sections of the field of wearable technology called 'responsive wearables' and 'emotive wearables'. Through my research and practice I will question how technology will meld with the body, how privacy may be affected and the implications of recording personal data. I will also investigate what might be the social consequences of interpreting rather than experiencing emotions.
In interaction with wearable activity recognition technologies BIBAFull-Text 105-111
  Manuel Dietrich
I introduce an interdisciplinary research project that bridges research in computer science and social science in the field of activity recognition. In specific focus here is the technology of wearable activity recognition, including its usage in everyday contexts and its design practice. The motivation for this work are the challenges coming with the problems detecting complex activities in real life settings, especially with the possibilities of combining isolated recognition systems to more ambitious technologies. For that I provide a framework, influenced by network theory, in which I discuss ideas on how interaction between users and the wearable activity recognition system can take place, especially concerning applications for self-reflection and self-management.
Garment-integrated wearable sensing for knee joint monitoring BIBAFull-Text 113-118
  Guido Gioberto
Body monitoring is one of the most intuitive and direct applications for technologies that are wearable. Wearable devices are capable of detecting body movements using wearable sensors, and using signals to capture anomalies as well as good patterns in our daily activities. Clothes provide the most accessible platform for embedding sensors and electronic components, preserving imperceptibility and user comfort, especially for long term body monitoring applications. Both perceptibility and comfort variables are associated with the willingness of the user to wear the device and with the quality of the data captured (that should reflect the unbiased wearer activity as if the user would not be wearing any device).
Forays into disability discrimination legislation and wearable computing BIBAFull-Text 119-124
  Reuben Kirkham
A significant amount wearable computing research is directed towards the development of systems which may help people with disabilities. These systems are increasingly likely to be developed by end users, and at the same time be inherently disruptive. Whether (or not) a system which is developed under such a regime counts as a reasonable adjustment is an unexplored question, yet very significant if disabled people are to fully benefit from wearable assistive technologies. At the same time, there is also the theme of whether a wearable computing system could also be used to enforce accessibility, by offering a convenient measure of whether this concern is being appropriately met. This project is therefore aimed at bringing together the domains of wearable computing and disability discrimination law, to the mutual benefit of both fields.
Meaningful game elements for personal informatics BIBAFull-Text 125-130
  Amon Rapp
Thanks to the advancements in wearable technologies, Personal Informatics tools can reach now the larger audience represented by common people. However, their integration in users' everyday lives poses a variety of issues that should be addressed. This research proposes to look at the world of video games to find new insights for improving personal informatics applications and devices.
The measurable me: the influence of self-quantification on the online user's decision-making process BIBAFull-Text 131-137
  Mimmi Sjöklint
The advancement of information technology, online accessibility and wearable computing is fostering a new playground for users to engage with quantified data sets. On one hand, the online user is continuously yet passively exposed to different types of quantified data in online interfaces and mobile apps. On the other hand, the user may actively and knowingly be gathering quantified data through ubiquitous sensory devices, such as wearable technology, e.g. the Jawbone UP and Fitbit. In both instances, the user is exposed to versions of self-quantified measures, namely the aggregation and transformation of personally attributed activity into quantified data. This study approaches the adoption of wearables by looking at active and passive self-quantification online and explores how it may influence and support the user's cognitive processes and subsequent decision-making process.
An assistive EyeWear prototype that interactively converts 3D object locations into spatial audio BIBAFull-Text 139-144
  Titus J. J. Tang
This paper presents an end-to-end assistive EyeWear prototype aimed at Vision Impaired users. The prototype uses computer vision to detect objects on planar surfaces and sonifies their 3D locations using spatial audio. The prototype system is novel in that the wearable component and real-time operation of the system allows the user to interactively affect the audio feedback by actively and intuitively moving a headworn sensor. User trials were conducted on 12 blindfolded subjects who were tasked to perform an object localisation and placement task using our system. Quantitative trial results and qualitative user feedback suggest that the prototype has potential as a real world assistive device.
Gestural activity recognition for canine-human communication BIBAFull-Text 145-149
  Giancarlo Valentin
Despite close collaboration existing between humans and working dogs, there are few options for reliable two-way communication between them. The main goal of the FIDO project is to explore and develop wearable technologies to support this communication [5]. In this manuscript, we describe work in progress regarding the use of intentional, motion-based dog gestures as a mechanism of communication. In particular, we are interested in gestures that can be identified with the use of inertial measurement sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes.
Designing new input modalities for wearables & digitized home BIBAFull-Text 151-154
  Sang Ho Yoon
There is a common phenomenon in the development of wearable computers and digitized home system. The computing of these technologies has been developed expeditiously, but they still adopt conventional input methods. The wearable computer uses screen-touch or button and in-home digital objects incorporate switches or remote controllers for input methods. Although a vision based input method has been proposed, it cannot replace previous practices due to occlusion and space constraints. We propose new input modalities which can improve the physical/cognitive cost of interacting with upcoming technologies as well as the social acceptability to lower the barrier of using proposed approach.

Workshop on Atelier of Smart Garments and Accessories (ASGA)

Hugginess: encouraging interpersonal touch through smart clothes BIBAFull-Text 155-162
  Leonardo Angelini; Omar Abou Khaled; Maurizio Caon; Elena Mugellini; Denis Lalanne
Physical contact has an important role in human well-being. In this paper, we present Hugginess, a concept of interactive system that encourages people to hug by augmenting this gesture with digital information exchange. As a proof of concept, we developed two t-shirts that reciprocally send information to the hugged person through the conductive fabric.
Towards EMG control interface for smart garments BIBAFull-Text 163-170
  Simone Benatti; Luca Benini; Elisabetta Farella
Wearable computing devices can greatly enhance the quality of life, helping interaction with smart environment, activity recognition and healthcare applications. Smart garments offer the opportunity to integrate sensors and electronics in unobtrusive wearable systems. The paper presents a case study of an embedded hand gesture recognition system, which uses EMG electrodes embeddable in smart clothes. We analyze the main challenges of a real-time system for pattern recognition and the results of the proposed experiment demonstrate the feasibility of a real-time system for pattern recognition, which can be integrated in smart clothes.
Atelier of smart garments and accessories: second edition BIBAFull-Text 171-176
  Maurizio Caon; Elena Mugellini; Paolo Perego; Giuseppe Andreoni
Technology is actually weaving itself into 'the fabric of everyday life' (as predicted by Weiser). Nowadays, computational systems can be embedded in garments or body accessory, such as clothes, shirts, eyeglasses, bracelets and watches. This new technological revolution is deeply changing the human life and society. The Atelier of Smart Garments and Accessories workshop aims to bring together researchers from the academia and the industry in order to establish a multidisciplinary community interested in discovering and exploring the challenges and opportunities coming from this technological revolution.
Using eTextile objects for touch based interaction for visual impairment BIBAFull-Text 177-183
  Emilie Giles; Janet van der Linden
In this paper we explore the relationship between eTextiles and touch-based interaction with regards to visual impairment. We argue that smart fabrics and conductive materials have mostly been researched in terms of their attractive visual properties but that their tactile properties are largely underexplored. We discuss development of a number of eTextile prototype objects which we explored in conversations with blind participants. The focus is on how they use different gestures while interacting with the objects and reflect on these associations when exploring. Through these studies and conversations we propose to take forward a user-centered design approach to creating further objects which can be utilised in aiding or enhancing experiences for people who are visually impaired.
Designing for intimacy: how fashion design can address privacy issues in wearable computing BIBAFull-Text 185-192
  Cindy Jacob; Bruno Dumas
This position paper discusses how computer science and fashion design can gracefully enrich each other to address privacy, non-invasiveness and non-disruptiveness issues. A use case providing intimate, remote communication for a couple is described, as well as potential tracks to solve this use case from a technological as well as fashion design points of view. We show that fashion designers closely collaborating with computer scientists can help address complex issues such as privacy when integrating smart garments together.
Wearable laser pointer versus head-mounted display for tele-guidance applications? BIBAFull-Text 193-200
  Shahram Jalaliniya; Thomas Pederson; Steven Houben
Wearable camera and displechnology allow remote collaborators to guide activities performed by human agents located elsewhere. This kind of technology augments the range of human perception and actuation. In this paper we quantitatively determine if wearable laser pointers are viable alternatives to Head-Mounted Displays for indicating where in the physical environment the local agent should direct her/his attention. The potential benefit of the laser pointer would be reduced eye fatigue, due to the fact that the documented refocusing challenges associated with HMD use would be completely eliminated. 10 participants where asked to perform a short tele-guided pick-and drop task using both approaches. The quantitative analysis indicates that user performance in the laser pointer condition is higher than the HMD approach (P = .064, α = 0.1). While all 10 participants found the task easy in both conditions, 8 of 10 participants found the laser pointer system more convenient.
Electronic-textile system for the evaluation of wearable technology BIBAFull-Text 201-207
  Rebeccah Pailes-Friedman; Carson Stanch; Cody Miller; Violet Tamayo; Kai Lin; Eleni Skourtis-Cabrera; Theo Ferlauto
Wearable technology used in spaceflight has many applications. Electronic sensing, interaction, and computing designed into comfortable on-body form factors has the potential to augment human capabilities while improving safety, efficiency, autonomy, and ergonomics. This paper discusses our design methods and approach to improving the E-SEWT (Electronic-textile System for the Evaluation of Wearable Technology) project for The Wearable Electronics Application and Research Lab (WEAR Lab) in the Avionic Systems Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC).
   The E-SEWT project is a design-lead study in the form and function of a reconfigurable smart garment to be worn on board the International Space Station (ISS). This specialized garment consists of a base unit and removable sensor components called "swatches." This configuration allows the garment to be customized by the wearer to meet their needs to complete a particular task or to suit their personal preferences. The values of a smart garment with a variety of reconfigurable modular units include customization between wearers and tasks, ease in replacing parts and/or updating components for both replacement and testing and flexibility in prototyping and eventually manufacturing. The focus of the design solutions evolved through a process of interacting with test users with a focus on mobility, ergonomics comfort, and ease of use while maintaining optimal data flow.

"Are we crossing the chasm in wearable AR?" -- 3rd Workshop on Wearable Systems for Industrial Augmented Reality Applications (WEARIA)

Towards an engineering approach for designing wearable augmented reality systems: methods and experiments BIBAFull-Text 209-212
  Holger Kenn; Christian Bürgy
In this paper, we propose a collaborative research project working towards an engineering approach for augmented reality with the specific focus on mobile and wearable systems. In previous workshops of our series, we found that technology was not ready for engineering, but we believe that this has changed now, for instance recent developments show that hardware is progressing rapidly and could really be ready in 2-3 years. What's missing is standardized approach to develop systems that are useable and "economically reasonable to build and operate", hence we propose an open and standardized approach that can be replicated by different research groups in different countries and applications and different users.
"Are we crossing the chasm in wearable AR?": 3rd Workshop on Wearable Systems for Industrial Augmented Reality Applications BIBAFull-Text 213-216
  Holger Kenn; Christian Bürgy
The term "Crossing the Chasm", coined by Geoffrey A. Moore [1], states that there is a significant time gap in high-tech marketing between the phase of early adopters and visionaries using new products and the early majority. With the latest success of wearable devices or the marketing of such devices, we seem to cross the chasm in wearable technology in general. One of the ideal pictures, we painted over the last years, is the use of Augmented Reality-based wearable computing systems overlaying our view of the real world with useful information. Such systems, though, are only about to become commodities or actual tools and many research results presented at previous ISWC conferences have yet to be implemented and industrialized.
   Augmented Reality (AR) is a successful application area of Wearable Computing, especially for professional, industrial settings, in which mobility is an important factor. With the proliferation of mobile technology in the workplace, wearable computing research can offer a valuable contribution to the usability of mobile solutions, such as the use of context information to inform devices and services of the current task and user situation, relieve professionals of tedious and repetitive information entry tasks and increase worker safety in complex and hazardous environments. Wearable AR systems in general are widely utilized in various domains, including architecture, military, tourism, navigation, and entertainment. Such diverse usages impose several challenges on researchers from both areas of Augmented Reality and Wearable Computing, such as interaction, activity and context recognition, wearability, design, and modeling.
   We invite researchers and industrial developers from relevant disciplines to a one-day workshop held in conjunction with ISWC 2014 and UbiComp 2014 to present novel works and discuss the application of state-of-the-art Wearable Computing research and Augmented Reality systems. The workshop provides an opportunity for directed discussion to identify current issues, research topics, and solution approaches, which lead to the proposal of future research directions.
The nexus of human factors in cyber-physical systems: ergonomics of eyewear for industrial applications BIBAFull-Text 217-220
  Sabine Theis; Matthias Wille; Thomas Alexander
Smart eyewear devices may serve as advanced interfaces between cyber-physical systems (CPS) and workers by integrating digital information into the visual field. We have addressed ergonomic issues related to the use of a ruggedized head-mounted display (HMD) (Liteye 750A, see-through and look-around mode) and a conventional screen during a half-day working shift (N=60). We only found minor physiological effects of the HMD, resulting into inflexible head posture, higher muscle activity over time of the left M. Splenius capitis and low performance given its look-around mode.
Prolonged work with head mounted displays BIBAFull-Text 221-224
  Matthias Wille; Sascha Wischniewski; Lars Adolph; Sabine Theis; Britta Grauel; Thomas Alexander
This paper sums up the main results from a research project focusing on prolonged work with head mounted displays and the effect on physiological and mental strain.

Workshop on Smart Garments: Sensing, Actuation, Interaction, and Applications in Garments (WOSG)

Workshop on smart garments: sensing, actuation, interaction, and applications in garments BIBAFull-Text 225-229
  Stefan Schneegass; Kristof Van Laerhoven; Jingyuan Cheng; Oliver Amft
Over the last years different wearable electronic devices, technically similar to smart phones, have become available in the form factor of watches and glasses. However, including wearable sensing, actuation, and communication technologies directly into garments is still a great challenge. Cloths offer the chance to unobtrusively integrate new functionalities. Nevertheless, it is essential to take into account that garments and cloths are fundamentally different from electronic devices. Manufacturing processes for fabrics and cloths, drivers for fashion, and user expectation with regard to comfort and durability are not comparable to classical electronic devices. In smart watches and glasses applications resemble common smart phone functionality (e.g., picture taking, (instant) messaging, voice communication, presentation of reminders) with new input and output channels. In contrast to this, new possibilities for sensing, actuation, and interaction are opening entirely new applications on garments. These new applications are needed to be identified and will then again drive the advances in smart garments. In this workshop, we focus on novel applications for garments. We discuss underlying abstraction layers that allow developers to create applications that are independent from a specific garment and that can be used with different garments. Furthermore, we invite research contributions and position statements on sensing and actuation as the basic mechanisms for smart garments. Overall the workshop aims at improving our understanding of the fundamental challenges when wearable computing moves beyond accessories into garments.
Clothing classification with smart phones BIBAFull-Text 231-236
  Huy Tran; Thanh Dang
Human thermal comfort is significantly dependent on thermal insulation of clothing [3]. Therefore, classifying types of clothing a user is wearing plays an important role in enhancing human thermal comfort. In our work, we investigated different combinations of feature extraction methods and machine learning algorithms for clothing classification. We conducted our study using temperature and humidity data collected from smartphones in various contexts (inside and outside a pocket) and with different clothing types. We found that using six largest coefficients returned from Discrete Wavelet Transform with Support Vector Machines learning algorithm, we can achieve an accuracy of up to 0:71.
A smart scarf for pulse signal monitoring using a flexible pressure nanosensor BIBAFull-Text 237-242
  Dongzhan Chen; Ting Zhang; Michael Lawo; Yang Gu; Yu Zhang; Dongyi Chen
Real-time, long-term pulse signal monitoring plays a significant role in monitoring chronic diseases for elder people, pregnant women etc. For users with weak pulse, a carotid pulse signal monitoring system can be appropriate. However, till today no unobtrusive solution is available. Therefore, we suggest a novel flexible and planar pressure nanosensor weaved in a smart scarf system for pulse signal monitoring with better user experience called Smart-SP (smart scarf for pulse signal monitoring system). To our knowledge, this is the first time applying a flexible pressure nanosensor on a wearable carotid pulse monitoring system. To meet the needs of the application, a method is proposed to design the size of the sensor. An interface allows third-party analysis software and provides raw data. A database of pulse signal for diagnostic purposes is set-up. Digital low-pass filter improves the signal accuracy.
Hierarchical motion artefact compensation in smart garments BIBAFull-Text 243-248
  Attila Reiss; Jingyuan Cheng; Oliver Amft
This work addresses an emerging topic of smart garments, namely how to decouple the application development from the underlying sensing hardware. The idea of a dedicated operating system, introduced in previous work, is further elaborated by proposing a Garment OS architecture. In order to hide hardware-specific issues from the application developer, the Garment OS has to provide with a certain functionality. For example, sensor signals in garments are often affected by different types of artefacts, such as motion artefact or sensor displacement. Therefore, an important functionality of the Garment OS is to reduce the effects of said artefacts. As part of the Garment OS architecture, this paper proposes a hierarchical approach for artefact compensation in smart garments. This method is applied for motion artefact reduction, demonstrated on an example of activity recognition with a capacitive neckband. Results show a promising improvement of recognition accuracy compared to a baseline without artefact detection and compensation.
Design and evaluation of smart wearable undergarment for monitoring physiological extremes in firefighting BIBAFull-Text 249-254
  Flora Salim; Aaron Belbasis; Daniel Prohasky; Shadi Houshyar; Franz Konstantin Fuss
For workers in extreme environments, such as firefighters, thermal protective clothing is essential to protect them from exposures to high heat and life threatening risks. This study will investigate the design of a new smart protective clothing system, which incorporates sensors in the undergarment to measure physiological data, such as skin temperature, heat flux and heat rate to assess the thermal status of the worker. The aim of this paper is to outline the design of the smart wearable undergarment and the evaluation process for testing the smart undergarment in a controlled environment.
Designing an interface between the textile and electronics using e-textile composites BIBAFull-Text 255-260
  Matija Varga; Gerhard Tröster
A design concept for textile-electronics integration is presented. The design describes utilization of textile composites for building textile circuits. Customized electronic blocks are placed between two e-textile layers. Textile circuits are formed by contacting conductive threads and the unit blocks, without modifying the e-textile material. Routing of textile circuits using the proposed approach is shown in two examples.
Towards a garment OS: supporting application development for smart garments BIBAFull-Text 261-266
  Stefan Schneegass; Tobias Birmili; Mariam Hassib; Niels Henze
Wearable devices and the development of smart garments emerged into a significant research domain over the last decades. Despite the increasing commercial interest, however, smart garments are almost exclusively developed in academia and the developed systems do not exceed a prototypical level. We argue that the main reason why smart garments cannot be produced on commercially relevant scale today is that they each focus on a specific use case. There is no tool support for application developers and no defined APIs within the software and hardware stack that allows developing useful smart garment applications. In this paper we present our work towards Garment OS, a layered software stack that encapsulates different levels of abstraction. We highlight the design of that system which is based on open web protocols. We present an evaluation with software engineers and derive directions for future work.