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IJMHCI Tables of Contents: 010203040506

International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction 3

Editors:Joanna Lumsden
Publisher:IGI Global
Standard No:ISSN: 1942-390X EISSN: 1942-3918 DOI: 10.4018/IJMHCI
Links:www.igi-global.com | Table of Contents
  1. IJMHCI 2011-01 Volume 3 Issue 1
  2. IJMHCI 2011-04 Volume 3 Issue 2
  3. IJMHCI 2011-07 Volume 3 Issue 3
  4. IJMHCI 2011-10 Volume 3 Issue 4

IJMHCI 2011-01 Volume 3 Issue 1

Evaluating the Visual Demand of In-Vehicle Information Systems: The Development of a New Method BIBAKFull-Text 1-21
  Ainojie Alexander Irune
In-vehicle information systems (IVIS) provide a variety of driver support and infotainment functionality; however, there is a growing concern that the resulting engagement with IVIS could present significant sources of distraction to drivers. This paper summarises the PhD thesis of Dr Ainojie Alexander Irune, which was awarded at the University of Nottingham in December 2009. The primary aims of the research were to develop a framework to aid the selection of an appropriate HF/HCI method, for use at particular stages in the design process, and to develop a novel method (with a focus on glance duration) for assessing the visual demand afforded by IVIS. Five empirical studies are reported in the thesis. In the first study, interviews were conducted with subject experts and the results were combined with the literature to provide guidance regarding the appropriate use of human factors methods. The remaining four studies present an iterative development of a novel method capable of predicting the visual demand imposed by an IVIS.
Keywords: Distraction, Human Computer Interaction, Human Factors, IVIS, User Interface Design
Classic and Alternative Mobile Search: A Review and Agenda BIBAKFull-Text 22-36
  Matt Jones
As mobile search turns into a mainstream activity, the author reflects on research that provides insights into the impact of current interfaces and pointers to yet unmet needs. Classic text dominated interface and interaction techniques are reviewed, showing how they can enhance the user experience. While today's interfaces emphasise direct, query-result approaches, serving up discrete chunks of content, the author suggests an alternative set of features for future mobile search. With reference to example systems, the paper argues for indirect, continuous and multimodal approaches. Further, while almost all mobile search research has focused on the 'developed' world, the paper outlines challenges and impact of work targeted at 'developing' world contexts.
Keywords: Developing World, Futures, Interaction Design, Mobile Search, Trends
How Do People Use Their Mobile Phones?: A Field Study of Small Device Users BIBAKFull-Text 37-54
  Tianyi Chen; Simon Harper; Yeliz Yesilada
The usability evaluation of small devices (i.e., mobile phones and PDAs) is an emerging area of research. Compared with desktop computers, designing a usability evaluation for small devices is more challenging. Context of use, such as environmental disturbance and a user's physical activities affect the evaluation results. However, these parameters are usually ignored or excluded from simple and unnatural evaluation settings; therefore generating unrealistic results. This paper presents a field study that investigates the behaviour of small device users in naturalistic settings. The study consists of a series of unobtrusive remote observations and interviews. Results show that small device users normally use the device with just one hand, press the keys with thumb and make phone calls and send text messages while walking. They normally correct typing errors and use abbreviations. On average, small device users switch their attention between the device screen and the surrounding environment 3 times every 20 seconds, and this increases when they are walking.
Keywords: Human-Machine Systems, Input/Output Devices, Input/Output Models, Mobile Technologies, System Evaluation
Evaluating the Readability of Privacy Policies in Mobile Environments BIBAKFull-Text 55-78
  R. I. Singh; M. Sumeeth; J. Miller
Recent work has suggested that the current "breed" of privacy policy represents a significant challenge in terms of comprehension to the average Internet-user. Due to display limitations, it is easy to represent the conjecture that this comprehension level should drop when these policies are moved into a mobile environment. This paper explores the question of how much does comprehension decrease when privacy policies are viewed on mobile versus desktop environments and does this decrease make them useless in their current format? It reports on a formal subject-based experiment, which seeks to evaluate how readable are privacy policy statements found on the Internet but presented in mobile environments. This experiment uses fifty participants and privacy policies collected from ten of the most popular web sites on the Internet. It evaluates, using a Cloze test, the subject's ability to comprehend the content of these privacy policies.
Keywords: Aptana, Cloze Procedure, iPhone Readability, Mobile Privacy Policy, Privacy Policy, Readability

IJMHCI 2011-04 Volume 3 Issue 2

Remote and Autonomous Studies of Mobile and Ubiquitous Applications in Real Contexts BIBAKFull-Text 1-19
  Kasper Løvborg Jensen
As mobile and ubiquitous applications become increasingly complex and tightly interwoven into the fabric of everyday life it becomes more important to study them in real contexts. This paper presents a conceptual framework for remote and autonomous studies in the field and two practical tools to facilitate such studies. RECON is a remote controlled data capture tool that runs autonomously on personal mobile devices. It utilizes the sensing and processing power of the devices to capture contextual information together with general usage and application specific interaction data. GREATDANE is a tool for exploration and automated analysis of such rich datasets. The presented approach addresses some key issues of existing methods for studying applications in situ, namely cost, scalability and obtrusiveness to the user experience. Examples and experiences are given from remote and autonomous studies of two mobile and ubiquitous applications where the method and tools have been used.
Keywords: Automated Logging, Context Capture, Field Study, Framework, GREATDANE, In Situ, RECON, Remote Evaluation, Reality Traces, Tool
Nudging the Trolley in the Supermarket: How to Deliver the Right Information to Shoppers BIBAKFull-Text 20-34
  Peter M. Todd; Yvonne Rogers; Stephen J. Payne
The amount of information available to help decide what foods to buy and eat is increasing rapidly with the advent of concerns about, and data on, health impacts, environmental effects, and economic consequences. This glut of information can be overwhelming when presented within the context of a high time-pressure, low involvement activity such as supermarket shopping. How can we nudge people's food shopping behavior in desired directions through targeted delivery of appropriate information? This paper investigates whether augmented reality can deliver relevant 'instant information' that can be interpreted and acted upon in situ, enabling people to make informed choices. The challenge is to balance the need to simplify and streamline the information presented with the need to provide enough information that shoppers can adjust their behavior toward meeting their goals. This paper discusses some of the challenges involved in designing such information displays and indicate some possible ways to meet those challenges.
Keywords: Ambient Information Interfaces, Food Information Displays, Simple Heuristics, Supermarket Shopping
Speech for Content Creation BIBAKFull-Text 35-49
  Joseph Polifroni; Imre Kiss; Stephanie Seneff
This paper proposes a paradigm for using speech to interact with computers, one that complements and extends traditional spoken dialogue systems: speech for content creation. The literature in automatic speech recognition (ASR), natural language processing (NLP), sentiment detection, and opinion mining is surveyed to argue that the time has come to use mobile devices to create content on-the-fly. Recent work in user modelling and recommender systems is examined to support the claim that using speech in this way can result in a useful interface to uniquely personalizable data. A data collection effort recently undertaken to help build a prototype system for spoken restaurant reviews is discussed. This vision critically depends on mobile technology, for enabling the creation of the content and for providing ancillary data to make its processing more relevant to individual users. This type of system can be of use where only limited speech processing is possible.
Keywords: Content Creation, Continuous Speech Recognition, Large Vocabulary, Recommender Systems, Sentiment Detection, Spoken Language Systems
3D Talking-Head Interface to Voice-Interactive Services on Mobile Phones BIBAKFull-Text 50-64
  Jiri Danihelka; Roman Hak; Lukas Kencl; Jiri Zara
This paper presents a novel framework for easy creation of interactive, platform-independent voice-services with an animated 3D talking-head interface, on mobile phones. The Framework supports automated multi-modal interaction using speech and 3D graphics. The difficulty of synchronizing the audio stream to the animation is examined and alternatives for distributed network control of the animation and application logic is discussed. The ability of modern mobile devices to handle such applications is documented and it is shown that the power consumption trade-off of rendering on the mobile phone versus streaming from the server favors the phone. The presented tools will empower developers and researchers in future research and usability studies in the area of mobile talking-head applications (Figure 1). These may be used for example in entertainment, commerce, health care or education.
Keywords: Cellphone, Power Consumption, Rendering, Talking Assistant, Voice Interaction
feelabuzz: Direct Tactile Communication with Mobile Phones BIBAKFull-Text 65-74
  Christian Leichsenring; René Tünnerann; Thomas Hermann
Touch can create a feeling of intimacy and connectedness. This work proposes feelabuzz, a system to transmit movements of one mobile phone to the vibration actuator of another one. This is done in a direct, non-abstract way, without the use of pattern recognition techniques in order not to destroy the feel for the other. The tactile channel enables direct communication, i. e. what another person explicitly signals, as well as implicit context communication, the complex movements any activity consists of or even those that are produced by the environment. This paper explores the potential of this approach, presents the mapping use and discusses further possible development beyond the existing prototype to enable a large-scale user study.
Keywords: Haptic Display, Mediated Communication, Mobile Devices, Tactile Feedback, Wearable Computing

IJMHCI 2011-07 Volume 3 Issue 3

Human-Centered Design for Development BIBAKFull-Text 1-13
  Hendrik Knoche; PR Sheshagiri Rao; Jeffrey Huang
This paper describes the challenges faced in ICTD by reviewing the lessons learned from a project geared at improving the livelihood of marginal farmers in India through wireless sensor networks. Insufficient user participation, lack of attention to user needs, and a primary focus on technology in the design process led to unconvinced target users who were not interested in the new technology. The authors discuss benefits that ICTD can reap from incorporating human-centered design (HCD) principles such as holistic user involvement and prototypes to get buy-in from target users and foster support from other stakeholders and NGOs. The study's findings suggest that HCD artifacts can act as boundary objects for the different internal and external actors in development projects.
Keywords: Case Study, Human-Centered Design (HCD), ICT4D, ICTD, M4D, Mobile HCI, Mobile Phones, WSN
A Festival-Wide Social Network Using 2D Barcodes, Mobile Phones and Situated Displays BIBAKFull-Text 14-30
  Jakob Eg Larsen; Arkadiusz Stopczynski
This paper reports on the authors' experiences with an exploratory prototype festival-wide social network. Unique 2D barcodes were applied to wristbands and mobile phones to uniquely identify the festival participants at the CO2PENHAGEN music festival in Denmark. The authors describe experiences from initial use of a set of social network applications involving participant profiles, a microblog and images shared on situated displays, and competitions created for the festival. The pilot study included 73 participants, each creating a unique profile. The novel approach had potential to enable anyone at the festival to participate in the festival-wide social network, as participants did not need any special hardware or mobile client application to be involved. The 2D barcodes was found to be a feasible low-cost approach for unique participant identification and social network interaction. Implications for the design of future systems of this nature are discussed.
Keywords: 2D Barcode, Festival, Identification, Interaction, Mobile, RFID, Situated Display, Smartphone, Social Network
Wearable Tactile Display of Landmarks and Direction for Pedestrian Navigation: A User Survey and Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 31-49
  Mayuree Srikulwong; Eamonn O'Neill
This research investigates representation techniques for spatial and related information in the design of tactile displays for pedestrian navigation systems. The paper reports on a user survey that identified and categorized landmarks used in pedestrian navigation in the urban context. The results show commonalities of landmark use in urban spaces worldwide. The survey results were then used in an experimental study that compared two tactile techniques for landmark representation using one or two actuators. Techniques were compared on 4 measures: distinguishability, learnability, memorability, and user preferences. Results from the lab-based evaluation showed that users performed equally well using either technique to represent just landmarks alone. However, when landmark representations were presented together with directional signals, performance with the one-actuator technique was significantly reduced while performance with the two-actuator approach remained unchanged. The results of this ongoing research programme can be used to help guide design for presenting key landmark information on wearable tactile displays.
Keywords: Landmarks, Mobile Display, Pedestrian Navigation, Tactile Display, Tactile Feedback, Visual Clutter, Wearable Technologies
Good Times?!: 3 Problems and Design Considerations for Playful HCI BIBAKFull-Text 50-65
  Abdallah El Ali; Frank Nack; Lynda Hardman
Using Location-aware Multimedia Messaging (LMM) systems as a research testbed, this paper presents an analysis of how 'fun or playfulness' can be studied and designed for under mobile and ubiquitous environments. These LMM systems allow users to leave geo-tagged multimedia messages behind at any location. Drawing on previous efforts with LMM systems and an envisioned scenario illustrating how LMM can be used, the authors discuss what playful experiences are and three problems that arise in realizing the scenario: how playful experiences can be inferred (the inference problem), how the experience of capture can be motivated and maintained (the experience-capture maintenance problem), and how playful experiences can be measured (the measurement problem). In response to each of the problems, three design considerations are drawn for playful Human-Computer Interaction: 1) experiences can be approached as information-rich representations or as arising from human-system interaction 2) incentive mechanisms can be mediators of fun and engagement, and 3) measuring experiences requires a balance in testing methodology choice.
Keywords: Context-Awareness, Location-Aware Multimedia Messages, Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing, Playful Experiences, Playful HCI

IJMHCI 2011-10 Volume 3 Issue 4

A Comparison of Distribution Channels for Large-Scale Deployments of iOS Applications BIBAKFull-Text 1-17
  Donald McMillan; Alistair Morrison; Matthew Chalmers
When conducting mass participation trials on Apple iOS devices researchers are forced to make a choice between using the Apple App Store or third party software repositories. In order to inform this choice, this paper describes a sample application that was released via both methods along with comparison of user demographics and engagement. The contents of these repositories are examined and compared, and statistics are presented highlighting the number of times the application was downloaded and the user retention experienced with each. The results are presented and the relative merits of each distribution method discussed to allow researchers to make a more informed choice. Results include that the application distributed via third party repository received ten times more downloads than the App Store application and that users recruited via the repository consistently used the application more.
Keywords: iOS, iPhone, Mass Participation, Mobile Applications, Ubicomp
WorldCupinion Experiences with an Android App for Real-Time Opinion Sharing During Soccer World Cup Games BIBAKFull-Text 18-35
  Robert Schleicher; Alireza Sahami Shirazi; Michael Rohs; Sven Kratz; Albrecht Schmidt
Mobile devices are increasingly used in social networking applications and research. So far, there is little work on real-time emotion or opinion sharing in large loosely coupled user communities. One potential area of application is the assessment of widely broadcasted television (TV) shows. The idea of connecting non-collocated TV viewers via telecommunication technologies is referred to as Social TV. Such systems typically include set-top boxes for supporting the collaboration. In this work the authors investigated whether mobile phones can be used as an additional channel for sharing opinions, emotional responses, and TV-related experiences in real-time. To gain insight into this area, an Android app was developed for giving real-time feedback during soccer games and to create ad hoc fan groups. This paper presents results on rating activity during games and discusses experiences with deploying this app over four weeks during soccer World Cup. In doing so, challenges and opportunities faced are highlighted and an outlook on future work in this area is given.
Keywords: Mobile Applications, Mobile Social Networking, Opinion Sharing, Real-Time Feedback, Sports
SGVis: Analysis of Data From BIBAKFull-Text 36-54
  Alistair Morrison; Matthew Chalmers
The recent rise in popularity of 'app store' markets on a number of different mobile platforms has provided a means for researchers to run worldwide trials of ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) applications with very large numbers of users. This opportunity raises challenges, however, as more traditional methods of running trials and gathering data for analysis might be infeasible or fail to scale up to a large, globally-spread user base. SGVis is a data analysis tool designed to aid ubicomp researchers in conducting trials in this manner. This paper discusses the difficulties involved in running large scale trials, explaining how these led to recommendations on what data researchers should log, and to design choices made in SGVis. The authors outline several methods of use and why they help with challenges raised by large scale research. A means of categorising users is also described that could aid in data analysis and management of a trial with very large numbers of participants. SGVis has been used in evaluating several mass-participation trials, involving tens of thousands of users, and several use cases are described that demonstrate its utility.
Keywords: Categorisation, Data Analysis, iOS, iPhone, Mass Participation, Ubicomp, Visualisation
Experimenting Through Mobile 'Apps' and 'App Stores' BIBAKFull-Text 55-70
  Paul Coulton; Will Bamford
Utilizing App Stores as part of an 'in-the-large' methodology requires researchers to have a good understanding of the effects the platform has in the overall experimental process if they are to utilize it effectively. This paper presents an empirical study of effects of the operation an App Store has on an App lifecycle through the design, implementation and distribution of three games on the WidSets platform which arguably pioneered many of the features now seen as conventional for an App Store. Although these games achieved in excess of 1.5 million users it was evident through their App lifecycle that very large numbers of downloads are required to attract even a small number of active users and suggests such Apps need to be developed using more commercial practices than would be necessary for traditional lab testing. Further, the evidence shows that 'value added' features such as chat increase not only the popularity of an App but also increase the likelihood of continued use and provide a means of direct interaction with users.
Keywords: Apps, App Stores, Games, In the Large, Mobile
My App is an Experiment: Experience from User Studies in Mobile App Stores BIBAKFull-Text 71-91
  Niels Henze; Martin Pielot; Benjamin Poppinga; Torben Schinke; Susanne Boll
Experiments are a cornerstone of HCI research. Mobile distribution channels such as Apple's App Store and Google's Android Market have created the opportunity to bring experiments to the end user. Hardly any experience exists on how to conduct such experiments successfully. This article reports on five experiments that were conducted by publishing Apps in the Android Market. The Apps are freely available and have been installed more than 30,000 times. The outcomes of the experiments range from failure to valuable insights. Based on these outcomes, the authors identified factors that account for the success of experiments using mobile application stores. When generalizing findings it must be considered that smartphone users are a non-representative sample of the world's population. Most participants can be obtained by informing users about the study when the App had been started for the first time. Because Apps are often used for a short time only, data should be collected as early as possible. To collect valuable qualitative feedback other channels than user comments and email have to be used. Finally, the interpretation of collected data has to consider unpredicted usage patterns to provide valid conclusions.
Keywords: Android Market, App Store, Apparatus, Experiment, Field Study, In the Wild, Mobile Application Store, Observation