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International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 14

Editors:Kay M. Stanney; Gavriel Salvendy
Dates:2002
Volume:14
Publisher:Ablex Publishing Corporation
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Papers:25
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 2002 Volume 14 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 2002 Volume 14 Issue 2
  3. IJHCI 2002 Volume 14 Issue 3/4

IJHCI 2002 Volume 14 Issue 1

Intuitive Human-Computer Interaction -- Toward a User-Friendly Information Society BIBA 1-23
  Hans-Jorg Bullinger; Jurgen Ziegler; Wilhelm Bauer
This article is an extended version of a keynote address presented at the 9th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction held in New Orleans, August 5 through 10, 2001. The article presents an overview of issues pertaining to the development of a user-friendly information society, and introduces 3 concepts for improving the intuitiveness of human-technology interaction in the future. Dynamic visualizations, multimodal interaction, and cooperative exploration are considered as 3 major approaches to improving human-technology interaction. These concepts and interaction techniques based on them are currently being investigated in a large joint research effort, the project INVITE (Intuitive Human-Technology Interaction in the Information Society). An overview of INVITE's objectives and achievements is given. Selected application areas are presented in which the concepts and techniques are applied. Finally, the issue of the relation between the physical work environment and creative activities is addressed. A spatial environment with various technical devices is described that offers a range of techniques for stimulating creativity and intuition.
Content Preparation and Management for Web Design: Eliciting, Structuring, Searching, and Displaying Information BIBA 25-92
  Robert W. Proctor; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Gavriel Salvendy; et al
The vast amount of information available through the Web has made it difficult to retrieve information relevant to a specific task. To help ensure that users' interactions with a system are successful, preparation of content and its presentation to users must take into account (a) what information needs to be extracted, (b) the way in which this information should be stored and organized, (c) the methods for retrieving the information, and (d) how the information should be displayed. The goal of this article is to discuss the generic problems facing content preparation and evaluate the current methods available to help remedy them, as well as identify areas in which more research is needed. The material presented in this article was a result of the collective efforts of the participants of a special "white paper" session that was part of the 9th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI International 2001).
Intranets and Organizational Learning: A Research and Development Agenda BIBA 93-130
  Julie A. Jacko; Gavriel Salvendy; Francois Sainfort; et al
This article presents the outcomes of a technical symposium on the topic of the use of intranets as a tool for organizational learning, which was conducted at the 9th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, held in New Orleans, Louisiana, August 5 through 10, 2001. The objective of the symposium was to derive, based on the collective intelligence of experts, an agenda for research and development (R&D) concerning the use of intranet for organizational learning for the short, medium, and long term. Expert knowledge of this research area was acquired and assimilated through the symposium, which was composed of technical paper presentations and a full-day "white paper" session, as well as pre- and post-symposium survey dissemination and analysis. The current state of knowledge and resulting agenda for R&D are reported, and 4 critical areas are emphasized: organizational rules, norms and structures; changes in the nature of work; knowledge manipulation; and technology issues.
Book Review BIB 131-132
  Heather Tedesco

IJHCI 2002 Volume 14 Issue 2

Editorial BIB 135-138
  Holger Luczak
Modeling Cooperative Work Processes-A Multiple Perspectives Framework BIBA 139-157
  Jurgen Ziegler
This article presents a framework, concepts, and notations for modeling cooperative work from different perspectives. The framework is based on the basic notions information, task, and actor, which are modeled individually and in relation to each other. The Cooperation Modeling Technique (CMT) built on these concepts provides notations for representing the different aspects of cooperative work. This results in a flexible approach for representing different analysis perspectives pertaining to the design of cooperation support systems. The method aims at providing abstractions and mechanisms that are targeted not only at structured aspects of work processes but particularly at unstructured and less formalizable cooperation issues.
   The main focus of the approach is currently on asynchronous forms of cooperation, addressing informational awareness for asynchronous processes. The framework, however, also encompasses synchronous types of cooperation. The development of concrete methods for these aspects is a focus of future work.
Atmosphere: A Framework for Contextual Awareness BIBA 159-180
  Markus Rittenbruch
This article enhances existing approaches to present-day asynchronous awareness concepts by providing the means to explicitly represent and mediate contextual information. The resulting concept of contextual awareness takes different notions of the term context into account. Following a human-centered approach, the proposed methods serve as mediators for context between persons rather than automatically detecting context. Based on this variant of awareness, the atmosphere framework is introduced to provide mechanisms to deal with the problem of workload in tandem with contextual information. Atmosphere provides a highly tailorable structure and interface to deal with a wide variance of user and organizational requirements. The article closes with the description of a partial implementation of the framework and its evaluation.
Development and Evaluation of a Groupware System to Support Chemical Design Processes BIBA 181-198
  Martin Wolf; Christian Foltz; Christopher Schlick; Holger Luczak
This article presents the concept of a groupware system adapted to the early stages of chemical design processes. To ensure best usability for chemical engineers during the chemical plant design, a field study in an international chemical group was carried out. Several theoretical concepts of cooperation and workspace design models were analyzed to meet the requirements of cooperative and distributed work during the design process. Based on this, a new groupware concept was developed that consists of 4 main design elements. This concept was evaluated empirically for the relevance of the design elements and efficiency of use.
Awareness of Organizational Expertise BIBA 199-217
  Mark Maybury; Ray D'Amore; David House
This article describes automated tools for increasing organizational awareness within a global enterprise. The MITRE Corporation is the context for this work; however, the tools and techniques are general and should apply to a wide variety of distributed, heterogeneous organizations. These tools provide awareness of team members and materials in virtual collaboration environments as well as support for automated discovery of distributed experts. The results are embodied in 3 systems: MITRE's Collaborative Virtual Workspace (CVW), Expert Finder, and XpertNet. CVW is a place-based collaboration environment that enables team members to find one another and work together. Expert Finder is an expert skill finder that exploits the intellectual products created within an organization to support automated expertise identification. XpertNet addresses the problem of detecting extant or emerging classes of expertise without a priori knowledge of their existence. Both Expert Finder and XpertNet combine to detect and track experts and expert communities within a complex work environment. After describing the background of knowledge management at MITRE, this article describes the architecture and use of collaboration and expert finder systems to enhance organizational awareness, provides some principles of expertise, and concludes with an outline of future research directions.
Documented Norms and Conventions on the Internet BIBA 219-235
  Uta Pankoke-Babatz; Phillip Jeffrey
This article describes automated tools for increasing organizational awareness within a global enterprise. The MITRE Corporation is the context for this work; however, the tools and techniques are general and should apply to a wide variety of distributed, heterogeneous organizations. These tools provide awareness of team members and materials in virtual collaboration environments as well as support for automated discovery of distributed experts. The results are embodied in 3 systems: MITRE's Collaborative Virtual Workspace (CVW), Expert Finder, and XpertNet. CVW is a place-based collaboration environment that enables team members to find one another and work together. Expert Finder is an expert skill finder that exploits the intellectual products created within an organization to support automated expertise identification. XpertNet addresses the problem of detecting extant or emerging classes of expertise without a priori knowledge of their existence. Both Expert Finder and XpertNet combine to detect and track experts and expert communities within a complex work environment. After describing the background of knowledge management at MITRE, this article describes the architecture and use of collaboration and expert finder systems to enhance organizational awareness, provides some principles of expertise, and concludes with an outline of future research directions.
Video Conferencing and Application Sharing: Routes to Awareness BIBA 237-250
  Hansjurgen Paul; Lothar Beyer
There is little doubt that the creation and enhancement of awareness is a critical factor for the implementation and use of telecooperation systems. However, in a broader view, which includes the perspective on cooperative work processes, awareness turns out to be even more important. Awareness information-or the lack of awareness information-is also a crucial factor for the effectiveness and efficiency of cooperative work. Three projects are briefly described to show the broad spectrum of possible target groups and goal orientations: Teams and Tess inkontakt are projects of the Institute for Work and Technology in Gelsenkirchen with a task-oriented business-to-business and a business-to-customer focus, respectively; the Poliwork project represents an infrastructure-oriented approach for the support of cooperative work in public administration. To describe the crucial factors of projects like these, a perspective on awareness is needed that goes beyond the immediate communication situation and the use of computer applications. A set of awareness dimensions that focuses on organizational, functional, and personal awareness is proposed and discussed along with these 3 projects.
Hypermedia Design Methodology in World Wide Web Applications BIBA 251-270
  Antonio Moreno-Munoz; Adolfo Plaza-Alonso; Carlos de-Castro-Lozano; Sebastian Dormido-Bencomo
One approach to instruction based on a "learner-centered" view of learning is to provide rich environments in which learners can actually build their own knowledge. Therefore only educational software, carefully designed, can improve the efficiency of courseware. Within this framework, the World Wide Web provides a unique support for course material. Using a generalized hypermedia instructional design methodology, we integrated a hypermedia instructional module with simulation additional tools into an academic information system. This academic information system is a computer-supported environment in which collaborative discourse is the primary medium for knowledge advancement in the area of power electronics. It can be explored by learners in that they have both contextual access to knowledge displayed in a hypertext format and access to real experiences by means of simulation. In this article, we present an object-orientated approach that integrates the complete graphic user interface development.

IJHCI 2002 Volume 14 Issue 3/4

Editorial BIB 279
  Kay M. Stanney; Gavriel Salvendy
Introduction BIB 281-284
  Heidi Kroemker
Performance Model for Market-Oriented Design of Software Products BIBA 285-307
  Helmut Degen
The design of user interfaces in industrial enterprises is not an isolated task, but is inseparable from product definition and the design and functional aspects of the product concept. To be able to define and ultimately create market-oriented software products, it is necessary to utilize data from market research. This article presents a tool for analyzing such market research data, referred to as the performance model. The performance model enables market research data to be mapped into design-relevant performance categories to produce requirements profiles for various target groups. This is presented with reference to the social sciences institute (SINUS) milieu model, a lifestyle-based market segmentation model for the Federal Republic of Germany (hereinafter referred to as the SINUS milieu model), and is exemplified by the design styles preferred by the different milieus (Flaig, Meyer, & Ueltzhoffer, 1994). The most important findings are that (a) different target groups (here the SINUS milieus) make different demands on software products, (b) the application and economic performances are usually the most important to personal computer users, and (c) different milieus have very different expectations with respect to design styles. Some milieus prefer a cognitive-ergonomic design style, whereas others prefer an emotional-hedonistic design style. The derivation of the performance model, its application, and the empirical evidence demonstrated were described in detail in Degen's (1999) dissertation.
Problems and Benefits of Requirements Gathering With Focus Groups: A Case Study BIBA 309-325
  Klaus Kuhn
Focus group interviews are considered as a rather weak, nonquantitative method of assessing user needs, ideas, and reactions in an early stage of the interface design process (Nielsen, 1993). Given this fact, it is relevant to reflect the practical use of focus groups step by step to determine their real strengths and limitations. In this article, we share our experience of planning, running, and analyzing focus groups within the design process of a home automation system. We describe the pre- and postwork in detail so that the pros and cons of gathering requirements with focus groups become apparent.
Culture and Context: An Empirical Study for the Development of a Framework for the Elicitation of Cultural Influence in Product Usage BIBA 327-345
  Pia Honold
The globalization of the economy is leading to greater diversification among user groups. Product designers will therefore have to take account of the cultural differences between these user groups. This article first defines the construct of culture with regard to human-computer interaction and presents various possible cultural influences. It then considers how the concept of culture is defined in psychological theories on human-computer interaction. This information is then used as a basis for drawing up requirements to be met by methods for recording cultural influences. Qualitative methods seem to be particularly promising. Empirical work was carried out to identify factors that influence the use of products in foreign cultures. A total of 35 Indian households in Bombay and New Delhi were selected for a qualitative study in which a washing machine developed in Germany was used for a period of 3 weeks. From observations and interviews it was possible to identify 8 factors that need to be taken into consideration when defining requirements in different cultures.
How to Build Up an Infrastructure for Intercultural Usability Engineering BIBA 347-358
  Andreas Beu; Pia Honold; Xiaowei Yuan
Siemens is a global enterprise that sells its products in more than 190 countries throughout the world. This internationalization of products means more than just translating the operating instructions and making changes to formats. True adaptation goes much deeper and takes into account different requirements in terms of functionality. This article starts by defining the term culture and then considers the requirements that have to be met in the context of intercultural usability engineering. Taking the establishment of usability laboratories in Beijing, China and Princeton, New Jersey as examples, the article then presents the challenges facing international cooperation and possible solutions, taking a detailed look at differences in the infrastructure, at key qualifications in international cooperation, and at the development of appropriate test methods.
Innovative User Interfaces in Automation Engineering by Application of Usability Engineering Methods Shown by the Example of a Three-Dimensional Plant Representation BIBA 359-373
  Michael Burmester; Tobias Komischke; Lothar Wust
This article is the first of 3 that focus on user-centered design and usability in the field of industrial process control. This article starts with an introduction to this special domain and sets out the need for user-centered design of innovative user interfaces. The MediaPlant research project is then introduced. This project aims to generate innovative user interface solutions for process control. The usability engineering methods presented are well known in relation to office application software and were applied in the course of the project to (a) evaluate the potential and application fields of innovative multimedia technology and 3-dimensional information presentation (described at the end of this article), (b) define innovative user interface building blocks for process control that can be applied across sectors (described in the second article, Komischke & Burmester [this issue]) and (c) develop human-centered user interfaces for controlling paper recycling plants (described in the third article, Epstein & Beu [this issue]).
User-Centered Standardization of Industrial Process Control User Interfaces BIBA 375-386
  Tobias Komischke; Michael Burmester
This article shows how usability engineering methods-presented in Burmester, Komischke, and Wust (this issue)-were successfully applied to user-interface design in industrial process control. The goal of the research was to optimize the work of both designers (automation engineers) and end users (operators) of process control systems. Expert interviews and task analyses in different sectors were carried out. For the first time operator core sequences were identified in the field and across sectors. For these common activities, software building blocks were conceptually specified and a prototype was evaluated iteratively in the field using demonstrations, focused interviews, usability tests, and questionnaires.
Design of a Graphical User Interface for Process Control Based on the Example of a Paper Recycling Plant BIBA 387-400
  Andre Epstein; Andreas Beu
The following article is the third of 3 articles that focus on user-centered design and usability in the field of industrial process control. Whereas the first article in this series (Burmester, Komischke, & Wust, this issue) dealt with usability engineering methods in the area of process control, this article explains the practical application of this procedure. To this end, a pilot project for the user-centered design of a user interface for a paper recycling plant is described here by way of example. Here a new layout based on users' mental models was systematically prepared. Extensive usability tests revealed that the design was understood and accepted both by users without any knowledge of the system (pupils at a paper technology college) and those with a knowledge of the system.
Designing a Telephone-Based Interface for a Home Automation System BIBA 401-414
  Nina Sandweg; Marc Hassenzahl; Klaus Kuhn
User-interface design lacks expertise in designing nonvisual user interfaces. This is surprising as there are various domains where auditory interfaces have already been proved to be helpful, such as railway information services and reading support for blind persons. We present a case study concerning the design of a telephone-based interface (TBI). It was realized within the development process of an interaction concept for a modular home automation system. The design was based on requirements gathered in user focus groups and on general guidelines for the design of TBIs. The TBI's evaluation revealed some minor (i.e., easily solved) usability problems. Questionnaires showed a positive ergonomic quality as well as a positive overall appeal. Interestingly, the evaluation indicates a potential to improve hedonic quality (i.e., non-task-related quality aspects). It may be induced by the addition of nonspeech sounds, thereby enriching user experience.
Synergy and Subsidiarity: The Systematic Determination of Software, User, and Operating Instructions BIBA 415-430
  Claus Knapheide
The quality of a software product is determined by its usability; the quality of technical documentation is determined by its comprehensibility. Usability conceptualizes the person using a software product to perform a task; comprehensibility deals with the reader of operating instructions-although they are generally one and the same person. However, only rarely are the software and technical documentation part of an integrated design.
   This is all the more surprising in that, on the technical level, the boundary between software and user information is becoming increasingly blurred; one need only think of the hypertext links between software and help systems, or of electronic versions of operating instructions.
   We make the case for considering user, software, and operating instructions as a single system oriented toward performing a task; the operating instructions therefore are regarded as a subsidiary subsystem of a structure to be described. This is done from a linguistic perspective, with reference to the central category of knowledge available to the user or contained in the software and in the operating instructions and that we approach via an empirical analysis of authentic material (operating instructions as primary data, statements of end users concerning operating instructions).
   Taking the example of creating software and operating instructions for a computer tomograph, we show how the relevant knowledge elements contribute to the accomplishment of an operating task and discuss the resultant requirements concerning the contents of software and operating instructions, particularly for handling fault and problem situations.
Interactive Design Using the Example of a Complex Medical Application BIBA 431-440
  Axel Platz; Claus Knapheide
Applications in the field of capital goods make specific requirements in terms of efficiency, fault tolerance, and verifiability-and therefore of the overall quality of use. Visual design-regarded as something derived logically from the functional stipulations and not just as an accessory to be applied later-contributes to this.
   The link between functional requirement and formal design will be illustrated by using Syngo, which is a software platform for controlling the image-transmitting procedure in radiology. In the context of the annual competition "Industrieforum Design Hannover" (Industrial Design Forum Hanover), Syngo was awarded the special "Best of Category" prize at the "Interaction Design Award 2000" (see Color Plate 11, Figures 1 and 2).
Capturing Design Space From a User Perspective: The Repertory Grid Technique Revisited BIBA 441-459
  Marc Hassenzahl; Rainer Wessler
The design of an artifact (e.g., software system, household appliance) requires a multitude of decisions. In the course of narrowing down the design process, "good ideas" have to be divided from "bad ideas." To accomplish this, user perceptions and evaluations are of great value. The individual way people perceive and evaluate a set of prototypes designed in parallel may shed light on their general needs and concerns. The Repertory Grid Technique (RGT) is a method of elucidating the so-called personal constructs (e.g., friendly-hostile, bad-good, playful-expert-like) people employ when confronted with other individuals, events, or artifacts. We assume that the personal constructs (and the underlying topics) generated as a reaction to a set of artifacts mark the artifacts' design space from a user's perspective and that this information may be helpful in separating valuable ideas from the not so valuable. This article explores the practical value of the RGT in gathering design-relevant information about the design space of early artifact prototypes designed in parallel. Ways of treating the information gathered, its quality and general advantages, and limitations of the RGT are presented and discussed. In general, the RGT proved to be a valuable tool in exploring a set of artifact's design space from a user's perspective.