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Proceedings of the 2009 Conference of the Association Francophone d'Interaction Homme-Machine

Fullname:Proceedings of the 21st International Conference of the Association Francophone d'Interaction Homme-Machine
Editors:Gaëlle Calvary; Sophie Dupuy-Chessa; Joëlle Coutaz; Philipe Palanque
Location:Grenoble, France
Dates:2009-Oct-13 to 2009-Oct-16
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 1-60558-461-4, 978-1-60558-461-4; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: IHM09
Papers:51
Pages:354
Links:Conference Home Page | Association Francophone d'Interaction Homme-Machine
  1. Classons pour comprendre, comparer, trouver
  2. Ce que vous obtenez, c'est plus que ce que vous voyez
  3. Compose, on s'adaptera
  4. Prototypez, il en restera toujours quelque chose
  5. Vous ne pouvez pas contrôler ce que vous n'évaluez pas (I)
  6. Vous ne pouvez pas contrôler ce que vous n'évaluez pas (II)
  7. Es-tu multimodal? c'est quoi, ta modalité? (I)
  8. Es-tu multimodal? c'est quoi, ta modalité? (II)
  9. A plusieurs c'est mieux
  10. La conception en action (I)
  11. La conception en action (II)
  12. Articles des démonstrations

Classons pour comprendre, comparer, trouver

Qu'est-ce qu'une surface d'affichage?: une analyse rétrospective BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Pierre Bucher; Stéphane Chatty
The use of display surfaces, that is windows as well as monitors or projection surfaces, is growing in diversity and complexity. Designers and programmers need a conceptual model of display surfaces to describe this diversity. We show how the conceptual models of windows and monitors have evolved during the last decades up to the current situation where the two concepts are converging. We analyse this evolution along three axes that provide the basic requirements for a unified model: the geometrical attributes of surfaces, their relationships with other display elements, and their position in space.
Keywords: display, projection, representation, surface, transformation, window
Un espace de conception fondé sur une analyse morphologique des techniques de menus BIBAKFull-Text 13-22
  Mathieu Nancel; Stéphane Huot; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon
This paper presents a design space based on a morphological analysis of menu techniques. The goal of this design space is to facilitate the exploration of novel menu designs, in particular to increase menu capacity without sacrificing performance. The paper demonstrates the generative aspect of this design space with four new menu designs based on poorly explored combinations of input dimensions. For two of these four designs, the paper presents controlled experiments that show that they perform on a par with other menus from the literature.
Keywords: design space, menus, morphological analysis
Étude de la performance de quatre modèles de présentation de formulaires sur un assistant numérique personnel BIBAKFull-Text 23-30
  Sami Baffoun; Jean-Marc Robert; Inès Gargouri
The goal of this study is to compare the performance of four models of presentation of forms on PDA, in terms of information search time by subjects, as a function of the length of these forms. We developed two models of form presentation on PDA, namely flip zooming and arborescence. We compared their performance in terms of information search time with that of widely used models, namely scrolling and menus, while taking into consideration the length of these forms. Thirty-six subjects participated to an experiment where their task consisted in searching for information as rapidly as possible in forms of three different lengths on PDA. Results show that all lengths of forms together, the arborescence model is the most rapid one and the most appreciated by subjects, followed by the menu model, the scrolling bar model, and the flip zooming model. They also show that the more the form is long, the more the relative performance of the scrolling bar model diminishes, and the more that of the arborescence model augments. Even though results of the flip zooming tests were mediocre, this model has great potential since the expert results confirmed its superiority relative to the menu and scrolling models.
Keywords: PDA, arborescence, e-form, flip zooming, information presentation, menu

Ce que vous obtenez, c'est plus que ce que vous voyez

Représentations écologiques de données temporelles: exemples et apports BIBAKFull-Text 33-42
  Christophe Hurter; Stéphane Conversy; Jean-Luc Vinot; Yannick Jestin
In this paper, we focus on the specific design space of temporal data visualizations. Whereas most visualizations do not take into account the special semantic of temporal data, we depict ecological representations of the time that may be reuse by practitioners and we explain why their specific semantic helps users perceiving information. Furthermore, ecological designs create emerging data. Thanks to our characterization model, we show how to analyze such visualization and how to assess its efficiency in term of a number of the emerging information. This model and this assessment help designer to understand their design space, to compare designs.
Keywords: characterisation, temporal data, visualization
Les « arbres empilés »: une nouvelle approche pour la visualisation des grands dendrogrammes BIBAKFull-Text 43-49
  Gilles Bisson; Ludovic Patey
In this paper, we describe a new visualisation method for hierarchical clustering named "stacked trees". Our goal is to display, at the same time, the relational structure of the top classes of a tree and a large number of information about its leaves. Thanks to this approach, one can visualize on a standard screen a dendrogram containing ten of thousands of nodes. Although this method has been imagined to explore the content of molecular libraries in chemoinformatic, our approach is generic enough to be used in many other domains. A prototype named STV (Stacked Trees Viewer) has been implemented as a Web application that is freely usable from our Web site.
Keywords: chemoinformatic, hierarchical clustering, large classification, stacked trees
Visualisation hybride des liens hiérarchiques incorporant des treemaps dans une matrice d'adjacence BIBAKFull-Text 51-54
  Sébastien Rufiange; Michael J. McGuffin; Christopher Fuhrman
Compound graphs are often useful for modeling components of hierarchical systems. While node-link diagrams can be used to visualize these graphs, adjacency matrices have the advantage of eliminating occlusion between edges, even in dense networks. However, matrices do not reveal the hierarchy in a compound graph. To address this issue, we propose a novel hybrid visualization technique that combines an adjacency matrix with treemaps displaying portions of the hierarchy. A prototype is presented that illustrates these ideas and supports visualization of digraphs with weighted edges. Interaction techniques allow the user to reorganize the hierarchical groupings of elements and facilitates the exploration of links within the network. For example, in software engineering, the prototype enables browsing of links between source code modules to help discover the architecture of the software.
Keywords: aggregation, compound graphs, information visualization, interaction, networks
Génération et placement de couleurs sur une vue de type métro BIBAKFull-Text 55-58
  Christophe Hurter; Mathieu Serrurier; Tabart Gilles; Jean-Luc Vinot
The schematic views for metro maps are used to maximize the transmision of relevant information (lines, metro stops) of network visualization. Automatic generation of metro maps focus primarily on the physical structure of the network, but little on the choice of colors which is an accurate visual discrimination. In this article, we propose to investigate the generation and placement of colors to be assigned to lines of a network. The first step is to find as many colors as lines of the network. These colors must be perceptually as distant as possible, and available in the vocabulary of colors. The second step is to place these colors so that the closest lines have the more distant color. The positioning of colors is a NP-complete problem, thus we use a meta-heuristic approach to solve it. To validate our method, we apply it to the field of air traffic control with the maps of Flight Routes.
Keywords: air traffic controller, metro map, visualization

Compose, on s'adaptera

Composition dynamique d'interfaces homme-machine: besoin utilisateur ou défi de chercheur? BIBAKFull-Text 61-64
  Yoann Gabillon; Gaëlle Calvary; Nadine Mandran; Humbert Fiorino
Most of the time both the context of use (<user, platform, environment>) and the user's task (<goal, procedure>) are supposed to be specified at design time before designing a User Interface (UI). In ubiquitous computing, the context of use may dynamically vary, as a result making it possible for user's goals to emerge opportunistically. This calls for being able to dynamically compose UIs. This paper relates a social study that aims at understanding to which extent dynamic composition of UIs is a push vs a pull technology. The study is made of 26 qualitative surveys and 3 focus groups. Even if the study could be further conducted, it provides interesting results to feed in software developments.
Keywords: ambient computing, dynamic composition, focus group, qualitative survey, social study, user interface
De la composition de services à la composition d'interfaces homme-machine BIBAKFull-Text 65-74
  Benjamin Caramel; Cédric Joffroy; Michael Laguerre
Enabling UIs composition driven by services composition is one of the goals of the ALIAS model. This paper describes such a UI composition according to ALIAS through a concrete case study on composition of mobile phone applications.
Keywords: composition, metamodeling, user interface
Ethylene: composants dynamiques pour la mise en oeuvre d'IHM plastiques en informatique ambiante BIBAKFull-Text 75-84
  Lionel Balme; Joëlle Coutaz
Ubiquitous computing introduces new constraints on the way we build interactive systems. Traditionally centralized, user interfaces (UI) can be distributed across a dynamic set of heterogeneous devices. In this article, we examine these new kinds of UIs, named plastic UIs, from a software engineering perspective. They are dynamic adaptable distributed software, and they able to deal with device heterogeneity at multiple levels of abstraction. However, the generic solutions from distributed software do not take into account the specificity of human-computer interaction. To address these limitations, we propose Ethylene, a conceptual and technical framework to develop UIs for ubiquitous computing. Our solution is based on the integration of model driven engineering with a particular combination of component and service oriented approaches, as well as an original way to overcome the heterogeneity of communication models between components.
Keywords: HCI, UI dynamic adaptation, UI plasticity, adaptation at runtime, assembly of heterogeneous software components, service oriented component, ubiquitous computing
Une interface de programmation visuelle pour la composition de services de visualisation d'information BIBAKFull-Text 85-88
  Romain Vuillemot; Béatrice Rumpler
In this article, we are interested in information visualisations creation and sharing. Our approach is to consider information visualisation as a dataflow, issued from web services compositions which held both syntaxic and semantic rules. To ease service composition, we introduce mashviz, a visual programming interface aimed to both designers and users, to share and annote visualisations. We discuss our early created visualisations, and give clues about our next steps, such as evaluation by usage.
Keywords: information visualisation, user visual profile, visual programming, web services
Une approche générique pour l'adaptation dynamique des IHM au contexte BIBAKFull-Text 89-96
  Safa Hachani; Sophie Dupuy-Chessa; Agnès Front
The contexts of use vary a lot. It becomes fundamental to adapt user interfaces (UI) to the context. In this article, we choose an approach based on models for UI adaptation. Our approach facilitates the adaptation through a generic and flexible specification of the task tree model. This specification takes into account both similarities and existent variations between different users contexts of the same application. Such models are afterwards adjusted by model transformation such as the Model Driven Engineering (MDE [6]), according to the user situation.
Keywords: MDE, adaptation, context of use, task tree model, variability

Prototypez, il en restera toujours quelque chose

OpenWizard: une approche pour la création et l'évaluation rapide de prototypes multimodaux BIBAKFull-Text 101-109
  Marcos Serrano; Laurence Nigay
We present OpenWizard, a wizard of oz component-based approach for rapidly prototyping and testing multimodal applications. OpenWizard allows the designer and the developer to rapidly test a non-fully functional multimodal prototype by replacing one modality or a composition of modalities that are not yet available by wizard of oz techniques. We illustrate OpenWizard using a multimodal map navigator.
Keywords: Wizard of Oz, component-based approach, design and implementation tool, multimodal interaction model
L'environnement de développement dynamique (EDD) pour le prototypage rapide d'interfaces graphiques BIBAKFull-Text 111-117
  André Jodoin; Michel Desmarais
We present an interactive development environment (IDE) designed and implemented at the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) to assist expert users in rapidly developing graphical user interface prototypes for the control of robotic systems. The Dynamic Development Environment (DDE) offers a highly flexible tool for interface design and development. The environment allows the direct manipulation and integration of running widgets to rapidly build a live interface. New widgets can be readily integrated and their behaviour tested within this environment, skipping code compilation and freeing the interface designer from most of the programming effort. Other IDE's such as Netbeans, .Net and Eclipse require separate compilation and execution steps. The DDE offers a new possibility by allowing the user to test the interface while it is being built without the need to launch the platform again.
Keywords: IDE, UIML, XML, distributed environments, interface description languages, visual programming
FlowStates: prototypage d'applications interactives avec des flots de données et des machines à états BIBAKFull-Text 119-128
  Caroline Appert; Stéphane Huot; Pierre Dragicevic; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon
This article introduces FlowStates, a user interface toolkit compatible with Java Swing that combines two models for managing events: dataflow and state machines. The dataflow model makes it easy to support non-standard input devices and to reconfigure interactions according to the available devices, while state machines support the programming of complex interactions. The article illustrates the power and expressivity of this hybrid approach and the flexibility afforded by the explicit decision to not set strict limits between the roles of each model.
Keywords: dataflow, state machine, user interface toolkit
Malai: un modèle conceptuel d'interaction pour les systèmes interactifs BIBAKFull-Text 129-138
  Arnaud Blouin; Olivier Beaudoux
Despite the evolution of interaction, implementation frameworks for the development of Interactive Systems (IS) still focus on user interfaces (UI) where the notion of action and instrument are still ignored. This paper introduces Malai, a conceptual interaction model dedicated to the development of interactive systems. Malai aims at gathering principles of the Norman's action model, the instrumental interaction, the direct manipulation, the interactor concept and the DPI model. It completes works on data manipulation techniques used to link source data to UI. With the help of a use case, we present the four models that compose Malai: the interface model, the action model, the interaction model and the instrument model. Using these models, the SI code can be generated within an MDE approach (Model-Driven Enginnering).
Keywords: MDE, action, instrument, interaction

Vous ne pouvez pas contrôler ce que vous n'évaluez pas (I)

Une approche formelle pour i'evaluation de la tolérance aux interruptions des système interactifs BIBAKFull-Text 141-150
  Philippe Palanque; Jean-François Ladry; Eric Barboni; David Navarre; Marco Winckler
This paper presents an approach for investigating potential disruptive effects of interruptions on task performance in a multitasking environment. The approach combines previous work in the field of interruption analysis, formal description techniques for interactive systems and stochastic processes to support performance analysis of user tasks constrained by the occurrence of interruptions in the working environment. The approach uses formal description techniques to provide a comprehensive description of user tasks, system and interruption behaviour. The detailed mechanism by which systems and interruptions behave is presented using a Petri nets-based formal description technique called Interactive Cooperative Objects (ICO). The use of a formal modeling technique for the description of these three components makes it possible to compare, analyze and integrate them. In particular, it allows us to determine which of the system states are actually affected by the occurrence of interruptions. The approach is exemplified by a case study that implements two interaction techniques for manipulating icons in a desktop environment.
Keywords: formal description techniques, interruptions, model-based approaches, performance evaluation
Une infrastructure d'évaluation pour des techniques de représentation de l'information non-géométrique dans les environnements virtuels 3D BIBAKFull-Text 151-154
  Kaveh Bazargan; Gilles Falquet; Claudine Métral
Augmenting 3D virtual environments with non-geometrical information improves our understanding of geometrical objects and links between objects in order to perform tasks which require non-geometric information and a 3D scene at the same time. Many interactive presentation techniques have been devised to incorporate non-geometric information into 3D virtual environments. Our main objective is to create an evaluation grid to be used for comparing the usability of techniques according to the information to display, the geometrical context and the task. In this article, we present an evaluation framework that we have developed in order to perform usability tests. These tests will let us fill-in the evaluation grid for the representation techniques of non-geometric information.
Keywords: 3D user interface, information representation, usability evaluation, user experience, virtual environment
Apport du system usability scale à l'activité d'ergonomie d'évaluation BIBAKFull-Text 155-161
  Vanessa Larue
Today telecommunications' market has to face an great competition. This stresses the delays of commercial launches, as it is necessary to be quickly able to position on the market.
   Simplicity and utilisability evaluations of products or services is crucial to bring fast answers to decision-makers. Good assessment scores will allow to minimize the risks.
   To answer this problem, I describe in this article a test methodology that integrates on-line questionnaire sending to users' large number, and proposes the System Usability Scale's questionnaire to produce a utilisability final score directly understandable by the decision-makers.
   The aim of this paper is to argue about the SUS choice, and give an example of implementation in this context.
Keywords: online survey, system usability scale, usability evaluation
Simulations cognitives de trajets oculomoteurs lors d'une recherche d'information sur des pages numériques BIBAKFull-Text 163-172
  Myriam Chanceaux; Anne Guérin-Dugué; Benoit Lemaire; Thierry Baccino
One of the most important tasks on the Web is foraging information. In this study, we present a computational model that simulates human movements of a web user during an information seeking task. Eye movements are guided by the need for information, by the visual characteristics of the stimuli and by what has already been processed and stored. Our model takes into account both semantic (top-down) and visual (bottom-up) information and includes a memory model to predict direction of attention. This model operates at the text block level, and at the word level. To validate this model, we asked participants to search information in a pseudo online newspaper, and we compared their scanpaths with those of the model. We observed a good correspondence between simulation and empirical observation.
Keywords: cognitive model, eye movements, information search, memory, semantics, visual, web pages
Calibration rapide pour I'Eye tracking BIBAKFull-Text 173-176
  Sacha Bernet; Damien Lefloch; Christophe Cudel; Michel Basset
Our research aims to know where a person is looking at. This information is also used for training purposes. Our eye tracker system can be used in various fields such as learning to drive, support for physically handicapped or as an interface command. Our system consists of a pair of glasses equipped with two cameras: one for the pupil and one for the scene. It can obtain the point of regard in the scene. Starting from the position of the center of the pupil it is possible via a calculation to estimate the point of regard (POR). We have developed a fast method of calibration with a single point. This allows to easily integrate this type of system in training sessions or audit since the calibration takes only a few seconds.
Keywords: POR, RANSAC, calibration, eye tracking, gaze estimation, parallax

Vous ne pouvez pas contrôler ce que vous n'évaluez pas (II)

Y a-t-il de l'ergonomie dans les ordinateurs de vote français?: evaluation ergonomique des ordinateurs de vote français BIBAKFull-Text 179-182
  Gabriel Michel; Christian Bastien; Eric Brangier
There is, in many countries, the lack of usability of voting machines, can prevent vulnerable people to vote, especially the senior citizens. This awareness is not present in France where these voters have been totally neglected. To demonstrate that problem, we describe the problems of usability of three different voting systems used in France. We compared the interface of one of these voting computers with an interface that we have created with some usability guidelines. This comparison was made with users tests carried out on 16 elderly users. The results demonstrate the exclusion of the majority of these voters.
Keywords: HCI and society, accessibility, blind people, disabled people, ergonomics, exclusion, seniors, technological discrimination, voting machines
Mesurer les émotions de l'utilisateur: quels fondements pour une démarche d'évaluation des systèmes interactifs? BIBAKFull-Text 183-192
  Nadia Gauducheau
For the past 10 years, numerous authors have considered necessary the extension of the evaluation of interactive systems to user experience dimensions, with a special interest on emotions. Nevertheless, measuring emotions raises conceptual and methodological issues. This paper presents a synthesis of studies performed in the domain; as well as the issues raised and makes some suggestions in order to overcome them.
Keywords: emotions, evaluation, user experience
Classification des émotions et des données pour la « sonification » étude de cas: événements d'un jeu vidéo BIBAKFull-Text 193-196
  Maher Chemseddine; Monique Noirhomme-Fraiture
Our ultimate goal is to "sonify" different applications, particularly video games. To achieve this aim we choose to rely on user emotion experience with some applications. In this paper we present a classification of emotions and game events (scenarios) of a classic arcade video game (attack, enemy approaching, destroying etc.) in a two-dimensional space. We selected 18 words of emotion in different languages (Arabic, English and French) and 14 events. Our statistical analysis showed a distribution of emotions in 8 major classes in the two-dimensional space (valence, arousal). We associated each class with a set of game events based on 72 user's own emotional experience.
Keywords: classification, emotion, game event, sonification
Évaluation du modèle computationnel d'émotions iGrace BIBAKFull-Text 197-202
  Sébastien Saint-Aimé; Brigitte Le Pévédic; Dominique Duhaut
This article presents research in Robotherapy, in the form of the EmotiRob project which aims at comforting children with various disabilities by the means of an emotional robot companion. We propose a computational model for emotional experiences using non-verbal emotional interactions between a child and its robot-companion. The iGrace model was defined for the EmotiRob project and allows the generation of behaviors using data from speech understanding. We will present the information processing steps and the first results obtained from using a simulator for facial expressions, appropriate to the model.
Keywords: computational model, emotional interaction, evaluation, robotics

Es-tu multimodal? c'est quoi, ta modalité? (I)

Espace de caractérisation des interactions gestuelles physiques sur dispositifs mobiles BIBAKFull-Text 203-212
  Mathias Baglioni; Eric Lecolinet; Yves Guiard
Mobile interaction has become one of the most prominent fields in HCI. Because interaction resources are limited (small sized screen, no physical keyboard), and due to the specific constraints involved in mobile usage, many new interaction techniques have been proposed for handheld devices in recent years. This paper reviews the state of the art for gesture-based physical interaction and the techniques that rely on this concept. We also propose a design space aimed at classifying the existing techniques in regards to the specific issues involved in mobile interaction.
Keywords: embodied interaction, gestural language, interaction technique, mobile device, physical interaction
Intuitivité et incorporation des interactions gestuelles chez les utilisateurs de jeux vidéo BIBAKFull-Text 213-221
  Nicolas Nova; Timothée Jobert
The recent and massive introduction of gestural interface in the video game industry bring out new issues related with their potential intuitivity. The qualitative study described in this paper compares classical and gestural gaming interfaces in terms of preferences and user experience. We carried out a contextual enquiry focused on players with different expertise levels and physical skills. The results we present here highlight the complexity of the situation and the difference of preferences depending on the user profiles. The paper then concludes with a mapping of design issues in the video game domain.
Keywords: Wii, embodiment, gestural interface, video-game
Comparaison de périphériques d'entrée physique versus périphériques d'entrée tactile virtuel BIBAKFull-Text 223-226
  Guillaume Lepicard; Nadine Vigouroux
We introduce on this paper a comparison between four interactions during an input task on a four keys virtual keyboard. This keyboard is controlled by the same methods with the four interactions. Two interactions base on existing input devices while the two others simulate the functioning of those same peripherals but on a touchscreen. This study aims to define the adaptative faculty to a new input device and to give few numbers on the performance modification by the transfer of the physical interaction into the virtual interaction.
Keywords: assessment, input device performance, tactile interaction
WordTree: nouvelle technique d'interaction avec une liste de prédiction BIBAKFull-Text 227-233
  Georges Badr; Mathieu Raynal
For mobility and portability reasons, written communication devices are getting smaller and physical keyboards are replaced with virtual or on-screen one (PDA, pocket pc, GPS, etc.). Text entry has become a tiring job for people (ordinary and motor disabled people) because of the low entry speed. A list of predicted words can be presented to reduce the number of clicks to complete the word. However, these techniques present a disadvantage: consider the situation where the word the user wants to enter is not presented in the list. He has then to continue his writing manually. The prediction system narrows the possibilities in order to display the wanted word. In this paper we present a new interaction technique in which the user can select a substring of the word. The user clicks on any letter, and the substring to this letter is inserted in the text. We also present the experiments carried out to compare our system to the classical list.
Keywords: disabled, interaction, list, prediction, software keyboard, word
Etude de l'impact d'une pré-visualisation des résultats d'un système de prédiction de caractères BIBAKFull-Text 235-238
  Nathan Godard; Mathieu Raynal; Benoît Martin; Jean-Luc Vinot
Last decade has seen the democratization of small sensitive devices. But text entry solutions remain faithful to the AZERTY/QWERTY layout or to the 12-key mobile phone keypad. We propose SlideKey which is based on FOCL from Scott MacKenzie. The technique uses a linear keyboard whose layout changes according to probabilities. Key selection is operated thanks to four directional keys. SlideKey integrates a pre-visualisation of the two-next layouts to ease user to plan his next interactions. Preliminary tests show a not significant gain in performance when pre-visualisation is used.
Keywords: SlideKey, pre-visualisation, prediction, soft-keyboard

Es-tu multimodal? c'est quoi, ta modalité? (II)

Influence d'images évocatrices et distractrices sur une tâche de jugement en acoustique des salles BIBAKFull-Text 241-248
  Aurore Defays; Stéphane Safin; Alexis Billon; Christine Decaestecker; Nadine Warzée
In the context of the design of a multimodal environment for room acoustics evaluation, we investigate the link between a projected image and the sound of an acoustic simulation. 54 subjects have been tasked to judge the level of reverberation of a sound in a control situation (without image) and in an experimental situation. In this experimental condition, half the subjects were presented a coherent image aiming at supporting the evaluation task and the other half, a disturbing image. Our results show a positive influence from the evocative images, and no influence from the distractive images.
Keywords: experimentation, multimodality, room acoustics
Exploration de formes géométriques par le toucher BIBAKFull-Text 251-254
  Thomas Pietrzak; Andrew Crossan; Stephen A. Brewster; Benoît Martin; Isabelle Pecci
We propose a new technique to help people to explore geometric shapes without vision. This technique is based on a guidance using directional cues with a pin array. This is an alternative to the usual technique that consists of raising the pins corresponding to dark pixels around the cursor. In this paper we compare the exploration of geometric shapes with our new technique in unimanual and bimanual conditions. According to our results, the users made few errors in both conditions. Moreover the results show an equivalence for both techniques in answer time and users' confidence in their answer.
Keywords: geometric shapes, non-visual interaction, tactile interaction, tactons
U-Note: classe augmentée et stylo numérique BIBAKFull-Text 255-258
  Sylvain Malacria; Eric Lecolinet
Nowadays, classrooms are equipped with digital devices (such as computers, video projectors, etc.) that teachers can use in order to share digital documents with their students. Nevertheless, students keep taking notes by using pen and paper notebooks. Thus, there is a wide gap between this different kind of documents. This paper presents a software prototype of augmented note-taking (named U-Note) that tries to answer this problem by using digital pen technology.
Keywords: augmented note-taking, digital classroom, digital pen, interactive paper
Educational software for children: analysis of interaction techniques for direct manipulation BIBAKFull-Text 259-262
  Sylvie Girard; Hilary Johnson
This paper is concerned with the investigation of children's use of direct manipulation mouse interaction styles when using educational software. The results of an experiment comparing two interaction styles (point-and-click and point-and-select) are presented. The context for the study relates to OLM educational software, 'Multipliotest', aimed at assisting children's learning of multiplication in French primary schools. A class of 24 children (aged 7 to 9 years old, level CE2) played two versions of this multiplication game, each version utilizing a different interaction style.
Keywords: children, computers in education, input techniques, interaction styles, interface design, mouse interaction, point-and-click

A plusieurs c'est mieux

Collecticiels: neuf degrés de couplage BIBAKFull-Text 265-272
  Frédéric Jourde; Yann Laurillau; Laurence Nigay
This paper is about the coupling of collaborative activities and the goal of this work is to refine the existing definition of coupling, based on an experimental and exploratory approach. Indeed, we suppose that the coupling may be characterized with nine degrees in a two dimension space. To do this, we have considered multimodal interfaces applied to groupware interfaces. Then, we have developed two applications, which one is detailed in this paper, in order to experimentally highlight the existence of these nine degrees. This first step seems to confirm our hypothesis.
Keywords: coupling, experimentations, groupware, interaction modalities
Pêle-Mêle, une étude de la communication multi-échelles BIBAKFull-Text 273-282
  Sofiane Gueddana; Nicolas Roussel
The communication infrastructure around us is a rich but fragmented environment made of separated services corresponding to different levels of engagement. The multiscale approach to communication alternatively proposes to create systems that support a variable degree of engagement and smooth transitions between degrees. This paper reports on the design and evaluation of such a system called Pêle-Mêle. We present a longitudinal study of its use that notably illustrates the importance of providing gradual attention management mechanisms to support transitions between background and foreground communications. Our results suggest that control over information salience can help users of communication systems adjust both their local distraction and remote attractiveness.
Keywords: attention, computer-mediated communication, engagement, peripheral communication
Conception de l'interaction homme-machine et partage d'autorité: application aux systèmes de drones BIBAKFull-Text 283-290
  Angélica Leal; Jullien Bouchet; Gaëlle Langlois; Frédéric Jourde
This paper presents a systematic method for designing the Human-Computer Interaction for a variety of contexts. Elaborated for future Unhabited Air Systems (UAS), this method is based on the "authority sharing" concept (tasks allocation dynamically between the user and the computer system). Most of UAS consider only two modes for controlling and commanding the air vehicles: "full manual" or "full automatic". Several modes in-between can be defined. These modes, called "operative modes", are implemented in the system and activated depending on the evolutions of the context (e.g. breakdown management, dynamic re-planning or an increasing workload). Our method is the result of a classic task analysis for the HCI design and an analysis of the user/automaton capabilities ensuing from the automation domain. This paper details this method applied to a real use-case based on a feedback from past experience on the trajectory management in UAS.
Keywords: HCI engineering, adaptive interfaces, task modelling and analysis

La conception en action (I)

Conception de systèmes interactifs mixtes: articulation d'une méthode informelle et d'un modèle d'interaction BIBAKFull-Text 293-302
  Christophe Bortolaso; Emmanuel Dubois; Cédric Bach; Laurence Nigay; Céline Coutrix
To face the difficulties encountered by the mixed interactive systems designers during the design step, we propose a new approach for the design phase. This article introduces the articulation of an informal method, which is the focus-group, with a formal mixed interaction model. The articulation allows a better integration of the design step into the process and a more systematic exploration of the mixed interactive system domain. We illustrate this articulation by considering two mixed interaction models: ASUR and Mixed Interaction Model. Based on these two implementations of our approach, we carry out a comparative analysis in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of our approach.
Keywords: creativity, interaction models, mixed interactive systems, user centered design
Outils d'aide à la conception de rendus graphiques BIBAKFull-Text 303-312
  Gilles Tabart; Stéphane Conversy; Jean-Luc Vinot; Sylvie Athènes
This paper describes tools for the design and assessment of graphical rendering of complex interactive systems interfaces. More precisely, the tools help controlling graphical properties of actual sample scenes. The graphical properties pertain to the three dimensions of color: luminosity, chroma and hue. Our tools enable designers to set and check the graphical rendering properties in a more accurate and efficient way. We illustrate the benefits of our tools by giving actual scenarios of graphical rendering parameterization.
Keywords: color, constraints, design, graphical rendering, tools, visual properties
Conception de jeux interactifs temps réel sur tabletop BIBAKFull-Text 313-322
  Jonathan Chaboissier; Frédéric Vernier
Graphical interfaces on tabletop displays have the strengths to bring the next generation of games taking advantages of technical computing and high sociability of board games. This article examines the constraints of real-time gaming in this context. We propose a design approach and present RealTimeChess: a real-time strategy game for 2 to 4 players freely inspired by Chess. The design, influenced by the co-design of end users, has highlighted some interaction problems related to real-time applications for tabletop displays. We propose several solutions and are questioning the paradigm of direct manipulation of touch interfaces.
Keywords: interaction techniques, real-time applications, tabletop gaming

La conception en action (II)

Hayaku: maximiser le pouvoir d'expression du concepteur et l'efficacité de rendu de scènes graphiques interactives BIBAKFull-Text 325-328
  Benjamin Tissoires; Jean-Luc Vinot; Stéphane Conversy
Designing a general toolkit for interactive software implies to make a choice between the speed of the renderer and the power of expression of the user. We propose an instrumented method to concieve interactive software based on the use of graphical editors, conceptual languages and a toolkit, Hayaku, that encapsulates a graphical compiler. Hayaku allows to maximize the graphical performances of the application, thus authorizing to have a better graphical renderer, and authorizing the user to use all of his editor tools. The truth of the graphics, the control easyness, the power of expression and the efficiency of the use of the designer's tools allows the conceptor to efficiently explore new dynamic graphical representations that are easy to control.
Keywords: GUI architectures, GUI toolkits, graphical compiler
Le mitigeur: principe de conception pour la mise en valeur des objectifs de l'utilisateur BIBAKFull-Text 329-332
  Mathieu Petit; Meriam Horchani
This paper introduces a "design mixer" approach to user-centred interactive software design. This method overcomes the limits of a design process that favours the handling/management of a task over the understanding of the users objectives. In the following, a design case for a navigation software is outlined. The limits of the classical UCD approach are then analysed. Finally, the "design mixer" method is proposed as an improved designing tool.
Keywords: digital / computational interaction, mixing tap, user-centred design
Persona comme outil de design de services interactifs: principes et exemple en e-maintenance BIBAKFull-Text 333-336
  Ahmed Seffah; Christophe Kolski; Djilali Idoughi
This research investigates the role of using persona, as a tool for modeling and analyzing user experiences (UX). Persona was first introduced in marketing research. Its main goal is a better understanding and of the user experiences. Customer or user experiences is a generic term referring here to a collection of information on user behavior, expectations, and perceptions as well as the service and user characteristics. User characteristics include knowledge, expertise, personality and demographics information. A case study on e-maintenance services illustrates how to use persona in the context of Software as a Service (SasS) engineering. SasS is a new type of packaging and deploying on demand software via the web instead of desktop or client-servers.
Keywords: design, persona, services, user expérience
Comment concilier agilité et conception centrée utilisateurs dans un projet de développement? BIBAKFull-Text 337-340
  Lou Schwartz; Laurent Vergnol; Guillaume Gronier; Alain Vagner; Thomas Altenburger; Sophie Battisti
User-Centered Design and Agile Methods both share the objective of maximizing end-user satisfaction and the use of an iterative lifecycle. While Agility entirely focuses on features and addressing in part the notion of utility, it omits to deal with usability issues. In this present paper, we propose a project management methodology in an attempt to reconcile usability and functionality through User-Centered Design and Agile Methods.
Keywords: agile methods, iterative process, methodology, usability, user-centered design

Articles des démonstrations

Premiers pas dans l'expression d'émotions par le robot Nao: démonstration BIBAKFull-Text 343-346
  Jérôme Monceaux; Joffrey Becker; Céline Boudier; Alexandre Mazel
We created a library of emotional expressions, and not an emotional system, for the humanoid robot Nao from Aldebaran Robotics. This set of expressions could be used by robot behavior designers to create advanced behaviors, or by an emotion simulator. It is an insight into a conjoint work between an invited anthropologist and robotics researchers which resulted in about a hundred animations.
Keywords: Nao, choregraphe, demonstration, emotional expression, expressive robot behaviors, humanoid robot
Un kiosque interactif pour Espaces publics BIBAKFull-Text 347-350
  Nicolas Gourier; Julien Letessier; Jerôme Maisonnasse; Stan Borkowski
In this demo, we present a new integrated, multi-touch and presence-aware kiosk, designed for public spaces. Existing public interactive systems offer limited interactions, which hinders their utility, usability and attractivity. To overcome these obstacles, we propose a computer vision-based approach to fluid tactilisation and context perception. This is coupled with an interaction toolkit inspired from PAC agents achitectures. An interactive application is described much like a web application -- using asynchronous XML, CSS, and a Javascript-like language. GUI rendering performance is achieved by using the OpenGL-based canvas GML. Commercial installations show that naive users appropriate and use our kiosk.
Keywords: PAC model, detection, interactive surface, multi-touch
TangiSense: présentation d'une table interactive avec technologie RFID permettant la manipulation d'objets tangibles et traçables BIBAKFull-Text 351-354
  Sébastien Kubicki; Sophie Lepreux; Christophe Kolski; Christian Perrot; Jean Caelen
We present in this article a new platform for interaction using an interactive table coupled with tangible objects. The interactive table is composed with RFID antenna to track objects, to store data in these objects (particularity of RFID technology), and to detect the superimposed objects. The first section presents the project and its partners. It continues with an hardware description, the objects involved and a presentation of the framework chosen. We propose in the second section a simple application to illustrate this architecture while focusing on the principle of operation and implementation. The article ends with a conclusion and perspectives.
Keywords: RFID, interactive table, multi-agent system, tangible object
PIAFF: un outil d'aide à la saisie d'informations personnelles pour les formulaires électroniques BIBAKFull-Text 355-358
  Dong-Bach Vo; Marco Winckler
Many online applications such as online shopping, e-learning, or e-government, share data with users thanks to web forms. The growth of data sharing brings cognitive load by constantly filling and verifying information that are shared by users. The aim of this paper is to show the need to assist users in managing and sharing personal information. In order to illustrate this purpose, we propose PIAFF (Personal Information Assistant for Filling Form), a tool aimed at assisting users in filling web application forms by handling personal informations by groups. PIAFF will be discussed through a case study based on e-government application.
Keywords: information group, personal information, web form
La plasticité des IHM en action: un exemple de téléprocédure plastique BIBAKFull-Text 359-362
  Audrey Serna; Sébastien Pinel; Gaëlle Calvary
The plasticity property has been defined ten years ago in Human-Computer Interaction. It denotes the capacity of User Interfaces (UI) to adapt to the context of use (<user, platform, environment>) while preserving user-centered properties. This paper presents a first real application: a plastic e-service for declaring incidents in public areas. The development has been funded by the french ANR MyCitizSpace (2007-2010) project devoted to the dematerialisation of the french government. All the dimensions of plasticity are exemplified.
Keywords: adaptation, citizen e-services, context of use, user interface plasticity
L'écriture augmentée: enregistrer des explorations interactives avec une feuille de données scientifiques BIBAFull-Text 363-366
  Catherine Letondal; Wendy E. Mackay
Pour les biologistes, les techniques d'interaction et de visualisation de données permettent de décrypter les informations issues des banques de données et des résultats de laboratoire. Cependant, les outils interactifs sont rarement conçus pour tracer les interactions et permettre au scientifique de suivre a posteriori les étapes de leurs explorations, et notamment d'en rendre compte dans leur cahier de laboratoire. Les techniques de papier interactifs traitent bien ce problème puisque l'instrument d'interaction -- le stylo -- est en même temps un instrument d'enregistrement "naturel" et tangible, souvent secondé par un enregistrement informatique automatique. Dans cet article, nous rappelons le contexte de cette étude puis nous décrivons le prototype ainsi que sa conception progressive. Nous discutons ensuite les implications de cette approche.
Wavelet menu: une adaptation des marking menus pour les dispositifs mobiles BIBAKFull-Text 367-370
  Jérémie Francone; Gilles Bailly; Laurence Nigay; Eric Lecolinet
Exploration and navigation in multimedia data hierarchies (e.g., photos, music) are frequent tasks on mobile devices. However, visualization and interaction are impoverished due to the limited size of the screen and the lack of precise input devices. As a result, menus on mobile devices do not provide efficient navigation as compared to many innovative menu techniques proposed for desktop platforms. In this paper, we present Wavelet, the adaptation of the Wave menu for the navigation in multimedia data on iPhone. Its layout, based on an inverted representation of the hierarchy, is particularly well adapted to mobile devices. Indeed, it guarantees that submenus are always displayed on the screen and it supports efficient navigation by providing previsualization of the submenus.
Keywords: marking menu, menu techniques, mobile devices, wave menu, wavelet menu