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ICONF Tables of Contents: 1112

Proceedings of the 2011 iConference

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2011 iConference
Note:Inspiration, Integrity, and Intrepidity
Editors:Harry Bruce; Jonathan Grudin; Karen E. Fisher; Jens-Erik Mai
Location:Seattle, Washington
Dates:2011-Feb-08 to 2011-Feb-11
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-0121-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: ICONF11
Papers:171
Pages:843
Links:Conference Website | ACM Digital Library Conference Series
Summary:Record attendance, myriad social events, and a stunning venue all combined to make iConference 2011 the biggest and most successful event in the six-year history of the conference. Held in Seattle on February 8-11, 2011, and hosted by the University of Washington Information School, the goal of the conference was to showcase research and advancements in areas such as collaboration, e-government, health informatics, human-computer interaction, information security, information management, and library science.
    Highlights of the conference included a 90-exhibit poster session, keynote address from Susan Dumais of Microsoft Research, two industry panels, a Microsoft visit, and more than 50 other papers and alternative events sessions featuring 325 presenters. Also included were a Doctoral Student Colloquium (supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation) and a Junior Faculty and Postdoc Colloquium.
    The iConference is an annual gathering of scholars and practitioners in the information field spanning the public, private and non-profit sectors. The iConference is sponsored by the iSchools organization (which now consists of 31 information schools spanning eight countries worldwide) and is open to any and all information scholars, researchers and professionals who wish to attend. This year's conference received almost 300 submissions, and was attended by more than 530 participants -- both records for the six-year-old conference. This year's proceedings have been archived to the ACM Digital Library.
  1. Social Inclusion
  2. Social Media
  3. Information in Context
  4. Social Inclusion
  5. Design
  6. Social Media
  7. Knowledge Organization
  8. Collaboration
  9. Social Inclusion
  10. iSchools
  11. Health Information
  12. Design
  13. Health Information
  14. Social Media
  15. Information Management
  16. Social Media
  17. Health Information
  18. eGovernment
  19. Collaboration
  20. Metrics
  21. Search
  22. Social Inclusion
  23. Design
  24. iSchools
  25. Visualization
  26. Knowledge Organization
  27. Security
  28. Design
  29. eLearning
  30. Posters
  31. Doctoral Colloquium Posters

Social Inclusion

Older adults and the new public sphere BIBAFull-Text 1-7
  Naomi Bloch; Bertram C. Bruce
As governments and other agencies increasingly turn to the Internet to engage in public discourse and the exchange of ideas, relatively little attention has been paid to how older adults participate in this new and developing public sphere. This inattention will become even more of an issue in the future, as the sustained involvement of a significant and growing portion of our population is needed across the board, but notably in areas of health, family, and community sustainability. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 participants in the Senior Odyssey program, who ranged in age from 62 to 84 (mean: 73 years). An attempt was made to gain a qualitative picture of their online engagement. Responses suggest that participants viewed the Internet as a one-way, transmissive information source, and as a supplementary means of communication, primarily with friends and family. Unlike many of today's youth, they exhibited little awareness of an online participatory culture.
Lifting the veil: the expression of values in online communities BIBAFull-Text 8-15
  Jonathan T. Morgan; Robert M. Mason; Karine Nahon
Wikipedia's stated mission is to provide a free encyclopedia that people all over the world can use and contribute to. However, while Wikipedia is successful at providing access to free, high quality information to users around the globe, the degree to which Wikipedia has succeeded in facilitating contribution on a global scale is less well known. The mechanisms used to determine why and how content is included have, for the most part, taken place "off-stage" and in ways that are less visible to the casual Wikipedia user. In this study, we explore the relationship between the ideals on which Wikipedia was founded and the policies and practices of the close-knit community that has developed around the shared practice of building the encyclopedia. Through a case study of a polarized talk page debate we show that the editorial community of the English language Wikipedia has a distinct cultural character, which can be uncovered through an examination of the way community members use the social and technical mechanisms of the website and through an analysis of the rhetorical appeals made by editors engaged in heated talk page debates. Our analysis reveals an inherent tension among the values held by the majority of Wikipedians, the values articulated in Wikipedia's mission statement, and the values of the global community of readers that Wikipedia was created to serve.
Sharing the private in public: indigenous cultural property and online media BIBAFull-Text 16-24
  Miranda Belarde-Lewis
Cultural Intellectual Property is a difficult concept to define and even harder to protect. This brief exploration raises issues relating to: the existing protections of CIPs; the history of appropriation of cultural materials; the current expectations of accessibility by the dominant society; the conflicting attitudes regarding the capturing and posting of cultural events in online forums; and the strategies employed by Native communities to safeguard against appropriation of their cultural events. Case examples highlight the complex nature of these issues and will be provided from the Zuni and Hopi pueblos, and the Northwest coastal groups, the Ahousaht, and the Makah.

Social Media

Handling flammable materials: Wikipedia biographies of living persons as contentious objects BIBAFull-Text 25-32
  Elisabeth Joyce; Brian Butler; Jacqueline Pike
Common ground. Shared interests. Collective goals. Much has been said about the power of technology to bring people together around commonalities to form groups, teams, and communities. Yet, the same technologies can also be used to bring together individuals with fundamentally irreconcilable differences. In these cases, the question is not how to construct systems that build on commonality, but rather how to manage artifacts that by their very nature provide affordances for conflict. In this paper we examine how Biographies of Living Persons (BLP) in Wikipedia exemplify contentious objects, both in terms of their features and their consequences. We draw from discussions of risk management and resilience to outline four approaches that groups can use to manage contentious objects (risk avoidance, risk minimization, threat reduction, and conflict management). Description of the policies, structures, and systems surrounding Biographies of Living Persons in Wikipedia illustrate how application of these approaches enable the creation and existence of large collection of contentions objects, without undermining the viability of the larger socio-technical system.
Improving recommendations using WatchingNetworks in a social tagging system BIBAFull-Text 33-39
  Danielle H. Lee; Peter Brusilovsky
This paper aims to examine whether users' watching networks can improve collaborative filtering-based recommendations (CF). Watching networks are established by users upon their perceived usefulness or interests about other users' information collections. The networks do not require mutual agreement between a watching party and a watched party. The typical example of this network is 'following' in Twitter, 'watching' on CiteULike, or 'contacts' on Flickr. Once a user declares that 'I want to watch user A', the user A's information collection is displayed to the watching user, continuously. It can be interpreted to mean that a watching user found some shared interests in user A's collection and want to refer to it in future. The approaches explored in this paper take advantage of this watching network as a part of user's preferences for recommendations. To evaluate the potential of these approaches, we focus on a social tagging system, CiteULike. Our data shows that in this context, a hybrid recommendation approach that fuses CF and watching network-based recommendations outperforms both CF and network-based recommendations.
Beyond promotion and protection: creators, audiences and common ground in user-generated media BIBAFull-Text 41-47
  Eric C. Cook; Stephanie D. Teasley
In this paper, we present findings from a qualitative study of producers in a specific creative domain -- online digital photography. We used social psychology and linguistic concepts of audience design and common ground to analyze data from interview and observational sessions with 26 individuals. Through this, we identified several recurrent types of intended audiences: intimates (friends and family), photo subjects and event participants, communities of interest, communities of practice, professional contacts and peers, current and potential commercial clients, the generalized audience of "the internet," and the self as audience. We also identified three recurrent audience management practices. We use these findings to discuss the role of shared history and shared interpretive frames in the generation of common ground between creators and audiences. Our findings recast privacy controls and promotion support as subtypes of a broader set of audience management practices, providing new considerations for design of creativity support tools and user-generated media systems.

Information in Context

Information source and its relationship with the context of information seeking behavior BIBAFull-Text 48-55
  Naresh Kumar Agarwal
Past studies on a person's choice of information sources have shown mixed results because of a lack of understanding of the 'context' surrounding information seeking that impacts a person's choice of an information source. The Contextual Identity Framework combines three conflicting views of context to try and define its boundaries in information behavior. However, it is not clear in which of these three views of context would 'information source' fit. Would it be part of the shared context or contextual stereotype or both? Also, prior studies have often muddled the distinction between sources and channels, and between sources and source types. They have not been comprehensive in classifying types of information sources, especially with the advent of new media. To help address these gaps, this theoretical study proposes: 1) a classification of information source types; 2) a workflow of interaction among different possible elements of context; and 3) the placement of information source within the context of information seeking behavior as defined by the Contextual Identity Framework. The frameworks should help us better understand information sources in relationship to the context of information seeking behavior, and help lend greater rigor to empirical studies relating to a person's choice of information sources. It would also benefit designers of search systems paving the way for the possible information seeking systems that take the context of search into consideration.
Materiality and oral documents BIBAFull-Text 56-62
  Deborah Turner; Warren Allen
Information professionals focus on artifacts. This focus shows the value information science has placed on materiality or physicality in its efforts to preserve and make artifacts in specific media accessible. But this focus has proven less useful when dealing with information that becomes available orally. As a strategy to increase understanding of oral information, Turner asserted that it can emerge as a type of artifact, an oral document: an utterance that conveys evidence, by what is said and by how it is uttered, and that incorporates properties of a document. This paper describes one of those properties, materiality, how it applies to non-written information in various literatures, and how the concept applies to oral documents. The authors then propose an exploratory, interdisciplinary research project to discern evidence of the materiality of oral documents in the brain via neuroimaging techniques.
Rethinking unsaid information: jokes and ideology BIBAFull-Text 63-67
  Ronald E. Day; Lai Ma
In this paper we investigate two cases of unsaid information -- jokes and ideology. We argue that each presents an understanding of information as constructive of knowledge in the mode of revealing (jokes) or marginalizing and denying (ideology) grammars of understanding that are embedded in language. We suggest that the saying of unsaid information in these cases depends upon techniques, technologies, and institutions that control the revealing or the hiding of these grammars, and further, of discourses built out of these grammars. We contrast this understanding of 'unsaid information' with the understanding of the unsaid within the psychoanalytic concept of the 'unconscious' and in subsequent allied understandings of 'tacit' and 'implicit' knowledge in Knowledge Management theory where, as in the LIS and IS tradition, 'knowledge' and 'information' often refer to quasi-empirical entities and structures of such entities (based on an epistemology of Lockean naïve empiricism) -- what we term after others, 'presence.'

Social Inclusion

Dusting for science: motivation and participation of digital citizen science volunteers BIBAFull-Text 68-74
  Oded Nov; Ofer Arazy; David Anderson
Digital citizen science offers a low-cost way to strengthen the scientific infrastructure, and engage members of the public in science. It is based on two pillars: (1) a technological pillar, which involves developing computer systems to manage large amounts of distributed resources, and (2) a motivational pillar, which involves attracting and retaining volunteers who would contribute their skills, time, and effort to a scientific cause. While the technological dimension has been widely studied, the motivational dimension received little attention to date. To address this gap, we surveyed volunteers at Stardust@home a digital citizen science project, in which volunteers classify online images from NASA's Stardust spacecraft. We found that collective and intrinsic motivations are the most salient motivational factors, whereas reward motives seem to be less relevant. We also found that intrinsic and norm-oriented motives are most strongly associated with participation intentions, which were, in turn, found to be associated with participation effort. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Note: Best Paper Award
Technology as amplifier in international development BIBAFull-Text 75-82
  Kentaro Toyama
Amplification theories of information technology argue that technology is primarily a magnifier of existing institutional forces. In this paper, these ideas are synthesized and augmented for an amplification theory of "information and communication technology for development" (ICT4D), the study of electronic technology in international development. Three mechanisms for amplification are identified, arising out of differentials in access, capacity, and motivation, and the ideas are developed using examples from telecenters, television, and mobile phones.
   The amplification thesis contradicts theories that imply that technology's impact is additive or transformative in and of itself, e.g., that access to technology levels the playing field of power, or that the Internet, per se, democratizes access to information.
   The consequences of an amplifier theory for ICT4D are that (1) technology cannot substitute for missing institutional capacity and human intent; (2) technology tends to amplify existing inequalities; (3) technology projects in global development are most successful when they amplify already successful development efforts or positively inclined intent, rather than seek to fix, provide, or substitute for broken or missing institutional elements.
Things fall apart: maintenance, repair, and technology for education initiatives in rural Namibia BIBAFull-Text 83-90
  Steven J. Jackson; Alex Pompe; Gabriel Krieshok
Repair and maintenance haunt the margins of ICT and development ('ICTD') and broader information school scholarship, but have rarely received central theoretical or empirical attention in the field. This paper attempts to fill this gap. Theoretically, it explores ideas from the growing but scattered body of social science work around infrastructure, maintenance and repair, and argues for maintenance and repair as key sites of difference, innovation, power, and sustainability in ICTD settings. Empirically, the paper examines patterns and tensions in maintenance and repair in Rundu and the wider Kavango region in northeastern Namibia. We conclude with key findings and lessons for future ICTD and iSchool scholarship.
Note: Best Paper Award

Design

Are separate interfaces inherently unequal?: an evaluation with blind users of the usability of two interfaces for a social networking platform BIBAFull-Text 91-97
  Brian Wentz; Jonathan Lazar
With the increasing use of web-based applications in the workplace, it is imperative that all users can equally access those applications. It has been previously reported that blind users have problems accessing Facebook, but little empirical data on the topic exists. It has also been suggested by Facebook and anecdotal user comments that the mobile interface (hereafter referred to as "Facebook Mobile") for the application is more usable than the standard, desktop interface (hereafter referred to as "Facebook Desktop") for individuals who use screen readers to access the Facebook interface from their computers. This paper presents empirical data from 15 blind users, who took part in the usability evaluation of Facebook Desktop as well as a second phase of usability testing with 15 blind users to evaluate Facebook Mobile (when accessed from a computer and web browser). This research concludes that Facebook Mobile is more usable than the Facebook Desktop interface; however, the mobile interface is missing some features and is not consistently aligned with the Facebook Desktop interface. The implications of this study raise the question of whether there is often a usability and functionality difference between different interfaces for an application when one interface is suggested to be the "accessible" version.
From human factors to human actors to human crafters BIBAFull-Text 98-105
  Monica Maceli; Michael Atwood
Meta-design theory emphasizes that future use can never be entirely anticipated at design time, as users shape their environments in response to emerging needs; systems should therefore be designed to adapt to future conditions in the hands of end users. For most of human history, all design was meta-design; designers were also users, and the environments of design and use were one and the same. Technology introduced a divide between the skilled producers and unskilled consumers of technology, and between design time and use time. In our increasingly complex technological environments, tomorrow's meta-designers must be able to anticipate the environment in which the end users will work in order to provide the flexibility for users to craft their tools. By exploring and projecting forward current trends in technology use, we have identified key principles for meta-designers and suggest that using them as design heuristics will aid meta-designers in crafting systems for future end-users.
Design, discussion, and dissent in open bug reports BIBAFull-Text 106-113
  Andrew J. Ko; Parmit K. Chilana
While studies have considered computer-mediated decision-making in several domains, few have considered the unique challenges posed in software design. To address this gap, a qualitative study of 100 contentious open source bug reports was performed. The results suggest that the immeasurability of many software qualities and conflicts between achieving original design intent and serving changing user needs led to a high reliance on anecdote, speculation, and generalization. The visual presentation of threaded discussions aggravated these problems making it difficult to view design proposals and comparative critiques. The results raise several new questions about the interaction between authority and evidence in online design discussions.

Social Media

Expressing well-being online: towards self-reflection and social awareness BIBAFull-Text 114-121
  Paul André; M. C. Schraefel; Alan Dix; Ryen W. White
Medicine, psychology and quality of life literature all point to the importance of not just asking 'how are you?', but assessing and being aware of self and others' well-being. Social networking has been shown to have a variety of uses and benefits, but does not currently offer explicit expression of a well-being state. We developed and deployed Healthii, a social networking tool to convey well-being using a set of pre-defined discrete categories. We sought to understand how communicating this in a lightweight fashion may be used and valued. Using a hybrid methodology, over five weeks ten participants used the tool on Facebook, Twitter, or on the desktop, and in group meetings discussed the affect and effect of the tool, before a final individual survey. The trial showed that participants used and valued status expression for its support to convey state, and for self-reflection and group awareness. We discuss these findings as well as future opportunities for awareness visualization and automatic data integration.
Finding social roles in Wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 122-129
  Howard T. Welser; Dan Cosley; Gueorgi Kossinets; Austin Lin; Fedor Dokshin; Geri Gay; Marc Smith
This paper investigates some of the social roles people play in the online community of Wikipedia. We start from qualitative comments posted on community oriented pages, wiki project memberships, and user talk pages in order to identify a sample of editors who represent four key roles: substantive experts, technical editors, vandal fighters, and social networkers. Patterns in edit histories and egocentric network visualizations suggest potential "structural signatures" that could be used as quantitative indicators of role adoption. Using simple metrics based on edit histories we compare two samples of Wikipedians: a collection of long term dedicated editors, and a cohort of editors from a one month window of new arrivals. According to these metrics, we find that the proportions of editor types in the new cohort are similar those observed in the sample of dedicated contributors. The number of new editors playing helpful roles in a single month's cohort nearly equal the number found in the dedicated sample. This suggests that informal socialization has the potential provide sufficient role related labor despite growth and change in Wikipedia. These results are preliminary, and we describe several ways that the method can be improved, including the expansion and refinement of role signatures and identification of other important social roles.
Note: Best Paper Award
Being networked and being engaged: the impact of social networking on ecommerce information behavior BIBAFull-Text 130-136
  Bernard J. Jansen; Kate Sobel; Geoff Cook
Teenagers and young adults born between 1981 and 2000 are a critical demographic group economically and are one of the first demographics presented with an array of Internet social networking services just as their online habits are forming. Based on a survey of 34,514 teen and young adult respondents, the research reported in this paper is a descriptive and inferential analysis of reported ecommerce information behaviors on four social networking sites (Facebook, MySpace, myYearbook, and Twitter). We use k-means clustering analysis to find groups of these users based on their levels of being networked on and being engaged with social networking services. Results show that the majority of this demographic have accounts on multiple social networking sites and specific sites result in different information behaviors. More than 40% engage in three social networking sites and an additional 20% have four social networking accounts. We also found that there are distinct information behavioral differences among eight distinct clusters of users, indicating that companies may need to employ advanced analytical techniques to segment the youth market. We also investigate the motivations for using different social media sites. Findings show that this young demographic has complex ecommerce information behaviors that call for nuanced approaches in advertising, marketing, or other areas of information targeting.

Knowledge Organization

Epistemic presumptions of authorship BIBAFull-Text 137-143
  Richard P. Smiraglia; Hur-Li Lee; Hope A. Olson
The major concern of this paper is the cultural ramification of the bibliographic conception of "authorship." Beginning with Foucault's question "what is an author" and his notion of an author as a cultural phenomenon, the paper proceeds to examine the treatment of authorship in cataloging practices of two ancient cultures, the Greek and the Chinese, as well as in the modern Anglo-American cataloging standards from Panizzi's 91 rules to the draft of Resource Description and Access (RDA). An author, as the study shows, is constructed as part of the recognition of "a work" as an essential communicative social entity. All cataloging practices and standards examined, east or west, ancient or modern, exhibit a similar obsessive attitude toward the imposition of an author, be it only a name or a culturally identified entity responsible for the work. In fact, the study demonstrates that as far as cataloging is concerned authorship is the role that is represented rather than any true intellectual responsibility.
A conceptualization of interaction with genres in the context of information practices BIBAFull-Text 144-150
  Min-Chun Ku
In this paper, the author examines how genres affect both the process and consequences of information practices in contexts. Genres serve as information systems within and around which information practices are shaped. They are in turn shaped by information practices. Genres also serve as physical information resources that structure information practices in the human-information interaction process. They allow humans to relate their situations and contexts to broader socio-cultural community practices. Based on previous information studies, a conceptual framework that depicts interaction with genres in the context of information practices is developed to unfold the roles that genres play in shaping information practices. It illustrates the aspects of information practices that are shaped by and interact with the evolving identification, recognition, and conception of genres, including the selection and prediction of information sources and/or systems, the development and employment of information seeking strategies, the shift of interactive intensions, and the assessment of encountered information packages and information. This framework serves as a conceptual foundation that guides further empirical investigation of interaction with genres in different contexts. It also bridges the gap identified in previous information studies.
Archiving as a service: a model for the provision of shared archiving services using cloud computing BIBAFull-Text 151-158
  Jan Askhoj; Mitsuharu Nagamori; Shigeo Sugimoto
In this paper, we define some of the characteristics of archiving in a cloud computing environment. Based on these, we describe a model for a cloud archiving system using concepts and information types from the OAIS reference model. The proposed model allows the sharing of functionality and information objects by making these available as services to above layers. The model covers the entire document lifecycle, making archive functionality such as preservation planning possible at an early stage in the document lifecycle, helping to simplify records transfer.
   Finally, we use our model in a case study, using the records transfer process from Japanese government agencies to the National Archives of Japan as an example.

Collaboration

No sense of distance: improving cross-cultural communication with context-linked software tools BIBAFull-Text 159-165
  Cecilia R. Aragon; Sarah Poon
Many studies have established the difficulties inherent in both cross-cultural and distance communication. Distance work interferes with close collaboration and trust. Physical distance and lack of time zone overlap can exacerbate cross-cultural misunderstandings. Nevertheless, international collaboration over distance is becoming increasingly common in many fields. Scientific collaborations, in particular, are becoming larger and more international in scope. There has been much research in the area of understanding cultural differences, but not as much in how technology might bridge such communication gaps in international scientific collaboration. In an effort to begin to form guidelines for such technology development, we undertook an empirical study of how computer-mediated communication tools facilitated cross-cultural communication over distance and led to greater team effectiveness in an international astrophysics collaboration.
Social scientists, documents and cyberinfrastructure: the cobbler's children or the missing masses? BIBAFull-Text 166-173
  Elizabeth Kaziunas; Steve Sawyer; Carsten Østerlund
A limited understanding of the distributed work practices of social scientists impedes current efforts to develop cyberinfrastructure (CI) that meets the needs of these scholars. In this paper we review literature on the theory, organization, collaborative practices, and epistemic cultures of the social sciences to summarize fundamental characteristics about the nature of their work practices. Building off these insights, we advance a document-centered articulation of social scientists' distributed work practices derived from a pilot study of scholars in the field of information studies. We use a mixed-methodological approach involving the mapping of digital and physical documents, automated tracking of desktop and online repositories, participant-generated images of physical documents and desktop, behavioral queries, along with interviews and participant observation. Our findings suggest that an approach focused on documents offers a tangible entree into understanding the distributed work practices of social scientists. This study aims to help further discussion surrounding the uptake of CI in the social sciences and the role of academic disciplines in the design of CI tools and projects.
Designing the future of collaborative workplace systems: lessons learned from a comparison with alternate reality games BIBAFull-Text 174-180
  David Gurzick; Kevin F. White; Wayne G. Lutters; Brian M. Landry; Caroline Dombrowski; Jeffery Y. Kim
Alternate reality games (ARGs) represent a unique form of group collaboration. A careful comparison of ARGs to more traditional collaborative systems reveals areas for innovation in tools to support ad-hoc teaming. This comparison specifically focuses on processes of group formation, task management, information discovery and collective storytelling. Opportunities for innovation are highlighted, as are future research questions.

Social Inclusion

Cost and other barriers to public access computing in developing countries BIBAFull-Text 181-188
  Melody Clark; Ricardo Gomez
Public access to computers and the Internet can play an important role in social and economic development if it effectively helps to meet the needs of underserved populations. Public access venues such as libraries, telecentres and cybercafés are sometimes free, and sometimes charge user fees. User fees can be an important barrier to use of public access venues, especially among underserved communities in developing countries. This paper analyzes the role of user fees and other critical barriers in the use of computers in public access venues in 25 developing countries around the world. Results of this study suggest that digital literacy of staff and local relevance of content may be more important than fees in determining user preference for public access venues. These findings are important to public libraries, which tend to offer free services, but where perceptions of digital literacy of staff and locally relevant content tend to be lowest, compared to telecentres and cybercafés, according to the results of this study. More attention to digital literacy of staff and availability of locally relevant content may be more important than free services to meet the information needs of underserved populations.
Loose strands: searching for evidence of public access ICT impact on development BIBAFull-Text 189-194
  Araba Sey; Michelle Fellows
Telecenters, libraries and internet cafés are often credited as being important venues for making information and communication technologies (ICTs) more widely available for people in developing and developed countries. Although numerous case studies and evaluations show the contribution public venues can make to socio-economic development within certain contexts, the body of research provides a fragmented view of outcomes and impacts of public access ICTs in general. This paper uses a broad outcomes approach to review existing research on the impacts of public access to ICTs, including the extent to which public access ICTs are used and how they contribute to socio-economic development. We find that most research adds primarily to the body of knowledge on public access ICT operational conditions, users and uses. While some insights are provided into what may be classified as outcomes and impacts, there is relatively limited hard evidence at this level.
Using mobile phone data to measure the ties between nations BIBAFull-Text 195-202
  Joshua E. Blumenstock
We introduce a novel method for measuring and evaluating the social ties between nations. Patterns of international communication, and in particular the volume and direction of international phone calls, reflect the interpersonal connections between the people of different countries, and add nuance to the coarse indicators more commonly used in the literature. This paper presents a preliminary investigation of the empirical properties of this metric using a log of all international phone calls to and from Rwanda. We find that patterns of international outgoing and incoming calls closely parallel patterns of international exports and imports. The fine-grained temporal resolution of the data also reveals international dynamics not captured in existing metrics. For instance, we observe spikes in communication that appear unrelated to economic ties following significant events such as natural disasters, elections, and soccer matches. We conclude with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of this metric, and point to promising directions for future research.

iSchools

Academic research in iSchools: state and implications BIBAFull-Text 203-210
  Dan Wu; Daqing He; Jiepu Jiang; Wuyi Dong; Kim Thien Vo
As the information field rapidly evolves, so do the academic research programs in Information Schools (iSchools). In this paper, we examine the current academic research state of iSchools through quantitative study of publically-available online data related to the educational background, research interests, publications, research funding, and collaborations. Some important findings in our study include that iSchools are appropriate institutions for integrating researchers from diverse disciplines; the intersection of information, technology, and users has been established as the core research focus of iSchools; iSchools are developing ways to understand, integrate, and model the interaction among related disciplines; iSchools are attracting external support from a diverse group of funding agencies; and iSchools have forged strong connections and collaborations in order to build one discipline.
iSchool agenda: mobile context research and teaching BIBAFull-Text 211-216
  Sherry Koshman
The iSchool community has focused on curricular development in information retrieval (IR). This has traditionally centered upon users approaching a system to resolve their information needs. The technology has changed so that not only should students be aware of these theories, but also pay attention to the development of mobile search. Mobile devices are rapidly proliferating and have changed the user's information needs from traditional mediated requests to that of query-based information immediacy heavily influenced by where users are and what they are doing. Handheld information retrieval power draws upon many applications and information sources including those available on the mobile web. This has yielded a unique branch of information behavior where context is paramount in understanding mobile user behavior due to the diversity of user information environments. Context not only represents the mode of use for information retrieval but also impacts the formulation of the user's information need and motivation. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and analyze four prominent definitions of mobile context. That includes: spatial/location, temporal; social, and access/technical contexts. In order to synthesize the contexts, a new mobile action-based framework and its key component of itinerant intermittency proposed by the author will be explicated. The conclusion discusses a future teaching agenda for the iSchool community to instruct its students in mobile information behavior and context for IR.
The attitude of LIS chairs toward the iSchools movement in China: a contemporary grounded theory analysis BIBAFull-Text 217-224
  Chuanfu Chen; Ping Wang; Yaqi Liu; Dan Wu; Gang Wu; Haoqin Ma
The goal of this paper is to study the attitude of the deans and the department chairs of Library and Information Science (LIS) programs in Chinese universities toward the iSchools movement. We collected data from 36 deans and chairs using an open questionnaire and utilized grounded theory to analyze the results. Our study shows that most deans and chairs approve of the iSchool values of interdisciplinary study, information technology, and leadership, but they also expressed uncertainty regarding the future of iSchools. For the process of adopting the values of iSchools and joining the iSchools movement, the main obstacles to progress come from within the LIS discipline. The consensus among the deans and chairs is that the LIS education should reserve its traditional core values, at the same time it also should adopt iSchools values and expand into a wider area in the information profession.

Health Information

Researching emotion: challenges and solutions BIBAFull-Text 225-229
  Irene Lopatovska
Interest in emotions within the information use context is on the rise. Yet, the reports of the emotion studies rarely mention some of the methodological challenges involved in research. New researchers who are entering the field are often unaware of the challenges and potential solutions related to emotions' examinations. This paper attempts to educate researchers about some of the methodological options that are available at various stages of emotion study, including selection of theory and methods, data collection and analysis, extraction of meaning from data, and application of the findings to the real life problems. The paper offers recommendations for handling some of the challenges that might arise during a project.
Making web-based multimedia health tutorials senior-friendly: design and training guidelines BIBAFull-Text 230-237
  Bo Xie; Ivan Watkins; Man Huang
To better understand older adults' perceptions and use of Web-based multimedia features particularly in health-related content areas, we conducted a comparative usability testing of three Web-based multimedia health tutorials -- MedlinePlus Surgery Videos and MedlinePlus Interactive Tutorials both maintained by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Surgery Simulation (pseudo name) by a U.S.-based non-profit organization -- with 10 older adults in February-March of 2010. Data were collected from interviews, surveys, and observation carried out in three consecutive sessions. In this paper we report a subset of the key findings from our qualitative data, focusing on literacy-related challenges participants encountered when using the three sites. These challenges reflect gaps between the computer, medical, and numerical literacy levels that designers expected users to have and the literacy levels that these users actually have. Based on these findings and the multimedia learning literature, we recommend design and training guidelines that may facilitate older adults' learning and use of Web-based multimedia health tutorials.
Who is referring teens to health information on the web?: hyperlinks between blogs and health web sites for teens BIBAFull-Text 238-243
  Leanne Bowler; Daqing He; Wan Yin Hong
This study analyzes the hyperlinks leading to six teen health web sites from a specific form of social media -- blogs -- in order to discover who is referring teens to reliable health information. This was done by gathering inlink data using Google Webmaster Tools and then classifying inlink sources by type of creator. The study found that the teen health web sites in this study had a weak level of referrals from health-related groups compared to other organizations such as schools, and public libraries. With regard to blogs, we saw that personal blogs out-numbered blogs in any other category. We saw little evidence of blogs -- either personal or official -- created by health care professionals, a group which might be expected to actively refer teens to reliable health information. The weak network of inlinks leading from reliable health care providers is a lost opportunity for health care professionals to reach young people. Due to the weak network of inlinks from reliable health information sources, teens may not be accessing accurate and reliable health information. This could have a potential cost in terms of health outcomes. The results of this study present a snap shot rather than all-inclusive view of the visibility of teen health web sites and offer a starting point for further investigation.

Design

From technology to domain: the context of work for end-user development BIBAFull-Text 244-251
  Anna-Liisa Syrjänen; Kari Kuutti
The paper discusses the need to broaden the End User Programming and End User Development perspective to cover the entire context of end users' work. Though we have a better understanding of this context today than earlier in the systems development, the approaches have remained technology-design oriented and research processes without the explicit aspects of the end users' actual knowledge work. The paper argues that Developmental Work Research could be a solution to improve the research processes. A range of ideas from that body of work is included to show how the domain and the context of work could be integrated for End User Development approaches.
iControl: comparing control architectures in computing technology BIBAFull-Text 252-259
  Karen Pollock
This paper presents a comparison of the information control strategies inherent in two separate information technology designs: Microsoft's Next-Generation Secure Computing Base, announced in 2003, and Apple devices beginning with the corporation's first mobile device, the iPhone, released in 2008. Both technologies contain similar technical infrastructures which are by design conducive to opportunities for information control on the part of the manufacturer. As a result, both technologies were met with similar criticisms. The most significant of these argued that such rigid control would prevent users from modifying the devices, thereby hindering innovation in computing technology and substantially affecting how users interact with their own devices. Despite these similarities, Microsoft was forced to abandon the NGSCB design while Apple manufacturers rigidly controlled devices which have sold in the millions. As such, this paper seeks to understand the conditions for Apple's success. Apple did not suffer the political tensions between hardware and software manufacturers that contributed to the failure of the NGSCB, and also benefited from the strong brand power which Apple has been able to achieve since its return to the market early in the millennium. More significant, however, is the fact that Apple introduced control mechanisms on mobile devices, and not personal computers.
How did the computer disappear?: HCI during the experience of Second Life BIBAFull-Text 260-266
  Maeva Veerapen
This preliminary study utilizes an experiential perspective to critically examine the encounter between the human user and computer interface during the activity of participating in a virtual world called Second Life. Existing research on participation within virtual worlds has ignored the physical body's interactions with the computer. Referring to fieldwork notes collected during ethnographic research undertaken in Second Life over the past two years, I demonstrate the processes through which the computer interface is shifted to the background of the user's consciousness during the experience of being 'in' the virtual world. Rigid phenomenological analysis reveals that the encounter of the human user with the computer produces a new kind of being, whereby the user lives in terms of "I am allowed" for the duration of the human-computer interaction when in world. This finding allows to not only better understand the state of being of the human subject during the virtual world experience but also provides an approach and framework of analysis to examine what happens to the user during other activities from computer games and word processing on a desktop computer to games on an iPad.

Health Information

A study of user queries leading to a health information website: AfterTheInjury.org BIBAFull-Text 267-272
  Christopher C. Yang; Flaura Winston; Michael A. Zarro; Nancy Kassam-Adams
AfterTheInjury.org is a direct to health consumer, empirically-grounded Web-based program that is hosted by an academic medical center. Launched in 2009, it includes information and psycho-education interventional content for parents of injured children. This study analyzes search engine queries that led users to the website in order to better understand the informational needs of users of such a website. Query data were collected for the 2009 calendar year via Google Analytics, a widely used free website statistics and traffic analysis tool. Specific analyses included query length and the presence of question words. Results were compared between external and internal queries. Results from this study were put in the context of existing literature regarding user search behavior. Analyses demonstrated that external search engines were an important source of traffic to AfterTheInjury.org with 1 in 5 visits driven from the most popular search engines, Google, Yahoo and Bing. Queries were longer than typical queries (AfterTheInjury query averaged 6.27 terms; typical medical query, 2.3-2.4 terms).
   Nearly 1/4 of queries leading to AfterTheInjury.org took the form of questions: 22.7% of external searches were questions with 10.7% of external queries including the term "how". The low "bounce rate" (4.2%) suggested a match between user information needs and the content on AfterTheInjury.org; however, the relatively low number of visits (7,676) given the high number of injured children per year in the US (more than 8,000,000) suggests that parents of injured children with informational needs may not be finding AfterTheInjury.org. These findings highlight the potential utility of query analysis to understand informational needs of users. Query behavior for users of AfterTheInjury.org differed from query behavior for those seeking general information and provide insight into how to improve dissemination strategies for similar health-related websites.
Preferences for health information and decision-making: development of the Health Information Wants (HIW) questionnaire BIBAFull-Text 273-280
  Bo Xie; Mo Wang; Robert Feldman
The Health Information Wants (HIW) Questionnaire was developed to measure 1) a broad range of the types and amount of each type of information health consumers want to have in dealing with health-related issues; and 2) the degree to which health consumers want to participate in each type of decision-making in each corresponding area. With parallel items in each corresponding area of information and decision-making, this instrument can reveal the relationship between information and decision-making preferences in each area. This paper reports the multi-stage development process of this instrument that lasted for over two years. This process included: 1) a grounded theory-driven exploratory study that identified the core framework; 2) initial item development based on the literature and the exploratory study; 3) content validity testing; 4) cognitive testing; and 5) a pilot study testing the psychometrics of the instrument.
Note: Best Paper Award
Personal Health Records (PHR) and the future of the physician-patient relationship BIBAFull-Text 281-288
  Aaron Baird; Frederick North; T. S. Raghu
We provide early evidence that healthcare consumers plan to play a more active role in their healthcare through the use of a patient-centric information tool -- the Personal Health Record (PHR). We assess consumer attitudes, values, and beliefs of PHRs through the use of a focus group and further analyze the intention to adopt a PHR through the use of a survey based on the adoption of innovations model by Rogers [38]. We find that while barriers to PHR adoption exist -- such as concerns about privacy, security and the lack of visible use of PHRs by others within immediate social groups -- intention to use PHRs are high within our sample. This suggests that active consumer involvement in healthcare may be on the rise and, more importantly, that information may become a key mediator in the physician-patient relationship. While our findings are based on pilot studies consisting of relatively small sample sizes and subject to limited generalizability, these results do suggest that consumer empowerment has the potential to fundamentally alter traditional physician-patient paradigms.

Social Media

Migrants' information practices and use of social media in Ireland: networks and community BIBAFull-Text 289-295
  Lee Komito; Jessica Bates
Migrants, having left their home society and community, often depend on electronic modes of communication to maintain contacts with distant friends and relations. Their practices illustrate the affordances provided by social media when face to face communication is not available. This paper describes the information and communication practices of Polish and Filipino nationals in Ireland, based on interviews with over sixty-five migrants in 2009. Migrants display increased dependence on the Internet as an information source and use various electronic media to maintain significant contacts with friends and relations in their home societies. Social media (including Web 2.0) practices have an impact on long distance relations that previous technologies have not had, due to differences in the way these technologies are utilized. Social media usage is a passive monitoring that complements the active communication of first generation technologies; this monitoring creates a background awareness and presence in terms of which active communication takes place, which facilitates bonding as well as bridging capital. This enables resilient and durable transnational links, while also facilitating greater mobility for migrants.
The development of social network analysis research in mainland China: a literature review perspective BIBAFull-Text 296-303
  Yuxiang Zhao; Qinghua Zhu; Kewen Wu
Social Network Analysis (SNA) has been introduced to mainland China since the end of last century. Now it is a hot research field and can also be applied to study other disciplines as a research method or analysis tool. It is often stated that SNA research has experienced rapid growth in mainland China these years, but few studies have been conducted to prove the statement. This paper aims at exploring the research status and development of SNA in mainland China by a critical assessment of journal articles. Through selecting papers from China Academic Journals Full-text Database (CAJFD), a literature review is conducted to get an overview framework about SNA research both as a research object and a method in mainland China by bibliometric analysis and classification scheme based approach. Finally a discussion is made from the systematical data analysis, and an interesting finding is that the iSchool community in mainland China plays a leading role in the SNA related researches. Furthermore, some implications are put forward to explore how SNA can be applied to or fit with the IS-related disciplines or topics in the future.
'The internet is here': emergent coordination and innovation of protest forms in digital culture BIBAFull-Text 304-311
  Patrick Underwood; Howard T. Welser
The series of protests against the Church of Scientology known as "Project Chanology" marks the emergence of an important form of contemporary protest movement defined by networked internal structures and pervasive memetic culture. Such a protest movement is highly dynamic -- rapidly adapting to changing challenges and contextual settings. This cultural innovation is made possible by the increasing digital mediation of social life. In the following analysis, we trace the unique structural contours of Chanology, investigate how participants leveraged a unique internal structure and the memetic environment of the internet to grow, and conclude with an explanation of why the novel modes of protest used in Chanology contributed to its success and why these forms of protest are likely to proliferate in an increasingly digitally mediated environment. From a theoretical standpoint, Project Chanology both affirms and challenges conventional conceptions of social movements. The utility of Chwe's network analytical approach to the problems of coordination in social movements is also demonstrated.

Information Management

Spaces to control creative output of the knowledge worker: a managerial paradox? BIBAFull-Text 312-318
  April J. Spivack; Beth A. Rubin
Due to technological advances, knowledge workers have become more mobile, expanding the variety of environments in which they may complete work. Despite the affordances of technology, however, knowledge workers may not have the autonomy to use these alternative work sites. Autonomy is a key criterion to producing creative work as well, so limits to autonomy are especially troubling for creative knowledge workers tasked with generating creative solutions -- an increasingly important output to organizations given the turbulent environment. This paper draws on labor process theory to explore the sources that may be playing a role in diminishing the autonomy of these workers. Several propositions are presented relating forms of control, work environment options, autonomy, and creative performance.
Collaborative learning of ethical decision-making via simulated cases BIBAFull-Text 319-326
  Kenneth R. Fleischmann; Russell W. Robbins; William A. Wallace
This paper describes the development and evaluation of an educational simulation that supports collaborative learning of ethical decision-making (EDM). This collaboration-based simulation serves as the core component of an information ethics course. Twenty-two graduate students used the simulation during the second half of a semester-long course. Twenty of the twenty-two students (91%) completed a written survey describing their experiences with the simulation as well as the course as a whole. The research question is: What did students learn from using the simulation as part of this course? Salient themes that emerged from the analysis included that students gained a greater understanding of the following: 1) their own EDM, 2) the EDM of others, 3) the importance of EDM; 4) the complexity of EDM, and 5) how EDM can be applied to their careers and everyday lives. Overall, using the simulation proved to be an effective collaborative learning experience for students.
"Cool" or "monster"?: company takeovers and their effect on open source community participation BIBAFull-Text 327-331
  Aditya Johri; Oded Nov; Raktim Mitra
In this study, we investigate the effect of takeover announcements made by open-source software (OSS) steward firms, on participation in an OSS newcomers' online community. We examine a MySQL newcomer forum before and after two takeover announcements -- the January 2008 announcement of MySQL's takeover by Sun Microsystems, and the April 2009 announcement of Sun's takeover by Oracle. We find that the impact on participation depends on how the acquiring company is perceived. The announcement of an acquisition by a company perceived as hostile had a negative effect on participation, whereas announcement of acquisition by a more friendly company was found to have no effect on participation. These changes in participation occurred without any accompanying change in the product itself, or its licensing. This work provides the evidence of the effect of external events on online participation.

Social Media

Do you believe in love at first sight: effects of media richness via modalities on viewers' overall impressions of online dating profiles BIBAFull-Text 332-339
  Seoyeon Lee; Yuan Sun; Elizabeth Thiry
This research investigates the relationship between media modalities of personal profile and overall impression in the context of online dating. Drawing from Media Richness Theory [1] and MAIN Model [2], the present study examines how different media modalities of online dating profiles (text only, text and audio, text and video) trigger cognitive heuristics and influence impression formation, memory of profile contents and behavior intention. Participants (N = 266) were exposed to fictitious online dating profiles presented via text-only, text and audio-, text and video modalities. Results indicated the media modalities have significant impacts on generating cognitive heuristics and memory of the profile contents, where gender differences and priming effects play important roles. Only the effects of profile modalities on memory of profile contents were found in our study. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings for understanding the structural relationship among modality, cognitive heuristics, and overall impression are considered. Limitations and future directions are also discussed.
Coordinating the ordinary: social information uses of Facebook by adults BIBAFull-Text 340-347
  Donghee Yvette Wohn; Cliff Lampe; Jessica Vitak; Nicole B. Ellison
Social network sites (SNSs) are bundles of information and communication tools that can be used to support collaboration, among other uses. In a qualitative study of adult Facebook users (N=18), we found that some users did turn to the site for information uses that are embedded in social activities, including organizing events, establishing online groups, and seeking information. We also discuss the features of Facebook that respondents discussed as being important to these uses.
Blogs: spinning a web of virality BIBAFull-Text 348-355
  Karine Nahon; Jeff Hemsley; Shawn Walker; Muzammil Hussain
The aim of this study is to understand the role of bloggers in driving viral information. More specifically, we develop a new methodology that creates a map of the 'life cycle' of blogs posting links to viral information. Our dataset focuses blogs linking to the most significant viral videos of the 2008 US presidential election. To do so, we gathered data on all blogs (n=9,765) and their posts (n=13,173) linking to 65 of the top US presidential election videos that went viral on the Internet during the period between March 2007 and June 2009. Among other things, our findings illuminate the importance of different types of blogs: elite, top-political, top-general and tail blogs. We also found that while elite and top-general blogs create political information, they drive and sustain the viral process, whereas top-political and tail blogs act as followers in the process.

Health Information

Information grounds and micro information seeking: unpacking the complexities of community education and recruitment in breast screening service delivery BIBAFull-Text 356-362
  Jo-Anne Kelder; Christopher Lueg
Public health education is an important part of national health systems that is intended to have a positive impact on the health behaviours of citizens and prevent health problems developing that require costly interactions with the acute health care system. In this paper we report findings from a twelve month ethnographic case study that collected observation, document/artefact and semi-structured interview data related to the information activities involved in community education work, specifically the targeted delivery of breast cancer information to relevant parts of a demographically defined community. We applied Leckie et al's (1996) model of the information behavior of professionals to highlight specific characteristics of different tasks and environments involved in professional breast cancer information delivery. The two main contributions of the paper are 1. an analysis of the way information grounds are both sought and leveraged in order to distribute information in breast cancer information delivery, and 2. the importance of (and understanding of) micro-information seeking in leveraging information grounds.
Barriers to the adoption and use of personal health record systems BIBAFull-Text 363-370
  Leslie S. Liu; Patrick C. Shih; Gillian R. Hayes
Personal health records (PHR) have enormous potential to improve both documentation of health information and patient care. The adoption of these systems, however, has been relatively slow. In this work, we used a multi-method approach to evaluate PHR systems. We interviewed potential end users -- clinicians and patients -- and conducted evaluations with patients and caregivers as well as a heuristic evaluation with HCI experts. In these studies, we focused on three PHR systems: Google Health, Microsoft HealthVault, and WorldMedCard. Our results demonstrate that both usability concerns and socio-cultural influences are barriers to PHR adoption and use. In this paper, we present those results as well as reflect on how both PHR designers and developers might address these issues now and throughout the design cycle.
This is the real me: a community informatics researcher joins the barrio arts, culture, and communication academy in a health information campaign BIBAFull-Text 371-378
  Chaebong Nam; Ann Peterson Bishop
In this paper, we describe the ongoing collaboration in community informatics (CI) between the University of Illinois and Paseo Boricua, a neighborhood in Chicago. We illustrate the nature of the partnership by presenting an early set of findings from one specific study that grew from the partnership: a qualitative CI study that investigated the community-based health campaign led by youth on Paseo Boricua. Study findings deal with knowledge that sits at the intersection of youth development, community health promotion, and digital media literacy, and how that knowledge was discovered, created, and disseminated. In addition, we discuss study issues significant for the field of CI research. This paper is especially relevant for those whose research, teaching, and professional practice involves engagement with marginalized communities, that is, those who are often excluded from scholarly endeavors and meaningful social interaction in academia.

eGovernment

Infrastructure and standards in Thai digital government BIBAFull-Text 379-386
  Steven J. Jackson; Radaphat Chongthammakun
Standards and infrastructure pose both theoretical and empirical challenges for digital government scholarship. For their part, scholars of standards and infrastructure have tended to neglect digital government development and public administration more generally as interesting sites of standards work. This paper addresses this gap, bringing concepts and methods from the sociology of standards and infrastructure to bear on the practice of digital government development in Thailand. We analyze efforts at IT-related information and service standardization in the Thai public sector, and describe a series of sociotechnical tensions and challenges that have faced, and sometimes stalled, efforts at digital government development.
The open government directive: a preliminary assessment BIBAFull-Text 387-394
  Susan Copeland Wilson; Dennis Linders
President Obama has committed his administration to a presumption of openness in government. In this paper, the authors examine the 2009 Open Government Directive (OGD) and federal agencies' Open Government Plans to identify the drivers, trends, and challenges in establishing this posture. To provide perspective, the paper assesses the Directive within the context of the existing legislative framework and the plans themselves. The authors consider the impact of the OGD's dominant emphasis on technology. The paper concludes with suggested areas for future research with an eye towards advancing an understanding of open government through the lenses of society, policy, and technology.
Promoting social inclusion through public library e-government partnerships BIBAFull-Text 395-401
  John Carlo Bertot; Paul T. Jaeger
This paper explores the issues faced by public libraries in the provision of e-government access and education to their patrons and communities, particularly through partnerships with other community organizations aimed at promoting social inclusion of disadvantaged populations. Due to a complex set of factors -- including policy decisions, widespread trust of libraries, and a lack of social institutions that play similar roles -- public libraries now stand as a significant social guarantor of public access to and education about e-government in the United States. Drawing from data collected through a 2009 national survey of public libraries, a 2009 series of site visits of public libraries, and previous research by the authors, this paper examines the challenges of implementing public library networks and connectivity to support e-government access and education, as well as the numerous management issues raised by providing these services. The primary focus of this paper is examining the dual role of public libraries as providers of public Internet access and education and as partners with government agencies and other community organizations to collaborate effectively in the provision of e-government to meet community needs.

Collaboration

Good bones: anthropological scientific collaboration around computed tomography data BIBAFull-Text 402-409
  Andrea H. Tapia; Rosalie Ocker; Mary Beth Rosson; Bridget Blodgett
We report preliminary results from a socio-technical analysis of scientific collaboration, specifically a loosely connected group of physical anthropology researchers. Working from a combination of interview data and artifact analysis, we identify current barriers to the scientists' collaboration as it relates to a valuable but scarce resource, a high-resolution computer tomography scanner. We analyze a two-layer structure of the collaboration, one that is loosely coupled through shared scanner access and use; and one that is tightly coupled through shared creative development of research questions, data analysis and interpretation. We conclude with implications for enhancements to the sociotechnical context and supporting infrastructure.
NGO collaborations: sharing and pooling projects BIBAFull-Text 410-416
  Kartikeya Bajpai; Edgar Maldonado; Louis-Marie Ngamassi; Andrea H. Tapia; Carleen Maitland
Humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are increasingly facing challenges due to the growing number of actors in the humanitarian relief sector as well as the high incidence of natural disasters. A prominent means of mitigating these challenges is through the mediation of inter-organizational structures such as collaboration bodies, which attempt to find mechanisms to coordinate information technology and information management (IT/IM). The intent of this paper is to understand the coordination mechanisms undertaken by collaboration bodies focused on IT/IM. The two prominent forms of initiatives used by collaboration bodies to achieve these ends are sharing and pooling projects. Sharing projects are those projects which seek resources from members within the collaboration body. Conversely, pooling projects look to procure resources from outside the confines of the collaboration body. This study utilizes a comparative case study approach to generate a set of propositions regarding the characteristics and implications of technological infrastructure based collaborations.
How institutional factors influence the creation of scientific metadata BIBAFull-Text 417-425
  Matthew S. Mayernik; Archer L. Batcheller; Christine L. Borgman
Access to high volumes of digital data offer researchers in all disciplines the possibility to ask new kinds of questions using computational methods. Burgeoning digital data collections, however, challenge established data management and analysis methods. Data management is a multi-pronged institutionalized effort, spanning technology, policies, metadata, and everyday data practices. In this paper, we focus on the last two components: metadata and everyday data practices. We demonstrate how "frictions" arise in creating and managing metadata. These include standardization frictions, temporal frictions, data sharing frictions, and frictions related to the availability of human support. Through an illustration of these frictions in case studies of three large, distributed, collaborative science projects, we show how the degree of metadata institutionalization can strongly influence data management needs and practices.

Metrics

Analysis on open access citation advantage: an empirical study based on Oxford open journals BIBAFull-Text 426-432
  Lifang Xu; Jinhong Liu; Qing Fang
This study takes 12,354 original research articles which were published in 93 Oxford Open journals in 2009 as a sample, and carries out statistic analyses on the citation frequency that these articles have received by July 2010 to validate 3 hypotheses: (1) there is citation advantage for open access articles (OACA) published in Oxford Open journals over the non-OA ones; (2) OACA varies with disciplines; (3) there is some correlation between the impact factors(IFs) of Oxford Open journals and the OACA of their open access articles. This study discovers that: there exists OACA for open access articles, in this case 138.87% higher over non-OA ones; different subjects have different OACAs, and Humanities journals in Oxford Open have even a negative OACA; Oxford Open journals with lower IFs have stronger OACAs than those with higher IFs.
Of values and functionality: the sequestering nonpositive reviews in an online feedback system BIBAFull-Text 433-437
  David A. Askay
The positive bias commonly found in online feedback systems suggests the presence of a marginalized group of users that sequester their non-positive reviews, excluding these users from participation in social discourse. To understand the barriers to participation, this paper analyzes unsolicited online forum discussions of a virtual community to identify features of an online feedback system that may act as barriers to contribution. By examining conflicts between user perceptions of values and functionality of the system, this study reveals that character limitations to reviews and restricted labeling conventions discourage users from contributing non-positive feedback.
Innovation strategies under uncertain economic and political circumstances: Argentinean ICT SMEs BIBAFull-Text 438-445
  Martha Garcia-Murillo; Sergio A. Hinestrosa
The purpose of this paper is to determine how innovation happens in countries that experience risks and uncertainty. We analyzed the Argentinean telecom sector with a focus on small and medium-size enterprises. The research relies on interviews with companies offering information and communication services in diverse regions of the country. Departing from Porter's identification of strategies, we find that economic and political uncertainties lead to significant differences in strategies. We were able to identify strategies that prevail under suboptimal regulatory conditions. These are: 1) survival; 2) slow modernization; 3) infrastructure capitalization; and 4) diversification and customization. We recommend that in order to channel the creativity and innovation capabilities of these entities, governments could help produce a less uncertain and risky environment if they had a more predictable regulatory environment.

Search

A comparison of how users search on web finding and re-finding tasks BIBAFull-Text 446-451
  Hsiao-Tieh Pu; Xin-Yu Jiang
This study is to investigate how users search for web information for the first time (information finding) and locate previously found results on a subsequent effort (information re-finding). It constructs a two-staged experiment and employs various methods to compare users' search performance on different types of search tasks. The preliminary results show that participants in the study produced more interactions with search tools in the re-finding stage. Though the participants spent less time in the re-finding than that in the finding stage, the difference was not significant. It is worth noting that in some cases the search performance of re-finding was even lower than that of finding. This reveals that re-finding may not work effectively for all search tasks. Further research is needed to investigate on what circumstances users had better initiate new searches rather than repeat previous searches in the re-finding stage.
The influence of commercial intent of search results on their perceived relevance BIBAFull-Text 452-458
  Dirk Lewandowski
We carried out a retrieval effectiveness test on the three major web search engines (i.e., Google, Microsoft and Yahoo). In addition to relevance judgments, we classified the results according to their commercial intent and whether or not they carried any advertising. We found that all search engines provide a large number of results with a commercial intent. Google provides significantly more commercial results than the other search engines do. However, the commercial intent of a result did not influence jurors in their relevance judgments.

Social Inclusion

Low-cost assistive technology in the developing world: a research agenda for information schools BIBAFull-Text 459-465
  Joyojeet Pal; Ugo Vallauri; Victor Tsaran
The opening of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) has brought mainstream attention to and expanded the scope of disability rights in many countries throughout the world. In addition to the rights that are guaranteed for citizens in signatory nations by the UNCRPD, the convention also requires nation-states to further the access to Assistive Technology (AT) among their populations. For this promise to turn into reality, there is an urgent need for expanded research into AT and Accessibility issues, to lower the cost of these technologies throughout the world. The prevalent market scenario for AT products, specifically in regard to vision impairments, which we look into here, has ensured that most computing and communications technologies for persons with disabilities remain affordable only for people in the industrialized world. We argue that information schools are uniquely positioned to take the lead in furthering a culture of research into low-cost AT and accessibility. Information schools have a fundamentally inter-disciplinary mandate and are uniquely positioned to both inform the technical issues around the development of new AT, the design and HCI factors inherent, and also the sociological issues around technology adoption. While such AT research should ideally come from the developing world, there are significant challenges in capacity-building, especially given that a majority of current AT research centers are located in North America, Western Europe, Japan, or South Korea. We argue that the need for collaborations with AT producers and on-site primary research with AT users can be best fulfilled by institutions with proximity to producers, and the ability to create networks for research with users around the world. Information schools are uniquely positioned to play the leading role now, and create pathways for capacity building in institutions around the world in the future.
Governance of labor in digital video networks BIBAFull-Text 466-471
  Adam Fish
Theories of digitally distributed labor tend to fall into an idealized, oppositional binary that conflates digital labor systems with critiques that are judgmental rather than based on detailed analyses of the actual system or site. On the one hand are celebrations of user-generated content emerging out of the free time and willful contributions of millions of people. On the other hand are accounts of digital labor and exploitation that argue for the dystopic effects of flexible capitalist labor outsourcing. This paper argues for an inductive model of analysis that considers these two perspectives within the context of practices within the sites or systems themselves. This is all the more important when one analyzes emerging social enterprises, which attempt to fulfill a primary social, non-capitalist outcome while still maintaining a competitive position within the market. To demonstrate my argument for hybridity, I present one social enterprises that navigates the utopic and dystopic positions presented above: (1) the user-generated television network Current TV. This case study was selected because it is a for-profit social enterprise that employs digital technologies to accumulate, distribute, and coordinate multiple forms of networked production. I examine how the corporate celebrations of "democratized" or "distributed" work function for the case study in question. My point is that with a critical analysis of the case study theories can be developed that are analytically resonant with digital labor sites and systems.
The cybernavigators of Chicago public library and the 'informatics moment': the information revolution in civil society and people's everyday lives BIBAFull-Text 472-477
  Kate Williams
Community informatics research examines how people in their everyday lives, in civil society, are navigating the information revolution. An empirical study is underway in Chicago, USA, of the process whereby public library patrons get help with using computers and the internet. This involves the public library providing 1) networked public access computers and 2) helping staff called CyberNavigators. The focus here is on the latter, and four key findings have emerged. First, the process of getting help from a CyberNavigator is a particular instance of a central process in the information society that we call the 'informatics moment.' Second, this informatics moment entails four types of digital literacy work. Third, social capital is a critical contributing factor. And finally, by means of this informatics moment and the staffing arrangement that has evolved to support it, the conscious invention of the branch public library of the future is underway.

Design

XooML: XML in support of many tools working on a single organization of personal information BIBAFull-Text 478-488
  William Jones
XooML takes a step towards addressing a basic tension in the development of supporting tools of Personal Information Management (PIM) and, more generally, in the development of computer-based tools for end users: How to innovate without forcing people to re-organize or re-locate their information? Seven considerations in the design of a XooML schema follow from experiences in the iterative evaluation and development of a Planz prototype. Considerations take aim on a vision of PIM: One integrative structure for the organization of personal information; many tools in support of this structure, its creation and its life-long elaborative use.
Managing music across multiple devices and computers BIBAFull-Text 489-495
  Justin Brinegar; Robert Capra
In this paper we present results from a study to understand how people use, synchronize, and backup personal digital music collections across multiple devices and computers. We conducted a survey of a university community including students, faculty, and staff, with 184 respondents. Our findings show that the sizes of music collections follow an exponential distribution curve both in terms of number of songs and collection size in gigabytes. Over 50% of the participants in this study owned more than one portable music player and a majority of respondents (82%) listened to music on their mobile player 2-3 times per week or more. We report techniques that participants commonly described for synchronizing portable MP3 players with music collections, and common problems they experienced. We also describe results about music backup and recovery strategies described by respondents and how they synchronize music across multiple computers. Our results give insights into the under-studied area of personal digital music management and provide suggestions for tasks that would benefit from improved tools and practices.
Personalized location-based services BIBAFull-Text 496-502
  Yiming Liu; Erik Wilde
Location-Based Services (LBS) are based on a combination of the inherent location information about specific data, and/or the location information supplied by LBS clients, requesting location-specific and otherwise customized services. The integration of location-annotated data with existing personal and public information and services creates opportunities for insightful new views on the world, and allows rich, personalized, and contextualized user experiences. One of the biggest constraints of current LBS is that most of them are essentially vertical services. These current designs makes it hard for users to integrate LBS from a variety of service providers, either to create intermediate value-added services such as social information sharing facilities, or to facilitate client-side aggregations and mashups across specific LBS providers. Our approach, the Tiled Feeds architecture, applies the well-established, standard Web service pattern of feeds, and extends it with query and location-based features. Using this approach, LBS on the Web can be exposed in a generalized and aggregation-friendly way. We believe this approach can be used to facilitate the creation of standardized, Web-friendly, horizontally integrated location-based services.

iSchools

Data mining technology across academic disciplines BIBAFull-Text 503-507
  Lesley Farmer
University courses in data mining across the United States are taught primarily in departments of business, computer science/engineering, statistics, and library/information science. Faculty in each of these departments teach data mining with a unique emphasis, although there is considerable overlap relative to course offerings, terminology, technology, resources, and faculty publications. Content analysis research aims to describe in detail the range of data mining technology differences and overlap across academic disciplines.
The influence of self-efficacy, gender stereotypes and the importance of it skills on college students' intentions to pursue IT careers BIBAFull-Text 508-513
  Lynette Kvasny; KD Joshi; Eileen Trauth
Diversity-related themes such as social inclusion, community informatics, and broadening participation in undergraduate and graduate education are consistently discussed at the i-Conference. In this paper, the authors examine three factors (self-efficacy, gender stereotypes about IT skills, and the importance of IT skills) which are critical in shaping career choices of the iSchool undergraduate population. To further our understanding of human diversity, we seek to determine if there is variation in these three factors by race/ethnicity. The findings suggest that students across racial and ethnic backgrounds are similar in their beliefs about job skills required for IT careers as well as their ability to acquire and perform these skills. However, students seem to be more confident in their non-technical skills and place highest importance on human skills. Information science undergraduate programs may, therefore, need to place greater emphasis on the transfer of technical skills and educate students about the importance of these skills in the workplace.
Social media futures: why iSchools should care BIBAFull-Text 514-521
  Michael J. Scialdone; Anthony J. Rotolo; Jaime Snyder
Social Media Futures was a 3 day charrette at a major university that brought together students with various backgrounds to consider the future impact of social media on business, and to think about what opportunities that might create. However, topics that arose touched on a variety of themes that included social media communities, ownership, privacy and governance of user-generated content on social networks, and how social media may impact education and learning at all ages. This paper provides our observations from this multi-disciplinary charrette, and articulates why iSchools need to be concerned with social media.

Visualization

Analyzing global cyberscapes: mapping geo-coded internet information BIBAFull-Text 522-530
  Matthew Zook; Mark Graham; Taylor Shelton
This paper explores the representation of physical places in geocoded data on the Internet or what we term cyberscapes of augmented reality. Drawing upon data gathered from Google Maps, Wikipedia and Flickr, this article provides a cartographic analysis of user generated and directory generated cyberscapes. The fact that millions of people are creating many more millions of spatial representations (in addition to the existing listings in more formal directories) means that this emerging new layer of place is difficult to describe, map and study. Yet, the importance of this new digital layer to our understandings of place means that new methods have to be adopted in order to answer to some fundamental questions.
A vision for information visualization in information science BIBAFull-Text 531-537
  Marilyn Ostergren; Jeff Hemsley; Miranda Belarde-Lewis; Shawn Walker
This paper presents the case for Information Visualization (IV) to be a central, integrated component of study in Information Science. We summarize the current state of IV within iSchools, the market demand for IV skills, the intellectual contributions of IV to the field of Information Science and the potential intellectual contributions of Information Science to the field of IV. We conclude with three, non-exclusive scenarios for the inclusion of IV into the iSchool curriculum as first steps toward realizing this: integration throughout the curriculum, a core course, and a specialization tract.
Note: Best Paper Award
Visualization, causation, and history BIBAFull-Text 538-545
  Robert B. Allen
History may be seen as a tapestry of interwoven events. The discourse structure of that tapestry may be identified and used to support visualization for examining and interacting with the tapestry of history. Specifically, we propose temporally constrained causal relationships as a key for organizing that tapestry. Because Events occur at different levels of granularity and similar ones may occur with cumulative effect, we introduce Trends. Trends are first-class objects; that is, in this model Trends may be causes of Events. To facilitate interaction with a rich tapestry of complex historical events such as the American Civil War, we also introduce Threads. These are chains of Events, and presentations of them may be considered a type of narrative. We describe a panel-oriented visualization interface that shows causal Threads of Events and Trends leading up to the Civil War. This initial prototype is intended to present history at the level of an intermediate textbook. Finally, we introduce a semi-formal notation for describing Events, Threads, and Trends, and propose directions for future research to refine the prototype that may enable broader, deeper, more flexible, and more complete exploration/presentation of historical materials.

Knowledge Organization

Notes toward a politics of personalization BIBAFull-Text 546-551
  Michael Sean Murphy
A recommender system is an information organization tool which extracts knowledge of individual users of a specific (online) resource based on their activity within that domain, and uses this knowledge to generate for them individual recommendations. These recommendations are made based on the broad assumption that people who have agreed on some things in the past will likely agree on things in the future. [1] Because these systems classify content based on how it is engaged with by previous users, they have emerged as an effective (and profitable) way to organize content on the web, the web itself being resistant, almost by its very nature, to the imposition of top-down, ontological classificatory control. [2]
   This paper interrogates some of the assumptions and biases involved in the personalized organization and presentation of digital media content, in an effort to devise a more critical analysis of the economic, technical, and social forces that contribute to the growing popularity of the personalized recommender systems. It pays particular attention to how personalized content filtering finds expression in the recommendation engines of taste-coordinating websites like Amazon and Pandora, in the self-organization of information through social classification sites like LibraryThing and Delicious, in the adaptive capabilities of next generation search engines (what Michael Zimmer refers to as "Search 2.0"), and finally within locational media software like FourSquare. Discussion of these recommender systems will refer to their mechanics as well as their accompanying rhetoric, which often associates the personalized delivery of content with a more empowered individual user.
   Promises of individual empowerment attached to emerging expressions of personalized media are generally made in opposition to the broadcast media model of the mass market. The concluding section of this paper will examine the rhetoric of these promises in a discussion that considers such novel adaptations of content production and delivery as a market response to current media configurations. These adaptations, it will be argued, serve in large part to define differences to be "commercially exploited." [3] The nurturing of differentiated markets represents a potential challenge to some of the very characteristics that have traditionally been associated with the internet's social and political potential.
An emergent culture model for discerning tag semantics in folksonomies BIBAFull-Text 552-560
  David J. Saab
Social bookmarking sites as Flickr, del.icio.us, and CiteULike have incorporated the use of tags as way for users to retrieve photos, URLs, and citations in a way that is personally meaningful and which doesn't require learning taxonomies constructed by professionals. These tag sets, or folksonomies, have the potential to enhance interoperability among our information systems, especially those that use computational ontologies. Formal computational ontologies form the foundation for semantic interoperability, but seem to be insufficient in facilitating it because the ontologies developed for different information systems do not have an inherent mechanism for negotiating meaning or recognizing the natural evolution of a lexicon. Coupling folksonomies with formal ontologies holds potential for more productive semantic interoperability among systems. In order to reach that potential, we need to understand more clearly the process of discerning semantics in tag sets as entry points into the complex conceptual networks that generate meaning within cognition. This paper will explore that semantics involved in "emergent semantics" in tag sets and introduce an emergent culture model that will help clarify how folksonomies can be utilized in this endeavor.
Post-based collaborative filtering for personalized tag recommendation BIBAFull-Text 561-568
  Caimei Lu; Xiaohua Hu; Jung-ran Park; Jia Huang
Social tagging provides a collaborative approach for information organization. The tags created by users in social tagging system not only contain rich semantic information about the described web objects, but also provide a window for information providers to learn a user's information interests and preferences. However, the tags created by a user for a document are always limited in terms of quantity and quality. Tag recommendation, especially personalized tag recommendation has been proposed as an approach to address this problem. In this paper, we develop a post-based collaborative filtering framework for personalized tag recommendation based on the tripartite social tagging network. The proposed method is evaluated and compared with a range of methods based on a real world social tagging dataset. The F-score and NDCG calculated to evaluate the recommendation results. The experimental results show that the proposed method can always generate the best results compared to other methods.

Security

Informing security indicator design in web browsers BIBAFull-Text 569-575
  Pan Shi; Heng Xu; Xiaolong (Luke) Zhang
In this paper, we aim at providing conceptual and empirical insights to the design of security indicators in web browsers. In examining why security indicators in web browsers fail to warn users about web frauds, we propose affordance-based principles for our new design of web authentication indicators. Following these principles, we present a new design for Extended Validation (EV) certificate interface in the Firefox browser. We then conduct an exploratory qualitative study to evaluate three different versions of EV indicators. Our findings offer some preliminary implications for the designs of more effective web authentication indicators.

Design

Exploring technology through the design lens: a case study of an interactive museum technology BIBAFull-Text 583-590
  Eileen Gillette; Heather L. O'Brien; Julia Bullard
In this paper we explore the design of a museum system developed to increase accessibility to and interaction with a museum collection. We conducted a case study in which we interviewed participants involved in the design project, and reviewed documentation that spanned a decade of planning, building, and implementation. The goal of this research is to explore information interaction through the lens of a interdisciplinary team, which consisted of systems and museum personnel. In doing so, we emphasize the human and collaborative elements of design, and the human-to-human exchange in developing technology in the museum setting.
Multi-lifespan information system design: investigating a new design approach in Rwanda BIBAFull-Text 591-597
  Lisa P. Nathan; Milli Lake; Nell Carden Grey; Trond Nilsen; Robert F. Utter; Elizabeth J. Utter; Mark Ring; Zoe Kahn; Batya Friedman
In this paper we report on our research and design efforts to provide Rwandans with access to and reuse of video interviews discussing the failures and successes of the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (UN-ICTR). We describe our general approach and report on three case studies with diverse sectors of Rwandan society: governmental information centres, youth clubs, and a grassroots organization working with victims of sexual violence. Our work includes the development and application of five indicators to assess the success and limitations of our approach: diverse stakeholders; diverse uses; on-going use; cultural, linguistic and geographic reach; and Rwandan initiative. This work makes three important contributions: first, it offers the information field a design approach for use in post-conflict situations; second, it provides near-term evaluation indicators as an initial set others can build from and extend; third, it describes the first empirical explorations of the multi-lifespan information system design research approach.
Mobile options for online public access catalogs BIBAFull-Text 598-605
  Yongyi Zhou; Ramona Broussard; Matthew Lease
As mobile devices continue to proliferate and become more tightly integrated with our daily activities, a number of libraries have begun deploying customized mobile Web portals and applications to promote accessibility for patrons. Despite rapid growth of these mobile solutions, their novelty has meant relatively little is known about the alternatives and tradeoffs in designing for mobile access to libraries. To investigate these issues, we describe three complementary approaches. First, we report on a content analysis comparing mobile solutions offered by 22 institutions. Next, we present a user survey of university students, staff, and faculty regarding their uses and needs for mobile catalog access. Based on these findings, we describe a prototype mobile application we built to provide mobile access to our own university's library catalog. Overall, we find that libraries have several tiered options that make it simple to provide basic functionality with relatively little effort and deliver a significantly improved user experience in comparison to relying on traditional browser-based solutions.

eLearning

The structure of collaborative problem solving in a virtual math team BIBAFull-Text 606-613
  Gerry Stahl
To understand how small groups use information to solve problems collaboratively within socio-technical environments, we need a method for analyzing the structure of computer-mediated discourse. Conversation analysis offers an analysis of conversational talk in terms of a fine structure of adjacency pairs and offers some suggestions about longer sequences built on these pairs. This paper presents a case study of students solving a math problem in an online text-chat environment. It shows that their problem-solving discourse consists of a sequence of exchanges, each built on a base adjacency pair and each contributing a move in the solution process.
More than the usual suspects: the physical self and other resources for learning to program using a 3D avatar environment BIBAFull-Text 614-621
  Kate Starbird; Leysia Palen
This paper presents results from a video-based analysis of non-programmers' use of a new platform for end-user programming, the 3D Avatar Programming System (3DAPS). We use micro-ethnographic analytic methods to understand how learning about programming occurs. We discuss how the management of internal and external cognitive representations of 3D movement information leverages existing, embodied knowledge to unravel less familiar knowledge -- that of programmatic instruction. In other words, the 3D movement serves as the language of translation between the representations to support learning. We also examine how shared code is used as an educational resource in a learning environment without a teacher.
Emerging contexts for science education: embedding a forensic science game in a virtual world BIBAFull-Text 622-629
  Carlos Monroy; Yvonne Klisch; Leslie M. Miller
Advancements in technology are transforming the educational landscape at a rapid pace, impacting educators, students, and researchers. In particular, educators are increasingly using computer-based games as learning environments with a focus on education over entertainment. The emerging phenomenon of serious gaming requires new approaches to serve the growing number of people using them and to better understand their effectiveness, impact, and the challenges they pose. Serious games offer fertile ground for studying the interactions among people, technology, and information (the core components in information science). In this paper, we describe an approach for integrating an existing forensic science game into a virtual world for adolescents known as Whyville. We explain the rationale in our approach, the infrastructure involved in embedding a game in a virtual world, the challenges we faced, and the lessons learned. A total of 2,206 people played the game throughout the 35 days it was available. The results of the players' survey responses and comments on how they explored this information space are analyzed. Our approach offers an interesting glimpse of how people between the ages of 11 and 18 explore a science game hosted within a virtual world.

Posters

eScience professional positions in the job market: a content analysis of job advertisements BIBAFull-Text 630-631
  Benjamin Kwasi Addom; Youngseek Kim; Jeffrey M. Stanton
We have observed the emerging needs of the new information professions in science and engineering disciplines, called "eScience Professionals." The purpose of this research is to analyze the job advertisements (ads) of eScience professionals as accessible indicators of the work duties and the worker characteristics required for eScience professional positions by employers. Two hundred job ads were gathered between November 2009 and April 2010 (for 6 months), and then content analysis of job ads including the work environments, the works performed, and the worker competencies required was conducted. This job ads analysis shows the emerging needs of eScience professionals in the job market, and it presents eScience professionals' major work duties and their Knowledge, Skills, Ability, and Others (KSAOs) required.
Guiding educational resources for iSchool students with topic-based adaptive visualization BIBAFull-Text 632-633
  Jae-wook Ahn; Peter Brusilovsky
Information visualizations can be applied to the educational domain in order to help the students access appropriate educational resources. We present a novel adaptive visualization method that supports navigations through class materials according to the lecture topics. The map-based adaptive annotations and the relevance-based visualizations are supported in the framework. We are going to use the system in a real iSchool class and will conduct a user study in order to validate the effectiveness of the idea.
Moving beyond sharing vs. withholding to understand how scientists share data through large-scale, open access databases BIBAFull-Text 634-635
  Dharma Akmon
In this poster, I argue that our knowledge of data sharing in science needs an approach that focuses on the sharing process. While there have been a number of studies on the prevalence of sharing and withholding behavior in science, few address the complexity of sharing behavior by looking at how scientists share data through open databases. A review of literature on communication and exchange in science, the nature and role of data and databases, and studies of data sharing and withholding suggests that we must move beyond simple conceptions of sharing vs. withholding to fully understand sharing behavior.
UCOL -- Iowa City UNESCO City of Literature: mobile application research & development BIBAFull-Text 636-637
  Derek Andes; Jim Cremer; Bridget Draxler; Nicole Dudley; Lauren Haldeman; Haowei Hsieh; Peter Likarish; Dat Tien Nguyen; Cristina Sarnelli; Jon Winet
Iowa City was designated one of only four City of Literature by UNESCO. To take advantage of the rich literary history of authors and locations, an interdisciplinary research team collaborated to develop an information system to embrace the treasure. This paper outlines the implementation and development, as well as a brief research plan of the project.
Factors affecting selection of information sources: a study of Ramkhamhaeng University Regional Campuses graduate students BIBAFull-Text 638-639
  Peemasak Angchun; Philip Turner; Lin Lin; Daniel Alemneh
Regional students succeed in their studies when they can easily access information through convenient sources. Therefore, the researcher will investigate factors affecting regional students' selection of information sources to meet their information needs, as well as investigate these regional students' satisfaction with Ramkhamhaeng University (RU) Regional Library Services and their satisfaction with the perceived quality of information retrieved from other information sources. The researcher applies The Principle of Least Effort for this study. This principle governs and predicts the choices of these regional students' selection of information channel qualities (i.e. convenience, ease of use, familiarity, availability, accessibility, and proximity of libraries to home or work), whereas Simon's Satisficing Theory explains the selection and use of the information retrieved without considering whether the information is optimal. Furthermore, the researcher will determine to what extent information channel qualities affect how often students use information sources. This means that the most convenient, easier to use, and familiar the information channel qualities are, the most information sources will be selected and used. The researcher will gather the data with a survey method. The population is composed of approximately 3,000 graduate students who will enroll in classes in the spring of 2011 at RU Regional Campuses (RURCs). The researcher will employ a stratified random sampling technique to select a sample from the population that is divided into separate groups (strata) by geographical locations (South, North, Central, and Northeast). The total sample size of this study is 353 representatives of these graduate students. The researcher will analyze data by using the Statistics Package for Social Science (SPSS) program for Windows The researcher will use both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics consist of frequency, percentage rate, arithmetic mean, and standard deviation. The inferential statistics will be evaluated using a multiple regression method. The researcher will discuss the results from this study and compare them with previous research. The researcher expects the finding to provide practical advice to librarians to improve their services and to provide suggestions for administrators of RU's library systems for improving the information sources and the quality of information retrieved. The researcher will provide a new model of information-seeking behavior to contribute new knowledge of library services to the Thai community in the field of library and information science. This study will help stakeholders provide new technologies, such as Web portal to library services, in order to allow equal access to information of students at each RURCs.
Learning from YouTube: an analysis of information literacy in user discourse BIBAFull-Text 640-642
  Marlene Asselin; Teresa Dobson; Eric M. Meyers; Cristina Teixiera; Linda Ham
YouTube is one of the largest databases in the world, providing informative and entertaining video to millions of users around the globe. It is also becoming an important source of homework assistance to young people as they supplement their learning practices with user-generated tutorials on a range of topics. This poster presents our ongoing work in this emerging area of information literacy: how young people make meaning with information sources on YouTube to support their academic needs. We describe our system for analyzing user-generated feedback on video channels that support students academically, and report preliminary findings of our ongoing analysis. Drawing on several complementary frameworks, including information sharing, help seeking, and dialogic inquiry, we suggest that comments posted to YouTube provide unique insights into the ways young people engage with and make meaning from user-generated video to support their learning. This work has implications for educators, librarians, and the designers of interactive learning technologies.
Navigating the confluence of streams in the development of disciplinary identity, 2004-2009 BIBAFull-Text 643-644
  Jung Hoon Baeg; Kathleen Burnett; Laurie Bonnici; Mega M. Subramaniam
This poster presents preliminary research on the relationship between the iSchools movement and the development of disciplinary identity between 2004 and 2009, the period during which the iSchools organization was officially founded. The goal is to explore whether it is possible to identify trends that emerge from articles written by iSchool faculty and graduate students (i-authors) that appeared in five journals with high impact factor rankings in the areas of Information Science and Library Science (LIS) and Computer Science and Information Systems (CIS) as indexed in the 2009 Journal Citation Reports. These two areas were selected because they represent the disciplinary homes of the majority of the iSchools membership. Descriptive statistics including frequency tables were used to identify trends in the development of disciplinary identity in the study of information. The results suggest that iSchool authors may be selecting publication venues based on the geographic proximity of the journal rather than journal impact rankings, subject matter, or style of work affinities. The researchers plan to conduct author cocitation analysis to further examine the influence of these factors. Graphs and charts are used to present the findings in the poster itself, and additional references will be provided.
Impact of multimedia case studies BIBAFull-Text 647-648
  Jan Broussard; Victor Mbarika
Undergraduate education in the United States has been repeatedly criticized for failing to develop students' higher-order thinking and problem-solving skills necessary for success in an information and technology-based economy. According to Katajavouri, Lindblom-Ylanne, and Hirovonen (2006), it is important for people to continuously update their own knowledge and to apply that knowledge to work situations. Therefore, unlike the traditional lecture-based classroom, students need to be given the opportunity to not only recall information, but also to apply that knowledge to authentic situations in an effort to prepare them for their roles in the workforce. It is the responsibility of educators to offer students the opportunities to develop and hone their higher-order thinking and problem-solving skills.
   In recent years, the use of multimedia instructional materials, particularly in the form of multimedia case studies, to convey real-world technical concepts and applications such as those taught in engineering and information technology courses have been advocated increasingly in the educational technology literature (Raju & Sankar, 1999; Raju et al., 2002; Mbarika et al., 2004). The National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored the LITEE technology project in an effort to assist instructors in the challenge of communicating information technology concepts to non-technical students to improve achievement. The LITEE technology project has lead to a series of published academic and industry award-winning multimedia case studies.
   The research currently being conducted is an effort to examine the LITEE case studies and their impact on students' learning of information technology concepts and problem solving skills, both perceptually and actually. The study also focuses on the role of learning styles in the success of the use of the case studies, the frequency and depth of the online communication processes among group members in the discussion of the cases, and any changes in attitudes toward the technical subject matter after engaging in the use of the case studies. Gender, GPA, program of study, and level of study are all variables that will be used to analyze and interpret the results from the study.
   The participants in the study are students from several universities in the southern United States enrolled in undergraduate and graduate management information systems courses. All data is collected in the same manner through a course management system created for students participating in the study.
   Two LITEE multimedia case studies © 2010 Institute for STEM Education & Research) are being used in the study. The Powertel case study contains live interviews with managers and engineers who worked on the actual Powertel case study project. Students learn about cell phones, cell site erection, and wireless technologies throughout the case. The second LITEE case, the Telemedicine case study, familiarizes students with telemedicine, which uses communications networks for delivery of healthcare services and medical education from one geographical location to another, primarily to address challenges like uneven distribution and shortage of infrastructural and human resources. The students work in randomly assigned teams to evaluate the cases and determine solutions for the problems posed in the cases. Discussion forums are created for students to communicate with one another about the cases until they are able to agree with a solution to the problems posed in the case. Students are then required to present and defend their solutions in the classroom.
   Several instruments are being administered to collect data during the course of the research: 1-Learning Style Assessment: This instrument is used to determine where students are located on the spectrum of various learning styles. This information will be used to understand if there is any difference in achievement or attitudes in relation to learning style preferences. 2- Knowledge Tests: The knowledge assessment test was developed by Dr. Mbarika of Southern University and contains multiple choice questions pertaining to the material discussed in the cases. Students are administered the test prior to and after the case studies are completed. Increase in knowledge is determined by these pre and post tests. 3- Student Perceived Learning Survey: A survey was designed to assess students' perceptions of learning with the case studies. The evaluation focuses on three key constructs: Learning Driven, Content Driven, and Higher Order Cognitive Skills (Goodhue & Thompson, 1995; Hingorani et al., 1998). The learning driven factor measures how the multimedia instructional materials are used to challenge the end-user in learning difficult IT and engineering topics, connection theories and practice, improving students' understanding of basic concepts, and in providing the students a platform on which to learn from one another. The content-driven factor measures how easy it is to use and locate information contained in the instructional materials and how the design of the instructional materials help to make it easier and more feasible to complete assigned tasks in a timely manner. The higher-order cognitive skills factor measures how an individual has acquired a skill set that could be used to make decisions within a specified period of time, thereby improving one's ability to identify, integrate, evaluate, and inter-relate concepts within the multimedia case study, and thus make the appropriate decision in a given problem-solving situation. 4-Attitude Toward Management Information Systems (MIS) Questionnaire: A 40 item questionnaire is administered in a pre and post format. The questions assess attitudes in several areas: general attitude toward subject matter, relevance to life and society, impact on cognitive domain of learning, impact on positive aspects of affective domain, impact on negative aspects of affective domain, impact on teamwork, and communication skills. 5- E-Journal: Students are being asked to complete e-journals throughout the semester. Data from the e-journal should provide support for any changes in attitude noted in the Attitude toward MIS questionnaire. 6- Discussion Forum: Students are encouraged to discuss the case with their group members in the group forum created on the course management system. This can also be evaluated to see the types and number of interactions among students as they progress through the cases.
Online synchronous interviewing of the info-savvy BIBAFull-Text 649-650
  Julia Bullard; Heather L. O'Brien
This poster illustrates our experience using Internet Relay Chat (IRC) to conduct qualitative interviews with web developers. E-interviews with our sample did not suffer from methodological limitations identified in other studies due to the participants' familiarity and proficiency with this form of communication.
Reading in First Nations and the on-demand book service BIBAFull-Text 651-652
  Nadia Caidi; Margaret Lam
The "On-Demand Book Service (ODBS)" is a collaboration between First Nations communities in Northern Ontario and academic researchers from the University of Toronto. The aim of the ODBS is to bridge the gap between physical and digital libraries. The latest workshop (organized in March of 2010) dealt with issues of reading in First Nations communities; and included the shipping of three complete sets of ODBS equipment to three Northern Ontario communities. In addition, graduate students were sent to various sites (Thunder Bay, Sioux Lookout and Keewaywin) to meet in person with community members, act as facilitators, and assist with setting up the equipment and getting a sense of potential uses. Indeed, there is an obvious service gap that technology and equipment cannot bridge, and the on-going challenge remains the articulation of a community-driven strategy. This poster will present initial feedback gathered by following up with the event participants, the facilitators, as well as the community members in the various sites. Their diverse perspectives present a holistic picture of the On-Demand Book Service as perceived by the different stakeholders, and may hold great insights to other such information and library science projects that attempt to bridge great geographical and cultural distances.
Experimental solutions for searching in an architectural and urban planning-specific database BIBAFull-Text 653-654
  Daniel Rude; Lucio Campanelli; Xiangming Mu
This paper studies the search behavior of an image search retrieval system using the model of an architectural and urban planning database. In this mixed-method study, interviews and surveys were conducted to identify unique search behaviors employed by student-workers at Community Design Solutions, a non-profit architectural and urban planning organization at the School of Architecture and Urban Planning (SARUP) located at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. The study looked for users to indicate the problems with the search strategies they formulated to navigate the current database, the problems they encountered and any suggestions they had for improving the system. Based off of the findings, we found that a lack of metadata and associated text, users had a very difficult time locating related images. From this, we propose a proximity retrieval system.
Data repositories: a home for microblog archives? BIBAFull-Text 655-656
  Tiffany C. Chao
In April 2010, the popular microblogging service, Twitter, announced the donation of their archives to the Library of Congress. This event served to validate the value of microblogs as a source for scholarly research, yet access to the Twitter archives by the public continues to remain restricted. This study seeks to understand how the data repository community can be leveraged to support and maintain access to microblog data for long-term use. Through the examination of a sample Twitter aggregation, significant properties for preservation will be identified and applied to current standards and criteria set by data repositories for deposit. The analysis of data repository functions and the properties of the microblog aggregation provides further awareness into the preservation practices and policies of these social memory institutions while also illuminating recommendations for advancing these retention strategies and approaches.
Research on role-based dynamic access control BIBAFull-Text 657-660
  Yan Chen; Lin Zhang
In this paper, we introduce "region restriction" concept and "user group" concept to solve the shortcomings of traditional role-based access control (RBAC) and propose role-based dynamic access control (RBDAC). Then we provide formalized description of the components of the model of RBDAC and get the function of a user's permissions. At last, we describe the database design based on RBDAC. Practice has proved that RBDAC can not only improve the security of access to system resources, but also can simplify the authorization work for the administrators.
Predicting popularity of online distributed applications: iTunes app store case analysis BIBAFull-Text 661-663
  Miao Chen; Xiaozong Liu
Online distributed applications are becoming more and more important for users nowadays. There are an increasing number of individuals and companies developing applications and selling them online. In the past couple of years, Apple Inc. has successfully built an online application distribution platform -- iTunes App Store, which is facilitated by their fashionable hardware such like iPad or iPhone. Unlike other traditional selling networks, iTunes has some unique features to advertise their application, for example, daily application ranking, application recommendation, free trial application usage, application update, and user comments. All of these make us wonder what makes an application popular in the iTunes store and why users are interested in some specific type of applications. We plan to answer these questions by using machine learning techniques.
Enhancing social inclusion of rural libraries: a community outreach approach BIBAFull-Text 664-666
  Yunfei Du
This paper proposes a conceptual model to enhance the social inclusion of rural libraries through community outreach plans and partnerships. One hundred and five librarians will participate in this project to build community network and outreach plans in the next three years. Community partnership projects in rural and small community libraries can be the first step to deal with declining tax bases, lack of an educated workforce, decreasing funding, and an aging user population.
1857 California post-earthquake information practices BIBAFull-Text 667-669
  Megan Finn
In 1857 California experienced the largest earthquake in the history of the state. The conventional scientific explanations of earthquakes we have today were nonexistent, government was not involved in disaster response, and the information infrastructure included boats, horses, and local telegraphs. This poster reveals how the means of circulating documents such as newspapers, as well as other record keeping practices and information standards shaped how Californians constructed a narrative about the earthquake. The work presented here is part of a larger research project about the history and development of information practices following California earthquakes. The goal of this work is to understand how information infrastructure shapes communities' experience of disasters, and implications for information infrastructure design today.
Predicting relationship outcomes in online dating: a longitudinal survey BIBAFull-Text 670-671
  Andrew T. Fiore; Lindsay Shaw Taylor; G. A. Mendelsohn; Coye Cheshire
This poster presents preliminary results from a longitudinal survey of online dating users. Participants' initial online and subsequent offline impressions of their dates were used to predict both relationship duration in weeks and relationship quality metrics, including perceived intimacy and relationship satisfaction, two weeks after the first meeting. We find that impressions assessed before online daters met in person did not predict relationship duration, but they did predict metrics of relationship quality.
Modeling diverse standpoints in text classification: learning to be human by modeling human values BIBAFull-Text 672-673
  Kenneth R. Fleischmann; Thomas Clay Templeton; Jordan Boyd-Graber
An annotator's classification of a text not only tells us something about the intent of the text's author, it also tells us something about the annotator's standpoint. To understand authorial intent, we can consider all of these diverse standpoints, as well as the extent to which the annotators' standpoints affect their perceptions of authorial intent. To model human behavior, it is important to model humans' unique standpoints. Human values play an especially important role in determining human behavior and how people perceive the world around them, so any effort to model human behavior and perception can benefit from an effort to understand and model human values. Instead of training humans to obscure their standpoints and act like computers, we should teach computers to have standpoints of their own.
Digging into Digg: genres of online news BIBAFull-Text 674-675
  Luanne Freund; Justyna Berzowska; Jennifer Lee; Kevin Read; Heidi Schiller
A better understanding of the types and forms of communication prevalent in the online news domain will support the design of systems able to retrieve content suited to individual needs. Genre analysis and classification are proposed as methods of studying online news content. We present a research framework for ongoing work in this area.
Learning and knowledge exchange in science teaching BIBAFull-Text 676-678
  Wei Gao; Caroline Haythornthwaite
This poster presents our study of how social networks support learning and knowledge exchange among participants of a professional development program for science teachers. Social networks data and qualitative interviews were used to assess participants' current learning networks as well as their perceptions, practices, and experiences with their current learning environment and innovation pertaining to science teaching and learning. Results indicate that while the majority of the connections were confined to their school buildings, teachers acquire a considerable amount of new knowledge from networks outside these buildings. The interviews revealed a common desire among participants to foster new connections and talk to others about science teaching and learning, and show the important role of information from outside the school as contributing to new activities. The interviews also provide insight into the kinds of interactions that bond the teachers with their colleagues and the kinds of learning that are given or received in science teachers' everyday practice.
Enabling spatial data infrastructure development: collaboration, supportive web technologies and São Tomé Africa BIBAFull-Text 678-679
  Jeff Ginger; Serra Jackman; Jon Gant
This poster presents an overview of the São Tomé Map Project, the culmination of research conducted as part of the ongoing collaboration between representatives of the country of São Tomé and the Community Informatics Initiative (CII), a research and teaching center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). The project's goal was (and remains) to ensure the people of São Tomé access to, and ownership of, relevant local spatial data so they could better make informed decisions and policies governing development of their land, resources and civic infrastructure. To this end, an interdisciplinary crew of researchers teamed up with key São Tomé locals to work towards empowering the community to address civic and environmental challenges through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and innovative collaborative web-based tools like Omeka, Greenstone and Wordpress. Out of this work came a potentially important contribution to academic scholarship and community development practice: a process and associated model intended to aid in the assembly of spatial data infrastructure (SDI) in similar settings, such as in other post-colonial developing countries. The related poster introduces viewers to the social context surrounding São Tomé, the purpose and application of SDI's and GIS, and substantively reviews the project development process and associated exemplar supportive technologies.
   View this poster online at http://CommunityInformaticsProjects.org/SaoTomePosterPDF.pdf.
Everyday information in American philanthropy: informed giving BIBAFull-Text 680-681
  Barbara M. Hayes
Philanthropic activity is not well studied by social scientists, although the scholarly literature is increasing. The behavior of wealthy donors has received attention, but there is scant research on the giving behavior of the average American and even less on information-seeking as part of that behavior. Endogenous and exogenous forces have shaped American giving. This paper describes those forces in the context of the literature on information seeking in everyday life. It adds to that literature via an historical examination of changes in both questions and sources of information about philanthropy over time.
   Nonprofits are increasingly employing information technology (IT) to deliver messages about their causes and foster lasting relationships with donors [5]. The flood of appeals creates a number of information tasks for Americans who want to give wisely. Potential donors must (1) decide whether an appeal holds any personal meaning for them (2) evaluate the worth of the appeal (3) decide how deeply they wish to engage and (4) cope with multiple, novel ways to engage in IT-enabled philanthropy. This research analyzed factors affecting the average American's engagement in philanthropy in an increasingly complex information-driven culture.
Avatar appearance & information credibility in Second Life® BIBAFull-Text 682-683
  Malik Hussain; Brandon Nakamura; John Marino
Virtual worlds are immersive computer-simulated environments in which users create digital artifacts and interact with other users. These worlds are becoming mainstream technology platforms for collaboration, role-playing, learning, problem-solving, business, and more. Users interact in these worlds through a persona known as an "avatar"; a digital proxy of the user. As virtual worlds become more pervasive, it is becoming important to learn the role of information in this new dimension. Specifically, it is becoming critical to understand the factors that lead users to trust and not trust information in these virtual worlds. Authors conducted a user-based research study in Second Life® to better understand the impact that an avatar's appearance may have on the credibility of the information it shares with Second Life users.
"Green" digital Bangladesh: is it ready to face the challenges of climate change? BIBAFull-Text 684-685
  Faheem Hussain
This poster focuses on the national level efforts taken in Bangladesh (one of the most climate-vulnerable countries) to face the immediate as well as long term challenges of climate change through green ICT based applications and infrastructure. "Digital Bangladesh" is a vision supported by the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) to integrate the ICT based interventions at every level of life [1]. It envisions the micro-level social inclusion of the base of the pyramid population (BoP) in the mainstream economic activities through ensuring access to information, cost-effective connectivity and efficient e-governance. As climate change is severely negating many achievement made by this developing country, efforts are in place to implement strategies towards developing "Green" ICT based nationwide infrastructure and services all over Bangladesh. This poster looks into the challenges towards fulfilling such objective. It also focuses on the strategic priorities and identifies future opportunities for making a nation's collective effort for a "green" future sustainable. The original research is a part of the ongoing process to monitor and evaluate this national level initiative.
Beyond being (t)here: the social and personal implications of making music at a distance BIBAFull-Text 686-687
  David James; Jeffrey Stanton
This literature review discusses the social phenomena that surround and affect the process of making music with a distant collaborator, and probes future directions for this area known as "computer supported collaborative music" [3]. Articles were sampled by searching the SCOPUS, EBSCOHOST, IIMP, ACM Digital Library and Google Scholar for abstracts that included the keywords "collaborative music" or "networked music". From this group of article the author highlights studies that have reported factors that altered the experience of collaborative composition. Preliminary results indicate that novices to music composition can use metaphors, (present in tools that do not replicate face to face interaction) to compose pieces with others without formal music training.
Social networking, social network technologies, and the enterprise BIBAFull-Text 688-690
  Mohammad Hossein Jarrahi
This research proposal sets out to investigate the organizational consequences of Corporate Social Networking Technologies (cSNT). Despite the rapid uptake of cSNT very little is known about the uses in and effects of SNT on enterprises. My main contention is that these technologies are embedded within a network of social ties. To understand the interplay between the cSNT and the informal network within organization, the proposed research will draw on different streams of literature, including the social network perspective, the information sharing literature, and actor network theory. By building on these theoretical foundations, I will discuss expected contributions of this research, and the proposed research design.
Templating in practice BIBAFull-Text 694-696
  Arvind Karunakaran; Sandeep Purao
'Templates' are pervasive within all the spheres of organizations. They are considered to represent, among other things, rules, routines and best practices accumulated from the past. Despite their ubiquity within many organizations, little is known about these templates. Through this research-in-progress study, we try to investigate why and how these templates are created, how they are used and appropriated in practice, and how they become intrinsic to everyday organizing. We use the term "templating" to elaborate upon the sociomaterial dynamics that underpin the creation, categorization, use/non-use, and appropriation of templates. Initial results suggest that templates may be more than mere records of 'procedural know-hows' within the organization. They may represent a materiality that is enmeshed in the fabric of organizational practices, often inseparable from the conditions of their creation and use. From the gained descriptive insights, we are in the process of developing a platform called ReKon that is composed of 'fine-grain project template chunks' which facilitates user-led recombinations.
A confirmatory factor analysis of library use BIBAFull-Text 697-698
  Emily Knox
For the past 25 years, public library administrators have pondered their institution's relationship to the computer. Since the 1980s, the integrated library system, which is based on a server-client model, has been a ubiquitous part of the library. These systems, however, are solely for use by the library staff. There have long been computers available for patrons but for many years these only provided access to the online catalog and databases on CD-ROM. Over time more applications were added to the patron computers including integrated office suites and web browsers. Public computers for patrons with access to the Internet and loaded with various productivity applications are now available in almost all public libraries across the country.
   At the same time that personal computers were proliferating, in both the private and public sphere more knowledge content became available digitally. Materials that were once available only in print, including books, periodicals, and databases, can now be accessed through the Internet. It is not surprising that it has been difficult for libraries to adapt to this change. An institution that was originally established to collect print materials now has to offer access to knowledge in many different formats.
   This study investigates one aspect of this change. The concept of "library use" has changed with the proliferation of digital media. Libraries of all types and the various administrative boards that control their funding allocated revenue budgets solely on circulation statistics. That is, the amount of money given to the library was based on how many books were checked out in a given year. This statistic does not adequately account for the actual services that libraries provide. In 2009, the editors of Library Journal [1] sponsored research for the development of a new scale measurement for rating library services based on four indicators.
   This study is a confirmatory factor analysis of this scale in order to validate this new measurement model.
   The initial data consisted of three hundred three (N =303) from the 2008 New Jersey Public Library Statistics [2]. 23 libraries did not respond to the survey, leaving a total of two hundred eighty libraries in the data set (n=280). These data are collected every year by the New Jersey State Library and are freely available on the institution's website (www.njstatelib.org). The New Jersey State Library collects these data via an electronic survey. An additional 38 libraries were removed because their scores fell more than three standard deviations beyond the mean on any one of the variables that were tested. Eight libraries were removed because they were multivariate outliers. This resulted in a sample size of two hundred thirty-four public libraries in New Jersey (n = 234).
   All questions on the survey (except for identification information) required whole number (ratio level) responses from the libraries. Items regarding revenue and expenses required whole dollar amounts. Computer Readable Materials Budget refers to the total amount spent on software, electronic books, and other items that must be used on a computer. Databases Owned indicates the total number of licensed databases for which the library pays. Libraries also indicated the number of computers available for public use. The survey also included two categorical questions. One asked whether or not the library made password free Wi-Fi available to the general public. The other asked whether or not the library made JerseyClicks, a full-text search portal funded by the state, available on their website.
   According to the new Library Journal Index mentioned above, four indicators are used to construct the library use score: library visits, circulation, program attendance, and public Internet computer use. Library visits refers to the total number of people who enter the library for any purpose. Circulation indicates the total number of "check-outs" for all materials including any renewals. It does not include virtual circulation or interlibrary loan. The total number of people at all programs either sponsored or hosted by the library is indicated by program attendance. Finally, public Internet computer use refers to the number of individuals who used public accessible computer terminals in a given year. These indicators were transformed into per-capita data by dividing each reported amount by the population of the library's municipality as indicated in the 2000 Census. Each number was then transformed into a z-score.
   A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the fit between the NJPL data and proposed factor structure for the Library Use Index proposed in Library Journal. The chi-square value for the overall model fit was not significant (χ{squared} = .720, df = 2, p >.001) indicating that there is an adequate fit between the factor structure of the Library Use Index and the data.
   A "library use" score was then computed using the sum of the four standardized indicators. In accordance with the procedure given in Library Journal [3], since this preliminary score included scores with negative values (with a minimum value of -4.99), a correction factor of 5 was added to each score so that the variable Library Use Score would not include negative values. The Library Use Score for the libraries was M = 4.97, SD = 3.26 with a range of .007 to 15.981. The Library Use Score provides a single measure that can be used to compare individual public libraries with peer institutions.
Coping with severe traumatic stress: understanding the role of information-seeking among political refugees BIBAFull-Text 699-701
  Joung Hwa Koo; Yong Wan Cho; Melissa Gross
According to the most recent report of UNHCR Statistical Yearbook 2008 [1], the total number of refugees in the world is 15.2 million. As of December 31, 2008, approximately 161,200 refugees live in the United States, as our neighbors and in established communities [2]. Although the proportion of refugee groups in the population is relatively small, the number of refugees, including asylum seekers and people who forcedly flee from their home as Internally Displaced Person [IDP], are significantly increasing because of frequent domestic warfare, terror, and natural disaster [1]. In addition, according to Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, "everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers [italics added]" [3]. From the perspective of human rights, refugees, just like other members of population, are our community members, neighbors, and clients that information professionals should reach out to provide information services and to fill their information needs. Beyond the moral responsibilities regarding human dignity and human rights or social welfare, the global migration, including immigrants and refugees, represents important economic, social, and demographic assets to the host country. In the current global environments, almost all countries rely on international migrants to fill labor shortages and strengths [4]. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the benefits of information services are provided to newcomers like refugees.
Iconic images and citizen journalism BIBAFull-Text 702-703
  Susan Lai
From the images taken by citizen photojournalists, the news media select the most emotionally engaging shots. By and large creating icons, news media uses these shots in such a way as to make them memorable. What would be otherwise mundane shots if not for the fact that the photos and videos are from witnesses or survivors of the news event. Because photos of the people who lived to tell of the tragic incidents are inimitable, the power of such images are valuable in a historical, social and emotional context. This paper will examine how such iconic photographs are enabled by improved technology used by citizen photojournalists. A question to be addressed is how amateur photojournalism has emerged and changed the history of press photojournalism. The framework used will be through the concept of "public culture" (Hariman and Lucarites 2008). Citizens capture scenes that are not unseen before: from survivors' perspectives to exposing government and official authorities' misconducts in an unedited, direct format, which breaks down barriers of hidden agendas, of false idealism of a nation. The Public culture's image has changed as citizens present another perspective which reveals more truth and objectivity than traditional journalism and made its photographs iconic. Citizen photojournalism, with the advent of new technologies, will continue to thrive until citizens themselves might be the reporters of news events, presenting in-depth, unbiased form of news analysis.
Public journalism and the democratic process BIBAFull-Text 704-705
  Susan Lai
Traditional journalism is no longer perceived as the only means of information distribution. Ordinary citizens are taking an active role in news reporting. Equipped with portable Internet access and cell phones with built-in cameras and video recorders, they can now capture developing news stories and send them immediately to news organizations for distribution. As they witness, experience, and gather news information, they are seeing themselves as active journalists, presenting stories from their perspective. In short, the traditional model of journalism has been challenged, if not revolutionized. Traditional news groups enact a classic means of organizing and reporting back to the public, but do not encourage the deliberation of empowering citizens to take initiatives in political stances, exercising their democratic rights to break down barriers, dissecting the truth out of news reports, and creating a movement for social justice. There should be more commitment in mobilizing citizens to be more political, for marginalized social groups to be heard, and public deliberation should be completed. News organizations should not simply encourage content from citizens, or include them marginally in topics of concern, but help organize them as partners of political action.
Thinking inside the XBox: elements of information organization in video games BIBAFull-Text 706-707
  Jin Ha Lee; M. Cameron Jones
Video games are a novel and unique context in which numerous principles of information organization can be observed. In this poster, we explore the intersection of video games and formal information organization by examining several examples from popular video games. By doing so, we highlight some of the common organization principles that are applied in video game design, and perhaps discover new ways of organizing information objects and assess their application in real life contexts.
Understanding knowledge transfer for social enterprise: some preliminary findings BIBAFull-Text 708-709
  Angela Lin; Jonathan Foster
This poster presents some preliminary findings from a knowledge transfer project conducted at the Information School, University of Sheffield, U.K. Seven students, two researchers, and four market traders participated in the project which aimed to raise awareness among market traders of the business opportunities afforded by e-commerce and to enable market traders to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to trade online. The multi-case design of the knowledge transfer project is described and preliminary findings from a cross-case analysis of each mini-case are presented. In the light of the findings the poster concludes with a revised understanding of the concept of knowledge transfer within a context of social enterprise.
Getting from here to there: information practices of immigrants in urban environments BIBAFull-Text 710-711
  Jessica Lingel
This project addresses the information practices of the immigrant community in terms of the processes related to gaining, interpreting and disseminating information about host neighborhoods in urban environments. Using in-depth interviews and participatory mapping (a methodology involving analysis of maps produced by interviewees), accounts of immigrants are analyzed to gain an of how migrational individuals with limited access to formal information networks navigate urban environments. Main themes from initial analysis include: the use of multiple information sources to learn about local environments, the influence of personal experiences (such as work history) on interpreting surroundings, and the importance of wandering in becoming familiar with new environments. Further work in this area can lead to important developments for public libraries and acculturation programs in terms of providing improved services for the immigrant community.
Lost in translation?: an investigation of the interpretative process via the creation of a memento based on dream analysis BIBAFull-Text 712-716
  Karen Lynn MacKay
In this paper issues related to communication and interpretation are explored in the context of dream analysis. In an attempt to understand the complexities of communicating visual ideas, as used in fields related to visual expression such as art or design, a simple experiment was conducted. The process included the collection of dream data from 6 individuals, the interpretation of those dreams in order to create 6 small representative objects and then a final review of those objects by the original participants. Through this process the researcher hope to uncover both the limitations and successes of communication of visual ideas through strictly verbal means, as well as insight into future methods for conducting similar experiments or additional testing to be done with this set of data.
Team Edward or team Jacob?: how user-generated content is transforming young adult literature BIBAFull-Text 717-718
  Marianne Martens
This poster is part of a larger project which examines how the Internet is influencing transmedia cultural products created for teens, and challenging the traditional role of librarians as arbiters of taste within the realm of young adult (YA) literature. The overall research focuses on four case studies that explore the effect of the Internet on YA literature and how it is created, evaluated, and read. Results from one such case study, based on books in Stephenie Meyer's bestselling Twilight series [1], are presented here. Fan activity around Twilight demonstrates how teens create user-generated content which publishers are able to transform into powerful, socially-networked marketing material which is created and disseminated by the users themselves. This in turn causes a disintermediated relationship between publishers and their teen consumers, and as a result, raises important questions about what happens to YA librarians' conventional role as taste-makers in the field, and about the types of YA books that will be published in the future.
Cyber-learning ecosystem: tools, technology and users BIBAFull-Text 719-721
  Raktim Mitra; Vandana Singh; Aditya Johri
In this poster we will present results from a study aimed at determining factors that promote newcomer participation and integration in cyber-learning environments. At this stage we present the research design and some preliminary results and at the time of presentation we will be augmenting our results presented here.
"Major stewards of storytelling": pre-service librarians' perspectives on librarians' roles in 21st century storytelling BIBAFull-Text 722-724
  Rebecca J. Morris
This poster presents an ongoing, exploratory study of pre-service librarians' perspectives on storytelling in libraries. Storytelling is a frequent program offering in public and school libraries, and a background in storytelling equips librarians with skills that will enrich their work with library patrons of all ages. As such, Storytelling is offered as an elective course for library and information science (LIS) graduate students. In this study, students who were enrolled in a graduate-level LIS course on storytelling were invited to contribute their electronic discussion board assignments from the course to a research study conducted by the course instructor. Along with focus group responses, the discussion board posts were analyzed to (1) explore students' perspectives on storytelling in 21st century libraries and their roles in storytelling as future librarians and (2) to inform instruction of storytelling in LIS graduate programs. Initial findings show that students identify a need to maintain storytelling traditions with careful incorporation of 21st century technologies.
Connections for game education and research in the iSchools BIBAFull-Text 725-727
  Scott Nicholson
There is a growing level of interest in games in the iSchools. Some schools are teaching courses focused on the creation of games, while others schools have researchers exploring game topics. In order to engage with game programs and researchers from outside the iSchools, it is important to understand the different areas of game education and research, and how concepts from information science can be used to advance game research.
Information design in/as serious leisure: the case of information databases to support online gaming BIBAFull-Text 728-729
  Julia Bullard; Heather L. O'Brien
In this poster we explore information design and serious leisure in the context of individuals who develop information databases for online gaming. We conclude that information design extends and intensifies the "serious" values of gaming.
What makes a movie?: digraphic modeling of differences that make a difference BIBAFull-Text 730-731
  Richard L. Anderson; Brian C. O'Connor; Melody McCotter
In this poster we describe our use of digraphic display and analysis of RGB data for movie frames to achieve an algorithmic mode of representing moving image documents. We provide a background of our previous method and detail the significant differences in our new method. We then sketch the data we expect to have soon for 60 titles examined.
Cross analysis of keeping personal information in different forms BIBAFull-Text 732-733
  Kyong Eun Oh; Nicholas J. Belkin
This paper examines keeping behavior of personal information in different forms by reviewing and analyzing previous empirical studies on keeping personal information. By adopting user-centered and cross-form perspectives, similar behaviors as well as unique behaviors in keeping different forms of personal information are reviewed and comparatively analyzed. The identification of similarities and differences of keeping behaviors among different forms of personal information widens our understanding of personal information management (PIM). The results of this study have practical implication for human computer interaction (HCI) studies in designing tools, devices and interfaces that are more effective in supporting individuals' PIM.
Telephone & email interviews: using the respondents' context to determine the best interview mode BIBAFull-Text 734-735
  Shannon M. Oltmann
This poster explains reasons for choosing different interview modes. Although many people assume that face-to-face contact is the best, perhaps only, mode for effective interviewing, a substantial body of research suggests otherwise. In particular, components of the respondents' context-geographical disbursement, privacy, empowerment needs, scheduling, anonymity, fluency, stigmatization, and cultural background-affect which interview modes are more effective. This poster introduces the concept of respondent context, and demonstrates the best uses for different interview modes.
Personality-based privacy management for location-sharing in diverse subpopulations BIBAFull-Text 736-738
  Xinru Page; Alfred Kobsa
Researchers in the area of privacy management often suggest to provide users with a collection of privacy settings and good defaults for them. However, our research into people's attitudes towards location-sharing technology (considering both adopters and non-adopters) indicates that the right way to manage privacy and the right default can vary for different types of people; Key privacy concerns may differ by demographics and personality type, and personality may also influence privacy management preferences. To help researchers and practitioners better understand who is concerned about what, and how to best address those concerns, we will draw on our research and theories in the literature to construct and validate a scale that 1) assesses an individual's main privacy concerns towards location-sharing technology, and 2) measures personality traits relevant to privacy management. We will then put this scale into practice by deploying an enterprise-wide survey at our field site (a large multi-national entertainment corporation) that tests the relationship between the scale/subscales and an individual's intention to adopt location-sharing technology. We hope this will help us identify subpopulations with similar privacy concerns and/or personality traits, which can guide future design of privacy-sensitive location-sharing technology.
Data curation education in research centers BIBAFull-Text 738-740
  Carole L. Palmer; Suzie Allard; Mary Marlino
New data skills are critical to the progress of 21st century science to ensure that data are properly selected and stored and can be readily discovered, accessed, and used over time. The Data Curation Education in Research Centers (DCERC) program will establish a model for data curation graduate education that enriches students learning and expertise through onsite training at a data intensive scientific research center. Doctoral students will conduct research and masters students will develop as professionals in the real world of research, guided by both science and data mentors. DCERC is also aligned with research and development activities in the current NSF DataNet projects, providing students with opportunities to interact with working groups and learn first-hand about R & D advances and outcomes.
User lifecycles in cyclopath: a survey of users BIBAFull-Text 741-742
  Katherine Panciera
To be online, for most people, means to be part of some online communities, but the moment you visit a website, you are beginning your user lifecycle with that site. Previous quantitative work has shown that the early stages of the user lifecycle are the most important. We asked 400 users of the Cyclopath geowiki to complete a survey asking, among other things, about why they chose to register and what their first experiences on the site were. The responses allow us to think more carefully about the difficult barrier of registration and how this may be impacting the user lifecycles on Cyclopath and other online communities.
Internet utilization in decision making among emergent knowledge workers: poster proposal BIBAFull-Text 743-745
  John Peco; Kelly Lyons
In this poster we present the results of a survey conducted among university students and recent graduates concerning their use of the Internet when making decisions. The preliminary results of our work suggest a relationship exists between our respondents' decision-making satisfaction and their use of social networking technology (primarily to confer with family and friends) during the decision-making process.
Developing standards for affordances on embedded devices BIBAFull-Text 746-748
  Daniel Perry; Cecilia Aragon; Alan Meier; Marco Pritoni
Embedded devices are ubiquitous in our environment, including computing systems as widely diverse as digital watches, automobile dashboards, factory controllers, thermostats and other appliances. Traditionally, little attention has been paid to the user interface in such low-cost, dedicated-function devices. However, new technologies such as touchscreens are changing the landscape of embedded user interface design. Additionally, recent research has demonstrated that usability can have a significant effect on embedded device efficiency. Research on programmable thermostats in particular points to the need for proficient and consistent user interface design in order to realize energy savings nationwide. We discuss preliminary results from an in-depth usability study conducted on five programmable thermostat interfaces (three touchscreen, one web, and one-button based) with 31 participants. Our research suggests that users lacked a consistent mental model of how to interact with buttons, text, icons, and other features of the device. We hypothesize that discrepancies between perceived and actual affordances on the device had a measurable impact on users' ability to successfully accomplish key tasks on the thermostats.
Information spaces as interactive worlds BIBAFull-Text 752-754
  Nathan R. Prestopnik
This poster abstract re-conceptualizes information interfaces as immersive "worlds" of information with rules that govern their behavior. It is argued that rethinking interfaces in this way has the potential to suggest new and innovative ways to study, present, and interact with information in computing environments.
Institutional policies on science research data: a pilot analysis BIBAFull-Text 761-762
  Jian Qin; Carrie Solinger
Institutions are increasingly feeling the pressure to develop strategies and policies to address these issues in science data management. Policies for data management, archiving, sharing, publishing, and use have sprouted on institutional and research centers' websites. The purpose of our pilot analysis was to collect policy examples for content analysis so that we have a better understanding of what types of policies exist and what issues they address. The poster will present an analysis of institutional policies on science research data management, archiving, sharing and publishing, and use.
Bridging theory and practice: connecting coursework to internships in LIS programs BIBAFull-Text 763-764
  Angela Ramnarine-Rieks; Delicia Tiera Greene; Mark R. Costa; Mary Grace Flaherty; Carrie Solinger
This research project explores how internships in Library and Information Science (LIS) programs bridge theory and practice. Experiential learning must complement classroom instruction to adequately prepare LIS graduates for the workforce. Evaluation of student and faculty feedback provides a way to minimize the gap between theory and practice.
Annotation evolution: how Web 2.0 technologies are enabling a change in annotation practice BIBAFull-Text 765-766
  Simone Sacchi
Are Web 2.0 tools and technologies changing how and why scholars annotate their research sources? We begin to answer this question by assessing current technology and tools that support new functions for one of the most common scholarly research activity: taking notes. The results suggest a new approach to personalized information retrieval.
Note: Best Poster Award
Spreading the word: the proliferation of research using social networks BIBAFull-Text 767-769
  Joshua Seymour; Jeffery Stanton; Yuanying Guo
This poster presents the initial findings of an approach used to analyze a faculty member's direct and relevant indirect networks in order to develop connections with academic peers of similar research interests to expand the visibility and awareness of the faculty member's research through the use of an online collaborative group. It is anticipated that by developing this group, where sharing of publications and ideas is promoted, that the faculty member will increase their virtual research footprint through the awareness and referencing of their publications.
Supercourse: a case study of knowledge mobilization by a virtual organization BIBAFull-Text 770-771
  Nikhil Sharma; Brian Butler
Information and knowledge are often stored not in databases repositories, but within highly distributed communities of experts. Leveraging these resources requires identifying needs and gathering, contextualizing and making information available. While this can happen in one-on-one interaction with experts, there are significant limitations to the dyadic approach. In this paper, we present our case study in progress which examines how Supercourse, a virtual organization focused on public health supports large-scale knowledge mobilization. Preliminary examination of this case suggests that social capital creation and genre usage play an important part in knowledge mobilization.
Towards a conceptualizing social presence in 3DTV BIBAFull-Text 772-780
  Dong-Hee Shin; Taeyang Kim; Subin Jung
This study analyzes user acceptance behavior of 3DTV by focusing on variables that influence attitudes and intention to adopt. Structural equation modeling is used to construct a predictive model of attitudes toward 3DTV. Individuals' responses to questions about attitude and intention to use 3DTV were collected and analyzed. The model shows significant roles for social presence and flow, both of which affect attitude as well as perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment. This set of factors is key to users' expectations of 3DTV. Given the significant role of social presence, the study attempts to conceptualize social presence in the 3DTV context. The findings imply that social presence may be enhanced by illusions of advanced technical manipulation, but it can be more effectively enhanced by a sense of belonging or emotional connection. Specific design features and characteristics of 3DTV services can be utilized to achieve meaningful social presence. The proposed model brings together extant research on 3DTV and supports eventual 3D acceptance.
Information needs of public policy lobbyists BIBAFull-Text 781-782
  David Talley; Jeffrey Hortin; Jessica Bottomly
Our poster analyzes the information needs and processes of information seeking used by a particular set of professionals -- public interest lobbyists, focusing on those dealing with public health policy. The research for this project focused on public health policy advocates in United Way organizations. We emphasize criteria for resource selection, focusing on the credibility of resources in supporting persuasive communication with legislators and other target audiences. Our poster establishes a particular information Context, as described in the theme of the iConference program.
Comparing values and sentiment using Mechanical Turk BIBAFull-Text 783-784
  Thomas Clay Templeton; Kenneth R. Fleischmann; Jordan Boyd-Graber
Human values can help to explain people's sentiment toward current events. In this experiment, we compare people's values with their agreement or disagreement with paragraphs that were classified as either supporting or opposing a specific topic. We found that five value types have statistically significant agreement (p<0.001) for both the supporting and opposing paragraphs, in opposite directions. We hope to use these paragraph ratings to train an automatic text classifier to agree or disagree with paragraphs based on a specific value profile.
Social inclusion in the information economy: the context of university-industry collaborations for regional innovation BIBAFull-Text 785-787
  Eileen M. Trauth; Lee B. Erickson
Land grant universities in the 21st century must broaden their scope by facilitating economic growth through innovation in the new information economy. Doing so also broadens the social inclusion goal beyond labor force diversity to include legacy industrial era firms that are vulnerable to exclusion in the new economy that is based on knowledge and innovation. An exploration of barriers to leveraging research universities for revitalizing legacy industrial regions is in process at a midwestern land grant university. It is focused on understanding challenges associated with knowledge exchange between university researchers and legacy industrial era businesses in order to increase the innovation capacity in the region. Preliminary results indicate that communication and culture are two key factors that hold potential barriers to successful industry-academic relationships.
In-depth accounts and passing mentions in the news: connecting readers to the context of a news event BIBAFull-Text 790-791
  Earl J. Wagner; Jimmy Lin
Software that models how types of news events unfold can extract information about specific events and explain them to a news reader. This support can be useful when the background provided by an article is insufficient, if other news coverage exists from which an event's history can be extracted. For extended sequences of related events, it is reasonable to expect that articles published after the sequence concludes include less background coverage of the sequence. Focusing on two stereotypical types of event sequences -- kidnappings and corporate acquisitions -- we distinguish between articles providing in-depth coverage, those having multiple sentences mentioning the same event sequence, from articles making a passing mention in just one sentence. We find that, after an event sequence concludes, passing mentions become more common and there are significantly fewer mean mentions per article.
Medical image describing behavior: a comparison between an expert and novice BIBAFull-Text 792-793
  Xin Wang; Sanda Erdelez; Carla Alen; Blake Anderson; Hongfei Cao; Chi-Ren Shyu
This preliminary study, as a part of a broader study about the medical image use by experts and novices, examines the differences in image describing behavior between these two categories of users. Eye tracking technique was used to capture the image users' eye movement on the Area of Interests (AOIs). This study found that a domain expert was capable of employing nine levels of image attributes in the descriptions, while a novice was able to use only six levels. Furthermore, the expert showed stronger capability in expressing the image information needs by generating more image attributes in the descriptions than the novice, especially in terms of employing significantly more high-level (semantic levels) image attributes. We also found that the novice attended to more AOIs on every image than the expert.
Online consumer information encountering experience for planned purchase and unplanned purchase BIBAFull-Text 794-795
  Jiazhen Wang; Sanda Erdelez; James Thome
This paper proposes an integrated model of traditional consumer buying decision process and Information Encountering (IE) model to study online consumer actual consumption. This study uses Poisson Regression to analyze the relationships between three major factors (consumer, product, and situation) and four types of possible online consumption results (planned purchase without IE experience, planned purchase with IE experience, planned purchase accompanied with unplanned purchase, and unplanned purchase only). Additionally, this study also studies the pattern of product information needs in IE episode of unplanned purchase by Confirmatory Factor Analysis.
eBirding: technology adoption and the transformation of leisure into science BIBAFull-Text 798-799
  Andrea Wiggins
The decreasing cost of technology and Internet access has resulted in increasingly large-scale scientific research projects that rely on technology-mediated public participation. This poster takes a process theory perspective to discuss how technology adoption in a citizen science project influences participation and thereby scientific outcomes. The case study finds that some birders change their established practices upon adopting eBird, an online checklist program for bird observations, because the additional effort supports individual satisfaction and community recognition. This dramatically increases the value of the data for research, promoting improved scientific outcomes.
Note: Best Poster Award
Journal evaluation using the importance of authors in co-authorship network BIBAFull-Text 800-801
  Xuefeng Wu; Wei Lu; Jiepu Jiang
In this poster, we propose to evaluate journal influence based on journal authors' importance in co-authorship network. Preliminary results of evaluating Chinese LIS journals are presented.
Awash in stardust: data practices in astronomy BIBAFull-Text 802-804
  Laura Wynholds; David Fearon; Christine L. Borgman; Sharon Traweek
One of several major research initiatives into the grand challenge of data curation, the Data Conservancy (DC), funded by the National Science Foundation"s DataNet Initiative, is investigating data use, sharing, and preservation in multiple fields of science. Our group at the University of California, Los Angeles is conducting a deep case study of astronomy and astrophysics. DC partners at Cornell, Illinois, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and the National Snow and Ice Data Center are studying data practices in several other science domains. The DC is a collaborative multi-sited research project that will offer new insights into data practices in an array of physical and life sciences. The mandate of the project is to "research, design, implement, deploy and sustain data curation infrastructure for cross-disciplinary discovery with an emphasis on observational data." [4].
   This poster will summarize findings from the first year of UCLA"s research on astronomers and astronomy data. Our approach to studying data practices is complementary to that of our DC project partners, most of whom are surveying a broader set of fields less deeply. The UCLA team is part of Data Conservancy information science and computer science (IS/CS) team, which will share methods and findings. Our overall goal is to compare comparative data practices and data curation requirements across a range of physical and life science fields.
   Astronomy is considered to be at the forefront of data-driven science. Hanisch and Quinn, in explaining the development of the Virtual Observatory, wrote, "Astronomy faces a data avalanche. Breakthroughs in telescope, detector, and computer technology allow astronomical instruments to produce terabytes of images and catalogs...These technological developments will fundamentally change the way astronomy is done. These changes will have dramatic effects on the sociology of astronomy itself." [7].
   Over the course of the last ten years, astronomy data projects have grown from terabyte scales to petabyte scales, and the data deluge has affected many more sciences, large and small. Long predicted by the science community [8], not only has Nature, a premier science journal, published feature sections on "big data" [2] so have Wired Magazine [1], and the Economist [5].
   However, significant tensions surrounding big data projects are present in the field, as expressed by two Nature editors: "Astronomy is in an era of unprecedented change...more and more astronomy papers are showing evidence that familiarity with the essential "dirtiness" of data and models is being lost. ...Worries that the centuries-old culture of astronomy is being eroded have been voiced in the community for several years, especially in cosmology where the big-science approach now dominates." [12]
   Data curation of these complex digital objects presents a significant challenge facing both scientific research and scholarly record keeping institutions. Bowker and Star [14] argued that of the problems of aggregating data within an information system are reflective of the sociotechnical systems that yielded the data. Following that argument, the quest to build repositories for data becomes largely a quest to fold the practices of an established community into evolving technological solutions. Thus it is essential to study the data practices of communities whose data is to be curated. Astronomy is a rich domain in which to study data practices, and the Data Conservancy offers a diverse environment in which to compare data curation challenges across the sciences.
   We approach astronomy data practices with three questions:
   1. What are the data management, curation, and sharing practices of astronomers and astronomy data centers, and how have they developed?
   2. Who uses what data when, with whom, and why?
   3. What data are most important to curate, how, for whom, and for what purposes?
   The first question focuses on what people do, how they manage data, and what counts as relevant research data to generate, use, keep, and discard. The second question addresses the social contexts, networks, and communities within which these practices occur. The third question focuses on specific aspects of data curation, such as deciding what data will be of future use to others, assigning responsibilities for organizing and describing datasets for use, identifying incentives and disincentives for individuals or groups to curate their data, and developing tools and services necessary to exploit those data.
   At the core of our astronomy case study is an analysis of the large sky surveys, as these generate massive amounts of data that fuel both inquiry and the tensions outlined above. The first year of the project has been concerned with capturing a broad perspective of the empirical and theoretical research that can be accomplished with astronomical observations, comparing data activities associated with sky surveys to other types of inquiry.
   Our starting point has been the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) [13], which began data capture in 2000 and recently completed its final data release of the SDSS-II project. This groundbreaking optical survey telescope and accompanying digital dataset provides distributed access to data for one quarter of the sky. We are studying the development, practices and challenges of data management and curation in the SDSS, as well as the project"s impact on astronomy. Our study of subsequent sky survey projects, such as PanSTARRS [11] and LSST [10], will offer insights to the role and value of synoptic surveys in physical science research.
   Our methods follow from our three research questions about data practices, social contexts, and curation requirements in these astronomy settings:
   1. Examining data practices through qualitative ethnography, including in-depth interviews and site observations; and
   2. Mapping the social context of projects by analyzing documents about projects and their history, and people"s networks of professional affiliations and research activities.
   Within the context of qualitative ethnographies, we are interviewing people who have worked in multiple roles in sky surveys and who use sky survey data in their own research. These interviewees include software developers, university faculty, postdocs, and other researchers using data from networked astrophysical instruments. We are comparing the range of curation requirements for managing large-scale archives and smaller collections of research data.
   We are examining the extensive documentation of the SDSS project, including an archived listserv discussion group of its builders and users.
   Our initial fieldwork on astronomy sites has found broad differences in curation practices and requirements between projects, data centers, academic collaborations, and domains of research. Identifying generalizable comparisons is a core challenge. We see historical and cultural changes at large and small levels, including the professionalization of data management and the role of informatics in astronomy. Adoption of computational approaches to knowledge discovery appears uneven across the astronomy community. Science-driven research has exhibited tensions with computer engineering approaches to data archives, according to some of our respondents.
   We are seeing considerable variation in the use of sky surveys, from scientific inquiry to calibration of other instruments. In conjunction with a considerable variation in use, we see significant diversity in what counts as data among those studying each wavelength, and between observational and theoretical approaches. Among the interviewed theoretical astrophysicists who rely on computational modeling, some archive the results of simulations, while others retain the algorithms but discard the data generated by simulations. Data archiving practices for sky surveys appear to vary widely by wavelength, partially due to differences in data volume, format and complexity. Similarly, astronomy data use may be further divided by practices of ground-based versus space-based instruments. Data practices and data curation requirements within astronomy are far less homogeneous than they may appear from the outside. Similarly, the computation- and data-intensive methods that characterize modern astronomical research are not embraced universally.
   Our poster will compare our initial results to those of our Data Conservancy partners' analyses of data practices in other science domains. We may see similar practices of data management and preservation practices among fields; however, early reports by DC partners at Illinois show "no field-wide norms" for sharing data among the researchers they interviewed, and diverse use of data repositories even within a research field. [3] Data practices appear to vary widely within disciplines in the physical and life sciences, and even more so between them.
Sentiment community detection in social networks BIBAFull-Text 804-805
  Kaiquan Xu; Jiexun Li; Stephen Shaoyi Liao
With the increasing popularity of social networking sites and Web 2.0, people are building social relationships and expressing their opinions in the cyberspace. In this study, we introduce several novel methods to identify online communities with similar sentiments in online social networks. Our preliminary experiment on a real-world dataset demonstrates that our proposed method can detect interesting sentiment communities in social networks.
The emotional world of health online communities BIBAFull-Text 806-807
  Bei Yu
This article presents a preliminary study on the emotional world of health online communities. Using sentiment analysis and natural language processing techniques, this study aims to (1) examine the strength of various kinds of emotions (positivity, optimism, negativity, anxiety, anger, and sadness) in online health forum discussions, and (2) compare the emotional status and expression of forum participants under different roles, such as askers and answerers, men and women, and caregivers and patients. This study is expected to improve the understanding of the emotional communication in online health communities.
Designing a public touchscreen display system for iSchool community BIBAFull-Text 808-810
  Shaopeng Zhang; Wei Jeng
This project aims to design and develop a public touchscreen display system for the School of Information Sciences at the University of Pittsburgh in order to provide research talks, events, announcements, job postings and other useful information to local community members. The motivation was to let students of the iSchool embrace information and experience technology in their daily environment and help them to understand the connection among people, information, and technology. Based on the project context and user requirements, target features were defined and design guidelines were formulated. A prototype was developed and then evaluated through usability testing and observation to validate the features and guidelines. Results showed that the system has met users' requirements and conforms to the context of the iSchool. This article provides some insights into designing a public touchscreen display system for educational institutions such as this iSchool.
Exploring a web space for consumer health information: implications for design BIBAFull-Text 811-812
  Yan Zhang
Knowledge about people's natural or preferred ways of exploring a system could reveal cognitive paths through which users learn a system. This knowledge can also inform the design of interfaces that facilitate users' learning of the system and the design of training materials that better accommodate users' preferences. In the study, we investigate the behaviors of first-time users' behavior of exploring a web space for consumer health information, MedlinePlus, and discuss implications for designing consumer health information retrieval systems.
Effects of tasks on users' perceptions of the content of a web-based IR system BIBAFull-Text 813-815
  Yan Zhang
Finding relevant information is a major goal that motivates people to seek information using an IR system. Therefore, it is important to understand how people perceive the content of a system while interacting with it to solve specific problems. This article presents a preliminary study on users' perceptions of the content of a web-based IR system and the effects of tasks on their perceptions.

Doctoral Colloquium Posters

The school librarian as a technology integration leader: enablers and barriers to leadership enactment BIBAFull-Text 691-693
  Melissa P. Johnston
This poster presents preliminary findings of in-progress research investigating current practice to identify what is enabling some school librarians to thrive as technology integration leaders and what is hindering others in order to guide school librarians in successfully enacting this role. The highly technological environment of 21st century schools has significantly redefined the role of the school librarian by presenting the opportunity to assume leadership roles through technology integration. The school librarian must evolve as a leader in order to address the needs of today's learners and ensure that they are equipped with the knowledge and skills they need to succeed, but the lack of research in this area has left school librarians ill prepared for the enactment of this role. This research, based on a distributed leadership theoretical foundation, seeks to identify and categorize the enablers and barriers experienced by school librarians in enacting a leadership role in technology integration.
North-American aboriginal curators' understandings of aboriginal cultural heritage: a discourse-analytic approach BIBAFull-Text 788-789
  Iulian Vamanu
This poster presents the main aspects of my dissertation proposal, which focuses on discourses around aboriginal cultural heritage produced by aboriginal museum and gallery professionals in North America. This is a particularly important and timely project, given the scarcity in Library and Information Science of studies exploring the notion of cultural heritage, especially aboriginal cultural heritage. Moreover, since aboriginal curators are key actors in the production and circulation of aboriginal cultural heritage, their perspective on aboriginal cultural heritage is invaluable.
Expressiveness requirements for reasoning about collection/item metadata relationships BIBAFull-Text 796-797
  Karen M. Wickett
Logical relationships between descriptive metadata statements can reveal important semantic features and support useful tools. This poster examines the logical features of a framework for collection/item metadata relationships, as part of placing the framework on a systematic logical foundation and assessing the logical requirements of systems to encode and reason over metadata relationships. The kind of logical constructs required to reason with these relationships will have an impact on the development of systems that take advantage of collection and item descriptions together.
"Teens today don't read books anymore": a study of differences in interest and comprehension in multiple modalities BIBAFull-Text 815-816
  Jessica E. Moyer
A research study on college students reading, engaging and comprehending across multiple modalities: print books, ebooks, and audiobooks.
   Over the last several years the popular and scholarly presses have been rife with articles about how teens are not reading. The widely publicized 2004 National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) study, "Reading at Risk" is written up as: "literary reading in dramatic decline." In 2007, the NEA did a follow up "To Read or Not to Read" and results indicated that young adults were reading significantly less. At the same time, The Pew Internet and American Life Project's 2004 report, found only 5% of respondents reported doing the majority of their leisure reading online. Another Pew report, "Writing, Technology, and Teens" found even teens who report high levels of digital literacy activities do not consider the activities to be "real" reading or writing.
   Audio literacy is an important, often overlooked skill set that should always be studied in conjunction with print and digital practices. The previous research on audio literacy matches with the results of the Audio Publishers Association, which found that print readers are more likely to be listeners (2006) Diakidoy et al. (2005) found that the relationship between listening and reading comprehension becomes stronger after children have mastered decoding, and that listening comprehension does not exist independently from reading comprehension.
   Online and e-book reading is a more recent phenomenon, and although there is plenty of research that discuss the e-book readers and their technical features, few report research results. Ramirez, (2003) found that most college students (78%) preferred print, and Liu (2005) found strong preference for print (over 90%). Are teens really not reading as much as they did in the past? Are teens reading, but in nontraditional and/or unreported modalities? If the surveys focus on book reading, what about all the teens who do all their reading online or in digital modalities? What about the youth who listen to audiobooks? I think that young adults today may be reading just as much as youth in the past, but their ways and types of reading are so different from the older generations who create these polls and studies, that they are not accurately capturing the true levels of adolescent literacy leisure activities. We need to know how they read and if their comprehension, interest and engagement is the same across multiple modalities. To answer these questions, I am currently conducting an experiment comparing 3 modalities (print, e-book, or audio) and three leisure-reading texts with female college students.
Humanitarian information management network effectiveness: an analysis at the organizational and network levels BIBAFull-Text 817-818
  Louis-Marie Ngamassi; Carleen Maitland; Andrea H. Tapia
Massive international response to humanitarian crises such as the South Asian Tsunami in 2004, the Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Haiti earthquake in 2010 highlights the importance of humanitarian inter-organizational collaboration networks, especially in information management and exchange. Though, in recent years, humanitarian information management has considerably improved due to significant development in humanitarian information management principles and systems (Van de Walle et al., 2009), humanitarian information sharing continues to challenge the international community (Maiers et al., 2005; Wentz, 2006; Maitland et al., 2009; Bharosa et al., 2010). As I mentioned earlier, in the humanitarian relief field, the number of inter-organizational networks has significantly increased with the rise in number and complexity of humanitarian disasters of the past few decades (Stephenson, 2005; 2006; Ngamassi et al., 2010). The effectiveness of these networks in disaster response is still to be determined. Despite more than a decade old call for better understanding of the effectiveness of inter-organizational networks in the nonprofit context (see O'Toole, 1997; Provan & Milward 1995), to date limited work has been done (Provan et al., 2007).
Icons: pictures or logograms? BIBAFull-Text 819-820
  Sheng-Cheng Huang
The author proposed three studies (i.e. a large-N survey, a behavioral experiment, and a functional magnetic resonance imaging research) to investigate whether people read icons as pictures or logographic words.
Information in our world: epistemological assumptions of concepts of information and research consequences BIBAFull-Text 821-822
  Lai Ma
'Information' is presumably the object of study in information science research. However, epistemological assumptions of concepts of information and the uses of the term 'information' in information science discourse and their cultural, social, and methodological implications are seldom examined. This study consists in the reconstructive analysis of concepts of information for explicating epistemological assumptions of foundational concepts of information in information science discourse, on the one hand, and for examining the relationship between concepts of information and research method and methodology, on the other. This study also proposes the study of information in our world, that is, rather than information in the, my or your world.
Community engagement in public libraries BIBAFull-Text 823-824
  Hui-Yun Sung; Mark Hepworth; Gillian Ragsdell
An awareness of the importance of effective community engagement has been increasing over the past ten years. A number of public bodies in the U. K. and overseas have recognised the importance of engaging with local communities in their services and are tackling this issue. The purpose of this research is to investigate essential elements for effective community engagement in public libraries. This research takes a qualitative approach to capture both service providers' and service users' perspectives in the process of community engagement. This research will help to provide an overview of what is being done, leading to a detailed insight into what form community engagement can take and what makes it work, as well as the challenges. Hence, the research will inform future community engagement projects in library services and information services.
Infrastructures to imagine: the Mexican internet industry BIBAFull-Text 825-826
  Ruy Cervantes
The Internet provides a technical platform that can be used by start-ups in every country to launch innovative products for world markets. Yet, most of the successful Internet products -- such as Twitter or Skype -- are created in centers of innovation in US and Europe. The major asset of startups in the most developed countries is the social infrastructures they have available, which are used to bring together the right people and create the conditions for building innovative and successful products. This study seeks to understand how start-up companies creating Internet products in mid-income countries are building the social infrastructures they need to succeed in world markets, within the social, economic, cultural and historical constraints of the country. The study looks at how entrepreneurs in Mexico are designing the social infrastructures and mechanisms to change their work practices and the culture of their industry, which had little precedent for technological innovation. This study looks at the practical level of how this change in practices and culture is articulated, and the ways in which interactive and communication technology is enabling these efforts.
Microblogging for distributed surveillance in response to violent crises: ethical considerations BIBAFull-Text 827-828
  Thomas Heverin
The increased use of social media technologies over the past few years has altered the communication and information sharing activities surrounding crises. Local and non-local citizens can now create and distribute their own crisis-related information to a wide audience bypassing official communication channels. The purpose of our research is to identify patterns in citizen communications transmitted over Twitter and to identify ethical considerations of citizen participation through Twitter in response to violent crises. In a preliminary study, we examined the patterns of Twitter communications sent in response to a 2009 violent attack in the U.S. and found that the majority of communications contained information sharing content focused on the suspect and law enforcement activity. We also examined ethical considerations of the Twitter communications and found four main categories of behaviors that could potentially lead to more violence or harm to others including disseminating misinformation, promoting vigilante justice, conducting virtual attacks on fellow participants, and sharing real-time information on law enforcement locations. Data for four other U.S. 2009-2010 attacks have been collected and a more in depth analysis is in progress.
Large-scale book digitization in historical context: outlines of a comparison BIBAFull-Text 829-830
  Elisabeth Jones
An ongoing research project is introduced, comparing current large-scale digitization initiatives to early American public libraries as efforts to democratize access to information. Selected parallels and contrasts between these two phenomena are outlined, and a plan for further research -- a comparative case study analysis of two exemplars on each side of the comparison, informed by structuration and sociotechnical systems theory -- is described.
Research overview for doctoral colloquium BIBAFull-Text 831-832
  Joshua E. Blumenstock
I provide a brief research statement describing the broad goals of my work, and discuss results from a few recent empirical studies into the economic impact of information and communications technologies in developing regions.
Neurophysiological analyses of the effects of online interactive tailored health videos (via web-automated human interaction technologies) on attention to health messages BIBAFull-Text 833
  Jung A. Lee
Interactive tailored health video is one such technology that has emerged as a viable approach for delivering health messages. Interactive videos possess both attributes of interactivity and personalization, which may be more effective in persuasive health education efforts. Online interactive tailored health videos, known as web-automated human interaction (WAHIs), are created by the company Wahi Media, Inc. WAHIs use web-automated human interaction technologies allowing users to interact with the website by prompting questions used to tailor content; thus providing a highly interactive learning environment. The potential value of using automated human interaction technologies for health education is the ability to stimulate human conversation and provide interactive tailored messages in real time.
   This research seeks to study the effects of online interactive tailored health videos (specifically WAHIs) on users' attention using neurophysiologic approaches. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) measured by electroencephalograms (EEG) monitoring brainwave activity have been used in previous studies to shed light on information processing given exposure to different media [1]. Previous empirical studies regarding health messages have shown more or less consistent findings with regard to the effects of tailored messages on attention using ERP indexes: larger amplitudes for the N1 and smaller amplitudes for the P300 in tailored messages [2]. One such study indicated that users exposed to tailored messages have larger changes in ERPs [3]. Several studies have also revealed a larger number of ERPs in response to relevant visual and contextual stimuli than irrelevant stimuli [4]. These studies support the potential usefulness of measuring ERPs to indicate attention levels given exposure to different stimuli, and in turn, contribute more robust evidence than self-report data.
   The practical significance of this study is embedded in exploring empirical evidence to understand what the effect is of the online interactive tailored health video compared to a static website by using neurophysiologic analysis. This can be a better objective measure of message effectiveness on attention as indicated by ERPs. Most studies lack empirical evidence and rely on self-reports. Other contribution of this study will be useful in developing web-based, interactive tailored health video intervention programs and in improving the quality of online health information programs. This study integrates theories and background knowledge from several different disciplines, including health information seeking behavior studies, health behavioral studies, health communication, and neurophysiology to enrich the exploration of approaches for more effective delivery of health messages. This interdisciplinary approach brings new light and an alternative framework to the investigation of health education materials.
   An experiment will be conducted to compare the effects of a highly interactive and tailored website using interactive video technology vs. a static website on user attention and engagement as indicated by ERPs. The design of this study will be a crossover design and each subject will complete two sessions. Forty college students will be exposed to two conditions; health messages delivered via (1) WAHIs and (2) static website. Differences in ERP (as indicated by amplitude differences in N1, P1, and P300) given exposure to the two different conditions will be the main indicator of attention, the principal dependent variable. Heart rate variability (HRV) will also be explored to monitor emotion-related physiological changes that might affect reactions to the experimental stimuli.
Building values into the design of pervasive mobile technologies BIBAFull-Text 834-835
  Katie Shilton
This poster presents findings from an ethnographic investigation into the design of pervasive data collection and sensing systems. The findings about engineering laboratory and design culture suggest practices to prevent surveillance and encourage social values as a critical component of technology design.
Note: Best Poster Award
Investigating genre-credibility relations in the context of scholars' information practices BIBAFull-Text 836-837
  Min-Chun Ku
This study seeks to investigate the relationships between genres and credibility in the context of scholars' information practices. The author will explore how scholars in different disciplines predict, perceive, and assess the credibility of the genres that they seek and use in their research and teaching tasks in different academic contexts. Whether or not there are relationships, and/or what relationships exist between different types and different levels of complexity of tasks and genres that are sought, used, and cited in different academic settings will also be examined. Scholars from different disciplines will be recruited to participate in this research. The author will employ citation analysis, interviews, and focus groups to identify each scholar's genre repertoire and his/her research and teaching tasks that initiate and develop their information practices based on his/her publications, syllabi, and other related academic outputs. Card-sorting and repertory grids will then be adopted to understand the differences of the perceived credibility among genres. The interview transcripts will be content analyzed to unfold the relationships between the genres that scholars seek and use and how their credibility is predicted, perceived, and assessed in different tasks in contexts. The findings will identify the relationships between tasks that vary in their types and complexity and the cues that different genres render to credibility prediction and assessment in various academic situations. The results of this study will provide a conceptual foundation of human-information interaction that can be applied to different population in different contexts and inform the design of information systems and services in practices.
Information sharing in community-based multi-organizational networks BIBAFull-Text 838-840
  Jennifer Stoll
Combating complex social issues such as homelessness, gang violence, or child sex trafficking requires complex coordination on a range of levels and interactions. From individuals engaging with other individuals (person-to-person), to multiple organizations interacting with groups of other organizations (network-to-network), the coordination activities occurring at these various levels include both the formal (contracts, policies) and the informal (ad hoc, spontaneous). Some of the outcomes of coordination activity at these varying levels can be policy changes (revision to laws), resource gathering (e.g. food banks), demonstrations or protests, petitions, or the establishment of victim-care and victim-prevention processes. Given the complexity of coordination and the wide-range of interactions occurring at many different levels, breakdowns in coordination are inevitable. However, there are gaps in understanding coordination in networks that are goal-driven, largely informal and seeking to act collectively over an extended period of time (unlike one-time coordination such as flash mobs). To address some of these gaps, I am currently conducting a case study exploration of a network of multiple organizations and individuals that are coordinating to eradicate child sex trafficking from their community.
Architecture strategy of personalized information environment BIBAFull-Text 841
  Fei Xie
My research is focus on architecture strategy of personalized information environment. As demands for personalized information solution, personalized information environment is an intrinsic requirement to meet the great information demand, and it is also an inevitable of the development of personalized information service. It is designed to build personal information space into the working environment to support personalized access (resources, services) to the mass of information resources.
Modeling citizenship information behavior and political action BIBAFull-Text 842-843
  Wayne Buente
My research examines one of the cornerstones of democratic systems, the notion of an informed public [Kranich 2001]. Democratic ideals exalt the "good citizen," implying that citizens be fully informed to fulfill their obligations. Although scholars have recognized the importance of information to citizenship, there are opportunities to further examine the relationship between information behavior and democratic action. This research provides a persuasive link between understanding citizen information behavior and political outcomes.
   According to a recent Pew report, 59% of Americans get offline or online news on a typical day [Purcell et al. 2010); however only 19% of Internet users become politically active online [Smith et al. 2009]. What this suggests is that rich information environments do not necessarily lead to political action. An important question is why increased citizen online information practices have not resulted in greater information use for political action. Savolanien [2006] argues that information use is not well-studied and has largely focused on information seeking; there is a "dearth of theoretical and methodological approaches to information use" (p. 1116).
   This research models citizen information behavior and online political action. It applies an interdisciplinary approach that integrates and extends current research in information and political behavior as it relates to citizenship and political participation in the United States. A research model was developed that explains how citizens become politically active in an online context. Standard linear models of the antecedents of political behavior [Boulianne 2009] and the comprehensive model of information seeking [Johnson 2003] are applied to inform a heuristic model that assumes that having political information and knowledge leads to politically active citizenship. In other words, political information is the "currency of citizenship" [Delli Carpini and Keeter 1996] that links citizen information seeking and information use.
   Two national surveys conducted by the Pew Internet and American Life Project are used to test the heuristic model. Surveys utilized a random digital sample of telephone numbers selected from exchanges in the continental United States. These surveys represent national probability samples of more than 1000 respondents which are rare in information behavior research [Case 2007].
   Logistic and ordinal regression procedures using maximum likelihood estimates comprise the secondary analysis of the survey data. Findings reveal three important antecedents for understanding online citizen information needs and use: frequency of Internet use, political beliefs, and political interest.
   Socioeconomic states (SES) variables and frequent Internet use contribute significantly for acquiring political information online. Political beliefs constrain citizen information seeking and lead to increased evidence of information avoidance. Political interest is the strongest predictor for explaining citizen political information use and political action. Based on this empirical analysis, the road to becoming an Internet user to a well-informed citizen to an actively engaged citizen is a challenge. The Internet does reduce the cost of citizen political information behavior but other factors such as motivation and beliefs need to be included if the ideals of an informed public are to be realized through information use and political action.