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HYPER Tables of Contents: 899191Z9393X93Y93Z969797X9899000102030405060708

Proceedings of the Ninth ACM Conference on Hypertext

Fullname:Hypertext'98: Proceedings of the Ninth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia
Note:Links, Objects, Time and Space -- Structure in Hypermedia Systems
Location:Pittsburgh, PA
Dates:1998-Jun-20 to 1998-Jun-24
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-972-6; ACM Order Number 614980; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: HYPER98
Papers:47
Pages:307
Links:Conference Home Page (defunct) | Tutorials (defunct)
  1. Hypermedia Application Design
  2. Novel Systems and Interfaces
  3. Mapping and Visualizing Navigation
  4. Temporal Models
  5. Linking Mechanisms
  6. Articulation in Hypermedia
  7. Structural Models
  8. Open Hypermedia
  9. Structural Queries
  10. Cooperative Hypermedia
  11. Short Papers: Articulation in Hypermedia
  12. Short Papers: Adaptivity and Automatic Creation of Structures
  13. Short Papers: Advanced Browsing Interfaces
  14. Short Papers: Adaptivity and Automatic Creation of Structures
  15. Short Papers: Advanced Browsing Interfaces
  16. Short Papers: Adaptivity and Automatic Creation of Structures
  17. Short Papers: Advanced Browsing Interfaces
  18. Short Papers: Adaptivity and Automatic Creation of Structures
  19. Short Papers: Advanced Browsing Interfaces
  20. Short Papers: Adaptivity and Automatic Creation of Structures
  21. Short Papers: Articulation in Hypermedia
  22. Keynote
  23. Panel

Hypermedia Application Design

Evaluation of Hypermedia Application Development and Management Systems BIBAKPDF 1-10
  S. P. Christodoulou; G. D. Styliaras; T. S. Papatheodrou
In this paper we propose and study a framework for evaluating Hypermedia Application Development and Management Systems (HADMS) in relation to specific application requirements. We address the need for HADMS capable to efficiently support the main users involved in the life cycle of hypermedia applications, namely designers, programmers/implementers, authors/administrators and end-users. A HADMS consists of a hypermedia application development and management methodology and the respective environment. In this work, we propose and classify a set of evaluation criteria. These are mainly imposed by real life development and the need to support forthcoming, or next generation, features for hypermedia applications. We also introduce a simple framework for a comparative evaluation of HADMS. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of the criteria and the framework proposed, for the case of three real-life applications. A representative set of seven HADMS is selected and the evaluation of these systems is carried out, leading to some useful conclusions and suggestions for future work.
Keywords: Hypermedia application development systems, Evaluation framework, Criteria, Methodology, Hypermedia design, Hypermedia systems, WWW
Pushing Reuse in Hypermedia Design: Golden Rules, Design Patterns and Constructive Templates BIBAKPDF 11-20
  Marc Nanard; Jocelyne Nanard; Paul Kahn
Reuse is increasingly strategic for reducing cost and improving quality of hypermedia design and development. In this paper, based on the design and development of a real hypermedia application, we classify and explore different types of reuse in hypermedia design. We show how constructive templates constitute a practical technique for capturing the specification of reusable structures and components and enabling the automation of the production process. We also discuss connections between constructive templates and design patterns.
Keywords: Hypermedia design, Golden rules, Design patterns, Templates, Reuse, Hypermedia generation
Patterns of Hypertext BIBAKPDF 21-29
  Mark Bernstein
The apparent unruliness of contemporary hypertexts arises, in part, from our lack of a vocabulary to describe hypertext structures. From observation of a variety of actual hypertexts, we identify a variety of common structural patterns that may prove useful for description, analysis, and perhaps for design of complex hypertexts. These patterns include:
   Cycle
   Counterpoint
   Mirrorworld
   Tangle
   Sieve
   Montage
   Split/Join
   Missing Link
   Feint
Keywords: Design, Patterns, Pattern languages, Rhetoric, Hypertext structure, Criticism, Navigation

Novel Systems and Interfaces

Linking by Inking: Trailblazing in a Paper-Like Hypertext BIBAKPDF 30-39
  Morgan N. Price; Gene Golovchinsky; Bill N. Schilit
"Linking by inking" is a new interface for reader-directed link construction that bridges reading and browsing activities. We are developing linking by inking in XLibris, a hypertext system based on the paper document metaphor. Readers use a pen computer to annotate page images with free-form ink, much as they would on paper, and the computer constructs hypertext links based on the ink marks. This paper proposes two kinds of reader-directed links: automatic and manual. Automatic links are created in response to readers' annotations. The system extracts the text near free-form ink marks, uses these terms to construct queries, executes queries against a collection of documents, and unobtrusively displays links to related documents in the margin or as "further reading lists." We also present a design for manual (ad hoc) linking: circling an ink symbol generates a multi-way link to other instances of the same symbol.
Keywords: Dynamic hypertext, Information retrieval, Paper-like user interface, Pen computing, Document metaphor, Digital ink
Toward an Ecology of Hypertext Annotation BIBAKPDF 40-49
  Catherine C. Marshall
Annotation is a key way in which hypertexts grow and increase in value. This paper first characterizes annotation according to a set of dimensions to situate a long-term study of a community of annotators. Then, using the results of the study, the paper explores the implications of annotative practice for hypertext concepts and for the development of an ecology of hypertext annotation, in which consensus creates a reading structure from an authorial structure.
Keywords: Annotation, Study, Spatial hypertext, Reading-oriented systems, Consensus
Fluid Links for Informed and Incremental Link Transitions BIBAKPDF 50-57
  Polle T. Zellweger; Bay-Wei Chang; Jock D. Mackinlay
We have developed a novel user interface technique for hypertext, called fluid links, that has several advantages over current methods. Fluid links provide additional information at a link source to support readers in choosing among links and understanding the structure of a hypertext. Fluid links present this information in a convenient location that does not obscure the content or layout of the source material. The technique uses perceptually-based animation to provide a natural and lightweight feeling to readers. In their richer forms, fluid links can provide a novel hypertext navigation paradigm that blurs the boundaries of hypertext nodes and can allow readers to fluidly control the focus on the material to support their current reading goals.
Keywords: Fluid UI, Fluid links, Hypertext navigation paradigms, Rhetoric of departure, Scent, User interface, Animation

Mapping and Visualizing Navigation

Graphical Multiscale Web Histories: A Study of PadPrints BIBAKPDF 58-65
  Ron R. Hightower; Laura T. Ring; Jonathan I. Helfman; Benjamin B. Bederson; James D. Hollan
We have implemented a browser companion called PadPrints that dynamically builds a graphical history-map of visited web pages. PadPrints relies on Pad++, a zooming user interface (ZUI) development substrate, to display the history-map using minimal screen space. PadPrints functions in conjunction with a traditional web browser but without requiring any browser modifications.
   We performed two usability studies of PadPrints. The first addressed general navigation effectiveness. The second focused on history-related aspects of navigation. In tasks requiring returns to prior pages, users of PadPrints completed tasks in 61.2% of the time required by users of the same browser without PadPrints. We also observed significant decreases in the number of pages accessed when using PadPrints. Users found browsing with PadPrints more satisfying than using Netscape alone.
Keywords: World Wide Web, Web navigation, Web browser, Usability, Pad++, Zooming user interface (ZUI), Hypertext, Multiscale interfaces, Information visualization
MAPA: A System for Inducing and Visualizing Hierarchy in Websites BIBAKPDF 66-76
  David Durand; Paul Kahn
The MAPA system provides improved navigation facilities for large web sites. It extracts a hierarchical structure from an arbitrary web site, with no or minimal human assistance, and creates an interactive map of that site that can be used for orientation and navigation. MAPA is designed and most useful for large web sites of from 500 to 50,000 pages. We present an overview of the mapping problem, with a list of 10 important user facilities that maps can offer. Then we describe how the MAPA system analyzes the link structure of a site, and provides effective aids for the navigation of large hypertexts. We also compare MAPA with a number of other web-mapping systems, and conclude with a review of how MAPA stands with respect to our wish-list of map features.
Keywords: Hypertext interfaces, Structural analysis, Hierarchical organization, WWW, Web mapping, Data visualization
From Latent Semantics to Spatial Hypertext -- An Integrated Approach BIBAKPDF 77-86
  Chaomei Chen; Mary Czerwinski
In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach to the development of spatial hypertext. This approach brings together several theories and techniques concerning semantic structures, and streamlines the transformation from implicit semantic structures to a semantic space rendered in virtual reality. Browsing and querying become natural, inherent, and compatible activities within the same semantic space. The overall design principle is based on the theory of cognitive maps. Techniques such as latent semantic indexing, Pathfinder network scaling, and virtual reality modelling are used in harmony. The value of this integrated approach is discussed based on initial results of a recent empirical study, which suggests that the spatial metaphor is intuitive and particularly useful when dealing with implicit information structures, or when a highly flexible and extensible virtual environment is required. Search strategies in association with the spatial hypertext and further work are also discussed.
Keywords: Spatial hypertext, Latent semantic indexing, Virtual reality, Digital libraries

Temporal Models

Temporally Threaded Workspace: A Model for Providing Activity-Based Perspectives on Document Spaces BIBAKPDF 87-96
  Koichi Hayashi; Takahiko Nomura; Tan Hazama; Makoto Takeoka; Sunao Hashimoto; Stephan Gumundson
In this paper, we present a framework for providing activity-based perspectives of a document space, especially in the WWW. An activity-based perspective is a view of the subspace of the WWW document space that a knowledge worker should understand or modify while executing the activity. We designed the framework to reduce the cognitive overhead of managing document spaces dependent on various internal and external changes. Changes within the activity (often resulting from the natural progress of the activity) result in changes of focus in the subspace related to the activity. For such internal changes, we introduce a temporally-threaded workspace model. Our model introduces a structured workspace that maintains a thread of snapshots of a knowledge worker's perspective on a document space. Such threads of snapshots are constructed by monitoring user actions. External changes (for example, changes to documents managed in external sites) are independent of the progress of users' activities. To deal with these changes, we introduce a proxy mechanism to maintain documents in the same state as accessed. This paper also describes the implementation of prototype systems, in the WWW environment, based on our frameworks. Interlocus is a client/server system providing facilities based on the temporally-threaded workspace model. It provides a user interface that presents spatial-temporal views of a workspace thread. Packrat is a WWW proxy server that maintains documents in the same state as accessed.
Keywords: Hypertext, WWW, Spatial hypertext, Version management, Shared workspace, Authoring, Activity
Adaptive Narrative Abstraction BIBAKPDF 97-105
  Michel Crampes; Jean Paul Veuillez; Sylvie Ranwez
Narrative abstraction consists in selecting and assembling meaningful events from an original set of related events. This acquisition of information hinges on several requirements. This paper deals with some of them, namely the viewer's intention, the viewer's resource constraint, particularly the time constraint, and the narrative coherence.
   We present a foundation of narrative abstraction and several algorithms that can be used to build up abstracts compliant with the requirements. Our evaluation of these algorithms in a prototype leads to some questioning about their performance. We propose and discuss several solutions to improve them with regard to the flexibility of the abstract building process.
Keywords: Narratives, Abstraction, Hypermedia, Adaptivity, Granularity, Causality, Context
The Moment in Hypertext: A Brief Lexicon of Time BIBAKPDF 106-112
  Marjorie C. Luesebrink
Hypertext literature has been characterized as spatial construct by many of the critics involved with its aesthetics and poetics. Michael Joyce, Cathy Marshall, Mark Bernstein, Carolyn Guyer, George Landow, Stuart Moulthrop and many others have explored the way in which metaphors of visual space can inform hypertexts -- impacting both meaning and process. Although these writers refer to the time/space continuum, their writing has been less concerned with temporal constructs -- how time might influence the programming, writing, and reading of hypertext literature. Time factors, however, could be viewed as important elements in the way hypertexts are conceived and received. This paper seeks to raise questions about issues of time -- and to suggest some possible categories that might be investigated. Significant "information" is coded into everything from the equipment -- determined limitations of "Machine Time" to the author -- controlled clues embedded in "Mythic Time." To the extent that we make mental scripts of spatial parameters, readers and writers of hypertext fiction may build into the space of the cyberworld a complementary universe fully as rich in temporal experience. In both the Interface Experience and the Cognitive Structure, time is part of the inscription of coherent meaning for cyber-narratives and electronic poetry.
Keywords: Time frames, Hypertext fiction, Hypertext poetry, Narrative structures, Story parameters, Spatial metaphor, Temporal metaphor, Interface, Hypertext structure

Linking Mechanisms

Link Services or Link Agents? BIBAKPDF 113-122
  L. A. Carr; W. Hall; S. Hitchcock
A general link service for the WWW has been used within an Electronic Libraries' project. Experience using it shows that as the links become increasingly interesting to the user, processing them becomes increasingly expensive. Eventually textual analysis, ontological services and remote database lookups conflict with the goal of prompt delivery of documents. This paper summarizes the history of the Link Service software behind the Open Journal project together with the kind of links that it has been used to produce. Building on this work it then discusses how the paradigm, architecture and user interface of the DLS have been newly modified both in response to user feedback and also to allow more linking facilities to be added to the WWW environment. We then introduce AgentDLS, an agent-style system that offers suggestions to help the user's browsing and information discovery activities.
Keywords: Links, Hypertext, Open hypermedia, Link services, Autonomous user interface agents
Dynamic Hypertext Catalogues: Helping Users to Help Themselves BIBAKPDF 123-131
  Maria Milosavljevic; Jon Oberlander
Electronic hypertext catalogues provide an important channel for information provision. However, static hypertext documents cannot be dynamically adapted to help the user find what he/she is looking for. We demonstrate that natural language generation techniques can be used to produce tailored hypertext documents, and we focus on two key benefits of the resulting DYNAMIC HYPERTEXT. First, documents can be tailored more precisely to an individual's needs and background, thus aiding the search process. Secondly, the incorporation of techniques for comparing catalogue items allows the user to search still more effectively. We describe the automatic generation of hypertext documents containing comparisons, with illustrations from two implemented systems.
Keywords: Adaptive hypertext, Dynamic hypertext, Natural language generation, User modelling, Discourse history
TourisT: The Application of a Description Logic Based Semantic Hypermedia System for Tourism BIBAKPDF 132-141
  Joe Bullock; Carole Goble
Web-based Public Information Systems of the kind common in tourism do not satisfy the needs of the customer because they do not offer a sufficiently flexible linking environment capable of emulating the mediation role of a tourist adviser. We present the requirements of a tourism hypermedia system resulting from ethnographic studies of tourist advisers, and conclude that an open semantic hypermedia (SH) approach is appropriate. We present a novel and powerful SH prototype based on the use of a semantic model expressed as a terminology. The terminological model is implemented by a Description Logic, GRAIL, capable of the automatic and dynamic multi-dimensional classification of concepts, and hence the web pages they describe. We show how GRAIL-Link has been used within the TourisT hypermedia system and conclude with a discussion.
Keywords: Semantic hypermedia, Tourism, Description logics, Link services

Articulation in Hypermedia

Stalking the Paratext: Speculations on Hypertext Links as a Second Order Text BIBAKPDF 142-151
  Francisco J. Ricardo
In the popular conception of hypertext as nonlinear writing, primary emphasis typically falls on the construction, character, and quantity of constituent lexias that comprise any given hypertext. This paper, however, will focus on what the text would reveal if an ordered collection were made of the links emerging from the main (first order) text. Such a collection, as a second order text or parallel text, which I propose to call the paratext, comprises the layer-world of links, of intertextual descriptors that could he subjected to cluster analyses that reveal aspects of cohesion, breadth, and other speculative characteristics of the first order text.
Keywords: Hypertext, Intertextuality, Link semantics, Grammatology, Paratext, Rhetoric
Locus Looks at the Turing Play: Hypertextuality vs. Full Programmability BIBAKPDF 152-160
  Jim Rosenberg
Hypertext extensibility is briefly reviewed: strategies have included external execution, published internal primitives, scripted articulation points, generalized object inheritance, and guest algorithms. Hypertext algorithms are typically localized. The user/algorithm relationship in hypertext is typically master/slave; other types of relationship are possible in generalized cybertext. Hypertext algorithms normally have a clear identity; for generalized cybertext, identity of the algorithm may need to be hidden. The algorithm might only be revealed by sampling activities; these activities might or might not be structured. Identity of the programmer needs to be considered as much as that of reader or writer. Hypertext is typically structurally focused; generalized algorithms exhibit behavior, and a behavioral rather than a structural focus may be important in certain types of cybertext. Hypertextuality is not "all or nothing"; there are dimensionalities to hypertextuality, only some of which may be present. The extensibility architecture should be flexible enough to allow for all of these dimensionalities.
Keywords: Hypertext, Extensibility, User interface, Localization, User/algorithm relationship, Algorithm identity, Sampling, Structure, Behavior

Structural Models

XHMBS: A Formal Model to Support Hypermedia Specification BIBAKPDF 161-170
  Fabiano B. Paulo; Marcelo Augusto S. Turine; Maria Cristina F. de Oliveira; Paulo C. Masiero
This paper introduces XHMBS (the eXtended Hyperdocument Model Based on Statecharts) to support the formal specification of general hypermedia applications. XHMBS uses a novel formalism called hypercharts as its underlying model for specifying the navigational structure, browsing semantics and synchronization requirements of a hyperdocument. Hypercharts are statecharts extended with additional mechanisms for describing the time sequencing and information synchronization requirements typical of multimedia. The extensions incorporated into hypercharts are based on the major characteristics of some Petri net based multimedia models, and make it an alternative to such models for multimedia and hypermedia specification. XHMBS provides facilities for defining the structure of a hypermedia application in terms of nodes and links and also for describing the temporal behavior of dynamic data streams contained in nodes. The model incorporates presentation and communication channels for describing spatial coordination and distribution of information, and anchor objects for ensuring separation between information structure and content.
Keywords: Multimedia/hypermedia modeling, Statecharts, Hypercharts, HMBS, XHMBS, Temporal synchronization, Formal specification
Enforcing Strong Object Typing in Flexible Hypermedia BIBAKPDF 171-179
  Pedro Furtado; H. Madeira
The presentation layer of hypermedia systems could benefit from standard object querying functionality and this is most effective if strong typing is enforced. By strong typing we mean the direct representation of data semantics as object types in an object database as opposed to a "slotted frames" representation. On the other hand, the flexible emergent nature of structure must be considered in the authoring activity and in this sense premature typing and organizing is counterproductive. Reflecting on these apparently contradictory issues and the past proposals to handle the problem, we extend the strongly typed data model of a prototype hypermedia system, WorldView, to support semi-automatic object submission and type metamorphosis. Weak types are also necessary for some constructs, so they coexist with strong types, but these are enforced. We emphasize the benefits available to the presentation layer of keeping a uniform object oriented structure. In particular we implement a dynamic linking capability that uses queries to retrieve the objects related to some object attribute and suggest other improvements. We stress that most object oriented hypermedia systems are frame-based, especially in what concerns user-defined and emergent structure.
Keywords: Hypermedia, Flexibility, Knowledge structuring, Emergent structures, Frame model, OODBMS
Structural Properties of Hypertext BIBAKPDF 180-187
  Seongbin Park
We provide a framework that allows one to study structural properties of hypertext in connection with formal language theory. We model hypertext as a transformation device (an a-transducer) that transforms a link-following into a sequence of matched pairs: basic linkable units. Then, we address the following questions: What can hypertext do? What structure is formed when a link-following is done? What structure is built when a virtual document is constructed? We show that the set of all link-followings in hypertext is a regular set. Then, the set of all possible outputs of link-followings is shown to be context-free, which means that constructing virtual documents is essentially same as generating words of a context-free language.
Keywords: Hypertext structure, Dexter model, Regular set, Context-free language, Hypertext models, Link-following, a-transducer, Virtual document

Open Hypermedia

Using the Flag Taxonomy to Study Hypermedia System Interoperability BIBAKPDF 188-197
  Uffe Kock Wiil; Kasper Østerbye
Interoperability between existing systems, program packages, tools and applications with various degrees of hypermedia awareness is a complex and important challenge facing the hypermedia community. This paper presents a general framework (called the Flag Interoperability Matrix) to discuss and examine hypermedia system interoperability based on the concepts and principles of the Flag taxonomy of open hypermedia systems. The purposes of the Flag Interoperability Matrix are to provide a framework to classify, describe concisely and compare different approaches to hypermedia system interoperability, and provide an overview of the design space of hypermedia system interoperability. The Flag Interoperability Matrix is used to examine existing interoperability approaches. Based on a systematic analysis of possible approaches to hypermedia system interoperability, the paper explores one solution to hypermedia system interoperability that seems particularly promising with respect to handling the growing number of applications with increasing but incomplete awareness of hypermedia structure concepts.
Keywords: Flag taxonomy, Interoperability matrix, Partial hypermedia system, Interoperability protocol
An Agenda for Open Hypermedia Research BIBAKPDF 198-206
  Peter J. Nurnberg; John J. Leggett; Uffe K. Wiil
The historical development of hypermedia systems can be characterized as a series of successive abstractions of functionality away from the "core" hypermedia server, often resulting in a new open layer in the hypermedia environment architecture. Recently, this trend of abstraction has been applied to the hypermedia server itself, replacing the notion of a single, closed hypermedia server with an open layer of structure servers. This newest development brings with it a new set of challenges and research issues for open hypermedia researchers. In this paper, we discuss these issues, review some of our collective applicable experience with contemporary open hypermedia systems and other work, and point out some of the more pressing and intriguing open questions that we feel are facing open hypermedia researchers today. We also examine the "split" in the current hypermedia research community between "system" and "domain" researchers and the still-present need for interoperability among systems, and discuss why any attempt to address the issues we discuss in this paper must account for these observations.
Keywords: Open hypermedia system (OHS), Component-based open hypermedia system (CB-OHS), Structural computing, Hypermedia middleware, Hyperbase, Hypermedia operating system, Hypermedia domain research
Referential Integrity of Links in Open Hypermedia Systems BIBAKPDF 207-216
  Hugh C. Davis
This paper is concerned with broken hypertext links. These are links which do not refer the reader to the information that was intended by the author of the link. The paper presents three distinct models which have been adopted by various developers for the storage of hypertext links, and considers the problems that may result from adopting each of these models, and reviews and classifies a number of methods that may be adopted for preventing these problems.
   The link models that are reviewed range from the tightly coupled links implemented by html in the World Wide Web, through to the loosely coupled links adopted by some link server systems.
   The paper concludes that there can be no universal solution to this problem; rather there is a range of approaches from which hypertext developers must choose a solution appropriate to their needs.
Keywords: Open hypermedia, Link services, Dangling links, Broken links, Referential integrity

Structural Queries

Combining Structure Search and Content Search for the World-Wide Web BIBAKPDF 217-224
  Hermann Kaindl; Stefan Kramer; Luis Miguel Afonso
When searching information in the World-Wide Web (WWW), the currently available search engines typically return too many irrelevant addresses to their users. This is a deep and many-faceted issue and very hard to be generally solved. One of the current problems involved is that these search engines focus on content search and not on structure search as investigated in hypertext research. A prerequisite of full-fledged structure search would be that links are first-class objects. This is obviously not the case for the representation of links in the WWW. So, we introduce a rudimentary form of structure search that is based upon content search. In our application of this approach to searching the WWW, we combine this kind of structure search with content search in a meta-search engine. In this way, we are able to reduce the number of irrelevant addresses returned. As a consequence, we propose this approach for searching the World-Wide Web.
Keywords: World-Wide Web, Content search, Structure search, Meta-search engine
Inferring Web Communities from Link Topology BIBAKPDF 225-234
  David Gibson; Jon Kleinberg; Prabhakar Raghavan
The World Wide Web grows through a decentralized, almost anarchic process, and this has resulted in a large hyperlinked corpus without the kind of logical organization that can be built into more traditionally-created hypermedia. To extract meaningful structure under such circumstances, we develop a notion of hyperlinked communities on the www through an analysis of the link topology. By invoking a simple, mathematically clean method for defining and exposing the structure of these communities, we are able to derive a number of themes: The communities can be viewed as containing a core of central, "authoritative" pages linked together by 'hub pages"; and they exhibit a natural type of hierarchical topic generalization that can be inferred directly from the pattern of linkage. Our investigation shows that although the process by which users of the Web create pages and links is very difficult to understand at a "local" level, it results in a much greater degree of orderly high-level structure than has typically been assumed.
Keywords: Hypertext communities, Information exploration, World Wide Web, Collaborative annotation
Cut as a Querying Unit for WWW, Netnews, E-Mail BIBAKPDF 235-244
  Keishi Tajima; Yoshiaki Mizuuchi; Masatsugu Kitagawa; Katsumi Tanaka
In this paper, we propose a query framework for hypertext data in general, and for WWW pages, Netnews articles. and e-mails in particular. In existing query tools for hypertext data, such as search engines for WWW or intelligent news/mail readers, data units in query are typically individual nodes. In actual hypertext data, however, one topic is often described over a series of connected nodes, and therefore, the logical data unit should be such a series of nodes corresponding to one topic. This discrepancy between the data unit in query and the logical data unit hinders the efficient information discovery from hypertext data. To solve this problem, in our framework, we divide hypertexts into connected subgraphs corresponding to individual topics, and we use those subgraphs as the data units in queries.
Keywords: Query, Structuring, Information discovery, Graph-partitioning, WWW, Netnews, E-mail, Hypertext

Cooperative Hypermedia

Flexible Coordination with Cooperative Hypertext BIBAKPDF 245-255
  Weigang Wang; Jorg M. Haake
In current workflow and groupware systems, there is a gap between formal and informal coordination mechanisms. To fill the gap, flexible coordination support covers the whole spectrum of informal and formal coordination mechanisms. In this paper, a flexible coordination model integrating formal and informal coordination mechanisms is presented. Methods of using cooperative hypermedia concepts to uniformly model all objects representing coordination mediums and shared artifacts are described. Using the proposed model and methods, a cooperative hypermedia system (CHIPS), that offers flexible coordination support has been implemented. An application example of the system shows how a set of tasks and different coordination mechanisms are integrated into a cooperative process. This work demonstrates that cooperative hypermedia can serve as a bridge to close the gap.
Keywords: Cooperative hypermedia, Groupware, Coordination, Workflow, CHIPS
JPernLite: An Extensible Transaction Server for the World Wide Web BIBAKPDF 256-266
  Jack J. Yang; Gail E. Kaiser
Concurrency control is a well-known problem in design and implementation of multi-user hypermedia systems. Most existing systems store data and links in specialized databases (link servers or hyperbases) with a built-in concurrency control policy, typically the conventional atomic/serializable transaction model, usually implemented via locking. But this conventional model may not be appropriate for collaborative hypermedia systems, where the multiple users work together in groups on shared tasks.
   Further, it is desirable to construct collaborative hypermedia systems on top of the World Wide Web, but most web servers do not support even conventional transactions, let alone distributed (multi-website) transactions or flexible concurrency control mechanisms oriented towards teamwork -- such as event notification, shared locks and fine granularity locks.
   We present a transaction server that operates independently of web servers or the hypermedia applications, to fill the concurrency control gap. The transaction server by default enforces the conventional transaction model, where sets of operations are performed in an all-or-nothing fashion and isolated from concurrent users. The server can be tailored dynamically to apply more sophisticated concurrency control policies appropriate for collaboration. The transaction server also supports applications employing information resources other than web servers, such as legacy databases, CORBA objects, and other hypermedia systems.
Keywords: Distributed transactions, Extended transaction models, WWW, Computer supported collaborative work
Using Paths in the Classroom: Experiences and Adaptations BIBAKPDF 267-276
  Frank M., III Shipman; Richard Furuta; Donald Brenner; Chung-Chi Chung; Hao-wei Hsieh
Walden's Paths was designed to enable teachers to collect, organize, and annotate Web-based information for presentation to their students. Experiences with the use of Walden's Paths in high-school classrooms have identified four needs/issues: (1) better support for the gradual authoring of paths by teachers, (2) support for student authoring of paths including the ability for students to collaborate on paths, (3) more obvious distinction between content of the original source materials and that added by the path author, and (4) support for maintaining paths over an evolving set of source documents. These observed needs have driven the development of new versions of Walden's Paths. Additionally, the experiences with path authoring have led to a conceptualization of meta-documents, documents whose components include complete documents, as a general domain where issues of collaboration, intellectual property, and maintenance are decidedly different from traditional document publication.
Keywords: Computers and education, Meta-documents, Guided tours, Directed paths, World-Wide Web, Walden's paths

Short Papers: Articulation in Hypermedia

Hypertext and Web Engineering BIBAKPDF 277-278
  Michael Bieber
We take a two-stage approach to engineering World Wide Web applications. First a Relationship-Navigation Analysis, analyzes an existing or new application specifically in terms of its intra- and inter-relationships. Second, a dynamic hypermedia engine (DHymE), automatically generates links for each relationship and metaknowledge items at run-time. Links and navigation supplement the application's primary functionality.
Keywords: Hypermedia, World Wide Web, Web engineering, Software engineering, Relationship management, Linking, Complex interfaces

Short Papers: Adaptivity and Automatic Creation of Structures

Automatic Creation of Hypervideo News Libraries for the World Wide Web BIBAKPDF 279-280
  Guillaume Boissiere
This paper presents the design of a server offering up-to-date hypervideo news to World Wide Web users. The novel advantage of this system is that it combines simplicity to maintain: all the tasks are automated, accessibility: everyone with a widely used browser can access the interactive videos and view them inside the browser, and extensibility: new video databases or links can be easily added to the database. The segmentation of news video is done automatically by using the closed caption information extracted from the broadcast, and the hyperlinks are defined with a simple scripting language.
Keywords: Hypervideo server, Closed caption, Digital libraries, News segmentation

Short Papers: Advanced Browsing Interfaces

Designing Open Hypermedia Applets: Experiences and Prospects BIBAPDF 281-282
  Niels Olof Bouvin
The experiences with the continued development of DHM/WWW, an applet integrating WWW with external structures stored in the Dexter-based hypermedia system Devise Hypermedia (DHM), will be described, some problems discussed, and a brief outline of current and future work will be given.

Short Papers: Adaptivity and Automatic Creation of Structures

2L670: A Flexible Adaptive Hypertext Courseware System BIBAKPDF 283-284
  Paul De Bra; Licia Calvi
In [4,5] (among other papers) we have reported on the development of an adaptive hypertext document and system, used for learning about the subject of hypertext, through distance learning by means of World Wide Web. In the terminology of Brusilovsky's overview paper [1], the system offered adaptive content and link hiding. This short paper briefly describes the latest developments, which include the possibility for users to choose between link hiding and link annotation. The adaptive hypertext contents consists of standard HTML (3.2) pages, which makes it easy for authors to create adaptive courses using off the shelf authoring tools.
Keywords: Hypertext courseware, Adaptive content, Adaptive hiding and annotation

Short Papers: Advanced Browsing Interfaces

Applying Open Hypermedia to Audio BIBAKPDF 285-286
  David DeRoure; Steven Blackburn; Lee Oades; Jonathan Read; Neil Ridgway
We describe a set of tools to support navigational hypermedia linking within audio ('branching audio') and between media types including audio. We have adopted an open hypermedia approach, with a component-based architecture, and aim to be compliant with the emerging Open Hypermedia Protocol (OHP). Content-based navigation is supported and we have focused on speech and musical content for our case studies. Although our investigation concentrates on audio, many of the techniques are generic and therefore applicable to other temporal media.
Keywords: Open hypermedia, Content-based navigation, Open Hypermedia Protocol (OHP), Branching audio
1-800-Hypertext: Browsing Hypertext with a Telephone BIBAKPDF 287-288
  Stuart Goose; Michael Wynblatt; Hans Mollenhouer
We present the issues and design of a telephone-based browser for email and the World Wide Web.
Keywords: Hypertext, Browsing, WWW, Telephone

Short Papers: Adaptivity and Automatic Creation of Structures

Clusters on the World Wide Web: Creating Neighborhoods of Make-Believe BIBAKPDF 289-290
  Stephen C. Hirtle; Molly E. Sorrows; Guoray Cai
A study is reported on the role of neighborhoods in searching for information on the WWW. Users were asked to search collections of web pages in which the conceptual content of groups of pages was used to assign a specific background color to each group. The results indicate that for collections of web pages with moderately complex topologies, the structured backgrounds were significantly easier to search. The results suggest that neighborhoods can be induced by visual characteristics of the page and that the identification of neighborhoods can improve the overall navigability of the space.
Keywords: World Wide Web, Neighborhoods, Navigation
Adaptive Navigational Facilities in Educational Hypermedia BIBAKPDF 291-292
  Denise Pilar da Silva; Rafael Van Durm; Erik Duval; Henk Olivie
Hypermedia users with different goals and knowledge may be interested in different pieces of information and may use different links for navigation. Irrelevant information and links overload their working memories and screen [1]. In order to overcome this problem, it is possible to use information represented in a user model and then adapt the content and/or the links to be presented to that user. Adaptive hypermedia systems build such a model with the goal of personalizing hypermedia.
   Adaptation can be done either at content level (adaptive presentation), or at link level (adaptive navigation). In this paper, we focus on adaptive navigation support. More specifically, we want to reduce the cognitive overload in order to facilitate learning.
   In the following sections, we present our system, called AHM, which consists of three main parts: the domain model, the user model, and the adaptive engine. Then we come to our conclusions and present the main open issues in this research.
Keywords: Adaptiveness, Navigation, Educational hypermedia

Short Papers: Advanced Browsing Interfaces

Browsing Hyperdocuments with Multiple Focus+Context Views BIBAKPDF 293-294
  Laurent Robert; Eric Lecolinet
We present an interactive focus+context environment based on zooming and hierarchical representations for browsing large data sets. It gives an overview of the data and provides multiple views for visualizing the content and the local organization of documents of interest. This multi-view system has been applied to the World Wide Web browsing as a first practical demonstration.
Keywords: Information visualization, World Wide Web, Multi-view system, Focus+context, Zooming interfaces, Hierarchical representations, Animation
Contextures: focus+context+texture BIBAKPDF 295-296
  Terry Stanley
When the amount of information to present is large relative to the display area, views organized around a focus of attention and its surrounding context make effective use of the limited area. Contextures extend the concept of focus+context by adding texture -- compact, expressive views providing statistical rather than detail information.
Keywords: Focus, Context, Critical discussion, Mediator, Navigation, Linkmap

Short Papers: Adaptivity and Automatic Creation of Structures

Dynamic Bookmarks for the WWW: Managing Personal Navigation Space by Analysis of Link Structure and User Behavior BIBAKPDF 297-298
  Hajime Takano; Terry Winograd
This paper describes a management tool to support revisiting WWW pages, which we call "WWW Dynamic Bookmark (WDB)." WDB watches and archives a user's navigation behavior, analyses the archive, and shows analyzed results as clues for revisiting URLs. We have integrated link analysis and user behavior analysis to evaluate WWW page importance. WDB presents a list of sites that a user has visited, in importance order, via a landmark list in each site, and showing relationships among sites. Experimental implementation shows that importance calculation and structure displays help users to pick up useful URLs.
Keywords: WWW navigation, Bookmark, Link analysis, User behavior analysis

Short Papers: Advanced Browsing Interfaces

Finding Links BIBAKPDF 299-300
  John Tebbutt
Possibilities for the automatic designation of pre-existing text elements as implicitly-typed links through the use of information retrieval technology are discussed. Results of preliminary work in this area are presented, and plans for future research outlined.
Keywords: Automatic hypertext construction, Embedded links, Installed links, Hypertext, Information retrieval, IR

Short Papers: Adaptivity and Automatic Creation of Structures

Generating Hypertext Explanations for Visual Languages BIBAKPDF 301-302
  Neil W. Van Dyke
Visual languages with well-defined semantics are used for systems analysis and design, software programming, business process modeling, architectural and mechanical drafting, scientific visualization, and other purposes in a variety of fields. Many of these languages are highly expressive and employ large sets of graphical elements that a reader can find difficult to learn fully.
   Hypertext can aid understanding of a given visual language diagram by essentially allowing the reader to point at a use of an unfamiliar language element and ask, "what is this thing here saying?" The system can respond with a dynamically generated natural language text explanation of the language element in terms of the particular usage. The explanation can embed hypertext links to explanations of other elements of the diagram and definitions of language terms.
Keywords: Generated hypertext, Dynamic hypertext, Explanation, Visual languages, Education

Short Papers: Articulation in Hypermedia

Grammatron: Filling the Gap? BIBAPDF 303-304
  Karin Wenz
The aesthetically open and fragmented character of modern and postmodern texts which is based on the technically prescribed linearity of the medium of the book, turns out to be trivial in hypertext as it is the material nature of this new medium. The resulting gap has to be filled in new ways. Some of these new possibilities can be shown in hypertext literature. I have chosen Mark Amerika's Grammatron, because he develops a kind of reader instruction for the new functions of narrativity.

Keynote

Camping on the Banks of the Hypermedia Literature: Waiting for (a Hyperliterate) Civilization to Arrive BIBAPDF 305
  John J. Leggett
After all, our intellectual product is all that endures. What legacy are we leaving for the future? Is this the legacy we wish to leave? Are we making the impact in the world that we thought we could when we started this conference series?
   This talk will concentrate on the body of literature produced by the hypertext conference community. I will trace the previous threads of research through the literature and discuss where I see these threads going in the future. It will be like camping on the banks or bluffs overlooking the hypertext conference literature. We will be trying to identify the rudiments of a civilization. Will we find civilization? Or just more camps? Will we find a literate culture? Could we dare hope for a hyperliterate culture?
   I will give you my perspective on the above and outline some ideas of things we could do as a community to move towards a more rewarding civilization. Despite the topic of this talk, it will be light-hearted with many fond remembrances and anecdotes!
Straight Talk for Troubled Times, or: The Street Finds Its Uses for Things BIBAPDF 306
  Stuart Moulthrop
A few years ago Thomas Landauer, a key figure in hypertext research, wrote an indispensable book called The Trouble with Computers. According to Landauer, society fails to understand that information technologies breed complexity in almost every area of application; yet inexplicably we expect these technologies to deliver simplicity, efficiency, and a straightforward return on investment. Landauer answers these false expectations with "user-centered design" (UCD), asking us to shift attention from systems and software to people, their activities, and their needs. Though this is a promising thesis, it begs some primary questions: Who defines appropriate uses of information technology? How do new technological affordances affect our concepts of value and productivity? Could a more basic process precede UCD, one in which we redefine use itself? The talk applies these questions to the most notorious area of hypertext development, HTTP and the World Wide Web. What has the Web meant so far for business, academia, and society in general? Has widespread and relatively intense engagement with hypertext produced any changes in our understanding of this technology? What does it mean to use the Web?

Panel

Actual & Potential Hypertext & Hypermedia: 5 Realizations BIBAPDF 307
  Diane Greco; Markku Eskelinen; Chis Funkhouser; Marjorie Luesebrink; Jim Rosenberg
It is by now a commonplace that the advent of hypertext and hypermedia has changed, and will continue to change, received notions of what it means to organize and consume information. However, much of the promise of these new media is in fact limited by the availability of sufficiently flexible and sophisticated authoring tools. This disconnect between designers and users often leads to the disappointing situation in which work-arounds designed to refine the functionality of an existing hypertext/hypermedia system themselves compromise the integrity of the writer's or artist's original vision. To motivate a deeper and fuller discussion between developers and writers, the panelists will discuss their experiences trying to "write around" various software constraints and will demonstrate their solutions and/or ideas for solutions, either in systems or interface design.
Developing Hypermedia BIBAPDF 307
  David Lowe; Mark Bernstein; Paolo Paolini; Daniel Schwabe
Although various hypertexts and hypertext-based applications exist which demonstrate the power of HT concepts, hypertext still tends to be underutilised in many systems, especially the Web. This can possibly be attributed in part to the lack of appropriate approaches to the creation or development of hypertext-based applications and sites. This panel will focus on different perspectives relating to how we should be approaching the development. In particular, the panel will consider development which enhances both the quality of the creative or development process, and the quality of the (hypertext) results of our development. The panelists will discuss aspects such as their positions with respect to the level of formality needed in the process and where the strong focus of attention during the development should be placed.