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Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext

Fullname:Hypertext'97: -- Posters and Demonstrations
Editors:Mark Bernstein; Leslie Carr; Kasper Østerbye
Location:Southampton, UK
Dates:1997-Apr-06 to 1997-Apr-11
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-866-5; ACM Order Number 614970; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: HYPER97; hcibib: HYPER97X
Papers:40; 42
Pages:264
Links:Conference Home Page (defunct) | Posters (defunct)

Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext -- Posters and Demonstrations

Fullname:Hypertext'97: -- Posters and Demonstrations
Editors:Mark Bernstein; Leslie Carr; Kasper Østerbye
Location:Southampton, UK
Dates:1997-Apr-06 to 1997-Apr-11
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-866-5; ACM Order Number 614970; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: HYPER97; hcibib: HYPER97X
Papers:40; 42
Pages:264
Links:Conference Home Page (defunct) | Posters (defunct)
  1. Open Hypermedia Systems
  2. Hypertext Rhetorics
  3. Hypertext Design
  4. Information Retrieval
  5. "As We Might Link"
  6. Structure and Spatiality
  7. Case Studies
  8. WEB Integration and Application
  9. Visualization
  10. Short Papers
  11. Panels
  12. Keynotes
  13. Posters
  14. Demonstrations

Open Hypermedia Systems

An Architectural Model for Application Integration in Open Hypermedia Environments BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 1-12
  E. James, Jr. Whitehead
This paper provides an architectural framework for modeling third-party application integrations with open hypermedia systems, which collects and extends the integration experience of the open hypermedia community. The framework is used to characterize applications prior to integration, and describe the qualities of a complete integration. Elements of the architectural model are artists, which are used to manipulate anchors, links, and native application objects; communicators, which manage information flow to and from the open hypermedia system; and containers which group the other elements. Prior integration experience is collected in a standard way using the model. Guidance in selecting the final integration architecture is provided by this prior integration experience, in conjunction with the degree of difficulty of an integration, which is related to the integration architecture.
Keywords: Open hypermedia systems, Third-party applications, Integration, Software architecture
Workspaces: The HyperDisco Approach to Internet Distribution BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 13-23
  Uffe Kock Wiil; John J. Leggett
Hypermedia concepts are currently being deployed in a variety of information systems such as the World Wide Web, software development environments, large engineering enterprises, collaborative authoring systems, and digital library systems. The complex requirements of these application areas have resulted in extensive research into hypermedia infrastructures.
   The HyperDisco project is about design, development, deployment and assessment of hypermedia infrastructures. Previous HyperDisco experiments have dealt with integration of a small set of tools supporting authoring and extension of the integrated tools to support multiple collaborating users and multiple versions of shared files. These experiments were conducted on a local area network using a single centralized workspace. The latest version of HyperDisco supports collaboration and versioning over multiple workspaces distributed across the Internet. This paper gives a brief overview of HyperDisco, describes the workspace concept and reports on the latest experiments: (1) an experiment that allows the use of multiple workspaces on a local area network, (2) an experiment that allows workspaces to be distributed across the Internet, and (3) an experiment focusing on hypermedia modeling and presentation issues of distributed workspaces.
Keywords: Distributed workspaces, Hypermedia infrastructure, Internet distribution, Open hypermedia system, Link replication, Name service, Hypermedia presentation

Hypertext Rhetorics

'Our Words Were the Form We Entered': A Model of World Wide Web Hypertext BIBPDFPDFHTML 24-28
  Loss Pequeno Glazier
Scholarly Hypertext: Self-Represented Complexity BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 29-37
  David Kolb
Scholarly hypertexts involve argument and explicit self-questioning, and can be distinguished from both informational and literary hypertexts. After making these distinctions the essay presents general principles about attention, some suggestions for self-representational multi-level structures that would enhance scholarly inquiry, and a wish list of software capabilities to support such structures. The essay concludes with a discussion of possible conflicts between scholarly inquiry and hypertext.
Keywords: Hypertext rhetoric, Argument, Scholarship, Typed nodes, Typed links, Self-representation

Hypertext Design

Designing Modal Hypermedia Applications BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 38-47
  Franca Garzotto; Luca Mainetti; Paolo Paolini
Different users of a hypermedia application may require different combinations of modes, i.e., different ways of perceiving the content or different ways of interaction. Multimodality -- intended as the coexistence of multiple combinations of modes in the same application -- can improve application richness and can accommodate the needs of different categories of users. On the other hand, multimodality increases complexity and may affect usability, since a variety of different interaction styles may be disorienting for the users. Designing an effective multimode hypermedia is a difficult problem. This paper discusses this issue, presenting a taxonomy of different kinds of modes in hypermedia applications and introducing the concept of modal hypermedia interaction. Modal interaction means that the semantics of normal application commands are dependent not only on the application state, as usual, but also on mode setting. We introduce a formal model for modal hypermedia interaction that helps us to analyse more precisely design alternatives and their impact on usability. We illustrate our approach by examples from a museum hypermedia called "Polyptych" that we actually built.
Keywords: Modal interaction, Usability, Hypermedia application design, Hypermedia models
Initial Design and Evaluation of an Interface to Hypermedia Systems for Blind Users BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 48-56
  Helen Petrie; Sarah Morley; Peter McNally; Anne-Marie O'Neill; Dennis Majoe
Access to information in electronic forms is currently difficult for blind people, but electronic information, particularly hypermedia, provide great potential to overcome the difficulties that blind people have in accessing information. The E.U. funded ACCESS Project is developing tools to facilitate user interfaces which will be adaptable to the needs of different user groups. One demonstrator developed with these tools is a hypermedia system for blind students. This paper presents the initial designs for the hypermedia system which has a non-visual interface named DAHNI (Demonstrator of the ACCESS Hypermedia Non-visual Interface). DAHNI can be used with a variety of assistive input/output systems for blind users. Output from the system includes synthetic and digitised speech, non-speech sounds and refreshable Braille; input to the system can be via a small or large touchtablet, joystick, and/or conventional keyboard. This paper presents an evaluation of DAHNI by seven blind and partially sighted students. Plans for further development and evaluation of the system are also discussed.
Keywords: Blind users, User interfaces for hypermedia, Usability evaluation, User testing
Design Reuse in Hypermedia Applications Development BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 57-66
  Gustavo Rossi; Daniel Schwabe; Alejandra Garrido
In this paper we discuss the use of design patterns for the process of building hypermedia applications. The idea of design patterns has been recently developed, and rapidly spread outside the object-oriented community to a general audience of software developers. By using patterns it is not only possible to document design experience with a very simple and comprehensible format, but also reuse the same experience several times for different applications. We argue that the hypermedia community will take a vital step towards better designs of hypermedia applications and systems by developing a pattern language for that domain.
Keywords: Design patterns, Pattern languages, Hypermedia design, Navigation, Interface

Information Retrieval

What the Query Told the Link: The Integration of Hypertext and Information Retrieval BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 67-74
  Gene Golovchinsky
Traditionally hypertexts have been limited in size by the manual effort required to create hypertext links. In addition, large hyper-linked collections may overwhelm users with the range of possible links from any node, only a fraction of which may be appropriate for a given user at any time. This work explores automatic methods of link construction based on feedback from users collected during browsing. A fulltext search engine mediates the linking process. Query terms that distinguish well among documents in the database become candidate anchors; links are mediated by passage-based relevance feedback queries. The newspaper metaphor is used to organize the retrieval results.
   VOIR, a software prototype that implements these algorithms has been used to browse a 74,500 node (250MB) database of newspaper articles. An experiment has been conducted to test the relative effectiveness of dynamic links and user-specified queries. Experimental results suggest that link-mediated queries are more effective than user-specified queries in retrieving relevant information. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible extensions to the linking algorithms.
Keywords: Dynamic hypertext, Information retrieval, Information exploration, Browsing, Relevance feedback, Newspaper metaphor
Object-Based Navigation: An Intuitive Navigation Style for Content-Oriented Integration Environment BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 75-86
  Kyoji Hirata; Sougata Mukherjea; Yusaku Okamura; Wen-Syan Li; Yoshinori Hara
In this paper, we present the idea of object-based navigation. Object-based navigation is a navigation style based upon the characteristics at the object level, that is contents of the objects and the relationship among the objects. With object-based navigation, users can specify a set of objects and their relationship. The system creates queries from the users' input and determines links dynamically based on matching between this query and indices. Various kinds of attributes including conceptual and media-based characteristics are integrated at the object level. We introduced this navigation style into the content-oriented integration environment to manage a large quantity of multimedia data.
   COIR (Content Oriented Information Retrieval tool), an object-based navigation tool for content-oriented integrated hypermedia systems is introduced. We show how this tool works in indexing and navigating multimedia data. Using COIR, we have developed the directory service systems for the World-Wide Web and have evaluated the navigational capability and extensibility of our tools. Multimedia search engines including COIR, extract the characteristics from multimedia data at any web site automatically. Extracted characteristics are connected with each other semi-automatically and utilized in the navigational stage. With this system, users can execute the navigation based on the relationship between objects as well as the contents of the objects. In this paper, we present how the COIR tool increases the navigational capabilities for hypermedia systems.
Keywords: Object-based navigation, Relationship among objects, Object-level integration, Content-oriented integration, COIR, World-Wide Web
Query-Based Navigation in Semantically Indexed Hypermedia BIBAKPDFPDFHTMLPDF 87-95
  Daniel Cunliffe; Carl Taylor; Douglas Tudhope
This paper discusses an approach to navigation based on queries made possible by a semantic hypermedia architecture. Navigation via query offers an augmented browsing capacity based on measures of semantic closeness between terms in an index space that models the classification of artefacts within a museum collection management system. The paper discusses some of the possibilities that automatic traversal of relationships in the index space holds for hybrid query/navigation tools, such as navigation via similarity and query generalisation. The example scenario suggests that, although these tools are implemented by complex queries, they fit into a browsing, rather than an analytical style of access. Such hybrid navigation tools are capable of overcoming some of the limitations of manual browsing and contributing to a smooth transition between browsing and query. A prototype implementation of the architecture is described, along with details of a social history application with three dimensions of classification schema in the index space. The paper discusses how queries can be used as the basis for navigation, and argues that this is integral to current efforts to integrate hypermedia and information retrieval.
Keywords: Hypermedia, Semantic index space, Semantic closeness, Query-based navigation, Cultural heritage, Museums
Note: See addendum to this paper after page 244

"As We Might Link"

As We Should Have Thought BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 96-101
  Peter J. Nurnberg; John J. Leggett; Erich R. Schneider
The hypermedia field has long realized the need for first-class structural abstractions. However, we have failed to generalize the concept of ubiquitous structure management to problem domains other than navigation of information spaces. In this paper, we argue for the recognition of such a generalization, called structural computing, in which we assert the primacy of structure over data. We provide examples of four problem domains that are more naturally modeled with structure than data. We argue that support for structural computing must come in the form of new models, operating systems, and programming languages. We also assert that the experience gained by hypermedia researchers over the last decade may be naturally extended to form the basis of the new field of structural computing, and furthermore, the broadening of the applicability of our work is necessary for the continued vitality of our research community.
Keywords: Models of computation, Hypermedia operating systems, Hypermedia models, Spatial hypertext, Taxonomic hypertext, Open hypermedia systems, Hyperbases, Structural computing

Structure and Spatiality

A Navigation-Oriented Hypertext Model Based on Statecharts BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 102-111
  Marcelo Augusto Santos Turine; Maria Cristina Ferreira de Oliveira; Paulo Cesar Masiero
In this paper we present a navigation-oriented model for hyperdocument specification based on statecharts. The HMBS (Hypertext Model Based on Statecharts) model uses the structure and execution semantics of statecharts to specify both the structural organization and the browsing semantics of a hyperdocument. The formal definition of the model is presented, as well as its associated browsing semantics. A short discussion on the model's capabilities is also provided. A prototype hypertext system which implements HMBS as its underlying model for hyperdocument authoring and browsing is introduced, and some examples are presented that illustrate the application of the model.
Keywords: Hypertext document model, Statecharts, Browsing semantics, HMBS, Hierarchical views
Supporting User-Defined Activity Spaces BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 112-123
  Weigang Wang; Jorg Haake
Activity spaces are usually task-specific and only common to a group of people who work together in a certain application domain. It is desirable to enable users to define and modify activity spaces according to their needs. However, many users are unable to use a pre-defined activity space correctly or incapable of formally defining an activity space. This work tries to solve these problems 1) by developing a flexible hypertext meta-model which can represent activity space semantics, 2) developing an example-based definition tool for users to create task-specific activity spaces, 3) providing intelligent aid in using these activity spaces, and 4) providing a flexible space for adopting existing and emergent patterns. A system (COWFISH) with the above components has been implemented and tested at GMD-IPSI. Examples and initial applications have shown that using the system users can easily define the schemata of many activity spaces and hyper-documents. They can also create new activity spaces with stepwise structure transformation and through reusing existing activity spaces. The system then uses the schema knowledge to maintain the semantic consistency of the activity space instances and to provide users with context-sensitive examples, choices, and explanations.
Keywords: Activity space, Hypertext model, Semantic net, Schema definition, Schema integration, Intelligent system, Object-oriented system
Spatial Hypertext and the Practice of Information Triage BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 124-133
  Catherine C. Marshall; Frank M., III Shipman
Information triage is the process of sorting through relevant materials, and organizing them to meet the needs of the task at hand. It is a practice that has become increasingly common with the advent of "at your fingertips" information resources. To explore the characteristics of information triage and its interaction with spatial hypertext, a medium we claim supports the process, we have studied subjects engaged in a time-constrained decision-making task using a large set of relevant documents. We use the study task to investigate information triage under three different conditions: one in which the participants used paper documents, and two others in which the participants used variants of VIKI, a spatial hypertext system. Our findings suggest that during information triage attentional resources are devoted to evaluating materials and organizing them, so they can be read and reread as they return to mind. Accordingly, hypertext tools to support the practice should facilitate the rapid assimilation and assessment of new material, aid in the creation and management of a fluid category structure, allow readers to track their own progress through the information, and use minimum-effort methods to promote the intelligibility of results.
Keywords: Information triage, Analysis, Information workspaces, Qualitative study, Gathering interfaces, Spatial hypertext, VIKI, Digital libraries

Case Studies

A Large-Scale Hypermedia Application using Document Management and Web Technologies BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 134-145
  V. Balasubramanian; Alf Bashian; Daniel Porcher
Merrill Lynch has initiated a major effort called the Trusted Global Advisor to provide instantaneous access to current financial information to about 20,000 financial consultants and other professionals across the corporation. As part of this effort, marketing information about products and services will be delivered to financial consultants, clients, and the general public through an intranet and the Internet. A number of researchers have reported on the requirements for industrial strength hypermedia. In this paper, we present a case study on how we have designed a large-scale hypermedia authoring and publishing system using document management and Web technologies to satisfy our authoring, management, and delivery needs. We describe our systematic design and implementation approach to satisfy requirements such as a distributed authoring environment for non-technical authors, templates, consistent user interface, reduced maintenance, access control, version control, concurrency control, document management, link management, workflow, editorial and legal reviews, assembly of different views for different target audiences, and full-text and attribute-based information retrieval. We also report on design tradeoffs due to limitations with current technologies. It is our conclusion that large scale Web development should be carried out only through careful planning and a systematic design methodology.
Keywords: WWW, Document management, Workflow, Systematic hypermedia design, Distributed authoring, Publishing, Views, Templates, Information retrieval

WEB Integration and Application

Designing Dexter-Based Hypermedia Services for the World Wide Web BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 146-156
  Kaj Grønbæk; Niels Olof Bouvin; Lennert Sloth
This paper discusses how to augment the WWW with a Dexter-based hypermedia service that provides anchors, links and composites as objects stored external to the Web pages. The hypermedia objects are stored in an object-oriented database that is accessible on the Web via an ordinary URL. The Dexter-based hypermedia service is based on the Devise Hypermedia framework. Three client solutions are described and discussed, one that is platform independent based on Netscape Navigator 3.0, utilizing Java, Javascript, and LiveConnect, and two that are platform dependent, one utilizing Netscape plug-ins, and another using Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0, utilizing mainly ActiveX. The server part is developed as a specialization of the Devise Hypermedia framework accessible through CGI scripts. Thus the system provides the full power of Dexter-based hypermedia to arbitrary Web pages on the Internet. This includes the ability for multiple users to create links from parts of HTML Web pages they do not own and support for creating links to parts of Web pages without writing HTML target tags. Support for providing links to/from parts of non-HTML data, such as Quicktime movies or VRML documents will also be possible in the future provided that appropriate open plug-in modules become available.
Keywords: Open hypermedia service, Link objects, World Wide Web, HTML, Dexter hypertext reference model, Java, JavaScript, ActiveX, OLE
Integrating Open Hypermedia Systems with the World Wide BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 157-166
  Kenneth M. Anderson
Research on open hypermedia systems (OHSs) has been conducted since the late Eighties [10]. These systems employ a variety of techniques to provide hypermedia services to a diverse range of applications. The World Wide Web is the largest distributed hypermedia system in use and was developed largely independent of the research in OHSs. The popularity of the Web along with problems inherent in its design has motivated OHS researchers to integrate their systems with it. This research has primarily focused on enhancing the functionality of the Web via the services of an OHS. This paper presents three experiments exploring the integration of the Chimera OHS with the Web. While one of the experiments indeed describes work which enhances the Web, the other two investigate ways in which the Web can beneficially enhance an OHS. The paper concludes with a call for both communities to continue research which focuses on integration.
Keywords: Chimera, Integration, Open hypermedia systems, World Wide Web
Hypertext Paths and the World-Wide Web: Experiences with Walden's Paths BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 167-176
  Richard Furuta; Frank M., III Shipman; Catherine C. Marshall; Donald Brenner; Hao-wei Hsieh
Walden's Paths applies the concept of hypertextual paths to the World-Wide Web. Walden's Paths is being developed for use in the K-12 school environment. The heterogeneity of the Web coupled with the desirability of supporting the teacher-student relationship make this an interesting and challenging project. We describe the Walden's Paths implementation, discuss the elements that affected its design and architecture, and report on our experiences with the system in use.
Keywords: Walden's Paths, Hypertext tours and paths, Meta-structure, Educational applications

Visualization

Structuring and Visualising the WWW by Generalised Similarity Analysis BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 177-186
  Chaomei Chen
This paper describes a generic approach to structuring and visualising a hypertext-based information space on the WWW. This approach, called Generalised Similarity Analysis (GSA), provides a unifying framework for extracting structural patterns from a range of proximity data concerning three fundamental relationships in hypertext, namely, hypertext linkage, content similarity and browsing patterns. GSA emphasizes the integral role of users' interests in dynamically structuring the underlying information space. Pathfinder networks are used as a natural vehicle for structuring and visualising the rich structure of an information space by highlighting salient relationships in proximity data. In this paper, we use the GSA framework in the study of hypertext documents automatically retrieved over the Internet, including a number of departmental WWW sites and conference proceedings on the WWW. We show that GSA has several distinct features for structuring and visualising hypertext information spaces. GSA provides some generic tools for developing adaptive user interfaces to hypertext systems. Link structures derived by GSA can be used together with dynamic linking mechanisms to produce a number of hypertext versions of a common information space.
Keywords: WWW, Pathfinder networks, Structural analysis, Information visualisation, Sequential behavioural patterns
Focus+Context Views of World-Wide Web Nodes BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 187-196
  Sougata Mukherjea; Yoshinori Hara
With the explosive growth of information that is available on the World-Wide Web, it is very easy for the user to get lost in hyperspace. When the user feels lost, some idea of the position of the current node in the overall information space will help to orient the user. Therefore we have developed a technique to form focus+context views of World-Wide Web nodes. The view shows the immediate neighborhood of the current node and its position with respect to the important (landmark) nodes in the information space. The views have been used to enhance a Web search engine. We have also used the landmark nodes and the focus+context views in forming overview diagrams of Web sites.
Keywords: World-Wide Web, Landmarks, Information visualization, Overview diagrams
The Aleph: A Tool to Spatially Represent User Knowledge about the WWW Docuverse BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 197-207
  Fernando Das Neves
One of the most elusive targets in hypermedia research has been to provide effective support for user navigation [6]. The popularity of the World Wide Web and its inherent vastness has only made things worse: many of the tools that were proposed to alleviate this problem in closed systems do not scale well when applied to WWW. We designed a tool, that we call The Aleph, that addresses the support of user navigation with two views, known as the Travel Map and the Content View. The Travel Map assists the user at the stage of travelling through the docuverse, and the Content View helps him at the moment of recalling and organizing the known space. We developed a novel approach based on document collections, that takes advantage of 3D space, to give much more information than is usually available in 2D representations, and to simplify the map layouts. The maps provide a framework that relates document and terms with specific positions in space. The structure of the paper is as follows: Section 1 positions The Aleph in the context of a large-scale hypertext system as WWW. Section 2 shows the structure of The Aleph, the two views it provides, explains why to use different views, how they are related, and how they work. Finally Section 3 relates The Aleph to other tools that address similar user needs and design objectives.
Keywords: Web visualization, Spatial metaphors, Navigation tools

Short Papers

Distributed Link Service in the Aquarelle Project BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 208-209
  Antoine Rizk; Dale Sutcliffe
The aim of this paper is to describe briefly the Aquarelle project and the type of distributed link service we are implementing to meet its requirements.
Keywords: Link service, Open hypermedia systems
The World Wide Web: What Cost Simplicity BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 210-211
  Brian C. Ladd; Michael V. Capps; P. David Stotts
The ubiquity of the World Wide Web owes much to the simplicity of its graph model. Unfortunately that graph model omits powerful features found in traditional hypertext systems: concurrency and synchronization. These shortcomings are addressed in an extensible manner as part of the Multi-head, Multi-head, Multi-client Browsing Project; our research is focused on extending the Web through the use of the more powerful link semantics.
Keywords: Hypertext, World Wide Web, Concurrency, Synchronization, Link semantics, Browsing, Automata
Exploiting Serendipity Amongst Users to Provide Support for Hypertext Navigation BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 212-213
  Gary Hill; Gerard Hutchings; Roger James; Steve Loades; Jacques Hale; Mike Hatzopulous
The aim of the MEMOIR Project is to demonstrate the applicability and integration of advanced, distributed multimedia information systems to support the management of, and access to, diverse sources of technical information in large R&D-based corporations. The key technologies within the system are an object-oriented database, hypermedia link services and autonomous software agents.
Keywords: Navigation, User trails, Corporate memory, Knowledge management
An User Adaptive Navigation Metaphor to Connect and Rate the Coherence of Terms and Complex Objects BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 214-215
  Holger Husemann; Jorg Petersen; Christian Kanty; Hans-Dieter Kochs; Peter Hase
In many aspects research in the area of hypertext trends from static to dynamically created structures due to vast amounts of offered information. To dynamically generate relevant information nodes knowledge about an individual user and his actual task together with intelligent filtering methods can be used. Terms, organized in hierarchies, describe employees, groups of employees, machines, objects, products, processes and functions. Choosing terms specifying the actual task defines a special context which describes the relation and connection of units of information and therefore the user's individual view of the hypertext. Simultaneously it will be meaningful to look at similar contexts of other users or working groups to compare and possibly add further units of information into the user's private area. A system can be adaptive in the sense that units of information will be copied into a working group area if more than a certain percentage of its members will regard this information as important and vice versa. The described navigation metaphor was designed to enable the maintenance crew of a steel mill to access company-wide (hypermedia) information systems.
Keywords: Navigation metaphor, Spatial hypertext, Open hypertext, Filtering agents, Adaptive user interface
Style Sheet Support for Hypermedia Documents BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 216-217
  Jacco van Ossenbruggen; Lynda Hardman; Lloyd Rutledge; Anton Eliens
Hypermedia documents are most often created with a particular presentation environment in mind. This requires the authoring of one document per presentation platform. As pointed out in [3], much implementation effort can be avoided by specifying how the same underlying document can be presented in different environments. A style sheet defines a mapping from a source document to a presentation for it. We discuss the existing use of style sheets as applied to text and discuss their application to the case of hypermedia, and in particular how they need to be extended.
Keywords: Style sheets, Temporal specifications, Structural transformations
A Generic Dynamic-Mapping Wrapper for Open Hypertext System Support of Analytical Applications BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 218-219
  Chao-Min Chiu; Michael Bieber
Hypertext should augment everyday analytical applications with supplemental navigation, structuring and annotative features. Because analytical applications generate their screen contents in real time, hypertext constructs and navigation paths must be generated and mapped in real time. We are developing a hypertext engine that provides dynamic mapping automatically for any analytical application. We propose a standard, generic open hypertext system (OHS) wrapper for back-end or storage-level components that dynamically generate their contents (e.g., the analytical applications). The wrapper automatically maps hypertext constructs -- nodes, links and anchors -- to application contents. (The storage-level wrapper itself creates hypertext constructs instead of the users.) The hypertext engine delivers supplemental hypertext functionality based on these mappings. Furthermore, by providing a standard format and a set of guidelines, we are providing a standard protocol or systematic approach for exchanging information between an OHS and any analytical application. This adds to the work in the OHS community on developing a standard protocol for passing information among OHS and integrated applications.
Keywords: Hypertext, Hypermedia, Open hypermedia systems, Information systems, World Wide Web
Collective Phenomena in Hypertext Networks BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 220-221
  Valery M. Chelnokov; Victoria L. Zephyrova
A large hypertext net with node-to-node links can be interesting as a system of unities of meaning formed by node clusters, such that nodes in each of them are orderable into a coherent discourse. To access this collective behavior of nodes, a form of graph searching combined with some calculation of node positions is used.
Keywords: Discourse semantic coherence, Collective phenomena in populations of hypertext nodes, Clusters of meaning formed by hypertext nodes, Discourse macrostructure, Hypertext statics and dynamics, Hypertext-node macrostatus, Spreading-activation search, Depth-first search, Coherent navigation, SMIsC, Internet
Hyper-News: Revolution or Contradiction? BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 222-223
  Martin Engebretsen
Journalism as a form of text and communication is confronted with great challenges when going online and meeting the technology of hypertext. Old ideals concerning objectivity and authenticity may experience a renewal when journalists start replacing the traditional news narrative with the distribution of various source material in the form of separate nodes. A practice such as this will, however, have serious consequences for the inner coherence of the elements of news, and new principles for evaluating journalistic products will have to be developed.
Keywords: Hypertext journalism, Coherence, Ethics
Improving the Usability of Hypertext Courseware through Adaptive Linking BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 224-225
  Licia Calvi; Paul De Bra
Hypertext is being used more and more for on-line course texts. But the navigational freedom offered by a rich link structure is a burden for students who need guidance throughout the learning process. This paper presents a framework for adaptive link structures. By enabling links when a student is ready to read the pages these links lead to, and by disabling links to pages that are no longer needed, the student can be assured that links always lead to interesting new information she is ready to read. This framework is illustrated by means of courseware for an on-line course on "Hypermedia structures and systems", developed at the Eindhoven University of Technology, and currently offered at six different universities in the Netherlands and Belgium.
Keywords: Hypertext courseware, Adaptive interaction, Dynamic link structure
Microcosm TNG: A Distributed Architecture to Support Reflexive Hypermedia Applications BIBAPDFPDFHTML 226-227
  Stuart Goose; Jonathan Dale; Wendy Hall; David De Roure
Microcosm: The Next Generation (TNG) is an open, distributed hypermedia system with a design that represents a significant departure from the Microcosm architecture [2]. This system embodies an alternative model to facilitate the dynamic construction of hierarchies of distributed hypermedia applications. This paper will present the "reflexive model" and provide an appreciation of the Microcosm TNG framework through which this model is realised.
TourisT -- Conceptual Hypermedia Tourist Information BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 228-229
  J. C. Bullock; C. A. Goble
The TourisT project is developing a prototype conceptual hypermedia tourism information system, using GRAIL, a terminological logic devised at the University of Manchester [1], to maintain the conceptual model. A primary concern of the work is to develop a system which assists the tourist seeking information. The project has thus used the results of ethnographic studies, carried out in tourist information centres, to inform the structure and content of the conceptual model, and to determine what styles of interaction should be supported.
Keywords: Conceptual hypermedia, Conceptual querying, Tourism information systems, User requirements, Ethnographic studies
Using Hypertext for Textual Genetics, or, What is Suitable in a Hypertext System for an Information Gardening Application BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 230-231
  Corinne Chuat
This paper describes how the methodology of genetic criticism can interact with spatial hypertexts and information gardening techniques in the construction of a genetic hypertext that fits the needs of textual geneticists as well as it opens an interesting application domain to hypertexts.
Keywords: Information gardening, Versioning, Spatial hypertexts, Genetic criticism
Hypertext-Assisted Video Indexing and Content-Based Retrieval BIBAKPDFPDFHTML 232-233
  Horace Ho-Shing Ip; Siu-Lok Chan
An effective approach has been designed for the construction of on-line educational video systems. We have made use of the assistance of HTML text for accurate video parsing and complete content extraction. A video system with segmentation/indexing module and browsing/query modules are implemented to demonstrate the idea.
Keywords: Video segmentation, Video indexing, Content-based retrieval, Educational video system
A Task Driven Design Method and its Associated Tool for Automatically Generating Hypertexts BIBAPDFPDFHTML 234-235
  Sylvain Fraisse
Navigation and interaction are the essence of hypertext. Navigation is not simply travelling freely along a messy set of links nor querying a database using dialog boxes, and buttons. Unfortunately, navigating into the WWW often looks so. Navigating efficiently in an information space supposes that a previous authoring effort has prepared a hypertext structure especially designed to make the information access scheme fit with the cognitive constraints of the various contexts of the reading task. Thus the navigation model cannot be a simple isomorphic copy of the data model of the presented information! It relies on the one side on the data model and on the other side on the task model. Designing a hypertext leads to define a mapping between these two models.
   This position paper briefly describes the design method we have developed and an automatic generation tool that we have implemented in JAVA as part of a working environment based on this method. The tool allows to map a hypertext structure specified by the designer as a generation model onto a set of source information described as a SGML file. The result of generation is a set of abstract description of page class instances. Another simple tool turns these descriptions into WWW pages and stores them into a database. The reader of this paper is supposed to be aware of hypertext design methods such as HDM [2], OOHDM [4] or RMM [3].

Panels

Hypertext & Hypermedia in Organizational Memory Systems BIBAPDF 237
  Guy Boy; Edouard Belin; Norbert Streitz; Brigitte Daniel; Martin Hollender; Jose Dos Santos; Yannick Maignien
Increasingly, organizations have to rely on a common knowledge base which embodies all the information that is relevant for operating an organization. Radical changes in the workplace and the rise of new organizational forms, together with the availability of powerful new infrastructural technology (e.g., Internet, Intranet) require a new approach to the design and use of information systems in organizations. What kind of hypertext/media technology available and necessary should support organizational memory systems? Panelists will examine the extent to which hypertext/media are appropriate for this task. Targets for organizational memories are, for example, strategic planning, project proposals and management, patents, product design cycle documentation, marketing strategies and in each case the underlying design decision rationales. Although large quantities of information exist in corporate databases, they are not readily accessible, not in an adequate format, often not up-to-date, not well organized for reuse, and not well integrated in the overall work process. This becomes even more of a problem when individuals and teams of an organization are distributed in different locations, work in different time zones, and are often (re)assigned to different tasks in new projects.
Hypermedia and The Future of Authorship BIBAPDF 238
  Mark Bernstein; Kevin M. Brooks; Michel Crampes; Marc Nanard; Jean Pierre Balpe; John Cayley
Hypertexts and customizable, interactive media are playing a growing role in our technical and literary culture. Through interactive stories, novels, and narratives, readers are taking control of stories, ranging from Web drama to their daily news media. Active characters and computational agents, too, participate in shaping these New Narratives. Do hypermedia still need human authors? Narrative is an essential -- and complex -- component of a wide variety of writing, ranging from storytelling and journalism to historical accounts, clinical case studies, and technical protocol specifications. Current research in automatic generation of narrative from abstract knowledge representations may lead to autonomously generated narratives for technical documentation as well as for art. Hypertext systems that write (and rewrite) themselves present many fascinating questions. What will be the human author's role? Is this change an enrichment or a degeneration of authorship? Will these techniques cause the emergence of new forms of art? Will they open new ways of reading?
The WWW and Hypertext Research BIBAPDF 239
  Helen Ashman; V. Balasubramanian; Gary Hill; John Smith; Mark Bernstein; Peter Nurnberg
From its beginnings as a poster presentation in the Hypertext '91 conference, the World Wide Web has grown into an independent research field which far outstrips the hypertext field in the production of research and software.
   Hypertext research cannot afford to ignore the Web, but it does not seem to play a large part in Web research. "Hypertext" is a key word in both of the important Web acronyms, HTTP and HTML, yet hypertext research seems to be only a minor part of the whole of Web research. To many people these days, hypertext and the Web are synonymous. Does this mean that the Web research community now represents hypertext research? Is this the end of hypertext research as we know it?
   On the other hand, the Web has created a much wider interest in hypertext. Is the Web our opportunity to test and sell hypertext ideas? Commercial enterprises invest money into Web research on a scale far outstripping their investments in general hypertext research. Can we make use of some of those resources by placing hypertext research firmly in a Web context? What hypertext research needs to be implemented in the Web? If we can identify what needs to be done, are we doing it? Conversely, what issues has the Web raised which hypertext researchers need to address more closely?
   We hope to come away from this panel discussion with a better understanding of the part we, as hypertext researchers, have to play in the future of the Web.

Keynotes

The King is Dead; Long Live the King BIBAHTML 240
  John B. Smith
This tenth anniversary of Hypertext conferences finds the field at an important crossroads. In this talk, I will look back briefly at the first Hypertext conference (Hypertext'87) and at the ten years of research and experience with the technology that have followed. However, most of the talk will be concerned with issues raised by the World Wide Web for this community.
   Many members view the Web as an intrusive, unwelcome guest who insists on making his or her point of view prevail. Ignoring the hard-won knowledge of this community, the WWW has simplified the data model, ignored problems of large-scale navigation, and declared that link integrity is irrelevant. Consequently, many wish that it would go away so that they could continue their studies along familiar paths. Since it hasn't, they have begun to adapt their work to it, but often grudgingly and with the least accommodation possible.
   I will suggest a different perspective. The WWW, along with Java and the Internet, are not just new elements in the computing infrastructure. They are the infrastructure. Most computing and communication activities in the future will take place in this context. If the Hypertext community wants to continue and to create value for its knowledge, it must embrace the WWW, not just tolerate it.
   What an exciting challenge! Consider how much richer and better the Web (or its successor) would be if it could incorporate features found in smaller, experimental system (such as integrated authorship, global write access, and reliable hyperlinks). But to do so at the scale implied by the Web will require substantial new work. The Hypertext community is uniquely positioned to contribute to that work, if it elects to move in that direction. To encourage this, I will outline some of the opportunities as well as challenges posed by the Web, and suggest several issues that might be included in a future research agenda for the Hypertext community.
Looking Forward: Five Practices for Safer Hypertext BIBAHTML 241
  Cathy Marshall
The approach of the millennium has provoked countless visions -- both rosy and glum -- about what the digital future holds in store for us. Needless to say, it is difficult and dangerous to predict what the future holds for Hypertext although it is the province of the closing keynote to do so. Since driving is an activity that requires one to look into the future (if only the most immediate future), I will apply the 5 principles of the Smith System of Defensive Driving to our field to chart a provident course for practising "safer hypertext." These principles, coupled with observations of our emerging practices and our current wave of technologies (especially, and in particular, the Web), are surprisingly generative.
  • 1. Aim high to steer accurately and anticipate problems. We are beginning to
        have some experience with navigation on a large scale. Will increasingly
        sophisticated search engines, filters, and agents obviate the need for
        links (especially hand-constructed links)? I will explore the growing
        tension between the order created by links and the order implicit in nodes.
  • 2. Keep your eyes moving -- avoid a fixed stare and stay alert. Is reading
        changing? As a field, we have grown increasingly sophisticated in our
        methods for designing hypertexts for comprehension, for accessibility, for
        "ease-of-use". By focusing on tools and methods for designers, we tend to
        overlook readers and what they are up to these days. What might a next
        generation of tools look like, given a reader-centric view of hypertext?
  • 3. Get the big picture -- don't allow your eyes to be drawn to one area. Is
        the node-link traversal-based model still working for us? What assumptions
        about space, time, and atomicity are buried within? I will visit some
        contrarian models of hypertext.
  • 4. Leave yourself an 'out' -- practice the "what if" game. When we enter the
        world of hypertext, we seem content to leave the corporeal world behind.
        Yet there is still life outside (and beside) our glowing CRTs. How can we
        expand open hypertext to reach beyond the limits of the virtual world?
  • 5. Make sure the other drivers see you; make eye contact. The four other Smith
        System principles don't completely acknowledge the social nature of the
        world. Rule 5 brings other drivers into the picture. By contrast, we have
        long recognised co-operation as an important force in hypertext. What
        shape is this co-operation actually taking, given the Web and other
        communications technologies?
  • Posters

    A Categorisation of External Applications for the Integration in Cooperative Systems and Hypermedia Systems BIBA
      Ajit Bapat
    As applications "grow together", the integration of legacy applications is becoming more and more important. While there are adequate solutions for the interoperability of non-cooperative, non-hypermedia applications the objectives and possible solutions for integrating applications from the fields of CSCW and hypermedia are far more complex. Looking at existing applications, three basic characteristics can be identified: "ordinary" (i.e. single user, non-hypermedia) applications, cooperative applications, and hypermedia applications. Considering various combinations of these characteristics, the poster presents a categorisation of different settings of calling and called applications -- 14 categories altogether. Examples for the categories are given along with problems that arise when aiming at integrating external applications in these settings.
    A User-Centred Hypermedia Generator BIBA
      Robert S. Bishop
    The term hypermedia is currently synonymous with the World Wide Web (Web). However in its present form the Web is failing to realise the original ethos of hypermedia systems to augment the users creative and cognitive process. Our aim is to address this failure by enabling readers to superimpose their own organisation onto existing hypermedia collections thus freeing them from the imposition of inappropriate presentational style and structure. Our contention is that such a system would enable us to shift the traditional roles of author and reader, empowering the reader to determine for themselves the structure and content of documents.
    Supporting Time-Depended Transmission of Hypermedia BIBA
      C. Bouras; V. Kapoulas; P. Spirakis; A. Tatakis
    In this poster we present an HTML-like language that supports embedded timing information that can be used for the construction of a "playback" schedule for the various media contained in a hypermedia document. This language is the core of our model multimedia documents, which preserves the spatio-temporal presentation of the involved media. In order to test the validity and the performance characteristics of the language a pilot application has been implemented under the UNIX and Windows 95 platforms. The network handling routines have been implemented with the use of the RTP/RTCP protocols.
    HyperGeo: A Hypermedia-Based Geographical Information System BIBA
      Patrice Boursier
    If we consider the whole set of spatially-oriented applications, we must differentiate between two kinds of users, expert users on the one hand and non-experienced or naive ones on the other hand. In order to satisfy the different kinds of user requirements, various approaches have thus been proposed for querying so-called geographical information systems (GIS). Following these considerations, we have developed a user interface model which provides a simple environment for presenting and interacting with geographical entities through what we have called dynamic maps. This approach is based on the HyperGeo data model.
    The WAG (Web-at-a-Glance) Architecture BIBA
      T. Catarci; G. Santucci; S. K. Chang
    The open growth of the Internet, the amount of available information, and the typical access modality (i.e., browsing) cause the puzzled user to search for the information of interest in a labyrinth of links. Web-at-a-Glance (WAG) is a system allowing the user to query (instead of browsing) the Web. WAG performs this ambitious task by constructing a personalized database, pertinent to the user's interests. The system semi-automatically gleans the most relevant information from several Web sites, stores it into a database, and provides the user with a visual query interface equipped with a powerful multimedia query language.
    Applying Hypermedia-Techniques in Narrative Tutorial Multimedia Training Packages BIBA
      Ann Dobbeni; Theo Lenaerts; Jan Daniels
    Storytelling is used to arrange content into meaningful patterns. But a narrative includes not only the story being told (content) but also the conditions of its telling (structure and context). In a purely tutorial training programme, the structure of the storytelling is a linear ordering of parts of the story, organised in a logical and hierarchical structure. But how can one keep the linear structure of the tutorial approach and still give the user keys for cross-reference (context)? Dividing the story into separate independent units (e.g. through concept-mapping) and combining it with hypermedia-techniques provide a possible answer.
    Quality Criteria and Metrics in Hypertext Evaluation BIBA
      Francisco V. Cipolla Ficarra
    New forms for structuring information in interactive systems need continual quality control, above all at the design stage, to maintain and promote user-computer communication. We present the quality criteria and metrics required to be able to evaluate a hypertext and hypermedia application though the use of Hypermedia Design Model (HDM). The objective is to elaborate a method for design- oriented hypertext/hypermedia evaluation. Knowing the types of resources in each case study helps the production of our method given that it clarifies the specific entities to be studied and the type of metric to be applied (principally in statistical areas).
    Authoring Using a Terminology Service BIBA
      Carole Goble; Jacki O'Neill; Joe Bullock
    Our research concerns author support for semantic hypermedia systems by using a terminological conceptual model to automatically infer links. The model is managed by the GALEN Terminological Service acting as a link resolution service in an open hypermedia environment and is represented in the Description Logic GRAIL. GRAIL supports the principled composition of complex descriptions and dynamic auto-classification of those descriptions to act as a) a typed link system and b) a semantic index capable of supporting imprecise and exploratory content-based queries. Exploratory prototypes include a system for tourist information (TourisT) and standardisation documentation.
    Semi-Automatic Generation of Cross-Reference Links in a Hypertext Book: A Case Study BIBA
      Luc Goffinet
    This poster deals with the problem of automatic cross-referencing in a hypertext book. A statistical approach is first introduced, based on the computation of similarity coefficients between pieces of texts. After this, a complementary approach is considered to benefit from a priori information such as existing manual cross-references. A semi-automatic method to generate cross-references is finally outlined.
    The Pausanian Notation: A Method for Representing the Structure of a Hyperdocument BIBA
      Nickolaos Gouraros
    The Pausanian method is a diagrammatic notation for representing the static and dynamic properties of a single or a collection of hypertext documents in order to help the designer to visualise their hypertextual structure. It employs a wide range of shapes and symbols based on the characteristics that compose the structure of a document containing hypertext links. The name Pausanian derives from Pausanias, a Greek historian, traveller and geographer. During the 2nd century AD he was travelling around Greece and describing all the sites and monuments he was seeing. His work was called "Description of Greece" which gives a detailed account of the monuments of art and of the legends connected with them.
    Team: Telescheduling Enhanced by Authentication and Management Functions BIBA
      R. Grassmann; C. Becker; T. Engel; C. Meinel
    TEAM is being developed at ITWM-Trier to demonstrate how standard Internet technology can be used to solve complex intranet scheduling tasks platform independently. A web server with an SSL-module and a database has been extended to create a filofax-like user interface. Project groups can schedule meetings or personal dates, gather notes and administer lists etc. without being confined to a single operating system or location. Confidentiality is provided by cryptographic means. Local data is updated to reflect changes made to the database which are relevant to a user's current view. Advanced replication techniques will be tackled in a further stage of the project.
    Transposing the 'Large Glass' Into Hypermedia BIBA
      Dew Harrison
    The presentation concerns current research into the extent to which hypermedia is priviledged in the understanding and development of concept-based art. The work processes along two strands of inquiry, the precedence of idea over representation in the history of art and the development of hypermedia technology as 'idea holding'. The two are brought together through the practise of transposing the work of Marcel Duchamp, summated in his piece the 'Large Glass,' into hypermedia. The work discussed at this event will cover the pilot study for the project, an Internet piece entitled '4D Duchamp'.
    Semantic Spaces: A New Access Paradigm to Hypermedia Systems BIBA
      Michael Klemme
    A new access and organization paradigm for hypermedia systems, Semantic Spaces, provides users with a facility to organize and record their understanding of the hypermedia system. These user-generated maps are themselves an integral part of the hyperspace and can be shared and collaboratively worked on.
    Hyperfiction Interfaces BIBA
      Raine Koskimaa
    In the paper I will address the question of hyperfiction interfaces, concentrating on two texts: Michael Joyce's 'Afternoon. a story' and Stuart Moulthrop's 'Victory Garden'. In the case of these two hyperfictional narratives the concrete interaction mainly occurs at the level of plot -- the arrangement of narrative units (lexias). In addition, the reader's decisions have effects also at the levels of story and narration. I suggest that hyperfiction interfaces might be developed in the direction, where the formal aspects of interaction were more explicit for the reader, thus making the effect of interaction stronger, still allowing a high degree of openness for the text.
    The Missing Link: The Application of Metrics to Hypermedia Authoring BIBA
      Maria Emilia Xavier Mendes; Wendy Hall; Rachel Harrison
    At the University of Southampton we are carrying out a research project called SHAPE (Southampton Hypermedia Authoring Paradigm for Education). The aim of SHAPE is to aid authors in the development of good quality large-scale hypermedia applications for education. In this sense, good quality means easy reuse and maintenance of information. We also expect the authoring tool to influence the authoring process in a positive manner. We are developing metrics in order to identify how adequate an authoring tool is for the maintainability of applications, information reuse in applications as well as the level of authoring effort required. The poster will illustrate the results from the first SHAPE study and discuss their analysis. It will also show the methods by which we are collecting data for the quantitative evaluation of hypermedia authoring.
    Electronic Tools for Dismantling His Master's House BIBA
      Wendy Morgan
    Hypertextual and poststructuralist theory have yet to produce a fully theorised practice of poststructuralist feminist hyper-textuality in research writing. A recent feminist text, Lather and Smithies' Troubling Angels: Women Living with HIV/AIDS (1995/7) mixes genres and plays with format -- but struggles to break out of the linear, closed form of the book. With the author's consent I have reinscribed it as a hypertext, less a reiteration than a re-placement of her text(s) and a supplement. This demonstration does not seek to raze the disciplines of research, but to raise questions about their textual conditions of possibility and to open up such texts to further readings, including the authors.
    The Generation and Management of Metadata in Support of the Automatic Hypertext Linking of Multimedia Objects BIBA
      William W. Noah
    The explosive growth in the volume of information available electronically continues unabated. Managing these large quantities of information remains a challenge for management in both government and industry. TRW's Digital Media Systems Lab has been working for five years to address the problems of information management for a wide range of disciplines. The prototype system that has resulted from this research, InfoWeb, can be described as an 'information infrastructure.' The subsystems integrated within InfoWeb primarily serve to generate and manage descriptive metadata associated with 'content objects' text, complex documents, graphics, images, video, audio, numeric data, etc. The metadata add value to the intellectual content of the content objects and provide for varied retrieval strategies, notably through complex searches and automatic hyperlinks. Once a relevant object has been located through a search, much useful navigation of the data space can be conducted by following links.
    Systematic Use of Flexible Process Model to Build Hypermedia Artefacts BIBA
      Luis Antonio Olsina
    We propose an innovative, integrated software process model, called Flexible Process Model, to be applied in the development of hypermedia artefacts. This strategy, when instanciated in a specific project, implies a systematic use of model-based constructors, both logical and physical models. Among the first we can enumerate plan model as well as requirement, conceptual, navigational, abstract interfaces and validation models. Among the second, we use essentially flexible prototypes as physical model. We will schematise the phases, tasks and activities, in a high level of granularity. Next, we will stress functional, informational and behavioural perspectives.
    Constraint-Based Hypertext Authoring and Evaluation BIBA
      Ath. Papadopoulos; M. Vaitis; M. Tzagarakis; K. Papoutsis
    Our purpose is to provide a hypertext model and authoring methodology that support the creation of high quality documents and reduce authoring and maintenance efforts. The hypertext model consists of the schema, constraint and quality models. A schema includes typed nodes and links and interconnection constraints. Explicitly specified constraints express further semantic or structural properties. The quality model employs constraints and well-defined primitive metrics, and enables author to define measurements of high level document characteristics, for example usability, and to control the conformance of document to the corresponding schema. The use of constraint and quality specifications facilitates iterative document evaluation and enables flexible schema and document evolution.
    Automatic Web Interfaces and Hypertext Browsing for Object-Relational Databases BIBA
      Mark Papiani; Alistair N. Dunlop; Anthony J. G. Hey
    Reformatting information currently held in databases into HTML pages suitable for the Web requires significant effort both in creating the pages initially and their subsequent maintenance. These costs can be avoided by coupling a Web server to the source data within a database. The purpose of this research is to generate automatically Web interfaces to object-relational databases using metadata from the database catalogue. A prototype system has been developed to provide automatic Web interfaces employing a graphical means of specifying queries. Hypertext browsing of object-relational databases is made possible by creating dynamic links that are included automatically within the query results. These links are derived from relationships inferred by referential integrity constraints defined in the metadata.
    On Demand Publishing in the Humanities BIBA
      Sarah Porter
    This project has explored the use of the World Wide Web as a platform for distributing supporting reading materials to humanities undergraduates. An integrated set of hypertext materials, consisting of subject overviews, summaries of key texts and, crucially, a 'reading list' of full-text extracts from key works, were produced for each of three modules ('Postmodernism and Fiction', 'American Moments' and 'Manifestos of Modernity'). The preparation process for each module and the undergraduates use of the materials have been continuously evaluated and assessed; issues examined have included the undergraduates use of the materials, copyright, and digitisation of texts. A WWW page for the project is at http://www.livjm.ac.uk/on_demand/
    The Collaborative Hypermedia Educational Framework for Computer-Based Education BIBA
      Ajaz Rana; Michael Bieber; Nancy Coppola
    Few developing or using computer-based courseware approach instructional development in a coherent and systematic pedagogical manner. We propose the Collaborative Hypermedia Educational Framework (CHEF) for instruction. The framework provides a fundamental philosophy for serving students, instructors and content developers in a principled manner. This framework also should provide guidance on how to best utilize new technologies. As a framework based on learning theories and principles, we believe it also will serve traditional classroom activities. We describe how CHEF meets criteria of several educational theories: anchored instruction, cognitive flexibility theory, student centered teaching, scaffolded knowledge integration, and active learning.
    NT4.1online, A Parametric Catalogue of Italian Earthquakes on the Web BIBA
      G. Rubbia Rinaldi; M. Padula; M. Stucchi; A. Zerga
    We shall illustrate a current experience in developing the server emidius.itim.mi.cnr.it to exploit new means of disseminating information on felt and damaging effects of earthquakes ('macroseismic data'). The demonstration will illustrate: NT4.1online from the point of view of WWW page composition (passive, active, dynamic); the user interaction for querying; the conceptual associations among data; the integration of related archives. NT4.1 online is implemented on workstation SUN SPARC5 under Solaris 2.5, exploiting public domain packages (MiniSQL interfaced with PHP/FI) and is readable via Netscape 2.0.
    A Hypermedial Virtual Partner as Learning Mate BIBA
      Teresa Roselli; Antonietta Di Donfrancesco; Armando Lombardi; Stefania Loverro
    Hypermedial learning programs reproduce the cognitive dynamics inherent in man, allowing students to construct learning paths through exploration. This stimulates talented students but tends to penalize those less able to manage their learning paths alone. We propose Hyperpro-plus, an intelligent hypermedia system for learning logic programming and Prolog embodying a tutor component and a virtual partner component. The tutor can globally assess the student's performance and dynamically reconfigure the knowledge accessible, to contain him within suitable paths. The virtual partner helps him to solve any difficulties encountered with structured exercises, guiding him with minimal suggestions. It acts as a learning mate, adopting the same level of knowledge as the student to create a collaborative relationship between peers.
    Tailoring Web Pages to Users' Needs BIBA
      O. Signore; R. Bartoli; G. Fresta
    As WWW users can give different relevance to various types of information, we developed a very simple 'agent' that parses the document supplied by the server taking appropriate actions based on the user profile, and returns the document tailored to user's interests. The agent supports filtering of links and of semantically tagged parts of the document, as well as multi-ended and weighted links. The hypertext provider must just use a very simple HTML extension, that allow to semantically tag paragraphs and links, and does not affect the actions taken by an ordinary HTML browser.
    Converting TeX Into a PDF-Generating Tool BIBA
      Han The Thanh
    The program tex2pdf is a combination of TeX as a formatting and typesetting system and PDF (Portable Document Format) as an open standard for hypertext document format designed by Adobe. tex2pdf tries to take advantages of both TeX and PDF. As the result it allows for better integration of hypertext features introduced by PDF with the level of quality of TeX-formatted output. Generating PDF-based hypertexts out from sources based on a programming-language-like description also allows to create complex hypertext documents with high typographical quality in an easy way.
    Is 'Lost in Hyperspace' Lost in Controversy? BIBA
      Harold Thimbleby; Matthew Jones; Yin Leng Theng
    Although much research effort has been invested to address the "lost in hyperspace" (LIH) problem, it still remains unsolved. The LIH problem has given rise to much controversy itself. Some think that LIH is one of the most difficult issues in hypertext research; while others think LIH is not a significant problem, and that efforts should be channelled to address more pressing issues such as response times and conventional human factors. In this paper, we argue that LIH is real and certainly merits further investigation. LIH is not just a psychological problem, it is also an engineering one.
    Document Structure, Individual Differences and the Learning Process BIBA
      S. Wilkinson; A. Crerar; N. Falchikov
    We report an experiment in which 60 subjects were screened for cognitive style and spatial ability then divided into two matched groups. Group A used a well known, large HCI text for the remainder of the experiment and Group B used a full hypertext version of the same publication. Each group performed two tasks with their assigned medium; Task 1 comprised a set of short closed search questions and Task 2 was an open-ended question requiring the gathering and synthesis of information from several parts of the text. Results are presented which address interplay between document type and cognitive profiles and between document type and usability across tasks.

    Demonstrations

    The Ocean of the Streams of Story: A Compilation of Virtual Reality Hypertext Projects BIBA
      Dan Ancona
    The Ocean of the Streams of Story is a collection of projects at the Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities that explore the use of 3D graphics (using Virtual Reality Modelling Language as well as static renderings) as hypermedia. The challenges and possibilities in the design of these kinds of hypermedia will be compared to the challenges and possibilities of other forms of hypertext. The new metaphors, idioms and interfaces to more traditional hypertexts made possible by the deployment of this technology will be speculated upon as well.
    Stomp: Courseware for Teaching Introductory Physics BIBA
      Richard Bacon; J. L. Hunt
    SToMP is an instruction package for introductory level Physics. It is divided into broad topic modules (Vibration and Waves, Measurements, Optics, etc.) and presents the material to the student in a multi-window environment. The study modules contain diverse elements such as brief scripts, simulations (both qualitative and quantitative), video/audio clips, photos, animations, etc. A number of tools are available such as calculator, spreadsheet, grapher, word processor etc. which can be used interactively with the elements of the study modules. In addition each module contains both self- and assessed-testing. The style of the various presentations are carefully set and controlled to create an environment with which the student can become comfortable, but the individual teacher can tailor the material or add material as needed.
    Using a Link Service for Citation Linking BIBA
      Les Carr
    The use of the Web as a digital library has been restricted to a distribution mechanism for documents with little advantage of the power of hypertext linking. The Distributed Link Service is being used in the 3-year Open Journals project to create new ways of using online documentary resources. This demonstration will show how the DLS can be used to add citation links to an e-print archive of Cognitive Science journal articles. The articles, unlinked in their various native formats, are delivered to a standard WWW browser via a DLS proxy server. As it does so it compares their contents against a citation database and dynamically links citations in the article's text to the document's bibliography, and links each matching bibliographic item to information from the citation database. This technique can either be used to enhance the hypertext functionality of legacy documents, or as a native mechanism for providing hypertext navigation on a new environment. It is particularly useful for overlaying a choice of navigational views onto collections of documents which are controlled or delivered by third-party servers.
    Databases for Hypermedia Systems BIBA
      Erik Duval; Koen Hendrikx; Henk Olivie
    For a decade, most researchers in the field of hypermedia and databases assume that only object-oriented DataBase Management Systems (DBMS's) can meet the persistence requirements of hypermedia applications and that relational DBMS's are not well suited for this purpose. However, in this demo, we demonstrate how a light, personal version of a relational DBMS (in casu Oracle) *can* be used to support a distributed hypermedia system. From the database representation, different sets of hypermedia documents are generated automatically. Moreover, when the information in the database is updated, the corresponding documents are automatically regenerated as well, and a personal hyperbase can be synchronised with a central server when it is integrated in the distributed infrastructure.
    DHM/WWW -- Integrating Devise Hypermedia and the Web BIBA
      Kaj Grønbæk; Niels Olof Bouvin; Lennert Sloth
    The demo presents the Devise Hypermedia (DHM) service for the WWW. The DHM service consists of a Java applet (DHM/WWW) extending the Netscape Navigator WWW browser with an interface to create and follow links stored on a DHM server. This combination of a WWW browser and the DHM/WWW applet and the DHM server adds anchor-based n-ary links to ordinary web-pages and the ability to create links to/from web-pages regardless of the ownership of the pages. The DHM/WWW applet acts as a filter of HTML documents and as an interface to the DHM server. The DHM/WWW inserts links (retrieved from the DHM server) into documents as they are retrieved by the WWW browser, thus making the presentation of link transparent to the user.
    The Web Tour: An Implementation of a Guided Tour of WWW Pages BIBA
      Ray Jones
    Guided tours are navigational aids that provide a set path through a hypermedia information space that is additional to the usual built-in linking mechanism. A tour will partially take over the navigational function from the user, in order to display a pre-defined set of information. We present, here, two weak forms of guided tour that can be implemented in HTML and follow this with a more sophisticated tour implemented using a scripting language. Finally, we describe a full-featured guided tour that provides the user with complete control over the progress through the tour and excursions from it.
    Content Based Navigation in Multimedia Systems BIBA
      P. H. Lewis; H. C. Davis; M. R. Dobie; W. Hall; J. Kuan; S. T. Perry
    In this demonstration an open architecture hypermedia system will be used to author and follow generic links between multimedia documents. Recently we have developed MAVIS, an extension to the Microcosm architecture for video image and sound and the demonstration will show how generic links may be authored on image selections using shape, texture and colour representations. The links may be followed from image selections in different images which give similar feature representations.
    Hypertext Functionality in Software Design Systems BIBA
      Harri Oinas-Kukkonen; Janne Kaipala
    This presentation demonstrates a means to support the coexistence and integration of different degrees of information structuredness in a flexible CASE environment. Hypertext support for MetaEdit+ meta-CASE environment has been implemented as (1) a hypertext support functionality for model editing and argumentation tools, known as Linking Ability, and (2) a design rationale system, known as Debate Browser. The presentation demonstrates those associative capabilities that support the flexible use of the environment, resulting into increased quality of designed systems and decreased perceived complexity of CASE tools.
    The Net Generation of Earthquake Data: Nt4.1online, the Parametric Catalogue of Damaging Earthquakes in the Italian Area BIBA
      Giuliana Rubbia Rinaldi; Marco Padula; Massimiliano Stucchi; Angela Zerga
    We shall illustrate a current experience in developing the server emidius.itim.mi.cnr.it to exploit new means of disseminating information on felt and damaging effects of earthquakes ("macroseismic data"). The demonstration will illustrate: NT4.1online from the point of view of WWW page composition (passive, active, dynamic); the user interaction for querying; the conceptual associations among data; the integration of related archives. NT4.1online is implemented on workstation SUN SPARC5 under Solaris 2.5, exploiting public domain packages (MiniSQL interfaced with PHP/FI) and is readable via Netscape 2.0.
    Navigation in Large Hypertext Documents BIBA
      Petr Sojka
    Methods of navigation in large hypertext document will be presented. Their application on 27,789 page project of electronic encyclopaedia will be shown and problems faced when using Adobe's Acrobat technology will be discussed. Tools used/developed during the project will be mentioned and experience with their usage shared.
    Converting TeX Into a PDF-Generating Tool BIBA
      Han The Thanh
    The program tex2pdf is a combination of TeX as a formatting and typesetting system and PDF (Portable Document Format) as an open standard for hypertext document format designed by Adobe. tex2pdf tries to take advantages of both TeX and PDF. As the result it allows for better integration of hypertext features introduced by PDF with the level of quality of TeX-formatted output. Generating PDF-based hypertexts out from sources based on a programming-language-like description also allows to create complex hypertext documents with high typographical quality in an easy way.
    Supporting User-Defined Activity Spaces BIBA
      Weigang Wang; Joerg Haake
    This demonstration will present the COWFISH (Cooperative Work in Flexible Information Systems using Hypermedia) system and illustrate its approach to the common problems in using and creating hypermedia-based task-specific activity spaces. Examples will be given to show how an activity space is defined with an example-based method, what intelligent aid is available for users of predefined activity spaces, and how an emergent pattern (a schema) is captured through gradual transformation from informal representations to more formal representations.
    Spatial Hypertext and Multiscale Fiction-Pad++, PadDraw, Gray Matters BIBA
      Noah Wardrip-Fruin; Jonathan Meyer
    Pad++ is a novel zoomable hypermedia system designed for exploring alternatives to traditional window and icon-based interfaces. The continuous, multiscale representation of the Pad surface allows high-level information to be recognized and manipulated at a distance, while low-level detail remains embedded in its context. PadDraw is a sample application built on top of Pad++ which supports the interactive creation, connection, and manipulation of objects. Gray Matters is a hypertext fiction created within PadDraw, in which 15 images from Gray's Anatomy form a patchwork body, each containing texts from four authors. Multiscale reading and navigation of Gray Matters can be accomplished with a single-button mouse or touchscreen.
    Educational Hypertext: Design and Evaluation BIBA
      S. Wilkinson; A. Crerar; N. Falchikov
    The hypertext system being demonstrated was implemented as an on-line Help file running under Windows 95. It contains the material of a major HCI text running to about 800 pages in the paper version and approximately 1,400 nodes in the hypertext. The first author will be demonstrating the various features of the user interface and describing the underlying design decisions made during system development. Performance and usability comparisons will be made between book and hypertext. More details are reported in a Poster, by the same authors, at this conference (see 'Document Structure, Individual Differences and the Learning Process'). The authors are grateful to Addison-Wesley for supplying an ASCII version of Preece et al. (1994) Human-Computer Interaction.