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HYPER Tables of Contents: 87899191Z9393X93Y93Z969797X9899000102030405

Proceedings of the Seventh ACM Conference on Hypertext

Fullname:Hypertext'96: Proceedings of the Seventh ACM Conference on Hypertext
Location:Washington, DC
Dates:1996-Mar-16 to 1996-Mar-20
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-778-2; ACM Order Number 614960; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: HYPER96
Papers:31
Pages:264
  1. Spatial Hypertexts
  2. Autonomous Hypertext Systems and Link Discovery
  3. Hypertext Rhetoric and Criticism
  4. Models of Hypermedia Design and Evaluation
  5. Open Hypermedia
  6. Navigation in the World-Wide Web
  7. Systems and Infrastructure
  8. Versioning
  9. Extending the World-Wide Web
  10. Perspectives
  11. Panel
  12. Perspectives
  13. Panel
  14. Perspectives

Spatial Hypertexts

HyperCafe: Narrative and Aesthetic Properties of Hypervideo BIBAKPDF 1-10
  Nitin "Nick" Sawhney; David Balcom; Ian Smith
HyperCafe is an experimental hypermedia prototype, developed as an illustration of a general hypervideo system. This program places the user in a virtual cafe, composed primarily of digital video clips of actors involved in fictional conversations in the cafe; HyperCafe allows the user to follow different conversations, and offers dynamic opportunities of interaction via temporal, spatio-temporal and textual links to present alternative narratives. Textual elements are also present in the form of explanatory text, contradictory subtitles, and intruding narratives. Based on our work with HyperCafe, we discuss the components and a framework for hypervideo structures, along with the underlying aesthetic considerations.
Keywords: Aesthetics, Multi-threaded narratives, Navigation, Temporal links, Digital video
Content-Oriented Integration in Hypermedia Systems BIBAKPDF 11-21
  Kyoji Hirata; Yoshinori Hara; Hajime Takano; Shigehito Kawasaki
In this paper, we present the concept and the general framework of a new integration model for hypermedia systems, the content-oriented integration. Content-oriented integration provides an integrated navigational environment that consists of both conceptual-based navigation and media-based navigation. For the conceptual-based navigation, each media representation is translated into a conceptual representation with the help of media recognition techniques and media understanding techniques. The media representation derives its own semantics by connecting the media-independent part to the conceptual representation such as an object name, keywords, etc. Media-based navigation supports media-dependent information difficult to translate into the conceptual representation. Conceptual-based navigation and media-based navigation enrich navigational capabilities in complementary fashion.
   We also describe our content-oriented integrated hypermedia system "Himotoki." It provides a wide variety of navigational tools such as visual content-based navigation, moving hot-spot navigation and schema navigation. Each media translation is modularized as the corresponding media augmenter so that it can flexibly adapt to a distributed environment. Applications such as "Electronic Aquatic Life" and "Hypermedia Museum" demonstrate the usefulness of these navigational tools.
Keywords: Content-oriented integration, Conceptual-based navigation, Media-based navigation, Media augmenter, Recognition engine, Matching engine, Moving hot-spots, Content-based retrieval
The Structure of Hypertext Activity BIBAKPDF 22-30
  Jim Rosenberg
A framework for discussion of hypertext activity is introduced using the concepts acteme, episode, and session. Acteme is a low-level unit such as link-following; episode is a collection of actemes that cohere in the reader's mind; session is the entirety of contiguous activity. Well known issues in hypertext rhetoric are recast in this framework and generalized to all varieties of acteme. We consider whether the episode is a virtual document, user interface issues pertaining to the episode, multi-episode structure, concurrency issues, and reader-as-writer activity, with a frequent emphasis on hypertext gathering.
Keywords: Hypertext, Rhetoric, Acteme, Episode, Session, Gathering, Contour, Emergent structure

Autonomous Hypertext Systems and Link Discovery

Practical Methods for Automatically Generating Typed Links BIBAKPDF 31-41
  Chip Cleary; Ray Bareiss
Our research concerns how to construct knowledge-rich hypermedia systems for use as aids to problem-solving. One of the most difficult steps in building such systems is constructing a fertile set of hypermedia links between the nodes they contain (i.e., text segments, graphics, and video clips). This paper describes the progress we have made in formalizing and automating the process of creating typed links, that is links that not only join nodes, but also label the relationship between them. We present four different methods we have developed for automated linking, each of which uses a different scheme for representing nodes, and we evaluate each method by the criteria of recall, precision, thoroughness, and ease of use. Two of these methods, designed for two different user populations, are being incorporated into the ASKTool, a hypermedia editor currently in use at the Institute for the Learning Sciences.
Keywords: Automated linking, Typed links, Structured hypermedia system
Automatic Hypertext Link Typing BIBAKPDF 42-52
  James Allan
We present entirely automatic methods for gathering documents for a hypertext, linking the set, and annotating those connections with a description of the type (i.e., nature) of the link. Document linking is based upon high-quality information retrieval techniques developed using the Smart system. We apply an approach inspired by relationship visualization techniques and by graph simplification, to show how to identify automatically tangential, revision, summary, expansion, comparison, contrast, equivalence, and aggregate links.
Keywords: Link generation, Link types, Information retrieval
Automatic Text Decomposition Using Text Segments and Text Themes BIBAKPDF 53-65
  Gerard Salton; Amit Singhal; Chris Buckley; Mandar Mitra
With the widespread use of full-text information retrieval, passage-retrieval techniques are becoming increasingly popular. Larger texts can then be replaced by important text excerpts, thereby simplifying the retrieval task and improving retrieval effectiveness. Passage-level evidence about the use of words in local contexts is also useful for resolving language ambiguities and improving retrieval output.
   Two main text decomposition strategies are introduced in this study, including a chronological decomposition into text segments, and semantic decomposition into text themes. The interaction between text segments and text themes is then used to characterize text structure, and to formulate specifications for information retrieval, text traversal, and text summarization.
Keywords: Text structuring, Text decomposition, Segments, Themes, Information retrieval, Passage retrieval, Text summarization

Hypertext Rhetoric and Criticism

Ut Pictura Hyperpoesis: Spatial Form, Visuality, and the Digital Word BIBAKPDF 66-73
  John Tolva
This essay discusses the visual characteristics of hypertext (space, contour, depth) by situating it, as an artistic form, in the literary traditions that it extends and modifies. While, from a literary perspective, hypertextuality is nothing new, what is revolutionary is the way that computerized hypertext emulates the spatial and visual qualities that literary texts have historically struggled to effect. To illustrate the concept of spatial form I have chosen to analyze the mola web, a hypertext which is unique, though not abnormal, in the extremity of its link structure. One needs only think of the ubiquitous metaphor of the labyrinth in hypertext criticism [5] or of the recent attention given to spatial user interfaces [17] to see how dependent is the idea of hypertext on a spatial form.
Keywords: Hypertext, Spatial form, Ekphrasis, Visual, Flatland, Mola, World Wide Web
Hypertextual Dynamics in a Life Set for Two BIBAKPDF 74-83
  Robert Kendall
In most hypertexts the contents of nodes and the positions of links are fixed. Making these elements dynamic can help writers solve structural problems and help prevent navigational dilemmas for readers. The hypertext poem A Life Set for Two demonstrates several techniques for doing this. Floating links are positioned dynamically in response to the reader's progress. Variable nodes change their texts according to factors such as their context within the current reading. The texts of individual nodes are also influenced by global states -- settings that can be changed manually by the reader or automatically by the program.
Keywords: Poetry, Dynamic links, Floating links, Variable nodes, Embedded variables, Global states, Reading templates
Hypertext with Consequences: Recovering a Politics of Hypertext BIBAKPDF 85-92
  Diane Greco
This paper aims to situate the practice of creating hypertexts and hypertext authoring systems within a larger political framework. Although hypertext design and use has always been both political and about human bodies, hypertext theorists have generally failed to explore the political dimensions of this lineage. The paper concludes with a discussion of recent work which bears on non-technological issues such as collaborative authoring, genre status of hypertexts (fiction or non-fiction) and reproduction of proprietary materials.
Keywords: Hypertext, Rhetoric, Cyborgs, Technology and society, Literary theory, Postmodernism, Authorship, Copyright

Models of Hypermedia Design and Evaluation

Information Reuse in Hypermedia Applications BIBAKPDF 93-104
  Franca Garzotto; Luca Mainetti; Paolo Paolini
Reuse -- broadly defined as the use of existing information objects or software artifacts in different contexts and for different purposes -- is a technology for improving productivity, reducing the production effort and cost, and increasing the quality of end applications (promoting consistency and therefore improving usability). Reuse is a crucial issue in hypermedia applications. Reuse may be applied to items of different sizes and different complexity (from an elementary value to a large structured portion of the application). It may involve several aspects of the hypermedia application (content, organisation, presentation and connections). It can be implemented with different techniques, by creating a new copy of an item, or by sharing the same item in two (or more) different contexts.
   In this paper we analyse hypermedia reuse under these different viewpoints, discuss a classification of different types of reuse, and present a few examples from commercial and prototype hypermedia titles. From the analysis of these case studies we derive technical hints, recommendations and pitfalls-to-avoid, that would help hypermedia authors handle reuse in the most effective way possible. We also suggest reuse techniques that can be incorporated in future authoring systems.
Keywords: Hypermedia, Reuse, Authoring, Design, Models, Evaluation, Usability
Evaluating HyTime: An Examination and Implementation Experience BIBAKPDF 105-115
  John F. Buford
HyTime defines an extensive meta-language for hypermedia documents, including general representations for links and anchors, a framework for positioning and projecting arbitrary objects in time and space, and a structured document query language. We propose a set of criteria for evaluating the HyTime model. We then review the model with respect to these criteria and describe our implementation experience. Our review indicates both the benefits and limitations of HyTime. These results are relevant to systems and applications designers who are considering HyTime, and also to possible future revisions of the standard.
Keywords: HyTime, Hypermedia models, Hypermedia standards
Systematic Hypermedia Application Design with OOHDM BIBAKPDF 116-128
  Daniel Schwabe; Gustavo Rossi; Simone D. J. Barbosa
In this paper we analyze the process of hypermedia applications design and implementation, focusing in particular on two critical aspects of these applications: the navigational and interface structure.
   We discuss the way in which we build the navigation and abstract interface models using the Object-Oriented Hypermedia Design Method (OOHDM); we show which concerns must be taken into account for each task by giving examples from a real project we are developing, the Portinari Project. We show which implementation concerns must be considered when defining interface behavior discussing both a Toolbook and a HTML implementation of the example application.
Keywords: Hypermedia design, Methodology, Modeling, Object orientation, Navigation, Interfaces

Open Hypermedia

The Flag Taxonomy of Open Hypermedia Systems BIBAKPDF 129-139
  Kasper Østerbye; Uffe Kock Wiil
This paper presents a taxonomy for open hypermedia systems. The purpose of the Flag taxonomy is manifold: (1) to provide a framework to classify and concisely describe individual systems, (2) to characterize what an open hypermedia system is, (3) to provide a framework for comparing different systems in a system independent way, and (4) to provide an overview of the design space of open hypermedia systems.
   The Flag taxonomy builds on the achievements of the Dexter model. It extends the terminology of the Dexter model to adequately cover issues that relate to open hypermedia systems such as integration and use of third-party applications to edit and display hypermedia components.
   Two of the most prominent open hypermedia systems, DeVise Hypermedia and Microcosm, are used as case studies. The Flag taxonomy is used to compare these systems on a carefully selected set of aspects that distinguish open hypermedia systems from other hypermedia systems.
Keywords: Open hypermedia systems, Dexter model, Taxonomy, Link protocol, Third-party viewers, Integration
The HyperDisco Approach to Open Hypermedia Systems BIBAKPDF 140-148
  Uffe Kock Wiil; John J. Leggett
Computing support for large engineering enterprises provides an example of the need for hypermedia-based collaborative computing systems composed of a large number of distributed heterogeneous tools. These computing environments place complex requirements on the underlying hypermedia platform. To support integration of independently written tools for these environments, hypermedia platforms must address several important issues such as scalability, openness, distribution, heterogeneity, interoperability, extensibility and computation.
   This paper describes the HyperDisco approach to open hypermedia systems. HyperDisco provides an extensible object-oriented hypermedia platform supporting inter-tool linking, computation, concurrency control, notification control, version control, access control, query and search, and various other features. The present work has two main objectives: 1) to provide a platform to integrate existing and future distributed heterogeneous tools and data formats and 2) to provide a platform to extend integrated tools to handle multiple collaborating users and multiple versions of shared artifacts. The paper presents important dimensions of hypermedia platforms that helped to formulate the goals for HyperDisco, the HyperDisco prototype, and two integration examples to illustrate the distinctive features of the HyperDisco approach.
Keywords: Open hypermedia systems, Integration, Hypermedia platforms, Collaborative work, System architectures, Data models, Inter-tool linking, Link services, Hyperbase management systems, Scalability, Openness, Distribution, Heterogeneity, Interoperability, Extensibility, Computation
Toward a Dexter-Based Model for Open Hypermedia: Unifying Embedded References and Link Objects BIBAKPDF 149-160
  Kaj Grønbæk; Randall H. Trigg
The Dexter Hypertext Reference model is well suited to modelling anchor-based hypermedia systems and static hypermedia structures. But it is less clear that Dexter is adequate for systems whose linking is based on embedded references like the World Wide Web (WWW), nor for modelling the dynamic aspects of contemporary hypermedia systems like DHM and Microcosm. This paper proposes a new Dexter-based extensible object-oriented model designed to cover a broader spectrum of the features of contemporary hypermedia systems. The model introduces two new concepts, LocationSpecifiers and ReferenceSpecifiers, which let us model links as references embedded in documents as well as links as objects in separate databases. This suggests the idea of new systems that could support both styles as one step toward integrating global networked information sources with application-bridging systems on local hosts. In addition, our model is better equipped to handle dynamic hypermedia structures. As an example, a model of Microcosm's Generic Link is given which extends that important concept in useful ways.
Keywords: Open hypermedia, Link objects, Embedded links, Dexter hypertext reference model, Dynamic hypermedia, Generic links

Navigation in the World-Wide Web

A Study of Navigational Support Provided by Two World Wide Web Browsing Applications BIBAKPDF 161-169
  Steve Jones; Andy Cockburn
This paper describes a usability study of the Hypertext navigation facilities provided by two popular World Wide Web client applications (also termed 'browsers'). We detail the navigation tools provided by the clients and describe their underlying page retrieval models.
   We introduce a notation that represents the system states resulting from the user's navigation actions in World Wide Web subspaces. The notation is used to analyse the client applications. We find that the client user interfaces present a model of navigation that conflicts with the underlying stack-based system model.
   A small usability study was carried out to investigate the effects of the clients' browser behaviour on users. The study reveals that users have incorrect models of their navigation support, and they have little confidence in the application of their models when using the clients.
   The paper concludes with a description of future work and a discussion of implications for WWW page and client designers.
Keywords: World Wide Web, Hypermedia navigation, Usability
Browsing the WWW by Interacting with a Textural Virtual Environment -- A Framework for Experimenting with Navigational Metaphors BIBAKPDF 170-179
  Andreas Dieberger
This paper describes a system that combines a textual virtual environment (MOO -- MUD Object Oriented) and a WWW browser. The MOO provides a text-only but information-rich spatial user interface in which objects and locations can be associated with pointers to WWW pages. When using a specialized MOO client, navigation in the MOO causes the corresponding Web pages to be loaded. The overall effect is the possibility to navigate the Web using spatial navigational metaphors. Textual virtual environments support the creation of diverse navigation tools and metaphors. The Juggler system we describe can thus serve as an experimental tool to explore diverse navigational metaphors for the WWW. The system uses references to Web pages which can be arranged in any possible way and allows users to overlay a new secondary structure on existing Web structures, even using Web pages not on one's own Web server. Textual virtual environments further support almost real time communication and interaction between several users. Because of the extensive interaction possibilities, the Juggler system can be used to discuss material on the Web, conduct guided tours through the Web or give presentations using material available on the Web.
Keywords: WWW, Navigation, Spatial hypertext, Metaphors, Collaborative navigation
HyPursuit: A Hierarchical Network Search Engine that Exploits Content-Link Hypertext Clustering BIBAKPDF 180-193
  Ron Weiss; Bienvenido Velez; Mark A. Sheldon; Chanathip Nanprempre; Peter Szilagyi; Andrzej Duda; David K. Gifford
HyPursuit is a new hierarchical network search engine that clusters hypertext documents to structure a given information space for browsing and search activities. Our content-link clustering algorithm is based on the semantic information embedded in hyperlink structures and document contents. HyPursuit admits multiple coexisting cluster hierarchies based on different principles for grouping documents, such as the Library of Congress catalog scheme and automatically created hypertext clusters.
   HyPursuit's abstraction functions summarize cluster contents to support scalable query processing. The abstraction functions satisfy system resource limitations with controlled information loss. The result of query processing operations on a cluster summary approximates the result of performing the operations on the entire information space. We constructed a prototype system comprising 100 leaf World-Wide Web sites and a hierarchy of 42 servers that route queries to the leaf sites. Experience with our system suggests that abstraction functions based on hypertext clustering can be used to construct meaningful and scalable cluster hierarchies. We are also encouraged by preliminary results on clustering based on both document contents and hyperlink structures.
Keywords: Network resource discovery, Hypertext clustering, Hyperlink structures

Systems and Infrastructure

Hypermedia Operating Systems: A New Paradigm for Computing BIBAKPDF 194-202
  Peter J. Nurnberg; John J. Leggett; Erich R. Schneider; John L. Schnase
Hypermedia is often viewed as either a paradigm for human-computer interaction or information organization. Human-computer interaction provides a view of hypermedia that involves the creation, manipulation, and access of information through a "point-and-click" navigation mechanism. Information organization provides a view of hypermedia that involves the storage of information as a set of data and metadata objects, where metadata objects capture structural relationships among information objects. This paper describes a third view of hypermedia -- hypermedia as a computing paradigm. In this paper, we explore the implications of pushing hypermedia beyond its traditional role in human-computer interaction and information organization into the computer's core operating environment. We believe the resulting hypermedia operating systems provide a new paradigm for computing -- one in which human-computer interaction, information storage and retrieval, programming, and control are integrated in a common conceptual framework. We discuss the basic concepts of hypermedia operating systems and describe a general hypermedia operating system architecture and prototype. While this work represents only a beginning, we feel that viewing hypermedia as a computing paradigm ofters a broad new field of research.
Keywords: Open hypermedia systems, Operating systems, System architectures, Hyperbases, Link services, Hypermedia applications
HyperStorM: An Extensible Object-Oriented Hypermedia Engine BIBAKPDF 203-214
  Ajit Bapat; Jurgen Wasch; Karl Aberer; Jorg M. Haake
It is a well-known problem that developers of hypermedia applications need assistance for modeling and maintaining application-specific hypermedia structures. In the past, various hypermedia engines have been proposed to support these tasks. Until now, hypermedia engines either provided a fixed hypermedia data model and left extensions to the hypermedia application or they left the modeling of the hypermedia data completely to the application developer and only provided storage functionality which had to be plugged into the data model by the application developer. As an alternative, we propose an extensible object-oriented hypermedia engine which supports the specification of application semantics as application classes within the hypermedia engine, thereby supporting complex operations maintaining application-specific as well as application-independent constraints.
   In the HyperStorM hypermedia engine, the storage layer and the application layer of a hypermedia system are implemented within the object-oriented database management system VODAK. Only the presentation layer is kept outside the OODBMS. This approach facilitates both the reuse of database functionality as well as the flexibility necessary to support the efficient development of different kinds of hypermedia applications. First evaluations show that our approach presents a much more powerful hypermedia engine than previous approaches, thus giving a new quality to hypermedia application development.
Keywords: Hypermedia engine, Open extensible hypermedia systems, Database management system support for hypermedia applications
Media-Based Navigation with Generic Links BIBAKPDF 215-223
  Paul H. Lewis; Hugh C. Davis; Steve R. Griffiths; Wendy Hall; Rob J. Wilkins
Microcosm is an open architecture hypermedia system in which documents remain in their native format and link information is held in separate link databases. This has facilitated the introduction of generic links which, once authored from a text string to a destination anchor, may be followed from any occurrence of the text string in any document. The generic link provides substantial reductions in authoring effort for large hypermedia systems, but the limitation of the generic link to text string source anchors needed to be addressed.
   This paper describes extensions to the Microcosm architecture to create MAVIS, Microcosm Architecture for Video, Image and Sound, in which generic links may be used from both text and non-text media. This development makes it possible to navigate through non-text media using content as the key and, through the facilities of the dynamic link, content based retrieval is also available. Examples of content based navigation with image, video and sound are presented.
Keywords: Open hypermedia, Content based navigation, Information retrieval

Versioning

VerSE: Towards Hypertext Versioning Styles BIBAKPDF 224-234
  Anja Haake; David Hicks
Much of the previous work on version support for hypertext has focused primarily on the development of functionality for specific hypertext systems and/or a specific hypertext application domain. Although these models address crucial version support problems in specific hypertext application domains, they cannot be easily adapted and then integrated into other hypertext applications.
   Hypertext version support environments have been introduced to help alleviate these problems. They are designed to meet the version support needs of a wide range of hypertext applications. However, so far few high level versioning facilities have been constructed in these environments, creating a gap between the facilities provided directly within the environment and the versioning needs of some applications.
   The intent of this research is to bridge this gap. It turned out that task-based versioning styles are easy to use by both hypertext application developers and hypertext application users. As shown in previous work, task-based versioning helps to alleviate cognitive overhead and disorientation problems for users. In addition, it requires little investment from the point of view of application development, since task-based versioning does not necessarily require an application to incorporate an extra notion for individual versions. This paper presents a set of task-based hypertext versioning styles that are offered in the VerSE flexible version support environment and shows the direction towards the design of additional versioning styles.
Keywords: Version support / control, Version support environment, Versioning styles / policies, Task-based versioning

Extending the World-Wide Web

Logic Programming with the World-Wide Web BIBAKPDF 235-245
  Seng Wai Loke; Andrew Davison
We introduce LogicWeb, an integration of structured logic programming and the World-Wide Web. We show how LogicWeb enables programmable behaviour and state to be incorporated into Web pages, allowing them to be viewed as modules or objects with state. LogicWeb renders a Web page as a live information entity, able to determine its own response to user queries, and modify the behaviour of hyperlinks. This amalgamation of logic and the Web makes it possible to reason with Web pages, state relationships between pages, and dynamically generate pages. A prototype system is described, which extends Mosaic with LogicWeb capabilities using the Common Client Interface. In addition, we outline a client-based search tool written with LogicWeb and compare it with an existing package.
Keywords: World-Wide Web, Structured logic programming, Mobile code, Mosaic, Common client interface, Prolog
Experiences in Developing Collaborative Application Using the World Wide Web "Shell" BIBAKPDF 246-255
  Andreas Girgensohn; Alison Lee; Kevin Schlueter
The components of the World Wide Web, which we call the World Wide Web Shell, provide a framework for collaborative application development in much the same way as an expert system shell does for expert system development. This development is quick enough to support rapid prototyping. Once the collaborative application is developed, the WWW Shell facilitates the distribution of the application and its data to geographically-separated users on diverse computing platforms. We have developed and deployed two collaborative applications, Design Intent and NYNEX Portholes, using the WWW Shell. These applications are described and our experiences developing them with the WWW Shell are detailed. In the process of developing these applications we discovered limitations of the WWW Shell which we present, along with suggested modifications and extensions to address them.
Keywords: Collaborative application, World Wide Web, Rapid prototyping, HTTP server and clients, Portholes, Design Intent, Forms and scripts, Work groups, Community of users, Awareness and familiarization

Perspectives

Case Study: A Hypermedia System as Change Agent BIBAPDF 256
  Miriam Grace; Ward Webber; Kaj Grønbæk; Robert J. Glushko
Boeing is re-engineering the corporation by doing fundamental business process redesign and development in conjunction with implementation of new technologies and tools to support the new business processes. A strong link between the end-users and the newly defined business process information is necessary, or it won't be possible to maintain the gains created by the re-engineering program. The Boeing participants will present an overview of their system development activities, focusing mainly on how they used hypertext to increase the usability of paper documentation and the role of the customer in the development process. After describing the context in which they developed their original hypertext system (COIN) they will discuss current development activities that are supporting the process re-engineering of Boeing. The current information system design (based on the original COIN model) will make a significant contribution toward the success of the re-engineering.

Panel

Visual Metaphor and the Problem of Complexity in the Design of Web Sites: Techniques for Generating, Recognizing and Visualizing Structure BIBAPDF 257
  Michael Joyce; Robert Kolker; Stuart Moulthrop; Ben Shneiderman; John Merritt Unsworth
The notion of cyberspace having no "there" has outlived its usefulness for mystification and titillation. In fact, the Internet, and the World Wide Web in particular, are quite "there," and in very concrete ways. Ignoring this concreteness may be a way of evading responsibility for conceptualizing how the Web can be used for serious and complex purposes. Our panel will consider alternatives to conventional ideas and structures and submit that the design of Web sites does not have to be limited to simple advertising vehicles or to equally simple institutional show and tell screens. We want to suggest that complexity and imagination ought not be limited by the constraints of HTML, bandwidth, or conventional wisdom, but freed by larger, more thoughtful notions of the possibilities of user interaction and hypertextuality. Proposed for discussion will be theories of metaphor through which design becomes a way of thinking about various structures and the connections between them.
The Process of Discovery: Hypertext and Scholarship BIBAPDF 258
  Mark Bernstein; George P. Landow; Elli Mylonas; John B. Smith
We have all seen hypertext applied to teaching and publication, and certainly as an object of research in itself. What is far more rare are examples of hypertext systems and documents integrated into the research process in other fields. Where are the scholars who are taking notes and organizing their thoughts and data using a hypertext system? Why do so many hypertext researchers still work with conventional word processors? Is This lack due to intrinsic problems with the systems? Or is it a problem of the scholars and researchers? Will this change in a generation? The participants will discuss these questions based on their own experience both positive and negative, with an especial focus on the use (or non-use) of hypertext(s) as laboratory, or "sandbox" for scholarship and scientific work.
Things Change: Deal with it! Versioning, Cooperative Editing and Hypertext BIBAPDF 259
  Wojciech Cellary; David Durand; Anja Haake; David Hicks; Fabio Vitali; James Whitehead
A document that is in active use is generally one that is changing. Version control provides one way to control the disruptive effects of change without the worse solution of preventing or obstructing it. This panel will examine the relevance and problems of version control, with an emphasis on the topic of collaboration support. Despite its long history in the hypertext community (usually as something to be added in the future), the topics of shared editing and revision control remain complex, controversial and frequently misunderstood. Now that a really large public hypertext has come into existence, the issues of long-term maintenance and referential integrity are coming to the fore. The panel will give an overview of the fundamental issues, as well as a selection of arguments for and against different approaches to the issues. It builds on the perspective the presenters have gained from their own research, as well as their workshops on Hypertext and version control at ECHT '94 and ECSCW '95.

Perspectives

Evaluation BIBAPDF 260
  Gary Marchionini
Evaluation is one of the most important aspects of application system design. This is especially so for hypertext systems and documents since they are user centered at a fundamental level. This is apparent in the basic hypertext model of user-controlled navigation. These perspectives will focus on different aspects of evaluating hypertexts, with a focus on the integration of multimedia components into a hypertext system.

Panel

Future (Hyper)Spaces BIBAPDF 261
  Kathryn Cramer; Sam Epstein; Cathy Marshall; Tom Meyer; Mark Pesce
As the Internet has emerged into common consciousness, the notion of hypertext, especially as illustrated by the World Wide Web, has prospered. However, with the creation of other Internet-based media, such as MUDs and VRML, we are encountering new types of textual/narrative/hyper paradigms. These are close enough to hypertext that they can be discussed in similar terms, but they nevertheless represent something new, and are perhaps as far removed from traditional hypertext as hypertext is from flat text. The key aspects of these new forms that we will discuss include: reactivity, feeling of presence, shared spaces, wide range of interaction.

Perspectives

World-Wide Web Authoring and Collaboration BIBAPDF 262
  Norbert Streitz; Steven J. DeRose
Despite its limitations, the WWW is the largest global hypertext laboratory that has ever existed. Hypertext researchers were previously limited to creating their own hypertext docu-islands. Links to other hypertexts were not easy to make, nor was it easy to disseminate individual hypertexts. Unlike the earlier generation of research systems, the WWW is a real world publishing medium on a large scale, and this is mostly due to its simple model. The presenters of this set of perspectives will discuss experiences using the WWW for hypertext research and publication. They also propose extensions to the WWW, based on their experiences creating WWW information and in the context of previous hypertext research.