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HYPER Tables of Contents: 87899191Z9393X93Y93Z969797X98

ACM Hypertext'89 Proceedings 1989-11-05

Fullname:Proceedings of ACM Hypertext'89 Conference
Editors:Frank Halasz; Norman Meyrowitz
Location:Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Dates:1989-Nov-05 to 1989-Nov-08
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-339-6; ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608891; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: HYPER89
  1. Navigation in Context
  2. Hypertext Engineering
  3. Knowledge Representation
  4. Implementations and Interfaces
  5. Applications
  6. Information Retrieval I
  7. Usability, Links, and Fiction
  8. Information Retrieval II
  9. Applications in Writing
  10. Panels

Navigation in Context

Scripted Documents: A Hypermedia Path Mechanism BIBAFull-Text 1-14
  Polle T. Zellweger
The concept of a path, or ordered traversal of some links in a hypertext, has been a part of the hypertext notion from its early formation. Although paths can help to solve two major problems with hypertext systems, namely user disorientation and high cognitive overhead for users, their value has not been recognized. Paths can also provide the backbone for computations over a hypertext, an important issue for the future of hypertext. This paper constructs a framework for understanding path mechanisms for hypertext and explores the basic issues surrounding them. Given this framework, it reviews path mechanisms that have been provided by other hypertext systems. Finally, it describes the Scripted Documents system, which has been developed to test the potential of one powerful path mechanism.
Guided Tours and On-Line Presentations: How Authors Make Existing Hypertext Intelligible for Readers BIBAFull-Text 15-26
  Catherine C. Marshall; Peggy M. Irish
Hypertext systems like NoteCards provide facilities for authoring large networks. But they provide little support for the associated task of making these networks intelligible to future readers. Presentation conventions may be imported from other related media, but because the conventions have not yet been negotiated within a community of hypertext readers and writers, they provide only a partial solution to the problem of guiding a reader through an existing network of information. In this paper, we will discuss how a recent facility, Guided Tours, has been used to organize hypertext networks for presentation. The use of Guided Tours in NoteCards has exposed a set of authoring issues, and has provided us with examples of solutions to the problems associated with on-line presentations.
Programmable Browsing Semantics in Trellis BIBFull-Text 27-42
  Richard Furuta; P. David Stotts
Hypermedia Topologies and User Navigation BIBAFull-Text 43-50
  H. Van Dyke Parunak
One of the major problems confronting users of large hypermedia systems is that of navigation: knowing where one is, where one wants to go, and how to get there from here. This paper contributes to this problem in three steps. First, it articulates a number of navigational strategies that people use in physical (geographical) navigation. Second, it correlates these with various graph topologies, showing how and why appropriately restricting the connectivity of a hyperbase can improve the ability of users to navigate. Third, it analyzes some common hypermedia navigational mechanisms in terms of navigational strategies and graph topology.

Hypertext Engineering

Design Issues for Multi-Document Hypertexts BIBFull-Text 51-60
  Robert J. Glushko
Asynchronous Design/Evaluation Methods for Hypertext Technology Development BIBAKFull-Text 61-81
  Gary Perlman
A process model used in the design and evaluation of hypertext systems is discussed. The model includes asynchronous processes of task analysis, document analysis, literature survey and systems evaluation, interpretation of data, designing and building systems, and collecting data. For each process, experiences with NaviText SAM, a hypertext interface to a reference source, are discussed. A variety of new methods for evaluation of experimental systems are presented along with several empirical results.
Keywords: Hypertext, Hypermedia, Systems development, Methods, User interfaces, Documentation
Towards a Design Language for Representing Hypermedia Cues BIBFull-Text 83-92
  Shelley Evenson; John Rheinfrank; Wendie Wulff

Knowledge Representation

Facilitating the Development of Representations in Hypertext with IDE BIBAFull-Text 93-104
  Daniel S. Jordan; Daniel M. Russell; Anne-Marie S. Jensen; Russell A. Rogers
Hypertext systems are used for a variety of representational tasks, many that involve fairly formalized structures. Because hypertext systems are generally intended for developing informal (unstructured data) and semi-formal (semantic networks) structures, developing more formal structures can be difficult. Regular patterns in structures must often be recreated from primitive elements (individual nodes and links) resulting in a high overhead cost. In this paper we describe the Instructional Design Environment, or IDE, a hypertext system application that facilitates the rapid and accurate creation of regular network patterns in hypertext. IDE focuses on the task of instructional design, but its facilities are general and useful to many representation tasks. IDE features structure accelerators that provide simple menu interfaces to (1) define network structures out of patterns of typed node and link connections, (2) create new node types that contain structured content, and (3) tailor the interface for creating cards, links and structures to focus attention during different stages of the representation task. These mechanisms allow the user to tailor the hypertext environment to better meet his or her representational needs. We also report on the field use of IDE by instructional designers.
JANUS: Integrating Hypertext with a Knowledge-Based Design Environment BIBAKFull-Text 105-117
  Gerhard Fischer; Raymond McCall; Anders Morch
Hypertext systems and other complex information stores offer little or no guidance in helping users find information useful for activities they are currently engaged in. Most users are not interested in exploring hypertext information spaces per se but rather in obtaining information to solve problems or accomplish tasks. As a step towards this we have developed the JANUS design environment. JANUS allows designers to construct artifacts in the domain of architectural design and at the same time to be informed about principles of design and the reasoning underlying them. This process integrates two design activities: construction and argumentation. Construction is supported by a knowledge-based graphical design environment and argumentation is supported by a hypertext system. Our empirical evaluations of JANUS and its predecessors has shown that integrated support for construction and argumentation is necessary for full support of design.
Keywords: Hypertext, Knowledge-based systems, Construction, Argumentation, Informed design, Human problem-domain communication, Construction kits, Design environments, Issue-based information system (IBIS), Procedural hierarchy of issues (PHI) methodology
Towards an Integrated Maintenance Advisor BIBFull-Text 119-127
  Phil Hayes; Jeff Pepper

Implementations and Interfaces

Distributed Hypertext for Collaborative Research: The Virtual Notebook System BIBFull-Text 129-135
  Frank M., III Shipman; R. Jesse Chaney; G. Anthony Gorry
Sun's Link Service: A Protocol for Open Linking BIBAFull-Text 137-146
  Amy Pearl
Sun's Link Service, a product shipped with Sun's programming in the large software development environment, the Network Software Environment, allows users to make and maintain explicit and persistent bidirectional relationships between autonomous frontend applications. The Link Service defines a protocol for an extensible and loosely coupled, or open, hypertext system. An interesting instance of this is the ability to link to objects in closed hypertext systems if they integrate with the Link Service. The Link Service addresses link maintenance and automated versioning. Link endpoints, or nodes, are defined by the integrating applications, and are not restricted to points, whole documents, or cards.
A Visual Representation for Knowledge Structures BIBAFull-Text 147-158
  Michael Travers
Knowledge-based systems often represent their knowledge as a network of interrelated units. Such networks are commonly presented to the user as a diagram of nodes connected by lines. These diagrams have provided a powerful visual metaphor for knowledge representation. However, their complexity can easily become unmanageable as the knowledge base (KB) grows.
   This paper describes an alternate visual representation for navigating knowledge structures, based on a virtual museum metaphor. This representation uses nested boxes rather than linked nodes to represent relations. The intricate structure of the knowledge base is conveyed by a combination of position, size, color, and font cues. MUE (Museum Unit Editor) was implemented using this representation to provide a graphic front end for the Cyc knowledge base.


Using Hypertext in a Law Firm BIBFull-Text 159-167
  Elise Yoder; Thomas C. Wettach
Hypertext Challenges in the Auditing Domain BIBAFull-Text 169-180
  Laura DeYoung
Auditing is the process by which an opinion is formed on the financial statements of a company by a group of outside professional accountants. Large numbers of documents pertaining to the company's business are examined and many more are produced during an audit in order to arrive at and provide a basis for this opinion. These documents contain a wide variety of interrelated information. Capturing these interrelationships is essential to performing an effective audit. Currently, this is accomplished by using a highly-structured, manual hypertext system. While quite effective, the system is difficult and time-consuming to maintain, and can become unwieldy when conducting an audit for a very large company.
   We are in the process of developing an electronic system to meet the needs of this complex task. The complexity of the referencing system challenges current hypertext and user interface technology. At the same time, the structure of the domain affords an interesting application area within which to explore and more fully develop hypertext techniques. During the course of this project, we are exploring automatic generation of links, automatic generation of documents, hypertext path creation and access, creation of a typed-link topology for the domain, referencing of individual points and regions within documents, linking bodies of hypertext, and many other issues.
Computational Hypertext in Biological Modelling BIBAKFull-Text 181-197
  John L. Schnase; John J. Leggett
This paper describes an application of hypertext to a biological research problem. An individual energetics model for Cassin's Sparrow was developed in which the computations and intellectual activities associated with each phase of the research were performed within an integrated hypertext environment. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of computational hypertext in meeting the personal information management requirements of individual researchers in the natural sciences and its ability to speed the dissemination of research results within a community of scholars. Most important, the study shows how hypertext can be "phased in" to support traditional scholarship in disciplines that are otherwise slow to respond to emerging computer technologies.
Keywords: Computational hypertext, Hypertext publishing, Information management, Collaboration, Simulation modelling, Natural sciences

Information Retrieval I

Information Retrieval from Hypertext: Update on the Dynamic Medical Handbook Project BIBAFull-Text 199-212
  Mark E. Frisse; Steve B. Cousins
This paper attempts to provide a perspective from which to develop a more complete theory of information retrieval from hypertext documents. Viewing hypertexts as large information spaces, we compare two general classes of navigation methods, classes we call local and global. We argue that global methods necessitate some form of "index space" conceptually separate from the hypertext "document space". We note that the architectures of both spaces effect the ease with which one can apply various information retrieval algorithms. We identify a number of different index space and document space architectures and we discuss some of the associated trade-offs between hypertext functionality and computational complexity. We show how some index space architectures can be exploited for enhanced information retrieval, query refinement, and automated reasoning. Through analysis of a number of prototype systems, we discuss current limitations and future potentials for various hypertext information retrieval structures.
A Retrieval Model for Incorporating Hypertext Links BIBFull-Text 213-224
  W. Bruce Croft; Howard Turtle
The Use of Cluster Hierarchies in Hypertext Information Retrieval BIBAFull-Text 225-237
  Donald B. Crouch; Carolyn J. Crouch; Glenn Andreas
The graph-traversal approach to hypertext information retrieval is a conceptualization of hypertext in which the structural aspects of the nodes are emphasized. A user navigates through such hypertext systems by evaluating the semantics associated with links between nodes as well as the information contained in nodes. In this paper we describe an hierarchical structure which effectively supports the graphical traversal of a document collection in a hypertext system. We provide an overview of an interactive browser based on cluster hierarchies. Initial results obtained from the use of the browser in an experimental hypertext retrieval system are presented.

Usability, Links, and Fiction

The Matters that Really Matter for Hypertext Usability BIBAFull-Text 239-248
  Jakob Nielsen
We compare 92 benchmark measurements of various usability issues related to hypertext which have been published in the hypertext literature in order to find which ones have shown the largest effects.
Expanding the Notion of Links BIBFull-Text 249-257
  Steven J. DeRose
Hypertext and "the Hyperreal" BIBFull-Text 259-267
  Stuart Moulthrop

Information Retrieval II

Expressing Structural Hypertext Queries in GraphLog BIBAFull-Text 269-292
  Mariano P. Consens; Alberto O. Mendelzon
GraphLog is a visual query language in which queries are formulated by drawing graph patterns. The hyperdocument graph is searched for all occurrences of these patterns. The language is powerful enough to allow the specification and manipulation of arbitrary subsets of the network and supports the computation of aggregate functions on subgraphs of the hyperdocument. It can support dynamically defined structures as well as inference capabilities, going beyond current static and passive hypertext systems.
   The expressive power of the language is a fundamental issue: too little power limits the applications of the language, while too much makes efficient implementation difficult and probably affects ease of use. The complexity and expressive power of GraphLog can be characterized precisely by using notions from deductive database theory and descriptive complexity. In this paper, from a practical point of view, we present examples of GraphLog queries applied to several different hypertext systems, providing evidence for the expressive power of the language, as well as for the convenience and naturalness of its graphical representation. We also describe an ongoing implementation of the language.
VISAR: A System for Inference and Navigation in Hypertext BIBAFull-Text 293-304
  Peter Clitherow; Doug Riecken; Michael Muller
Hypertext systems have traditionally been constructed by hand. This process can stand improvement in several aspects: it is laborious; requires a human to understand the text and infer all the relationships between the concepts/topics; and while the resulting hypertext may be traversed by a reader in an arbitrary fashion, s/he may still find it difficult to understand the concepts as expressed by the builder of the hypertext.
   We present a knowledge-intensive assistant for building hypertext fragments from a knowledge base customised both explicitly and implicitly by a user. Such a presentation may clarify relationships between concepts that were present implicitly in multiple sources of information. In the domain of an intelligent information retrieval system, we show how such an assistant may render customised views of knowledge extracted in manageable form.
   While the presentation medium of the original system is graphic, we also speculate that presentation of the information in alternative hypermedia appears to be straightforward.
What To Do When There's Too Much Information BIBAFull-Text 305-318
  Michael Lesk
Hypertext systems with small units of text are likely to drown the user with information, in the same way that online catalogs or bibliographic retrieval systems often do. Experiments with a catalog of 800,000 book citations have shown two useful ways of dealing with the "too many hits" problem. One is a display of phrases containing the excessively frequent words; another is a display of titles by hierarchical category. The same techniques should apply to other text-based retrieval systems. In general, interactive solutions seem more promising than attempts to do detailed query analysis and get things right the first time.

Applications in Writing

The Role of External Representations in the Writing Process: Implications for the Design of Hypertext-Based Writing Tools BIBAFull-Text 319-341
  Christine M. Neuwirth; David S. Kaufer
The long-range goal of the research reported here is to study the role of hypertext-based external representations in augmenting performance on a cognitively complex task, in particular, on a synthesis writing task. The production of a written synthesis is a challenging task that requires managing large amounts of information over an extended period of time. Thus, synthesis writing is a task that is well-suited for testing the potential of hypertext technologies to support work on complex tasks.
   From a case study of experts and novices, we have developed a theory of the cognitive processes involved in producing a written synthesis. We have also developed a preliminary theory of the role of external representations in the writing process. We have drawn upon these two theories to design several hypertext-based external representations that we believe will augment writers' performance on a written synthesis task. The hypertext-based applications include a general graph object and a table object; these objects form the foundation for a set of specialized tools to support synthesis writing, namely, a summary graph, synthesis grid and synthesis tree.
From Ideas and Arguments to Hyperdocuments: Travelling through Activity Spaces BIBFull-Text 343-364
  Norbert A. Streitz; Jorg Hannemann; Manfred Thuring
InterNote: Extending a Hypermedia Framework to Support Annotative Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 365-378
  Timothy Catlin; Paulette Bush; Nicole Yankelovich
Based on three years of user feedback, a design team at IRIS embarked on a project to enhance Intermedia to better support small groups of collaborators, particularly those involved with document review and revision. Towards this end, we defined user-level requirements for the new functionality. The result of this process was the design and implementation of InterNote. One aspect of InterNote involves a fundamental extension to Intermedia's navigational linking paradigm. Instead of simply being able to traverse links, users are now also able to transfer data across the links using a technique we call warm linking. In this paper we describe extensions to our hypermedia framework to support annotative collaboration, including the user interface of the new linking functionality and the InterNote extension. Finally, we discuss our plans for future work.


Interchanging Hypertexts BIBFull-Text 379-381
  Robert Akscyn; Frank Halasz; Tim Oren; Victor Riley; Lawrence Welch
Hypertext, Narrative, and Consciousness BIBAFull-Text 383-384
  Michael Joyce; Nancy Kaplan; John McDaid; Stuart Moulthrop
This panel attempts to initiate a dialogue on the implications of hypertext between information theorists and literary theorists, writers of texts and designers of text systems. Though the panelists base their views on several years of practical work with hypertext in education, they are concerned with broader social and conceptual problems raised by this technology -- its likely effect on the way we teach ourselves and others to understand texts and the way we use those texts to construct an orderly (or disorderly) world. It seems important to raise these issues at Hypertext'89 because hypertext is rapidly being recognized by humanists as a crucial and revolutionary enterprise. This recognition creates an opportunity for humanists and scientists to convene a productive dialogue which could have great significance both for hypertext and for the future of the humanities. We hope for a frank and free-ranging exchange of views and emphasize that this is a forum for questioning and controversy, not a series of monologues. Each panelist will deliver a ten-minute position statements, with the remaining hour of the session devoted to discussion. Abstracts of the three presentations follow.
Lessons Learned from the ACM Hypertext on Hypertext Project BIBFull-Text 385-386
  Bernard Rous; Ben Shneiderman; Nicole Yankelovich; Elise Yoder
Indexing and Hypertext BIBFull-Text 387-390
  Mark Bernstein; James Critz; Nancy Mulvany; Rosemary Simpson; Mary-Claire van Leunen
Expert Systems and Hypertext BIBFull-Text 391-392
  Michael Bieber; Steve Feiner; Mark Frisse; Phil Hayes; Gerri Peper; Walt Scacchi
Hypertext and Higher Education: A Reality Check BIBFull-Text 393
  Stephen C. Ehrmann; Steven Erde; Kenneth Morrell; Ronald F. E. Weissman
Hypertext and Software Engineering BIBFull-Text 395-396
  Robert Balzer; Michael Begeman; Pankaj K. Garg; Mayer Schwartz; Ben Shneiderman
Cognitive Aspects of Designing Hypertext Systems BIBFull-Text 397
  Pat Baird; Dennis Egan; Walter Kintsch; John Smith; Norbert A. Streitz
Confessions -- What's Wrong with Our Systems BIB 399
  Frank Halasz; Don McCracken; Norman Meyrowitz; Amy Pearl; Ben Shneiderman