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HYPER Tables of Contents: 87899191Z9393X93Y93Z969797X

ACM Hypertext'87 Proceedings 1987-11-13

Fullname:Proceedings of ACM Hypertext'87 Conference
Editors:Stephen Weiss; Mayer Schwartz
Location:Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Dates:1987-Nov-13 to 1987-Nov-15
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-340-x; ACM Order Number 608892; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: HYPER87
  1. Foreword
  2. Systems I
  3. Applications in the Humanities and Medicine
  4. Experiences and Writing
  5. Translating Text into Hypertext
  6. Invited Panel on Systems
  7. Argumentation
  8. Systems II
  9. Issues
  10. Software


All for One and One for All BIB v-vii
  Theodor H. Nelson

Systems I

KMS: A Distributed Hypermedia System for Managing Knowledge in Organizations BIBA 1-20
  Robert Akscyn; Donald McCracken; Elise Yoder
KMS is a commercial hypermedia system developed by Knowledge Systems for networks of heterogeneous workstations. It is designed to support organization-wide collaboration for a broad range of applications, such as electronic publishing, software engineering, project management, computer-aided design and on-line documentation. KMS is a successor to the ZOG system developed at Carnegie Mellon University from 1972 to 1985
   A KMS database consists of screen-sized WYSIWYG workspaces called frames that contain text, graphics and image items. Single items in frames can be linked to other frames. They may also be used to invoke programs. The database can be distributed across an indefinite number of file servers and be as large as available disk space permits. Independently developed KMS databases can be linked together.
   The KMS user interface uses an extreme form of direct manipulation. A single browser/editor is used to traverse the database and manipulate its contents. Over 85% of the user's interaction is direct -- a single point-and-click designates both object and operation. Running on Sun and Apollo workstations, KMS accesses and displays frames in less than one second, on average.
   This paper describes KMS and how it addresses a number of hypermedia design issues.
HAM: A General-Purpose Hypertext Abstract Machine BIBA 21-32
  Brad Campbell; Joseph M. Goodman
The Hypertext Abstract Machine (HAM) is a general-purpose, transaction-based, server for a hypertext storage system. The server is designed to handle multiple users in a networked environment. The storage system consists of a collection of contexts, nodes, links, and attributes that make up a hypertext graph. This paper demonstrates the HAM's versatility by showing how Guide buttons, Intermedia webs, and NoteCards FileBoxes can be implemented using the HAM's storage model.
Turning Ideas into Products: The Guide System BIBA 33-40
  P. J. Brown
The Guide system is a successful commercial product that originally came out of some ideas of a research project. Unlike many other hypertext systems, Guide is aimed at naive users and authors in the personal computer market. This paper evaluates the basic principles of Guide, and describes the interplay between the product and the continuing hypertext research programme.

Applications in the Humanities and Medicine

Hypertext and Creative Writing BIBA 41-50
  Jay David Bolter; Michael Joyce
Among its many uses, hypertext can serve as a medium for a new kind of flexible, interactive fiction. Storyspace is a hypertext system we have created for authoring and reading such fiction. Interactive fiction in the computer medium is a continuation of the modern "tradition" of experimental literature in print. However, the computer frees both author and reader from restrictions imposed by the printed medium and therefore allows new experiments in literary structure.
From the Old to the New: Integrating Hypertext into Traditional Scholarship BIBA 51-55
  Gregory Crane
Hypertext allows academics to structure and manipulate their ideas in a radically new way, but it should also reinforce traditional scholarly activity. Those designing Hypertext systems that are intended for the general academic market must be careful to support not only new possibilities, but those functions with which academics are already familiar. Further, many scholars hope that their documents will be useful for decades to come. We need standard document architectures that will separate a particular Hypertext from the system in which it was designed.
Searching for Information in a Hypertext Medical Handbook BIBA 57-66
  Mark Edwin Frisse
Effective information retrieval from large medical hypertext systems will require a combination of browsing and full-text document retrieval techniques. Using a prototype hypertext medical therapeutics handbook, I discuss one approach to information retrieval problems in hypertext. This approach responds to a query by initially treating each hypertext card as a full-text document. It then utilizes information about document structure to propagate weights to neighboring cards and produces a ranked list of potential starting points for graphical browsing.
Hypertext and Pluralism: From Lineal to Non-Lineal Thinking BIBA 67-88
  William O. Beeman; Kenneth T. Anderson; Gail Bader; James Larkin; Anne P. McClard; Patrick McQuillan; Mark Shields
One goal of American and Northern European higher education is to promote acquisition of a pluralistic cognitive style, which has as an important property -- non-linealilty. This paper investigates the effects of using of an advanced hypertext/hypermedia system, Intermedia, to develop instructional materials for two university courses in English and Biology intended to promote acquisition of non-lineal thinking. Use of Intermedia is shown to produce significant learning effects, which are somewhat more pronounced for persons involved in developing materials than for students using the system.

Experiences and Writing

Hypertext Habitats: Experiences of Writers in NoteCards BIBA 89-108
  Randall H. Trigg; Peggy M. Irish
This paper reports on an investigation into the use of the NoteCards hypertext system for writing. We describe a wide variety of personal styles adopted by 20 researchers at Xerox as they "inhabit" NoteCards. This variety is displayed in each of their writing activities: notetaking, organizing and reorganizing their work, maintaining references and bibliographies, and preparing documents. In addition, we discuss the distinctive personal decisions made as to which activities are appropriate for NoteCards in the first place. Finally, we conclude with a list of recommendations for system designers arising from this work.
Comprehending Non-Linear Text: The Role of Discourse Cues and Reading Strategies BIBA 109-120
  Davida Charney
By studying the structure of written discourse and the processes by which readers acquire information from texts, we have learned a great deal about how to design texts that facilitate learning. However, recent advances in computer technology have enabled the development of new forms of text that violate standard assumptions of what texts are like. These new forms may pose serious problems for learning because they lack discourse features that readers rely on for assimilating new information. In particular, readers traditionally rely on the writer to determine the sequence of topics and to employ conventional cues that signal relationships among topics, such as relative importance or chronology. However, on-line hypertext systems present texts non-linearly, requiring readers to decide what information to read and in what order. This paper assesses the potential impact of non-linear texts on theories of discourse and on current cognitive theories of text processing. It also describes research in progress on readers' sequencing strategies in hypertext. Research on the effect of hypertext on reading will have important practical implications for designing hypertext systems that satisfy readers' needs.
The Notes Program: A Hypertext Application for Writing from Source Texts BIBA 121-141
  Christine Neuwirth; David Kaufer; Rick Chimera; Terilyn Gillespie
Notes is a hypertext application developed to investigate the effects of computers on the writing process, in particular, on the processes of acquiring and structuring knowledge when writing from source texts. Notes is designed to help writers record their own ideas (e.g., reactions, inferences, plausibility assessments), recover the context for those ideas easily and view ideas from multiple perspectives. In this paper we outline the theoretical basis for the design of the Notes program. Then we briefly describe the program itself and its relation to relevant research. Finally we describe our experience with users.

Translating Text into Hypertext

Hypertext and the New Oxford English Dictionary BIBA 143-153
  Darrell R. Raymond; Frank Wm. Tompa
An alternative to manual composition of hypertext databases is conversion from existing texts. Such conversion often requires careful analysis of the text document in order to determine how best to represent its structure. We illustrate some of the issues of conversion with an analysis of the Oxford English Dictionary.
Content Oriented Relations between Text Units - A Structural Model for Hypertexts BIBA 155-174
  Rainer Hammwohner; Ulrich Thiel
A common feature of various recently developed information systems is the decomposition of linear document structures which are enforced by conventional print media. Instead, a network organization of information units of different forms (textual, graphical, pictorial and even auditive presentation modes may be combined) is provided. Documents organized this way are called "hypertexts". However, two questions arise immediately when an effort is made to build information systems on the basis of this conception:
  • - What are the "units" constituting a hypertext?
  • - What sort of links between the units will be provided? Most approaches to hypertext systems impose the task of deciding these questions on the authors of hypertexts, thus the systems are hypertext management devices (e.g., CHRISTODOULAKIS ET AL. 86, WOELK ET AL. 86). The approach taken in this paper leaves a more active role to the software by applying knowledge based techniques.
       The starting point is the automatic content analysis of machine-readable full-text documents which may be downloaded from a full-text data base. The analysis process results in a partitioning of the document into thematically coherent text passages, which are one kind of node of the hypertextual version of this document. Other nodes contain graphics, tables and summarizations. The content analysis is accomplished by a semantic parser, which has access to an explicit model of the discourse domain. The TOPIC-System (HAHN/REIMER 86) comprises prototypical implementations of these components. Due to the semantic modeling relations between the nodes may be formally defined in order to provide content oriented browsing facilities. The graphical retrieval system TOPOGRAPHIC (THIEL/HAMMWOHNER 87) employs an already implemented subset of them to guide users to relevant text parts.
       In this paper we outline a structure model for hypertexts based on partial representations of the meaning of text parts. Formal definitions of content oriented relations between such text units are given in terms of a logic specification language.
  • SuperBook: An Automatic Tool for Information Exploration - Hypertext? BIBA 175-188
      Joel R. Remde; Louis M. Gomez; Thomas K. Landauer
    The goals and methods of the text browser, SuperBook, are compared with those of hypertext systems in general. SuperBook, intended to provide improved access to text existing in electronic form, employs cognitive tools arising from human computer interaction research, such as full-text indexing, adaptive aliasing, and dynamic views of hierarchical information. Superbook automatically preprocesses on-line text written for paper publication, and produces a multi-window display, including a dynamic table of contents, pages of text, and a history of search words. Although SuperBook and hypertext share common goals of improved search and navigation, SuperBook is designed for accessing existing documents while most hypertext systems are better suited for authoring new information structures. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of each of these kinds of systems.

    Invited Panel on Systems

    User Interface Design for the Hyperties Electronic Encyclopedia BIB 189-194
      Ben Shneiderman
    A Hypertext Writing Environment and its Cognitive Basis BIBA 195-214
      John B. Smith; Stephen F. Weiss; Gordon J. Ferguson
    WE is a hypertext writing environment that can be used to create both electronic and printed documents. It is intended for professionals who work within a computer network of professional workstations. Since writing is a complex mental activity that uses many different kinds of thinking, WE was designed in accord with an explicit cognitive model for writing. That model raises several important questions for both electronic and printed documents. The paper includes a discussion of the underlying cognitive model, a description of WE as it currently exists and as it will be extended in the near future, as well as a brief outline of experiments being conducted to evaluate both the model and the system. It concludes by re-examining some of the issues raised by the cognitive model in light of WE, especially the role of constraints in hypertext systems.


    Constraint-Based Hypertext for Argumentation BIBA 215-245
      Paul Smolensky; Brigham Bell; Barbara Fox; Roger King; Clayton Lewis
    In this paper we describe a hypertext system we are developing for the support of reasoned argumentation: the EUCLID project. We use the project to address two general problems arising with hypertext: the problems of controlling user/document interaction, and the problem of controlling the screen. We suggest that guiding users' interaction with hypertext is difficult because of the unique form of discourse that hypertext represents, and that structuring user/document interaction can be achieved through specializing to a particular type of material and designing the hypertext system to respect the particular discourse structure characteristic of that material. EUCLID's design is tuned to the structure of reasoned discourse. The problem of screen management in EUCLID is a serious one, because our presentation of complex arguments requires mapping the complex logical relations between parts of realistic arguments onto complex spatial relations between items in the display. We describe a general system we are developing which provides this high degree of control for hypertext screen management. This system represents a constraint-based approach to hypertext, in which the items from the underlying database that are to be displayed may each contribute a number of constraints on the layout; a general constraint-satisfier then computes a screen layout that simultaneously satisfies these constraints. Each time an item is to be added to or deleted from the screen, the constraint set is adjusted and the screen layout is recomputed; thus the spatial relationships on the screen provide at all times a veridical representation of the underlying relations between displayed database items. This kind of strong screen control is demanded by hypertext applications which, like ours, are fine grained: the number of nodes and links being displayed number in the hundreds.
    gIBIS: A Hypertext Tool for Team Design Deliberation BIBA 247-251
      Jeff Conklin; Michael L. Begeman
    This paper introduces an application-specific hypertext system designed to facilitate the capture of early design deliberations, which implements a specific design method called Issue Based Information Systems (IBIS). The hypertext system described here, gIBIS (for graphical IBIS), makes use of color and a high speed relational database server to facilitate building and browsing typed IBIS networks. Further, gIBIS is designed to support the collaborative construction of these networks by any number of cooperating team members spread across a local area network. Early experiments suggest that the gIBIS tool, while still incomplete, forges a good match between graphical interface and design method even in this experimental version.
    Exploring Representation Problems Using Hypertext BIBA 253-268
      Catherine C. Marshall
    Hypertext is a technology well-suited to exploring different kinds of representational problems. It can be used first as an informal mechanism to describe the attributes of objects and to capture relationships between the objects. Then hypertext structures can be constrained into a more formal representation of a domain, model, or analytic technique. A range of strategies for using hypertext can be employed to describe a problem and converge on an appropriate representation; competing representations can be informally evaluated to compare their relative expressive power.
       This paper discusses several applications that have used NoteCards, a hypertext idea processing system, to tackle representation problems. Examples from each problem domain have been collected using the hypertext system as the initial acquisition vehicle. Subsequent analysis using hypertext structuring tools has revealed the semantics of each problem domain enabling the development of competing representations. Abstraction of the structure and form of these representations can be used to guide system extensions. These tailored extensions support the evaluation of a representation's relative merits; the representation that has been developed in response to a particular problem can be applied to analogous problems to determine the limits of its scope.
       The first application described in this paper models a type of policy decision-making process; the second looks at approaches to representing the logical structure of an argument; and the third suggests some methods for capturing the structure of a political organization as an alternative to a conventional database design. The applications are discussed in terms of the issues they raise and the trade-offs they involve, how hypertext-based tools have been used to exploit the representations, and the solutions and techniques that have been developed in the process of creating each representation.

    Systems II

    Thoth-II: Hypertext with Explicit Semantics BIBA 269-289
      George H. Collier
    This paper describes a hypertext system - Thoth-II. This system provides a rich means for modeling semantic interconnections among texts. It allows a user to browse texts, exploring their relations with other texts. These relations are modeled by a directed graph. The texts are embedded in the graph. Connections among specified phrases in the text and the graph structure are automatically formed. In the browsing mode the user is presented with an interactive graphic display of the directed graph. In the text mode the user can use multiple windows to display and interact with the stored text.
    The Architecture of Static Hypertexts BIBA 291-306
      Tim Oren
    This paper's purpose is to describe how the hypertext technique can make CD-ROM (and other static storage media) a more comfortable environment for human use. I begin by considering implementation issues for hypertext on CD-ROM and surveying currently available products. I suggest desirable goals for the use of hypertext on the static CD medium, and propose that their achievement will follow from a correct choice of conventions of use and construction of the hypertext database. Such goals include augmenting text search algorithms, recovering lost benefits of the print medium, designing meaningful connections between documents to assist human communications, and allowing variable interactivity with the user.
    Document Examiner: Delivery Interface for Hypertext Documents BIBA 307-323
      Janet H. Walker
    This paper describe the user interface strategy of Document Examiner, a delivery interface for commercial hypertext documents. Unlike many hypertext interfaces, Document Examiner does not adopt the directed graph as its fundamental user-visible navigation model. Instead it offers context evaluation and content-based searching capabilities that are based on consideration of the strategies that people use in interacting with paper documents.


    The Hype in Hypertext: A Critique BIBA 325-330
      Jef Raskin
    Hypertext has received a lot of mostly uncritical attention. The author sees it as one part inspiration and nine parts hyperbole. A number of user interface and technical problems are discussed.
    Relationally Encoded Links and the Rhetoric of Hypertext BIB 331-343
      George P. Landow
    Reflections on NoteCards: Seven Issues for the Next Generation of Hypermedia Systems BIBA 345-365
      Frank G. Halasz
    NoteCards is a general hypermedia environment designed to help people work with ideas. Its intended users are authors, designers, and other intellectual laborers engaged in analyzing information, designing artifacts, and generally processing ideas. The system provides these users with a variety of hypermedia-based tools for collecting, representing, managing, interrelating, and communicating ideas.
       This paper presents the NoteCards system as a foil against which to explore some of the major limitations of the current generation of hypermedia systems. In doing so, this paper highlights seven of the major issues that must be addressed in the next generation of hypermedia systems. These seven issues are: search and query, composite nodes, virtual structures, computational engines, versioning, collaborative work, and tailorability. For each of these issues, the papers describes the limitations inherent in NoteCards and the prospects for doing improving the situation in future systems.
    Developing and Distributing Hypertext Tools: Legal Inputs and Parameters BIBA 367-374
      Henry W., III Jones
    To realize the promise of hypertext, researchers and developers must understand how their work is impacted by copyright, products liability, and other sets of legal rules. Certain key legal problems, and corresponding possible solutions, are analyzed.


    Abstraction Mechanisms in Hypertext BIBA 375-395
      Pankaj K. Garg
    Abstraction is the means by which information can be stored and retrieved from an information structure at different levels of detail and from different perspectives. As such, abstraction mechanisms in hypertext are interesting to study and evaluate. In this paper we study the abstraction mechanisms in hypertext from a theoretical perspective. Abstractions then become various first-order logic formulae. Specifically we consider abstraction: sets, sequences, aggregations generalizations, revisions, and information structures. Interesting results of this work are the definition of level of generality of a hypertext node, the demonstration of revision histories as a partial order, and the notion of compatible-similar nodes. Also defined in this paper is the notion of primitive hypertexts versus application hypertexts, and the usage of attributes of nodes (illustrated by the use of keywords) across various abstractions. An illustration of the concepts is given using the contexts mechanism suggested by Delisle and Schwartz [DS87].
    Manipulating Source Code in DynamicDesign BIBA 397-408
      James Bigelow; Victor Riley
    DynamicDesign is a Computer-Aided Software Engineering environment for the C language with a layered system architecture for modularity and versatility. DynamicDesign is composed of facilities to edit hypertext objects, maneuver thorough hypertext graphs, build a hypertext graph from a set of existing C source files, and browse source code, documents and system requirements. This paper discusses the DynamicDesign facilities that deal with the source code, sourceBrowser, and source tree builder utilities.
       GraphBuild is a utility used to convert C source code into a hypertext source graph, based on the program's call tree. A data dictionary is constructed for the program that contains its local and global variables.
       The source browser allows the user to traverse, view, and edit a source code tree. Additional facilities for understanding and maintaining the source code and its auxiliary documentation are provided by the browser.
    On Designing Intelligent Hypertext Systems for Information Management in Software Engineering BIBA 409-432
      Pankaj K. Garg; Walt Scacchi
    Information management in large scale software engineering is a challenging problem. Hypertext systems are best suited for this purpose because of the diversity in information types that is permitted in the nodes of a hypertext. The integration of a hypertext system with software engineering tools results in a software hypertext system. We describe the design of such a system called DIF. Based on our experiences in using DIF, we recognized the need and the potential for developing a hypertext system that could utilize knowledge about its users and their software tasks and products. Such a system might then be able to act as an active participant in the software process, rather than being just a passive, albeit useful storage facility. As such, we define an Intelligent Software Hypertext System (I-SHYS) as a software hypertext system which is knowledgeable about its environment and can use such knowledge to assist in the software process. This knowledge is partly embedded in the design of an I-SHYS (in terms of the `agents' that I-SHYS supports) and partly defined during the use of I-SHYS (in terms of tasks that agents perform). We present a framework for defining and organizing this knowledge, describe potential uses of such knowledge, identify limits of our approach, and suggest methods for circumventing them.