HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Conferences | HYPER Archive | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
HYPER Tables of Contents: 93Z969797X9899000102030405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the Fifteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext

Fullname:Hypertext'04: Proceedings of the Fifteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia
Editors:David De Roure; Helen Ashman
Location:Santa Cruz, CA, USA
Dates:2004-Aug-09 to 2004-Aug-13
Standard No:ISBN 1-58113-848-2; ACM Order Number: 614040; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: HYPER04
Links:Conference Home Page (defunct)
  1. Keynote
  2. Digital libraries
  3. Stories and scholarship
  4. Hypertext analysis
  5. Novel interfaces
  6. Authoring and annotation
  7. Keynote
  8. Ubiquitous hypermedia
  9. Foundations
  10. Hypertext through time
  11. Hyperstructure
  12. Synthetic hypertext and hyperfiction
  13. Hypertext versioning
  14. Spatial hypertext
  15. Structural computing
  16. Peer-to-peer
  17. Keynote


Augmenting society's collective IQs BIBFull-Text 1
  Douglas Engelbart

Digital libraries

Directions for hypertext research: exploring the design space for interactive scholarly communication BIBAFull-Text 2-11
  John J. Leggett; Frank M., III Shipman
This paper is a "call to arms" for the community to take up Van Bush's original challenge of effecting a transformation of scholarly communications and record keeping. It argues for the necessity of an interactive scholarly communication research agenda by briefly reviewing the rapid development of alternative authoring and publishing models. Seven dimensions of interactive communication that delineate a design space for the area are described. Previous work and existing new media are used to initially populate the design space and show opportunities for new research directions. VKB spaces, Synchrony PADLs, and Walden's paths are used as foils for describing new media for interactive scholarly communication. This leads to a brief discussion of uncovered areas in the design space and open research questions. A community developed framework for future interactive scholarly communications would be a major contribution and is put forth as the overall goal.
Extending the role of the digital library: computer support for creating articles BIBAFull-Text 12-21
  Leslie Carr; Timothy Miles-Board; Gary Wills; Guillermo Power; Christopher Bailey; Wendy Hall; Simon Grange
A digital library, together with its users and its contents, does not exist in isolated splendour; nor in hypertext terms is it merely the intertextual relationships between its texts. There is a cycle of activities which provides the context for the library's existence, and which the library supports through its various roles of information access, discovery, storage, dissemination and preservation. This paper describes the role of digital library systems in the undertaking of science, and in particular in the context of the recent developments of the Grid for computer-supported scientific collaboration and Virtual Universities for computer-supported education. This paper focuses on a specific framework, the Dynamic Review Journal, which supports the development and dissemination of documents by assisting authors in collating and analysing experimental results, organising internal project discussions, and producing papers. By bridging the gap between the undertaking of experimental work and the dissemination of its results through electronic publication, this work addresses the cycle of activity in which a digital library rests.
Head-tail display: a lightweight approach to query-dependent document display BIBAFull-Text 22-23
  D. Berleant; J. Miao; M. Arvold; J. Brown; R. DeVries; T. Drucker; L. Elkin; C. Gofron; K.-H. Lim
The value of showing important, yet separated, parts of a document simultaneously motivates head-tail display. 35% of Web documents tested benefit. A head-tail display provides a query-dependent view of a document using a split window. One subwindow shows the beginning of the document, a particularly important part of many documents. The other subwindow shows the query-relevant document "tail," starting from the first query term occurrence.
Towards digital libraries of virtual hyperbooks BIBAFull-Text 24-25
  Gilles Falquet; Luka Nerima; Jean-Claude Ziswiler
This paper describes a technique for integrating several (many) virtual hyperbooks in a digital library. We consider a virtual hyperbook model that comprises a domain ontology. By interconnecting the hyperbook's ontologies, we can create a multi-point of view ontology that describes a set of hyperbooks. A hypertext interface specification language can use this ontology to construct new semantically and narratively coherent hyperdocuments based on the content of several hyperbooks.

Stories and scholarship

Twin media: hypertext structure under pressure BIBAFull-Text 26-27
  David Kolb
This hypertext reports on issues in hypertext rhetoric and presentation that arise in composing a large argumentative hypertext associated with a book version of the same project. It concerns not the old navigation problem for the lost reader, but the construction problem for the uncertain author. The essay discusses link patterns, the intentions of readers and authors, and the pressure of book upon the structure of the hypertext. A hypertext does not need to be associated with a book to feel these pressures from our habits with other media. How can a long expository hypertext be made accessible, and argue for its views, without sacrificing the virtues of hypertextual presentation? The essay attempts to exemplify as well as discuss these issues.
The mystery of "lust" BIBAFull-Text 28-35
  Richard E. Higgason
Mark Bernstein has stated that there are no really good hypertext mysteries. This is a puzzling remark since reading hypertext often seems to require "detective work" on the part of the reader to first ferret out the clues/pieces of the work and then put them together in a reasonable order to form an understanding. While demonstrating a close reading of Mary Kim Arnold's hypertext story, "Lust," this essay explores how the concept of "mystery" applies to the act of reading hypertext and how that affects the role reader (now a "reader-detective") who must search both content nodes and pathways in order to bring cohesion and a sense of completeness to the reading experience. As a close reading, this essay looks at the characters and events described in "Lust" and finally stresses the need to consider the links and paths while reading the hypertext.
Lust, touch, metadata: meaning and the limits of adaptation BIBAFull-Text 36-37
  Mark Bernstein
Adding and removing links carries great rhetorical weight. Modern hypertext tools often treat links as metadata and use metadata to provide navigational access. To view links or metadata as extrinsic information applied to an underlying document may no longer be a viable strategy.

Hypertext analysis

Automatic categorization of web sites based on source types BIBAFull-Text 38-39
  Shourya Roy; Sachindra Joshi; Raghu Krishnapuram
An important issue with the Web is verification of the accuracy, currency and authenticity of the information associated with Web sites. One way to address this problem is to identify the "source" or "sponsor" of the Web site. However, source identification is non-trivial because the source of a Web site cannot always be determined by the URL or content of the site. In this paper, we propose a method for source identification that uses various types of inbound, outbound and internal interactions that arise due to hyperlinks between and within Web sites.
Language-theoretic classification of hypermedia paths BIBAFull-Text 40-41
  David Stotts; Richard Furuta
Paths are, and have been since the beginning, an important mechanism for organizing hypermedia documents. This note shows how a document defined as a (possibly infinite) collection of paths over content nodes can be succinctly expressed as a formal language. We show the relationship to earlier hypermedia models based on automata. The language-theoretic model can be used to implement path engines as parsers or recognizers. Different levels of path power require different classes of recognizing automata.
Structural analysis for web documentation using the non-well-founded set BIBAFull-Text 42-43
  Ikumi Horie; Kazunori Yamaguchi
We propose a method for the structural analysis of Web documentation. Employing the non-well-founded set theory, we have developed a means of reduction analysis to detect irregularities in the structures of target documents. To test this method's effectiveness, we applied it to Web-based educational materials in actual use and succeeded in identifying structural errors in the documents.
Properties of academic paper references BIBAFull-Text 44-45
  Sunghun Kim; E. James, Jr. Whitehead
We propose a new method to find related papers using an input paper and its hyperlinked citation relationships rather than keywords. Such related papers are especially useful as background reading for researchers new to a research field. In this paper we introduce the background reading paper extractor (BPE), and show various properties of academic paper references.
A linking and interaction evaluation test set for SMIL BIBAFull-Text 46-47
  Dick C. A. Bulterman
The SMIL 2.0 Language profile support several mechanisms for controlling interactivity in a SMIL 2.0 presentation. Unfortunately, the SMIL standard testset does not verify complex interactions of linking/interaction behavior of SMIL players and applications. This paper describes a linking and interaction test suite that was developed as part of the Ambulant SMIL Player project. We begin with a short review of SMIL's linking and interaction facilities, then describe aspects of the test suite that have proven to highlight faults in current SMIL players.

Novel interfaces

FaceSpace: endo- and exo-spatial hypermedia in the transparent video facetop BIBAFull-Text 48-57
  David Stotts; Jason McC. Smith; Karl Gyllstrom
The Transparent Video Facetop is a novel user interface concept that supports not only single-user interactions with a PC, but also close pair collaborations, such as that found in collaborative Web browsing, in distributed pair programming and in remote medicine. We recently demonstrated the Vis-a-Vid Facetop prototype as a single-user GUI for manipulating the elements of a traditional WIMP desktop [21]. In this paper we introduce FaceSpace, a Facetop-based hypermedia system that combines structure and functionality of both spatial and ubiquitous hypertext. FaceSpace eliminates camera registration errors due to dynamic object tracking and user self-image feedback. FaceSpace had two forms of linking that combine spatial hypermedia with ubiquitous hypermedia: Like an exo-skeleton provides an organism with structure from without, exo-spatial hypertext has the spatial structure applied over the ubiquity of the user's real-world environment. Endo-spatial hypertext has the spatial structure derived from and attached to the elements of the user's domain. Endo-spatial hypertext is an integral concept in systems that have been classified as ubiquitous hypertext; exo-spatial is unique to FaceSpace in current hypertext systems.
Display-agnostic hypermedia BIBAFull-Text 58-67
  Unmil P. Karadkar; Richard Furuta; Selen Ustun; YoungJoo Park; Jin-Cheon Na; Vivek Gupta; Tolga Ciftci; Yungah Park
In the diversifying information environment, contemporary hypermedia authoring and filtering mechanisms cater to specific devices. Display-agnostic hypermedia can be flexibly and efficiently presented on a variety of information devices without any modification of their information content. We augment context-aware Trellis (caT) by introducing two mechanisms to support display-agnosticism: development of new browsers and architectural enhancements. We present browsers that reinterpret existing caT hypertext structures for a different presentation. The architectural enhancements, called MIDAS, flexibly deliver rich hypermedia presentations coherently to a set of diverse devices.
The site browser: catalyzing improvements in hypertext organization BIBAFull-Text 68-76
  David Gibson
The Site Browser endeavors to build an overview browsing system for the entire Web. Overview browsing represents an alternative to the search-based view of information work, and does so by providing a consistent set of summary views which can be browsed interactively. The views partition and linearize the corpus for ready understanding and exploration. They show a web site's relation to other sites, the broad nature of the information it contains and how it is structured, and how it has changed over time. The design challenge is to generate useful summary information in a process which is fast enough to be updated daily. Our current system maintains a continuously updated archive of 46 million sites representing 2.3 billion web pages.

Authoring and annotation

Negotiating access within Wiki: a system to construct and maintain a taxonomy of access rules BIBAFull-Text 77-86
  Andrew Lincoln Burrow
A wiki hypertext is typically accessible and editable by all. While this removes impediments to collaboration, it often deters participants who would rather incubate ideas before bringing them to the group. This is especially the case where creative ideas are at stake. Creating additional wikis with restricted access is a costly solution: it requires participants to distinguish between and navigate between wikis; it requires administrators to construct wikis and their access rules; and it does not account for the movement of content from private to public. In this paper, we describe a system that augments the hypertext in order to solve these problems. This system automatically creates and maintains access rules in response to browsing and editing of the wiki hypertext. In doing so, it improves the targeting of documents in the hypertext, and identifies significant collections of documents and participants.
WebDAV-based hypertext annotation and trail system BIBAFull-Text 87-88
  Sunghun Kim; Mark Slater; E. James, Jr. Whitehead
We introduce a WebDAV-based Hypertext Annotation and Trail System (HATS). HATS provides annotation editing, deleting, searching, and sharing using server side WebDAV capabilities. It supports hyper-trail storage and examination. The paper describes the HATS architecture and WebDAV annotation schema. We compare HATS with existing web annotation systems, and discuss the advantages of using WebDAV as an annotation server.
Following your colleagues' footprints: navigation support with trails in shared directories BIBAFull-Text 89-90
  Erich Gams; Sigi Reich
Trails are a well-established concept to assist users in navigating through information spaces. However, most existing trail-based systems focus only on the World Wide Web and not on the users' overall information space, including corporate intranet shares or private file storage. We have adapted the trail approach specifically to fit shared directory scenarios. We describe an already developed prototype and report on results of a first user study, which indicate the usefulness of our approach.
Collaborative intensional hypertext BIBAFull-Text 91-92
  John Plaice; Blanca Mancilla
We introduce a new approach for creating and viewing hypertexts in a collaborative manner. The hypertext is understood to be an intension, in the logical sense, i.e., a mapping from multidimensional contexts to simple texts. Creation and navigation then correspond to moving from one context to another, and links are made relative to the current context. Using an active context called an aether, collaborative hypertexts can be built, in which several users can view the same hypertext together, each with their own preferences. We give a summary of a Web-based infrastructure supporting the use of collaborative, intensional hypertexts.
WiCKEd: a tool for writing in the context of knowledge BIBAFull-Text 93-94
  Arouna Woukeu; Leslie Carr; Wendy Hall
This paper introduces WiCKEd, a prototype tool to assist document authoring in a Semantic Web context. The tool builds on Semantic Web technologies and addresses the issues of creating and reusing knowledge-rich documents. WiCKEd allows new content to be created by pulling together relevant and contextual knowledge held in existing background documents, retaining explicit links to these knowledge sources. The consistency and coherence of authored documents are improved because they explicitly assimilate and link to relevant background knowledge instances as well as exposing them for further reuse.


A format design case study: PDF BIBAFull-Text 95-97
  James C. King
We explain how the Portable Document Format was designed based upon some specific design criteria that were developed to make an advance beyond previous technology. The environmental variables (computing power, business climate) that affected the design are also discussed.

Ubiquitous hypermedia

Integrating the web and the world: contextual trails on the move BIBAFull-Text 98-107
  Frank Allan Hansen; Niels Olof Bouvin; Bent G. Christensen; Kaj Grønbæk; Torben Bach Pedersen; Jevgenij Gagach
This paper presents applications of HyCon, a framework for context aware hypermedia systems. The HyCon framework encompasses annotations, links, and guided tours associating locations and RFID- or Bluetooth-tagged objects with maps, Web pages, and collections of resources. The user-created annotations, links and guided tours, are represented as XLink structures, and HyCon introduces the use of XLink for the representation of recorded geographical paths with annotations and links. The HyCon architecture extends upon earlier location based hypermedia systems by supporting authoring in the field and by providing access to browsing and searching information through a novel geo-based search (GBS) interface for the Web. Interface-wise, the HyCon prototype utilizes SVG on an interface level, for graphics as well as for user interface widgets on tablet PCs and mobile phones.
Domestic hypermedia: mixed media in the home BIBAFull-Text 108-109
  Marianne Graves Petersen; Kaj Grønbæk
This paper analyses the potentials for use of hypermedia in homes based on empirical studies. The use of physical materials is characterized by collaborative spatial organization and persistent visual awareness. Qualities that are currently not well supported for digital materials. However, domestic materials, such as photos, music, messages. become digitized. Based on the analyses we propose a Domestic Hypermedia infrastructure combining spatial, context-aware and physical hypermedia to support collaborative structuring and ambient presentation of materials in homes.
Navigational hypertext models for physical hypermedia environments BIBAFull-Text 110-111
  David E. Millard; David C. De Roure; Danius T. Michaelides; Mark K. Thompson; Mark J. Weal
In this paper we identify a common aim between ubiquitous computing and hypertext systems: the desire to present navigable, located and structured information. We propose that existing navigational hypertext models might be valuable as a formalisation of ubiquitous information and explore the challenges of applying standard hypertext operations, such as anchor resolution, display and link traversal, to links that have physical anchors.
Interaction alternatives for linking everyday presentations BIBAFull-Text 112-113
  Alessandra Alaniz Macedo; Jose Antonio Camacho-Guerrero; Renan G. Cattelan; Valter R., Jr. Inacio; Maria da Graca Campos Pimentel
Live experiences such as meetings and lectures can be captured in instrumented environments towards producing hyperdocuments corresponding to the information presented. Given that a captured presentation is usually related to many others, users can use linking facilities to support the identification of associated contents. We propose that searching and recommending operations be integrated in instrumented environments to support the identification of links among contents of captured sessions during a live session, when the user has the focus of attention on the underlying contents. Moreover, the user should be able to decide when any relevant results should be attached as annotations to the document corresponding to the live session. We present the model and associated implementation that support linking everyday presentations.


An anatomy of anchors BIBAFull-Text 114-115
  Deena Larsen; Richard E. Higgason
While much attention is paid to defining and examining interactions with links, little is paid to the front end: the anchor. We examine what an anchor is, describe six anchor properties (density, location, function, decoration, format, and uniformity), and present examples of these properties. This paper describes the state-of-practice-anchors not as they may be or should be but as they are in 67 sites and works. Efferent (informational and promotional) and aesthetic (literary) works tend to use anchors in different ways. Anchor property combinations affect the way readers interpret content and navigate.
How much is too much in a hypertext link?: investigating context and preview -- a formative evaluation BIBAFull-Text 116-125
  Simon Harper; Yeliz Yesilada; Carole Goble; Robert Stevens
A high quality of free movement, or mobility, is key to the accessibility, design, and usability of many 'common-use' hypermedia resources (Web sites) and key to good mobility is context and preview. This is especially the case when a hypertext anchor is inaccurately described or is described out of context as confusion and disorientation can ensue. Mobility is similarly reduced when the link target of the anchor has no relationship to the expected information present on the hypertext node (Web page). Confident movement with purpose, ease, and accuracy can only be achieved when complete contextual information and an accurate description of the proposed destination (preview) are available. We suggest that sighted people can benefit from additional context and preview information included in hyperlinks and disprove the empirical evidence that suggests these users do not benefit from link descriptions which have this enhanced information. We briefly describe a middleware system to automatically expand context and preview in link descriptions thereby 'fixing' terse links, links out of context, and inaccurate or inadequate preview information. Finally, we conduct a formative evaluation which shows us that a system to expand context and preview would be useful in different ways depending on the type of link.
What hypertext is BIBAFull-Text 126-127
  Noah Wardrip-Fruin
Over the past couple decades, as the term "hypertext" has gained a certain popular currency, a question has been raised repeatedly: "What is hypertext?" Our most respected scholars offer a range of different, at times incompatible, answers. This paper argues that our best response to this situation is to adopt the approach taken with other terms that are central to intellectual communities (such as "natural selection," "communism," and "psychoanalysis"), a historical approach. In the case of "hypertext" the term began with Theodor Holm ("Ted") Nelson, and in this paper two of his early publications of "hypertext" are used to determine its initial meaning: the 1965 "A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate" and the 1970 "No More Teachers' Dirty Looks." It is concluded that hypertext began as a term for forms of hypermedia (human-authored media that "branch or perform on request") that operate textually. This runs counter to definitions of hypertext in the literary community that focus solely on the link. It also runs counter to definitions in the research community that privilege tools for knowledge work over media. An inclusive future is envisioned.
The end-point is not enough BIBAFull-Text 128-129
  Duncan Martin; Mark Truran; Helen Ashman
The traditional definition of a link object is a collection of end-points, and link activation is achieved by selecting an end-point in some way. This model excludes links where the link activator is distinct from any end-point of the link. In this paper we introduce an extension to link modelling that allows for separate link activators.

Hypertext through time

Saving private hypertext: requirements and pragmatic dimensions for preservation BIBAFull-Text 130-138
  Catherine C. Marshall; Gene Golovchinsky
The preservation of literary hypertexts presents significant challenges if we are to ensure continued access to them as the underlying technology changes. Not only does such an effort involve standard digital preservation problems of representing and refreshing metadata, any constituent media types, and structure; hypertext preservation poses additional dimensions that arise from the work's on-screen appearance, its interactive behavior, and the ways a reader's interaction with the work is recorded. In this paper, we describe aspects of preservation introduced by literary hypertexts such as the need to reproduce their modes of interactivity and their means of capturing and using records of reading. We then suggest strategies for addressing the pragmatic dimensions of hypertext preservation and discuss their status within existing digital preservation schemes. Finally, we examine the possible roles various stakeholders within and outside of the hypertext community might assume, including several social and legal issues that stem from preservation.
Manipulating history in generative hypermedia BIBAFull-Text 139-140
  Madhur Khandelwal; Andruid Kerne; J. Michael Mistrot
We continue to develop a generative hypermedia system that uses composition for browsing, collecting and organizing information samples from web pages. The system's generative actions of collecting information samples and composing them visually are conducted iteratively over time, based on an adaptable user model. The system presents the ongoing generation of the composition to the user in an interactive information space. In this space, the user can directly manipulate the composition through interactive design operations, and affect the model by expressing positive or negative interest in each sample.
   We are developing mechanisms for manipulating the time-based medium of the evolving information space. Interaction design affords linear timeline traversal and non-linear time travel. Extended tape recorder metaphor controls, including jog-shuttle based navigation, provide the user with flexible means for operating the system's generative functionalities, and linearly traversing session history. We introduce a door-latch metaphor that enables one of several considered forms of non-linear time travel. Users can change history by retroactively locking an information sample in position across time.
Experiences migrating microcosm learning materials BIBAFull-Text 141-142
  H. C. Davis; R. A. Bacon
Microcosm was an open hypertext system that evolved in the early 1990s, before the advent of the Web. Apart from its success as a research platform it was widely used for presenting interactive educational materials. Since the commercial version of the product ceased to be supported it became necessary for users to migrate their educational materials, generally to the Web. However, the SToMP consortium chose to implement their own environment copying parts of the functionality of Microcosm in order to achieve their educational objectives. This paper examines the motivations of this work in order to understand whether there were features that were available in Microcosm that were not replicated in current Web based solutions.


Practical applitudes: case studies of applications of the ZigZag hypermedia system BIBAFull-Text 143-152
  Adam Moore; James Goulding; Tim Brailsford; Helen Ashman
ZigZag is a paradigm of hypermedia that consists of a multidimensional system of principled interconnections. Its basic features and specifications are now well known, but despite this, very few practical applications have been described or discussed. This paper examines two projects as case studies. These projects both use the unique properties of ZigZag in order to solve real-world problems. One of these case studies is a personal information management system for mobile phones, and the other is a bioinformatics visualization system. Although superficially extremely different, these areas both make use of information that is loosely structured and deeply interconnected.
A comparison of hyperstructures: zzstructures, mSpaces, and polyarchies BIBAFull-Text 153-162
  Michael J. McGuffin; m. c. schraefel
Hypermedia applications tend to use simple representations for navigation: most commonly, nodes are organized within an unconstrained graph, and users are presented with embedded links or lists of links. Recently, new data structures have emerged which may serve as alternative models for both the organization, and presentation, of hypertextual nodes and links. In this paper, we consider zzstructures, mSpaces, and polyarchies from the perspective of graph theory, and compare these models formally. The novel aspects of this work include: providing a sound, graph-theoretic analysis of zzstructures; the identification of a new class of polyarchies associated with mSpaces; and the comparison and classification of these and other structures within a taxonomy. The taxonomy that results from our comparison allows us to consider, first; what the distinct characteristics of each model are at a fundamental level, and second; what model or attributes of a model may be most appropriate for the design goals of a given hypermedia application.

Synthetic hypertext and hyperfiction

Adaptivity in hyperfiction BIBAFull-Text 163-170
  Licia Calvi
Despite the announced "death of the author" that seemed to be perpetrated by the advent of a hypertext narrative, a closer look at existing hyperfictions and in particular at the theoretical analysis of its foundations (that demonstrates the existence of a distinction between a shallow text and a deep text, both of which represent the distinct space of activity of readers and authors) shows that this is by far not the case. If we accept this separation, we are also forced to accept the possibility for the author to exercise a wider power and stronger control on the text than she used to do before. This opens up a wider spectrum of possibilities of intervention if the author exploits adaptive techniques in hypertext narrative.
   The paper intends to investigate how adaptivity is used in hyperfiction and to propose an interpretative grid for better understanding and future use.
Dynamically growing hypertext collections BIBAFull-Text 171-180
  Pratik Dave; Paul Logasa, II Bogen; Unmil P. Karadkar; Luis Francisco-Revilla; Richard Furuta; Frank Shipman
Many approaches have been pursued over the years to facilitate creating, organizing, and sharing collections of materials extracted from large information spaces. Little attention, in the context of hypertext collections, has been paid to the addition of new materials to these collections over time. Traditionally, human maintainers manually incorporate new materials into existing collections as they appear in the underlying network. In this paper we address the issues involved in supporting the creation and maintenance of dynamically growing hypertextual collections. We describe a prototype implementation for automatically including additional, relevant materials into Web-based collections. Our prototype uses the metaphor of hypertextual paths, a proven technique for layering metastructure atop existing hypertextual materials, which is particularly well suited to accommodating growing collections.
A genetic algorithm approach to interactive narrative generation BIBAFull-Text 181-182
  TeongJoo Ong; John J. Leggett
We discuss the design of the Hybrid Evolutionary-Fuzzy Time-based Interactive (HEFTI) storytelling engine. HEFTI uses genetic algorithms at its core to recombine and evaluate story components generated from a set of story templates. The system allows authors to rely on HEFTI to perform recombination, mutation and selection operations that generate logically congruent variants of the original story via traversal, generation and deletion of (links in) the story elements.
Augmenting SCORM manifests with adaptive links BIBAFull-Text 183-184
  Nor Aniza Abdullah; Christopher Bailey; Hugh Davis
This paper describes an experiment to augment SCORM manifests with adaptive links using AuldLinky in order to promote content reusability, interoperability and personalized e-learning. Our technique involves the automatic deduction of a concept map from a manifest and the transformation of its pertinent elements into FOHM (Fundamental Object Hypermedia Model) objects before augmenting the information with complimentary and adaptive links using AuldLinky.

Hypertext versioning

The molhado hypertext versioning system BIBAFull-Text 185-194
  Tien N. Nguyen; Ethan V. Munson; John T. Boyland
This paper describes Molhado, a hypertext versioning and software configuration management system that is distinguished from previous systems by its flexible product versioning and structural configuration management model. The model enables a unified versioning framework for atomic and composite software artifacts, and hypermedia structures among them in a fine-grained manner at the logical level. Hypermedia structures are managed separately from documents' contents. Molhado explicitly represents hyperlinks, allowing them to be browsed, visualized, and systematically analyzed. Molhado not only versions complex hypermedia structures (e.g., multi links), but also supports versioning of individual hyperlinks. This paper focuses on Molhado's hypertext versioning and its use in the Software Concordance environment to manage the evolution of a software project and hypermedia structures.
Hypertext versioning for embedded link models BIBAFull-Text 195-204
  Kai Pan; E. James, Jr. Whitehead; Guozheng Ge
In this paper, we describe Chrysant, a hypertext version control system for embedded link models. Chrysant provides general-purpose versioning capability to hypertext systems with an embedded link model. To apply Chrysant for a specific hypertext system, we require the containment model for this system's data model, the containment model of the version repository for this system, the hypertext role definition, the versioning role definition, and the filesystem mapping definition. Additionally, a specific parser that retrieves the link targets from the hypertext resources is needed. Hypertext versioning is different from versioning an individual resource in the traditional way, in that both the content of a hypertext resource and the relationships between it and other resources related by hypertext links are versioned. In Chrysant, the structure container and the content of a hypertext resource are versioned separately. We describe the architecture of Chrysant, and explain the procedure of the check-in and check-out functions. An AF-BTU algorithm is introduced in the paper to check in the hypertext network of a hypertext resource. As a case study, the application of Chrysant for HTML content is introduced. We create necessary definition specifications for the HTML system and a parser to retrieve link targets from a HTML document. Some examples of HTML versioning with Chrysant are shown.
Automatic generation of hypertext system repositories: a model driven approach BIBAFull-Text 205-214
  E. James, Jr. Whitehead; Guozheng Ge; Kai Pan
In this paper, we present a model-driven methodology and toolset for automatic generation of hypertext system repositories. Our code generator, called Bamboo, is based on a Containment Modeling Framework (CMF) that uniformly describes data models for hypertext systems. CMF employs a lightweight modeling approach in which entities (system abstractions) and containment relationships are used to model hypertext system repositories. Given a description of a system repository data model using CMF, as well as a specification of the mapping between the domain specific roles (link, version history, etc.) and the entity definitions, Bamboo can generate an open hypertext repository that matches the specification. The benefits of this approach include a shorter development cycle, lower design and implementation costs, fewer design faults, a standard repository API, and extensibility for adding new features. We validate our approach by automatically generating repositories in accordance with the models of five existing hypertext systems. We also demonstrate the extensibility of our approach by quickly building a GUI client on top of a repository, and then subsequently adding version control capabilities by altering the containment model and regenerating the system.

Spatial hypertext

Towards 'cinematic' hypertext BIBAFull-Text 215-224
  Clara Mancini; Simon Buckingham Shum
This paper proposes the paradigm of 'Cinematic' Hypertext (CH), in which discourse form is represented following principles that underpin the expression of narrative patterns in cinema. Primarily tackling hypertext discourse coherence in the non-linear medium, CH is conceived as a way of thinking the hypertext medium that is consistent with its characteristics. CH envisages the consistent and concurrent use of the medium's formal features, grounded in structuring principles, in order to allow the emergence of a local language. Relational primitives based on Cognitive Coherence Relations are proposed as a structuring principle to define hypertext links, while the use the medium's graphic features is proposed to render these relational primitives as patterns that will take shape during navigation. Taking scholarly hypertext as a domain, this paper articulates the theoretical basis for cinematic hypertext, presents the elements of a prototype visual language to express a sub-set of CCR, provides experimental evidence of its significance, and finally envisages the realisation of a cinematic hypertext environment.
Integrating information seeking and structuring: exploring the role of spatial hypertext in a digital library BIBAFull-Text 225-234
  George Buchanan; Ann Blandford; Harold Thimbleby; Matt Jones
This paper presents Garnet, a novel spatial hypertext interface to a digital library. Garnet supports both information structuring - via spatial hypertext - and traditional information seeking - via a digital library. A user study of Garnet is reported, together with an analysis of how the organizing work done by users in a spatial hypertext workspace could support later information seeking. The use of Garnet during the study is related to both digital library and spatial hypertext research. Spatial hypertexts support the detection of implicit document groups in a user's workspace. The study also investigates the degree of similarity found in the full text of documents within such document groups.
WARP: a web-based dynamic spatial hypertext BIBAFull-Text 235-236
  Luis Francisco-Revilla; Frank M., III Shipman
WARP is a Web-based dynamic spatial hypertext that runs in a Web browser. WARP includes the ability to transclude other spatial hypertexts as collections. WARP also enables annotation and other content manipulation to be preserved in personal reading sessions. WARP uses a variety of presentation adaptations to contextualize the spatial hypertext's display. In particular WARP uses a variable number of models to guide adaptation in response to multiple relevant factors. Behaviors in WARP help preserve perceptual structures that may be lost due to adaptation and user interaction.
Managing conflict in multi-model adaptive hypertext BIBAFull-Text 237-238
  Luis Francisco-Revilla; Frank M., III Shipman
Adaptive hypermedia has the goal of contextualizing the display of a hypertext to suit the user and their situation. A variety of aspects of the context can influence the appropriate adaptation. For knowledge engineering and privacy reasons, systems are moving towards having multiple independent models influencing adaptation. But these multiple models may disagree, resulting in a need for systems to manage the resulting conflicts. This paper presents an approach that combines conflict avoidance, conflict detection, and conflict resolution. This approach is presented within the context of multi-model adaptive spatial hypertext.

Structural computing

Rethinking structural computing infrastructures BIBAFull-Text 239-246
  Peter J. Nurnberg; Uffe K. Wiil; David L. Hicks
Structural computing asserts the primacy of structure over data. This has often been understood to mean that all levels of a structural computing system architecture should exhibit structure awareness, leading to data models centered around so-called "structural atoms." While systems based upon structural atoms do provide ubiquitous first-class structural abstractions, they also freeze the "granularity" of the structuring process throughout their architectures at design-time. That is, decisions regarding representations of structures in structural computing architectures based upon atoms cannot be recast at run-time. In this paper, we examine an alternative to atom-based models for structural computing systems that allows exactly such recasting. We demonstrate how this alternative model, which we call EAD, is superior to atom-based models for certain important applications, and describe our initial prototypical implementations.
Towards a structural diversity space BIBAFull-Text 247-255
  David L. Hicks; Uffe Kock Wiil; Peter J. Nurnberg
One of the most visible and significant effects of the introduction and use of hypermedia technology has been to substantially increase the variety of structures available in computing environments. As research in the hypermedia field has progressed, the pace at which structure evolves has increased. While the rise in diversity of hypermedia structure has generally been regarded as a positive development, as with many phenomena, it is important to examine structural diversity carefully to avoid the problems that excessive diversity can bring, and to ensure the complete spectrum of potentially beneficial forms of diversity is considered.
   This paper introduces a diversity space that can serve as an important tool in the study of structural diversity in hypermedia. The purposes of the diversity space are manifold including: to serve as a description space in which the structural diversity of a specific computing environment can be completely and concisely described, to highlight and assist in reconciling differences in structural diversity between computing environments, and to serve as a useful design space in which important diversity related decisions can be considered. To demonstrate the usage of the diversity space, it is first used as a tool to examine the way in which structural diversity developed within the hypermedia field. It is then used to characterize and consider the levels of structural diversity found in the class of computing environments that currently exhibit the highest levels of structural diversity: structural computing systems.
Unifying structure, behavior, and data with themis types and templates BIBAFull-Text 256-265
  William Van Lepthien; Kenneth M. Anderson
Structural computing evolved from work on open hypermedia to aid in the creation of software infrastructure. Open hypermedia had produced software that provided applications with access to hypermedia structures and services. The question was asked if these results could be generalized to create similar tools for other domains. Initial work focused on the development of structure servers that can create and manipulate domain-specific structures, but little work focused on allowing those structures to provide a rich set of behaviors. Indeed, this forced developers to place behaviors on the client rather than having behaviors live within a structure server. This paper presents research on the addition of a type system to the Themis structure server and how these types interact with Themis's template mechanism to provide a single interface that unifies structure, behavior, and data. This new mechanism lets behaviors live within a structure server allowing them to be shared by client applications. To demonstrate its power, Themis is being used to re-implement the Chimera open hypermedia system.


When open hypermedia meets peer-to-peer computing BIBAFull-Text 266-267
  Jing Zhou; Wendy Hall; David De Roure
We describe the extension to our previous work on a Web-based peer-to-peer open hypermedia system, the DDLS. We enrich the peer model by introducing query history, and propose the use of the naive estimator which utilises the local knowledge of peers to estimate future information needs they would encounter. Our simulation proves that this statistical technique helps re-organise the DDLS peer network to enhance the performance of resource discovery.
HyperPeer: searching for resemblance in a P2P network BIBAFull-Text 268-269
  Rene Dalsgaard Larsen; Niels Olof Bouvin
This paper presents HyperPeer, a framework for developing peer-to-peer based hypermedia. The distribution of hypermedia structures is handled through a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, allowing for highly scalable sharing between users. A central challenge of all decentralized systems is to locate material of interest and this paper presents the HyperPeer Hierarchy of Resemblance (HR) searching algorithm, which provides an efficient search as well as partitioning of the network into groups of common interest.


We the media: technology empowers a new grassroots journalism BIBAFull-Text 270-271
  Dan Gillmor
Grassroots journalists are dismantling Big Media's monopoly on the news, transforming it from a lecture to a conversation. Not content to accept the news as reported, these readers-turned-reporters are publishing in real time to a worldwide audience via the Internet. The impact of their work is just beginning to be felt by professional journalists, the newsmakers they cover and especially the former audience, which is now part of the process. The tools are still in the early stages, however, creating substantial needs - and opportunities - for technologist and the new grassroots journalists.