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Proceedings of the Thirteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext

Fullname:Hypertext'02: Proceedings of the Thirteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia
Editors:Ken Anderson; Stuart Moulthrop
Location:College Park, Maryland, USA
Dates:2002-Jun-11 to 2002-Jun-15
Standard No:ISBN 1-58113-477-0; ACM Order Number: 614020; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: HYPER02
  1. Adaptive Hypermedia
  2. Spatial Hypertext
  3. Narratives and Literary Hypertext
  4. Links
  5. MultiMedia
  6. Next-Gen Open Hypermedia, Part One
  7. Next-Gen Open Hypermedia, Part Two
  8. World Wide Web
  9. Hypermedia Systems and Data Models

Adaptive Hypermedia

Map-based horizontal navigation in educational Hypertext BIBAFull-Text 10
  Peter Brusilovsky; Riccardo Rizzo
This paper discusses the problem of horizontal (non-hierarchical) navigation in modern educational courseware. We will look at why horizontal links disappear, how to support horizontal navigation in modern hyper-courseware, and our earlier attempts to provide horizontal navigation in Web-based electronic textbooks. Here, we present map-based navigation -- a new approach to support horizontal navigation in open corpus educational courseware that we are currently investigating. We will describe the mechanism behind this approach, present a system KnowledgeSea that implements this approach, and provide some results of a classroom study of this system.
The hypercontext framework for adaptive Hypertext BIBAFull-Text 11-20
  Christopher D. Staff
We present HyperContext, a framework for adaptive and adaptable hypertext. Our fundamental premise is that when people encounter the same document, each may interpret the information it contains differently. Usually, the interpretations are not available to future users of the same information. HyperContext permits users to make these interpretations explicit, and provides support to structure hyperspace around interpretations of documents, rather than around the documents themselves. When a user browses through hyperspace, a document's context is used to determine which interpretation to present to the user. We also derive a user model of the user's short-term interests, by first representing the user's interest in the current document as a salient interpretation before combining it with the salient interpretations of other documents accessed by the user on the same path of traversal. This paper describes the adaptive features of the HyperContext framework, and presents the results of an initial evaluation of one of the features.
AHA! the next generation BIBAFull-Text 21-22
  Paul De Bra; Ad Aerts; David Smits; Natalia Stash
AHA! is a simple Web-based adaptation engine that was originally developed to support an on-line course. This paper describes AHA! version 2.0, a new major release that aims to significantly increase the adaptive versatility of AHA! without sacrificing AHA!'s simplicity that makes it easy to use. The new features in AHA! are inspired by AHAM [4], a Dexter [6] based reference model for adaptive hypermedia systems.
Applying programmable browsing semantics within the context of the World-Wide Web BIBAFull-Text 23-24
  Richard Furuta; Jin-Cheon Na
We discuss application of \caT\ (context-aware Trellis), which extends the Trellis Petri-net-based model of hypertext, towards specification of Web-browsable hypertexts that respond to factors that occur during their use. In addition to characteristics such as a reader's role (e.g., student, teacher, administrator, or parent) and the reader's browsing history, we also include factors that may not have been incorporated as directly before, such as measures of the external environment and the attributes/actions of other simultaneous readers. We use the term "responsive" hypertext to reflect the wide range of relevant factors.

Spatial Hypertext

Semantics happen: knowledge building in spatial hypertext BIBAFull-Text 25-34
  Frank Shipman; J. Michael Moore; Preetam Maloor; Haowei Hsieh; Raghu Akkapeddi
Hypertext represents ideas through chunks of text or other media interconnected by relations, typically navigational links. The similarity to knowledge representations such as frames and semantic nets has led to much effort in using hypertext systems for knowledge representation and extending hypertext systems to make them able to express more. This work has met with limited success due to difficulties including the tacit and situated nature of much knowledge. Instead of viewing knowledge expression as an all at once event, we view it as a constructive process, i.e. knowledge building. The Visual Knowledge Builder (VKB) lets users express content via visual or textual means and later formalize that content in the form of attributes, values, types, and relations. VKB proactively supports this process through a set of suggestion agents whose interaction with the user is mediated by the suggestion manager. Preliminary evaluation of the suggestion manager and suggestion agents yields positive results but further confirms that there is no "silver bullet" for knowledge engineering -- semantic expression is most likely to happen during, and is driven by, task performance.
Spatial Hypertext for linear-information authoring: Interaction design and system development based on the ART Design principle BIBAFull-Text 35-44
  Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Kumiyo Nakakoji; Atsushi Aoki
We have developed a series of spatial hypertext systems that support early stages of linear-information authoring, such as paper writing and movie editing. They are designed based on the ART (Amplifying Representational Talkback) principle, which emphasizes the importance of visual interaction and the power of external representations. The systems use spatial hypertext not as a medium for representing final artifacts but as a means of interacting with linear information during an authoring process. This paper first describes the role and the effect of the spatial hypertext representation plays in support of early stages of authoring linear information, and explains the ART interaction model for the approach. The ART#001 system, which supports early stages of writing, is described in detail and the other three ART systems are used to illustrate the essential aspects of our approach. The paper concludes with a discussion on the semiotic interpretation of spatial hypertext as a representation, and on the innovative use of spatial hypertext as an instrument to compose information, rather than as an information medium.

Narratives and Literary Hypertext

Reading and writing fluid Hypertext Narratives BIBAFull-Text 45-54
  Polle T. Zellweger; Anne Mangen; Paula Newman
We describe a new way to present and author hypertext narratives. The Fluid Reader constructs a unified interactive text from the content of multiple nodes and allows a reader to explore alternative paths within it. The Fluid Reader has been available as a hands-on museum exhibit for nearly a year to date, where it has been enjoyed by readers of all ages. Its success has prompted further interest and development in Fluid hypertexts. We have designed and implemented an authoring tool called the Fluid Writer that uses a new treetable visualization to help authors construct and manage alternative paths in a Fluid hypertext. Finally, an exploration of the narrative implications of Fluid hypertext suggests that it may be more suitable than conventional hypertext for formulaic fictions such as mystery stories.
Graphical notations, narratives and persuasion: a Pliant Systems approach to Hypertext Tool Design BIBAFull-Text 55-64
  Luke Emmet; George Cleland
The Adelard Safety Case Editor (ASCE) is a hypertext tool for constructing and reviewing structured arguments. ASCE is used in the safety industry, and can be used in many other contexts when graphical presentation can make argument structure, inference or other dependencies explicit. ASCE supports a rich hypertext narrative mode for documenting traditional argument fragments. In this paper we document the motivation for developing the tool and describe its operation and novel features. Since usability and technology adoption issues are critical for software and hypertext tool uptake, our approach has been to develop a system that is highly usable and sufficiently "pliant" to support and integrate with a wide range of working practices and styles. We discuss some industrial application experience to date, which has informed the design and is informing future requirements. We draw from this some of the perhaps not so obvious characteristics of hypertext tools which are important for successful uptake in practical environments.
On writing sculptural Hypertext BIBAFull-Text 65-66
  Mark Bernstein; David E. Millard; Mark J. Weal
Sculptural hypertext is proposed as an alternative domain for hypertext writing, proceeding chiefly by the removal of links rather than by adding links to an initially unlinked text. Relatively little is known about authoring sculptural hypertexts. This paper examines some issues that arise in the course of composing sculptural hypertexts and proposes tools which might help support such designs.
How do interactive texts reflect interactive functions? BIBAFull-Text 67-68
  Paivo Laine
The purpose of strings of text that are embedded in hyperlinks, buttons and other interactive elements on Web pages is to inform the user of the interactive function and its effects. The explicitness of these i-texts, such as link anchors or button labels, depends on their linguistic structure. I-texts that profile a process and contain a verb are more explicit than labels with a nominal profile. Clicking an i-text, an acteme, may have different interactive effects. The explicitness of the i-text seems to correlate with the impact of the interactive function, but the degree of interaction that the target page requires is not reflected clearly in the linguistic form of the i-text.
Peer-to-peer Hypertext BIBFull-Text 69-71
  Uffe K. Wiil; Niels Olof Bouvin; Deena Larsen; David C. De Roure; Mark K. Thompson


Links and power: the political economy of linking on the Web BIBAFull-Text 72-73
  Jill Walker
Search engines like Google interpret links to a web page as objective, peer-endorsed and machine-readable signs of value. Links have become the currency of the Web. With this economic value they also have power, affecting accessibility and knowledge on the Web.
Evidence of Hypertext in the scholarly archive BIBAFull-Text 74-75
  Tim Brody; Leslie Carr; Stevan Harnad
This paper attempts to substantiate recent observations about the development of hypertext rhetoric in scholarly archives by reporting the results of some simple quantitative studies of the use by researchers of a major scholarly archive.
Looking for linking: associative links on the Web BIBKFull-Text 76-77
  Timothy Miles-Board; Leslie Carr; Wendy Hall
Keywords: associative linking, internet archive, link taxonomies
On the characteristics of scholarly annotations BIBAFull-Text 78-79
  Richard Furuta; Eduardo Urbina
We report on our observations of annotations for use in scholarly communication, rather than for use as personal artifact. Scholarly annotations reflect uses that predate digital representations and benefit from formalized structure. Scholarly annotations may originate from a broader set of sources than personal annotations, and their association with texts may result from inferences rather than from explicit specifications.
Microsoft smart tags: support, ignore or condemn them? BIBAFull-Text 80-81
  Gareth Hughes; Leslie Carr
This paper describes the latest instantiation of the open hypermedia concept of the generic link as it appears in Microsoft&153; Office products -- the Smart Tag. We review the background to generic linking and the technology involved in Smart Tags and discuss the reaction to this application in the computing press. Recommendations are made on how the system design could be improved for our purposes.
Going back in Hypertext BIBAFull-Text 82-83
  Gene Golovchinsky
Hypertext interfaces typically involve navigation, the act (and interaction) of moving from one piece of information to another. Navigation can be exploratory, or it may involve backtracking to some previously-visited node. While backtracking interfaces are common, they may not reflect differences in readers' purposes and mental models. This paper draws on some empirical evidence regarding navigation between and within documents to suggest improvements on traditional hypertext navigation, and proposes a time-based view of backtracking.


Context perception in video-based hypermedia spaces BIBAFull-Text 85-94
  Teresa Chambel; Nuno Guimaraes
Multimedia hypertext has grown from the basic addition of dynamic media only at "leaf" nodes of the hypertext, to higher structured attempts to compose and integrate the different media. One of the core problems in this evolution has been, and still is, the construction and perception of context, making explicit which part of a presentation is relevant when media elements are integrated. The search for contextualized integration of video material with other sources of information has emerged from the work in several domains and from mutually reinforcing needs. The work presented here is centered on this problem: how to provide the perception of context to users or readers, when navigating through a space of heterogeneous media elements, where video plays an important role.
On hyperstructure and musical structure BIBAFull-Text 95-104
  David C. De Roure; Don G. Cruickshank; Danius T. Michaelides; Kevin R. Page; Mark J. Weal
In this paper we report on an ongoing investigation into the relationship between musical structure and hyperstructure, based on a series of open hypermedia systems research projects that have featured case studies involving musical content. We provide a general overview of the intersection between hypermedia and musical structure, drawing also on ideas from narrative structure. Through the example systems we consider techniques for building hyperstructure from musical structure and, conversely, building musical structure from hyperstructure. Additionally we describe an experiment in the sonification of hyperstructure.
Semi-automated Hyperlink markup for archived video BIBFull-Text 105-106
  David Stotts; Jason McC. Smith

Next-Gen Open Hypermedia, Part One

An infrastructure for open latent semantic linking BIBAFull-Text 107-116
  Alessandra Alaniz Macedo; Maria da Graca Campos Pimentel; Jose Antonio Camacho-Guerrero
The more the web grows, the harder it is for users to find the information they need. As a result, it is even more difficult to identify when documents are related. To find out that two or more documents are in fact related, users have to navigate by the documents in carry out an analysis about their content. This paper presents an infrastructure allowing the use of latent semantic analysis and open hypermedia concepts in the automatic identification of relationships among web pages. Latent Semantic Analysis has been proposed by the information retrieval community as an attempt to organize automatically text objects into a semantic structure appropriate for matching. In open hypermedia systems, links are managed and stored in a special database, a linkbase, which allows the addition of hypermedia functionality to a document without changing the original structure and format of the document. We first present two complementary link-related efforts: an extensible latent semantic indexing service and an open linkbase service. Leveraging off those efforts, we present an infrastructure that identifying latent semantic links within web repositories and makes them available in an open linkbase. To demonstrate by example the utility of our open infrastructure, we built an application presenting a directory of semantic links extracted from web sites.
Towards geo-spatial hypermedia: Concepts and prototype implementation BIBAFull-Text 117-126
  Kaj Grønbæk; Peter Posselt Vestergaard; Peter Orbaek
This paper combines spatial hypermedia with techniques from Geographical Information Systems and location based services. We describe the Topos 3D Spatial Hypermedia system and how it has been developed to support geo-spatial hypermedia coupling hypermedia information to model representations of real world buildings and landscapes. The prototype experiments are primarily aimed at supporting architects and landscape architects in their work on site. Here it is useful to be able to superimpose and add different layers of information to, e.g. a landscape depending on the task being worked on. We introduce a number of central concepts to understand the relation between hypermedia and spatial information management. The distinction between metaphorical (and abstract) versus literal (and concrete) spaces is introduced together with a workspace composition semantics and a distinction between direct and indirect navigation. Finally, we conclude with a number of research issues which are central to the future development of geo-spatial hypermedia, including design issues in combining metaphorical and literal hypermedia space, as well as a discussion of the role of spatial parsing in a geo-spatial context.
Links in the palm of your hand: tangible hypermedia using augmented reality BIBAFull-Text 127-136
  Patrick Sinclair; Kirk Martinez; David E. Millard; Mark J. Weal
Contextualised Open Hypermedia can be used to provide added value to document collections or artefacts. However, transferring the underlying hyper structures into a users conceptual model is often a problem. Augmented reality provides a mechanism for presenting these structures in a visual and tangible manner, translating the abstract action of combining contextual linkbases into physical gestures of real familiarity to users of the system. This paper examines the use of augmented reality in hypermedia and explores some possible modes of interaction that embody the functionality of open hypermedia and contextual linking using commonplace and easily understandable real world metaphors.
Chain saws for sculptural Hypertext BIBAFull-Text 137
  Jim Rosenberg; Mark Bernstein; Cathy Marshall; Paul de Bra; David Millard; Frank Shipman
The term "Sculptural Hypertext", coined by Mark Bernstein in his Hypertext '01 paper "Card Shark and Thespis," refers to a style of writing hypertext where the document author starts with a massively connected structure, and the task of authoring links consists of cutting away those links that are not wanted, much as someone sculpting in stone in the traditional way starts with a block of stone and forms an image by cutting away the "excess" material. The opposing term, "Calligraphic Hypertext," refers to the more familiar method of finely authoring each link. This panel seeks to address questions pertaining to authorship and tools for the sculptural approach to hypertext. Among the questions we want to address are: How does one write a sculptural hypertext? How does this concept scale -- or is it only suited to small works? What differences are there for the reader of a sculptural hypertext vs. a calligraphic hypertext? How does the "subtractive" concept work with other models of hypertext than the node-link model, e.g. spatial hypertext? What are the differences in requirements for tool designers of sculptural vs. calligraphic hypertext systems.

Next-Gen Open Hypermedia, Part Two

Open hypermedia in a peer-to-peer context BIBAFull-Text 138-139
  Niels Olof Bouvin
This paper revisits the general hypermedia architecture based on a perspective of peer-to-peer (P2P) networking and pervasive computing, and argues that P2P has much to offer open hypermedia.
Policies for cooperative hypermedia systems: concepts and prototype implementation BIBAFull-Text 140-141
  Samir Tata; Claude Godart; Uffe K. Wiil
The objective of this work is to develop a cooperative hypermedia framework that enables actors to cooperatively create, use, and modify versioned hypermedia documents. A rich set of cooperation policies, based on hypermedia documents, access rights, and synchronization contracts, have been defined to support flexible cooperation control.
Goate: XLink and beyond BIBAFull-Text 142-143
  Duncan Martin; Helen Ashman
In this paper, we introduce a platform independent mechanism for implementing both XLink and bespoke linking standards. The paper considers HTML linking as a low-level linking language, and how it can be used to provide a base for high-level linking services. Finally, the paper describes Goate, a HTTP proxy that allows high-level linking to be used with ordinary HTML browsers.
Two implementations of XPointer BIBAFull-Text 145-146
  Fabio Vitali; Federico Folli; Claudio Tasso
We report on two different projects being developed at the University of Bologna, both of which make use of the new XPointer language, for which two different implementations were deemed necessary. The first project is an HTTP proxy for providing external linkbases expressed in XLink. The second is an extension to XSLT to express transformations on string patterns as well as node patterns. Both libraries have been implemented with ease and efficiency, demonstrating the usefulness and reasonableness of the language.
Supporting distributed meetings using cooperative, visual, process-enabled hypermedia BIBAFull-Text 147-148
  Weigang Wang; Joerg M. Haake
This work tries to bring hypermedia out of our multiple research-oriented cooperative hypermedia systems into the kinds of systems people in the real world can use. Meeting support for distributed teams is one of these and process support is another. The practical challenges include how to develop a (whiteboard-like) structure-rich visual hypermedia space that is accessible from the Web, how to integrate Microsoft office applications into the system for managing documents in a (visual hypermedia represented) meeting process, and how to set up A/V and application sharing connections easily for all the meeting participants. The system described in this paper has been used in three use cases and initial feedback indicates that it has successfully addressed several such practical challenges.
Self-assembling hypertexts, weblogs, and wikis BIBAFull-Text 149
  Stuart Moulthrop; Mark Bernstein; Sean Carton
Although most theory and research in the hypertext community has been directed toward systems and implementations with fairly conventional patterns of authorship, hypertext as it has evolved on the Internet contains a number of stranger species: Web logs (or "blogs") that consist largely of citations or pointers to other Web content; reader-writeable text spaces sometimes called "Wikis"; and in spaces outside the Web, shared writing environments like MUDs and MOOs. This panel brings together several writer/designers who have experience in one or more of these areas. The panelists will consider how open-form and self-assembling texts fit and stretch the hypertext paradigm, and what contribution these writing practices might make to the future of writing on the Net.

World Wide Web

Contextualized preview of image map links BIBAFull-Text 150-158
  Wallace Chigona; Thomas Strothotte
Previewing links in hypertext navigation helps reduce the cognitive overhead associated with deciding whether or not to follow a link. In this paper we introduce a new concept called Dual-Use of Image Space (DUIS) and we show how it is used provide preview information of image map links. In DUIS the pixels in the image space are used both as shading information as well as characters which can be read. This concept provides a mechanism for placing the text information related to images in context, that is, the text is placed within the corresponding objects. Prior to DUIS contextualized preview of links was only possible with text links. The following are the advantages of contextualized preview image map links: (1) Readers can benefit from both the text and the image without making visual saccades between the two. (2) The text does not obstruct the image as is the case in the existing techniques. (3) It is easy for the readers to associate the image and its corresponding image since the two are presented close to each other. The text in the image space may also contain links, and for this reason, it is possible to introduce multiple links for image maps.
Predicting web actions from HTML content BIBAFull-Text 159-168
  Brian D. Davison
Most proposed Web prefetching techniques make predictions based on the historical references to requested objects. In contrast, this paper examines the accuracy of predicting a user's next action based on analysis of the content of the pages requested recently by the user. Predictions are made using the similarity of a model of the user's interest to the text in and around the hypertext anchors of recently requested Web pages. This approa22ch can make predictions of actions that have never been taken by the user and potentially make predictions that reflect current user interests. We evaluate this technique using data from a full-content log of Web activity and find that textual similarity-based predictions outperform simpler approaches.
Using Markov models for web site link prediction BIBAFull-Text 169-170
  Jianhan Zhu; Jun Hong; John G. Hughes
Markov models have been extensively used to model Web users' navigation behaviors on Web sites. The link structure of a Web site can be seen as a citation network. By applying bibliographic co-citation and coupling analysis to a Markov model constructed from a Web log file on a Web site, we propose a clustering algorithm called CitationCluster to cluster conceptually related pages. The clustering results are used to construct a conceptual hierarchy of the Web site. Markov model based link prediction is integrated with the hierarchy to assist users' navigation on the Web site.
Seven Issues, Revisited BIBAFull-Text 171
  Jim Whitehead; Paul De Bra; Kaj Grønbæk; Deena Larsen; John Leggett; monica m. c. schraefel
It has been 15 years since the original presentation by Frank Halasz at Hypertext'87 on seven issues for the next generation of hypertext systems. These issues are:
  • Search and Query
  • Composites
  • Virtual Structures
  • Computation in/over hypertext network
  • Versioning
  • Collaborative Work
  • Extensibility and Tailorability Since that time, these issues have formed the nucleus of multiple research agendas within the Hypertext community. Befitting this direction-setting role, the issues have been revisited several times, by Halasz in his 1991 Hypertext keynote talk, and by Randy Trigg in his 1996 Hypertext keynote five years later. Additionally, over the intervening 15 years, many research systems have addressed the original seven issues, and new research avenues have opened up. The goal of this panel is to begin the process of developing a new set of seven issues for the next generation of hypertext system. Toward this end, we have convened seven experts on hypertext, and charged them with determining one issue, something deserving significant focus by the research community, and one non-issue, a red herring no longer worthy of consideration. At the end of the panel, the panelists and the audience will vote on which issues they consider to be the most important, and which non-issue is the least important.
  • Hypermedia Systems and Data Models

    Storyspace 1 BIBAFull-Text 172-181
      Mark Bernstein
    Storyspace, a hypertext writing environment, has been widely used for writing, reading, and research for nearly fifteen years. The appearance of a new implementation provides a suitable occasion to review the design of Storyspace, both in its historical context and in the context of contemporary research. Of particular interest is the opportunity to examine its use in a variety of published documents, all created within one system, but spanning the most of the history of literary hypertext.
    Uniform comparison of data models using containment modeling BIBAFull-Text 182-191
      E. James, Jr. Whitehead
    Containment data models are a subset of entity relationship models in which the allowed relationships are either a type of containment, storage, or inheritance. This paper describes containment relationships, and containment data models, applying them to model a broad range of monolithic, link server, and hyperbase systems, as well as the Dexter reference model, and the WWW with WebDAV extensions. A key quality of containment data models is their ability to model systems uniformly, allowing a broad range of systems to be compared consistently.
    Versioned Hypermedia can improve software document management BIBAFull-Text 192-193
      Tien Nguyen; Satish Chandra Gupta; Ethan V. Munson
    This research was supported by the U. S. Department of Defense and by NSF CAREER award CCR-9734102. The Software Concordance project is addressing the software document management problem by providing a fine-grained version control model for software documents and their relationships using hypermedia versioning. A set of tools needed to maintain, visualize and analyze software documents is being constructed. This short paper presents research issues, initial results and a scheme for using hypermedia versioning and time stamps to automate detection of possible semantic non-conformance among software artifacts.
    Freenet-like GUIDs for implementing xanalogical hypertext BIBAFull-Text 194-195
      Tuomas J. Lukka; Benja Fallenstein
    We discuss the use of Freenet-like content hash GUIDs as a primitive for implementing the Xanadu model in a peer-to-peer framework. Our current prototype is able to display the implicit connection (transclusion) between two different references to the same permanent ID. We discuss the next layers required in the implementation of the Xanadu model on a world-wide peer-to-peer network.
    Hypermedia and multimedia BIBAFull-Text 196
      Stuart Moulthrop; Diana Slattery; Jim Rosenberg; Mark Bernstein; Nick Montfort
    Though Nelson gave us "hypermedia" practically in the same breath as "hypertext," initial literary explorations of hypermedia stuck fairly closely to verbal models. Over the last five years this bias has begun notably to decay. As poets, graphic, and narrative artists become more familiar with powerful end-user tools like Macromedia Flash, and as these tools evolve more sophisticated scripting support, the old line between multi-dimensional hypertext and more linear multimedia has considerably blurred. This process raises important questions both for artists and for hypertext theorists. What is the place of verbal forms in a context of dynamic images? How can the spatial agenda of hypertext navigation be reconciled with animation, simulation, and other primarily temporal techniques? What can creators of hypertext systems learn from aesthetic encounters between word and image.