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HYPER Tables of Contents: 9393X93Y93Z969797X9899000102030405060708091011

Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM Conference on Hypertext

Fullname:Hypertext'01: Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia
Location:Aarhus, Denmark
Dates:2001-Aug-14 to 2001-Aug-18
Standard No:ISBN 1-59113-420-7; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: HYPER01
  1. Keynotes
  2. Panel
  3. Posters and Demos
  4. 1a -- Links and Navigation
  5. 1b -- Supporting Writing
  6. 2a -- Rhetoric and Hypertext
  7. 2b -- Hypertext Systems
  8. 3a -- Tools for Organization
  9. 3b -- Short Papers: Our Collective Experience
  10. 4a -- Adaptive Hypertext
  11. 4b -- Linearity, Nonlinearity
  12. 5b -- Persistence and Change
  13. 7a -- Capturing Meaning
  14. 7b -- Metrics
  15. Technical Briefings


Information architecture: a new discipline for organizing hypertext BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Paul Kahn
Hypertext has always been about allowing us to connect information in creative and useful ways. Anything can be linked to anything. This is the promise and problem of hypertext. It is possible to link things well but far easier to link things badly. The result is spaghetti writing to go with our spaghetti code, masses of senseless trails and tunnels where the reader loses all sense of attention and purpose. The computer science community responded to this diet of pasta with new practices, promoting interoperable, repeatable, reusable, object-oriented programming tools.
Most Linkless BIBAFull-Text 3-4
  Wendy Hall
Readers familiar with the works of Douglas Adams will get the joke! This presentation will explore what has happened to hypermedia since the advent of the World Wide Web. In particular we will consider why there is so little use of hypermedia in the Web. Associative linking is at best added value and at worst irrelevant to most Web sites. Search engines are the dominant means of finding information, but everyone is aware of their limitations. This is all set to change as we move into the world of pervasive computing and increasingly access the internet through hand-held devices. Agent technology will become the dominant means of building distributed information management systems. This together with the development of the Semantic Web will enable us to build environments which provide users with highly personalized and adaptive global information spaces to navigate through. The presentation will consider the role of hypermedia in such environments will there be more links or less? The answer is of course 42.


The semantic web: who needs it? BIBAFull-Text 5
  Wendy Hall
While the HTML document format dominates most of the information presented on the Web, the vision behind the Web has always been that the information accessible on it should be machine-processable as well as human consumable. While knowledge representation has a long and distinguished history, it has largely concentrated on capturing expertise in specialised domains. Allowing information to be made machine processable in an environment as diverse as the Web requires a number of underlying assumptions to be reassessed.
   A number of international initiatives are already investigating the path to take towards enabling a machine-processable, knowledge-rich information environment. Among these are the RDF and RDFS working groups in W3C,and the DAML and Ontoknowledge projects. In addition, the MPEG7 community is one of the key projects for investigating the complex issues of combining semantics not only with textual information, but also multimedia. We propose to explore these issues and consider what problems need to be solved to make the Semantic Web a reality.

Posters and Demos

BIBFull-Text 6

1a -- Links and Navigation

Fluid annotations in an open world BIBAFull-Text 9-18
  Polle T. Zellweger; Niels Olof Bouvin; Henning Jehoj; Jock D. Mackinlay
Fluid Documents use animated typographical changes to provide a novel and appealing user experience for hypertext browsing and for viewing document annotations in context. This paper describes an effort to broaden the utility of Fluid Documents by using the open hypermedia Arakne Environment to layer fluid annotations and links on top of arbitrary HTML pages on the World Wide Web. Changes to both Fluid Documents and Arakne are required.
The look of the link -- concepts for the user interface of extended hyperlinks BIBAFull-Text 19-28
  Harald Weinreich; Hartmut Obendorf; Winfried Lamersdorf
The design of hypertext systems has been subject to intense research. Apparently, one topic was mostly neglected: how to visualize and interact with link markers.
   This paper presents an overview of pragmatic historical approaches, and discusses problems evolving from sophisticated hypertext linking features. Blending the potential of an XLink-enhanced Web with old ideas and recent GUI techniques, a vision for browser link interfaces of the future is being developed. We hope to stimulate the development of a standard for hyperlink marker interfaces, which is easy-to-use, feasible for extended linking features, and more consistent than current approaches.
Trailist -- focusing on document activity for assisting navigation BIBAFull-Text 29-30
  Sigi Reich; Erich Gams
Trails are a long established concept of assisting users in searching and navigating hypertexts. However, existing trail-based systems are focusing on browsers only and therefore do not fully exploit the notion of trails. We propose trail-based systems to be open to any application and to any activity. For instance, printing a document from a word processor, posting a message in a newsgroup, or forwarding an attachment to a friend -- using one's favorite e-mail client -- may well be part of a trail. "Trailist" is a framework supporting the development of these trail-based systems. Its name indicates that, similar to the way "Tour-ists" travel on tours, "Trail-ists" make their ways through vast information spaces.
Y-notes: unobtrusive devices for hypermedia annotation BIBAFull-Text 31-32
  Saturnino Luz
This paper describes y-notes, a light-weight, unobtrusive system that allows world wide web users to add persistent annotations to web-based hypermedia.

1b -- Supporting Writing

Prototype mobility tools for visually impaired surfers BIBAFull-Text 33-34
  Simon Harper; Carole Goble; Robert Stevens
In [1] we extended the notion of travel to include environment, feedback and the purpose of the current travel task. Specifically, we likened web use to travelling in a virtual space, compared it to travelling in a physical space, and introduced the idea of mobility -- the ease of travel -- as opposed to travel opportunity. This paper describes our continuing work in building a prototype mobility tool to address some of these issues.
Awt (Associative writing tool): supporting writing process with a ZigZag based writing tool -- work in progress BIBAFull-Text 35-36
  Kimmo Wideroos
In this paper a sketch of a tool for supporting writing process is discussed as an example of an application using GZigZag framework. GZigZag as well as Ted Nelson's ZigZag metastructure are introduced in a nutshell.
Building narrative structures using context based linking BIBAFull-Text 37-38
  Mark J. Weal; David E. Millard; Danius T. Michaelides; David C. De Roure
This paper discusses initial progress in the construction of a hypertext short fiction engine using a context based link service. The link service, Auld Leaky, is based around the Fundamental Open Hypermedia Model (FOHM). Context and behaviour are used to provide adaption in the story as well as progressing the narrative.
Intentional structures of documents BIBAFull-Text 39-40
  Tazi Said; Fabrice Evrard
Document structures constitute a means to organize document parts in terms of logical elements (e.g. headings, paragraphs, sections, etc.). Document structures can be looked at in terms of layout and formatting features such as pages, columns, and so on. Despite the wide diversity of document structures, authors intentions are not taken into account. The concept of intentions is considered here as the effects that authors intend to have on their readers. It includes the reasons that led the authors to write the document and to select certain features instead of others. Intentional structures are a set of relations between document fragments that make explicit authors' intentions. Intentional structures are generally implicit. We want to help authors to make some of their intentions more explicit. This paper presents a new model based on speech act theory dealing with intentional structures and arguments of how it can be used to enhance written communication.
Card shark and thespis: exotic tools for hypertext narrative BIBAFull-Text 41-50
  Mark Bernstein
Card Shark and Thespis are two newly-implemented hypertext systems for creating hypertext narrative. Both systems depart dramatically from the tools currently popular for writing hypertext fiction, and these departures may help distinguish between the intrinsic nature of hypertext and the tendencies of particular software tools and formalisms. The implementation of these systems raises interesting questions about assumptions underlying recent discussion of immersive, interactive fictions, and suggests new opportunities for hypertext research.

2a -- Rhetoric and Hypertext

And And: conjunctive hypertext and the structure acteme juncture BIBAFull-Text 51-60
  Jim Rosenberg
In conjunctive hypertext, activities are combined into a whole as opposed to being alternatives. A single localized construct may contain several actemes. Their relationship may be ambiguous, they may be peers, may have space relationships or time relationships. The conjunction must be actualized, by such devices as co-presentation, delegated presentation, peer traverse, and subscreening. An incomplete conjunction contains pending structure which must be indicated. Actemes may have generalized boolean relationships. Larger-scale conjunctivity is related to narration issues, gathering, and other issues related to secondary structure.
Hypertext structure as the event of connection BIBAFull-Text 61-68
  Adrian Miles
This paper proposes that within the practice of writing small scale, local hypertext, critical questions of relevance to all hypertext researchers are foregrounded, in particular problems of excess, context, and teleological interpretation.
Choice vs. interaction: the case of online Caroline BIBAFull-Text 69-70
  William Cole
Reader choice among links in hypertext has often been classified as a form of interactivity and has sometimes been claimed as empowering the reader. The case of the website Online Caroline, however, shows that it is possible for apparent choice and interaction to serve only to further constrain and dictate the reader's experience. We must be careful to distinguish meaningful from superficial choice when evaluating "interactive fiction" and its potential.
Out of nothing: in-depth hyperfication study BIBAFull-Text 71-72
  Inna Kouper
Earlier works by G. Landow, J. D. Bolter, S. Moulthrop, E. Aarseth established hypertext literary theory as a valuable part of literary critique. Now it is necessary to go further and to study samples of hyperfiction. In this paper, a study of "I have said nothing" by J. Yellowlees Douglas is suggested. It uses general approach based on a content/form/linking triad. Each element of the triad will be described in connection with others.

2b -- Hypertext Systems

Organizing shared enterprise workspaces using component-based cooperative hypermedia BIBAFull-Text 73-82
  Jessica Rubart; Jorg M. Haake; Daniel A. Tietze; Weigang Wang
Cooperative work in Extended Enterprises needs a flexible shared workspace for team members to access and manipulate shared information objects in a well-coordinated working process. Current shared workspace systems do not adequately support the evolving character of shared workspaces as needed by Extended Enterprises, i.e. the dynamic cooperation processes, various kinds of shared information contents and the set of cooperative tools. In this paper, the usage scenarios and requirements developed in a European Extended Enterprise project are used to derive the requirements for shared enterprise workspaces.
   Our approach utilizes component-based cooperative hypermedia to organize shared enterprise workspaces that contain team and process structures, information contents and their corresponding tools. The approach extends classical hypertext models to shared hypermedia objects as well as dynamic bindings between these and the Groupware Components working on them. To demonstrate the approach, a prototype system and a prototypical usage scenario are presented.
Multiple open services: a new approach to service provision in open hypermedia systems BIBAFull-Text 83-92
  Uffe Kock Wiil; David L. Hicks; Peter J. Nurnberg
Over the past decade, hypermedia systems have become increasingly open, distributed, and modular. As a direct result of this, open hypermedia systems have been increasingly successful in providing middleware services such as linking to a large set of clients. This paper presents a new approach to service provision in open hypermedia systems based on the concept of multiple open services. The overall idea with multiple open services is to rethink the way in which services are provided to clients. The goal is to split up services into components, each of which provides a general, scalable, and functionally independent (orthogonal) service. This results in a highly flexible architectural framework that can serve as a vehicle to further investigate many of the open issues relating to open hypermedia systems. The approach can be viewed as a natural next step in the evolution towards more open, distributed, and modular hypermedia systems. The concept of multiple open services is described in detail, and a proof of concept implementation called Construct is presented.
Its about time: link streams as continuous metadata BIBAFull-Text 93-102
  Kevin R. Page; Don Cruickshank; David De Roure
As enabling technologies become available there is an increasing use of temporal media streams, such as audio and video, within a hypertext context. In this paper we present the rationale and requirements for delivering continuous metadata alongside the media stream, and focus on linking as our case study. We consider the mechanism for delivery of the metadata across a distributed system, the format and content of the metadata flow itself, and the presentation of the media and augmenting metadata to the user. Two initial proof of concept applications have been developed to demonstrate these concepts, which we describe. Finally we propose a framework for highly distributed delivery and processing of multicast continuous metadata, as a part of the infrastructure necessary to provide a more complete multimedia environment for hypermedia systems.

3a -- Tools for Organization

Creating a Web community chart for navigating related communities BIBAFull-Text 103-112
  Masashi Toyoda; Masaru Kitsuregawa
Recent research on link analysis has shown the existence of numerous web communities on the Web. A web community is a collection of web pages created by individuals or any kind of associations that have a common interest on a specific topic. In this paper, we propose a technique to create a web community chart, that connects related web communities, from thousands of seed pages. This allows the user to navigate through related web communities, and can be used for a `What's Related Community' service that provides not only the web community including a given page but also related web communities. Our technique is based on a related page algorithm that gives related pages to a given page using only link analysis. We show that the algorithm can be used for creating the chart by applying the algorithm to each seed, then using similarities of the results to classify seeds into clusters and to deduce their relationships. We perform experiments to create a web community chart of companies and organizations from thousands of seed pages. First, we improve the precision of an existing related page algorithm, Companion, and evaluated the improved version, Companion-, by an user study. Then the chart is created using Companion-. The result chart consists of web communities including related pages, and paths between related web communities. From the chart, we can find many web communities of companies classified by their category of business, and relationships between the communities.
The visual knowledge builder: a second generation spatial hypertext BIBAFull-Text 113-122
  Frank M., III Shipman; Haowei Hsieh; Preetam Maloor; J. Michael Moore
The development of spatial hypertext systems was driven by the need to lower users' effort of expression. Users express categories and interrelationships through the visual similarity and co-location of information objects. The ease of changing a visual property or moving an object makes spatial hypertext better suited to tasks where the information continually evolves. But the implicit nature of the structure poses challenges for tasks in which the authors and readers are not the same set of people. The Visual Knowledge Builder (VKB) includes the ease of expression of earlier spatial hypertexts while adding greater support for long-term collaboration and tasks requiring explicit links. VKB includes a history mechanism that records the evolution of the spatial hypertext and local, global, and historical links for explicit navigational connections between chunks of information. The mechanisms added to VKB make spatial hypertext applicable in a much wider variety of tasks. In particular, VKB's global links enable wide-area distributed spatial hypertext using the existing infrastructure of the Internet. Versions of VKB have been in use for two years in tasks including note taking, writing, project management, and conference organization.
Facilitated hypertext for collective sensemaking: 15 years on from gIBIS BIBAFull-Text 123-124
  Jeff Conklin; Albert Selvin; Simon Buckingham Shum; Maarten Sierhuis
This paper outlines the technical and social dimensions to a hypertext tool that has been successfully used in organizational settings to improve meetings, and capture group memory in real time. The approach derives from hypertext research systems from the mid-1980s-90s which sought to manipulate conceptual structures as hypertextual concept maps. However, many did not receive sustained use due to issues of cognitive overheads and representational inflexibility. Many decided that such tools would never fulfill their promise. The gIBIS system exemplified this early work, but has since evolved into a broader approach to collective sensemaking called Compendium. We outline Compendium, which demonstrates the impact that a hypertext facilitator can have on the learning and adoption problems that often ambush hypertext sensemaking tools before they have the chance to establish roots in work practice.
Interaction design for Web-based, within-page collection making and management BIBAFull-Text 125
  M. C. Schraefel; Yuxiang Zhu
A common issue in Web browsing is how to manage information found while browsing or searching. The usual approach is either to bookmark an entire page when perhaps only one element is relevant, or to copy information from the page and paste it into a second application, such as a text editor. Neither approach is sufficient. Bookmarks over capture data; copying and pasting components implies that users must shift task focus from search tasks to information management tasks. This forced divided attention [8] between knowledge discovery and information management generally compromises both tasks. In this paper, we look at our iterative process to determine requirements for a tool to support the gathering process. In particular, we consider how these requirements have raised other issues about this interactive process, and how, by further evaluation, we hope to develop a richer Web-based design heuristics for within-page collections.

3b -- Short Papers: Our Collective Experience

Experiences with Web squirrel: my life on the information farm BIBAFull-Text 127-128
  Rosemary Michelle Simpson
Previous work has shown that spatial hypertext is a useful information management tool for dynamically changing environments where it is necessary to model emergent and volatile information structures. This paper describes several years of experience using Eastgate Systems' Web Squirrel, a spatial bookmark manager, as a member of a suite of information management tools. It works together in conjunction with word processing, database, and index generation tools to provide a rich and effective Web-based working environment. Some its contributions include: information visualization, organization, and management, the avoidance of premature linking, and creativity support.
Hypermedia by coincidence BIBAFull-Text 129-130
  Mark K. Thompson; David C. De Roure
We introduce an approach to linking hypermedia documents dynamically in a decentralised, peer-to-peer manner using resources that are available by coincidence, without explicit configuration. The particular approach presented utilises an open platform in combination with Distributed Link Service technology enabling dynamic hypertext generation.
PageRate: counting Web users' votes BIBAFull-Text 131-132
  Jianhan Zhu; Jun Hong; John G. Hughes
We propose a PageRate method to give Web pages on a Web site ratings based on the Web link structure and user usage data, which are both recorded in the Web log files. The method is an improvement over PageRank [1, 6]. PageRate can be used to objectively evaluate the importance of pages. A PageClustering algorithm is proposed to cluster Web pages with similar incoming links and ratings. The results are used to integrate with search results returned by search engines.
Small-world linkage and co-linkage BIBAFull-Text 133-134
  Lennart Bjorneborn
The paper presents ideas from a current research project concerned with link structures and small-world phenomena on the WWW, with possible implications for knowledge discovery or `web mining'. The project includes case studies of so-called co-linkage chains consisting of co-linking and co-linked web nodes (analogous to bibliographic couplings and co-citations) in a context of researchers' homepages and published bookmark lists. Key concepts are so-called transversal links and transversal co-linkages (on co-linkage chains) functioning as short cuts or `weak ties' between heterogeneous subject domains and interest communities on the Web. According to a hypothesis in the project, transversal links make the Web more strongly connected and `crumpled up' by creating small-world phenomena in the shape of short distances between nodes in the Web graph.
Hypertext and comics: towards an aesthetics of hypertext BIBAFull-Text 135-137
  Licia Calvi
The paper aims at understanding how comic art rhetoric can be used to better understand hypertext, in an attempt to develop an aesthetics of hypertext.
Is EOS the dawn of hypertext literature in Korea? BIBAFull-Text 139-140
  Hyunju Ryu
The aim of this paper is to describe briefly the Hypertext and Literature project (http://cos.met.go.kr) and to address the problems of hypertext literature in Korea. The project is named EOS, the goddess of dawn in Greek mythology, in the hope that it will usher in the beginning of this new literature form. The EOS project is a large-scale effort to create a collaborative poetry `forest' (a tree structure of verse) that emerges from a single contribution, or the `seed' poem.

4a -- Adaptive Hypertext

Design issues for general-purpose adaptive hypermedia systems BIBAFull-Text 141-150
  Hongjing Wu; Erik de Kort; Paul De Bra
A hypermedia application offers its users much freedom to navigate through a large hyperspace. For authors finding a good compromise between offering navigational freedom and offering guidance is difficult, especially in applications that target a broad audience. Adaptive hypermedia (AH) offers (automatically generated) personalized content and navigation support, so the choice between freedom and guidance can be made on an individual basis. Many adaptive hypermedia systems (AHS) are tightly integrated with one specific application. In this paper we study design issues for general-purpose adaptive hypermedia systems, built according to an application-independent architecture. We use the Dexter-based AHAM reference model for adaptive hypermedia [7] to describe the functionality of such systems at the conceptual level. We concentrate on the architecture and behavior of a general-purpose adaptive engine. Such an engine performs adaptation and updates the user model according to a set of adaptation rules specified in an adaptation model. In our study of the behavior of such a system we concentrate on the issues of termination and confluence, which are important to detect potential problems in an adaptive hypermedia application. We draw parallels with static rule analysis in active database systems [1,2]. By using common properties of AIIS we are able to obtain more precise (less conservative) results for AHS than for active databases in general, especially for the problem of termination.
Linking in context BIBAFull-Text 151-160
  Samhaa R. El-Beltagy; Wendy Hall; David De Roure; Leslie Carr
This paper explores the idea of dynamically adding multi-destination links to Web pages, based on the context of the pages and users, as a way of assisting Web users in their information finding and navigation activities. The work does not make any preconceived assumptions about the information needs of its users. Instead it presents a method for generating links by adapting to the information needs of a community of users and for utilizing these in assisting users within this community based on their individual needs. The implementation of this work is carried out within a multi-agent framework where concepts from open hypermedia are extended and exploited. In this paper, the entities involved in the process of generating and using `context links' as well as the techniques they employ to achieve their tasks, are described. The result of an experiment carried out to investigate the implications of linking in context on information finding, is also provided.
Extending eductional metadata schemas to describe adaptive learning resources BIBAFull-Text 161-162
  Owen Conlan; Cord Hockemeyer; Paul Lefrere; Vincent Wade; Dietrich Albert
This paper describes a generic technique for representing Adaptive Learning Resources by extending current metadata schemas. The requirement for the work described here has grown out of the necessity to facilitate accurate discovery and integration of Adaptive Learning Resources, namely Adaptive Hypermedia Services.
Personally tailored teaching in WHURLE using conditional transclusion BIBAFull-Text 163-164
  Adam Moore; Timothy J. Brailsford; Craig D. Stewart
The emergence of Technology Based Learning has generated a number of pedagogic problems related to learner diversity.. In this paper we present an interim snapshot of a prototype XSLT / XML hypermedia learning environment able to respond adaptively to individual learner profiles using conditional transclusion.

4b -- Linearity, Nonlinearity

Cognitive coherence relations and hypertext: from cinematic patterns to scholarly discourse BIBAFull-Text 165-174
  Clara Mancini; Simon Shum Buckingham
In previous work we argued that cinematic language may provide insights into the construction of narrative coherence in hypertext, and we identified in the shot juxtaposition of rhetorical patterns the source of coherence for cinematic discourse. Here we deepen our analysis, to show how the mechanisms that underpin cinematic rhetorical patterns are the same as those providing coherence in written text. We draw on computational and psycholinguistic analyses of texts which have derived a set of relationships that are termed Cognitive Coherence Relations (CCR). We validate this by re-expressing established cinematic patterns, and relations relevant to scholarly hypertext, in terms of CCR, and with this conceptual bridge in place, present examples to show how cinematic techniques could assist the presentation of scholarly discourse. This theoretical work also informs system design. We describe how an abstract relational layer based on CCR is being implemented as a semantic hypertext system to mediate scholarly discourse.
Hypertext and the scholarly archive: intertexts, paratexts and metatexts at work BIBAFull-Text 175-184
  Rune Dalgaard
With the Web, hypertext has become the paradigmatic rhetorical structure of a global and distributed archive. This paper argues that the scholarly archive is going though a process of hypertextualization that is not adequately accounted for in theories on hypertext. A methodological approach based on Gerard Genettes theory of transtextuality is proposed for a study of the hypertextualized archive. This involves a rejection of the reductionist opposition of hypertext and the fixed linear text, in favor of a study of the intertexts, paratexts and metatexts that work at the interface between texts and archive. I refer to this as second-order textuality.
Linearity and multicursality in World Wide Web documentaries BIBAFull-Text 185-194
  Anders Fagerjord
Are non-fiction Web sites nonlinear like literary hypertexts, or linear like film and print? A study of magazine articles, television documentaries and Web sites by the National Geographic Society reveals that in spite of linking, the Web sites make just as linear reading experiences as the older media, although less creative. The study gives nuance to conceptions of linearity and nonlinearity by studying what linearity really is, thus setting nonlinearity in relief. A number of techniques to tie gaps in the reading line together are identified in films and articles. It is argued that by using these techniques in linking, both better reading experiences and less linearity in Web sites could be achieved.

5b -- Persistence and Change

Design spaces for link and structure versioning BIBAFull-Text 195-204
  E. James, Jr. Whitehead
This paper reflects upon existing composite-based hypertext versioning systems, and presents two high-level design spaces that capture the range of potential choices in system data models for versioning links, and versioning hypertext structure. These two design spaces rest upon a foundation consisting of a containment model, describing choices for containment in hypertext systems, and the design space for persistently recording an object's revision history, with applicability to all versioning systems. Two example points in the structure versioning design space are presented, corresponding to most existing composite-based hypertext versioning systems. Using the presented design spaces allows the data models of existing hypertext versioning systems to be decomposed and compared in a principled way, and provides new system designers significant insight into the design tradeoffs between various link and structure versioning approaches.
Perception of content, structure, and presentation changes in Web-based hypertext BIBAFull-Text 205-214
  Luis Francisco-Revilla; Frank M., III Shipman; Richard Furuta; Unmil Karadkar; Avital Arora
The Web provides access to a wide variety of information but much of this information is fluid; it changes, moves, and occasionally disappears. Bookmarks, paths over Web pages, and catalogs like Yahoo! are examples of page collections that can become out-of-date as changes are made to their components. Maintaining these collections requires that they be updated continuously. Tools to help in this maintenance require an understanding of what changes are important, such as when pages no longer exist, and what changes are not, such as when a visit counter changes. We performed a study to look at the effect of the type and quantity of change on people's perception of its importance. Subjects were presented pairs of Web pages with changes to either content (e.g., text), structure (e.g., links), or presentation (e.g., colors, layout). While changes in content were the most closely connected to subjects perceptions of the overall change to a page, subjects indicated a strong desire to be notified of structural changes. Subjects only considered the simultaneous change of many presentation characteristics as important.
An approach to persistence of Web resources BIBAFull-Text 215-216
  Joachim Feise
The growth of the World Wide Web holds great promise for universal online information access. New information is constantly being made available for users. However, the information accessible on the Web changes constantly. These changes may occur as modifications to both the content and the location of previously existing Web resources. As these changes occur, the accessibility to past versions of such Web resources is often lost. This paper presents an approach to provide content persistence of Web resources by organizing collections of historical Web resources in a distributed configuration management system to allow online, read-only access to the versioned resources.

7a -- Capturing Meaning

Hypertext and knowledge management BIBAFull-Text 217-226
  Francisco J. Ricardo
This paper is a functional survey of knowledge management systems and characteristics from the standpoint of the contribution and relevance of hypertext to this discipline. There is the description of a typical KM architecture as well as some of the current KM and KM-like systems deployed in production at large corporations. This discussion will introduce the perceptions of KM and then emphasize the role of hypertext systems in tackling problems in processing distributed and collaborative knowledge. Although at the moment, hypertext is not seen as an architectural component of KM systems, its potential as an epistemic aid presents opportunities. Finally, I will show the appropriateness of hypertext research to KM development.
Open hypermedia as a navigational interface to ontological information spaces BIBAFull-Text 227-236
  Mark J. Weal; Gareth V. Hughes; David E. Millard; Luc Moreau
Ontologies provide a powerful tool for distributed agent-based information systems. However, in their raw form they can be difficult for users to interact with directly. Different query architectures use structured query languages as an interface but these still require the users to have an expert understanding of the underlying ontologies.
   By using an Open Hypermedia model as an interface to an ontological information space, users can interact with such a system using familiar browsing and navigation techniques, which are translated into queries over the underlying information. Coupled with dynamic document generation, this allows complicated queries to be made without the user having to interact directly with the ontologies.
   Our key contribution is a notion of hypermedia links between concepts and queries within an ontological information space. This approach is demonstrated with a Dynamic CV application built around the SoFAR agent framework and the Fundamental Open Hypermedia Model (FOHM). In addition to abstracting the interface, Open Hypermedia allows alternative linkbases to be used to represent different "query recipes", providing different views and navigational experiences to the user.
Hypertext in the semantic web BIBAFull-Text 237
  Timothy Miles-Board; Simon Kampa; Leslie Carr; Wendy Hall
The Semantic Web extends the current state of the Web with well-defined meaning. We advocate the use of ontological hypertext as an application of the Semantic Web to provide a principled and structured approach to navigating the resources on the Web. This paper demonstrates how we have applied this concept to two real-world scenarios.
Web sites and semantics BIBAFull-Text 239-240
  Thierry Despeyroux; Brigitte Trousse
A lot of efforts done in the word of the Web aims to facilitate data representation and data mining. This is done most of the time by a syntactic formalisation of knowledge or information using languages such as XML or RDF using an hypertext structure. We claim that this is not sufficient and that we need to provide a way of specifying semantic (global) constraints over Web sites to be able to mechanically perform some verifications and proof-reading during the life time of the site, using some software engineering technics.

7b -- Metrics

Website link structure evaluation and improvement based on user visiting patterns BIBAFull-Text 241-242
  Baoyao Zhou; Jinlin Chen; Jin Shi; Hongjiang Zhang; Qiufeng Wu
Link structure evaluation and improvement is a significant hard problem for Hypertext system. In this paper a novel approach for evaluating and improving website link structure based on User Visiting Patterns instead of complex semantic analysis is proposed. By optimizing and re-evaluating the link structure to increase the Average Connectivity, our approach can effectively improve website link structure. Experiments have shown satisfactory results.
A hypertext metric based on huffman coding BIBAFull-Text 243-244
  Chris Coulston; Theresa M. Vitolo
Current research has established a relationship between user navigation behavior and outcome measures. This paper presents a metric designed to compare the depth of user navigation against a theoretically optimum behavior; measured using Huffman codes. The application of the metric to an example problem is presented.
A review of the benefits of using hypermedia manuals BIBAFull-Text 245-246
  Richard Crowder; Y. M. Sim; Gary Wills; Richard Greenough
The acceptance of a hypermedia system to support maintenance applications is to a large extent dependant on the ability to convince management that the system will prove beneficial. This paper reviews the assessment criteria used by a number of authors, with the objective of providing a common set of criteria that can be applied to very large industrial applications.
Improvement of Web retrieval by the use of contextual information of pages BIBAFull-Text 247-248
  Fernando Aguiar; Michel Beigbeder
This work suggests a new model of Information Retrieval System for searching information in hypertexts representing web sites. The model is based on the construction of a 2-component index. One component concerns the HTML pages individually. The other one concerns the context of the pages. The assumed premise is that the textual content of a HTML page is not sufficient for a indexing process to extract the information that the page conveys. By the use of both local and complementary content when indexing pages, the quality of their index is improved and so is the effectiveness of the search engine.
Towards the prediction of development effort for hypermedia applications BIBAFull-Text 249-258
  Emilia Mendes; Steve Counsell; Nile Mosley
Accurate estimates of development effort play an important role in the successful management of larger hypermedia development projects. By applying measurement principles to measure characteristics of the applications and their development processes, feedback can be obtained to help understand, control and improve future applications and corresponding processes.
   The objective of this paper is to describe the application of case-based reasoning to estimating the effort for developing hypermedia applications. The data used in the estimation process was obtained through an experiment where effort and size metrics were collected.
   We have shown that case-based reasoning is a candidate technique to effort estimation and, with the aid of an automated environment, can be applied to hypermedia development effort prediction.

Technical Briefings

WebDAV and DeltaV: collaborative authoring, versioning, and configuration management for the Web BIBAFull-Text 259-260
  E. James, Jr. Whitehead
WebDAV and DeltaV are application-layer network protocols that provide capabilities for remote collaborative authoring, metadata management, version control, and configuration management. Both protocols extend the core protocol of the Web, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP 1.1). WebDAV adds operations for overwrite prevention, properties, and namespace management, while DeltaV builds upon WebDAV to offer versioning (checkout and checkin), autoversioning, workspaces, activities, and configuration management.
ZigZag (Tech briefing) BIBFull-Text 261-262
  Theodor Holm Nelson