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HCSE Tables of Contents: 08101214

Proceedings of IFIP HCSE'08: Human-Centered Software Engineering 2008-09-25

Fullname:Engineering Interactive Systems: Second Conference on Human-Centered Software Engineering, HCSE 2008, and 7th International Workshop on Task Models and Diagrams, TAMODIA 2008
Editors:Peter Forbrig; Fabio Paternò
Location:Pisa, Italy
Dates:2008-Sep-25 to 2008-Sep-26
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5247
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-85992-5; ISBN: 978-3-540-85991-8 (print), 978-3-540-85992-5 (online); hcibib: HCSE08
Papers:30
Pages:304
Links:Conference Website | Online Proceedings
  1. Keynote
  2. TAMODIA Long Papers
  3. TAMODIA Short Papers
  4. HCSE Long Papers
  5. HCSE Short Papers
  6. Demonstrations

Keynote

Tasks = Data + Action + Context: Automated Task Assistance through Data-Oriented Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 1-13
  Alan Dix
Human activity unfolds partly through planning and learnt sequences of actions, and partly through reaction to the physical objects and digital data in the environment. This paper describes various techniques related to automatic task assistance that take this role of data as central. Although this brings additional complexity, it also offers ways to simplify or bypass problems in task inference that otherwise appear difficult or impossible. Although the focus in this paper is on automated task support, the importance of objects and data in understanding tasks is one that applies to other forms of task analysis in the design process.
Keywords: task inference; data detectors; automated task support; intelligent user interfaces; task as grammar

TAMODIA Long Papers

Assessment of Object Use for Task Modeling BIBAKFull-Text 14-28
  Sybille Caffiau; Patrick Girard; Dominique L. Scapin; Laurent Guittet; Loe Sanou
Past research in task modeling suggests the need to introduce objects when using task models for the design of interactive applications. Objects are however rarely included in the task model notations and formalisms. Furthermore, when part of the formalism, their definition is usually informal; and the supporting tool does not generally take them into account for simulation. K-MADe is the first tool that fully uses objects for condition evaluations during task model simulation. This paper presents an evaluation investigating the usage of formal objects with K-MADe. The results show that whilst object concepts seem to be essential in the task model process, their usage and manipulation is not easy.
Keywords: evaluation; task models; objects; K-MADe
Task Model-Based Usability Evaluation for Smart Environments BIBAKFull-Text 29-40
  Stefan Propp; Gregor Buchholz; Peter Forbrig
Task models are widely used within the research field of HCI for the model-based development of interactive systems. Recently introduced approaches applied task models further to model the cooperative behavior of people using devices within a smart environment. We describe a method of model-based usability evaluation to evaluate interactive systems, with a particular focus on smart environments, which are developed based on task models. We consider the evaluation in early development stages to interactively walk through the models and in later stages to execute a test case within a real environment. The paper provides results of a prototypical implementation.
Keywords: Model-based Usability Evaluation; Task Models; Smart Environment
From Task to Agent-Oriented Meta-models, and Back Again BIBAKFull-Text 41-57
  Steve Goschnick; Sandrine Balbo; Liz Sonenberg
In the research discussed here, in addition to extracting meta-models from numerous existing Agent architectures and frameworks, we looked at several Task meta-models, with the aim of creating a more comprehensive Agent meta-model with respect to the analysis, design and development of computer games. From the agent-oriented perspective gained by examining the resultant extensive agent meta-model -- named ShaMAN -- we then revisit the Task Analysis research domain, and consider what benefits Task Analysis and Modelling may draw from the Agent-oriented paradigm.
Keywords: Agent-oriented; Task Models; Multi-Agent Systems; Meta-model; Agent Meta-models; Task Meta-models; Software Engineering; Computer game development; Agents in computer games
Steps in Identifying Interaction Design Patterns for Multimodal Systems BIBAFull-Text 58-71
  Andreas Ratzka
The context of this work is usability engineering for multimodal interaction. In contrast to other work that concentrates on prototyping toolkits or abstract guidelines, this research focuses on user interface patterns for multimodal interaction. Designing multimodal applications requires several skills ranging from design and implementation. Thus, different kinds of patterns (from architecture patterns to user interface patterns) can be applied to this field. This work focuses on user-task near user interface patterns. At first, a traditional approach of modality selection based on task- and context-based rules is presented. Next, a twofold process of pattern mining is presented. In the first phase, pattern candidates are derived top-down from proven knowledge about how multimodality enhances usability. In the second phase, literature is mined for real solutions to underpin these pattern candidates and find new ones. Along with this, relationships between patterns are depicted.
Information Supply Mechanisms in Ubiquitous Computing, Crisis Management and Workflow Modelling BIBAKFull-Text 72-83
  Jurriaan van Diggelen; Robbert-Jan Beun; Rogier M. van Eijk; Peter J. Werkhoven
The successful application of ubiquitous computing in crisis management requires a thorough understanding of the mechanisms that extract information from sensors and communicate it via PDA's to crisis workers. Whereas query and subscribe protocols are well studied mechanisms for information exchange between different computers, it is not straightforward how to apply them for communication between a computer and a human crisis worker, with limited cognitive resources. To examine the imposed cognitive load, we focus on the relation of the information supply mechanism with the workflow, or task model, of the crisis worker. We formalize workflows and interaction mechanisms in colored Petri nets, specify various ways to relate them and discuss their pros and cons.
Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing; Notification Systems; Human-machine Interaction; Workflow Modelling; Petri Nets
A Method for Modeling Interactions on Task Representations in Business Task Management Systems BIBAKFull-Text 84-97
  Todor Stoitsev; Stefan Scheidl
Task modeling approaches facilitate the design of interactive systems by bridging the gap from understanding human tasks to designing interfaces to support these tasks. Business Task Management (BTM) systems provide explicit task representations for managing and coordinating work items, by further requiring definition of how such task representations can be created, distributed and monitored throughout an organization. This paper presents a method for modeling interactions on task representations in BTM systems. It introduces generic task-centric roles as useful abstractions, encapsulating different perspectives on tasks and related interactions. This allows generic, domain-independent views on tasks resulting in enhanced adaptability of BTM systems in different application contexts. The method is implemented in the Collaborative Task Manager (CTM) tool.
Keywords: Task management; interactions modeling; end user development
AMBOSS: A Task Modeling Approach for Safety-Critical Systems BIBAKFull-Text 98-109
  Matthias Giese; Tomasz Mistrzyk; Andreas Pfau; Gerd Szwillus; Michael von Detten
In a recent project we created AMBOSS, a task modeling environment taking into account the special needs for safety-critical socio-technical systems. An AMBOSS task model allows the specification of relevant information concerning safety aspects. To achieve this we complemented task models with additional information elements and appropriate structures. These refer primarily to aspects of timing, spatial information, and communication. In this paper we give an introductory overview about AMBOSS and its contribution to modeling safety-critical systems. In addition, we present AmbossA, the visual pattern language for detecting particular constellations of interest within a task model.
Keywords: task modeling; safety-critical systems; socio-technical systems; task editor; simulation; task patterns

TAMODIA Short Papers

UI Design without a Task Modeling Language -- Using BPMN and Diamodl for Task Modeling and Dialog Design BIBAKFull-Text 110-117
  Hallvard Trætteberg
In the field of model-based user interface design (MB-UID) task modeling is established as a necessary activity. However, in many (industrial) contexts, it is not realistic to introduce yet another modeling notation, particularly when user interface design is considered less important than overall process logic and system architecture. Therefore, it may make more sense to adapt existing process-oriented notations to task modeling, than vice versa (adapting task modeling languages to process modeling). This paper describes our experiences with using BPMN and Diamodl for process and task modeling and dialog design, respectively.
Keywords: User interface design; dialog modeling; business process management notation
Task-Based Development Methodology for Collaborative Environments BIBAKFull-Text 118-125
  Maik Wurdel; Daniel Sinnig; Peter Forbrig
The paper presents a task-based development methodology for collaborative applications. According to our methodology a collaborative task model may be used during analysis, requirements and design. In order to ensure that analysis information is correctly translated into subsequent development phases a refinement relation is proposed supporting the incremental development of task specifications. The development methodology is exemplified by a case study in which interactive support for a conference session is developed.
Keywords: Collaborative Task Models; Development Methodology; Refinement; Tool Support
An Event-Condition-Action Approach for Contextual Interaction in Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 126-133
  Lode Vanacken; Joan De Boeck; Chris Raymaekers; Karin Coninx
In order to support context-dependency in model-based development, three components need to be realised: Context Detection, Context Switching and Context Handling. Context detection is the process for detecting changes in context, while context switching brings the system in the new state that needs to be supported. Finally, context handling adapts the interaction possibilities to the current context. In this paper we discuss an approach for context detection and switching for virtual environments that is based on the Event-Condition-Action paradigm. Both context detection and switching are split-up and supported by our graphical notation for the design of multimodal interaction techniques. The main advantage of this approach is that we provide the designer with a flexible context system, supported by scalable diagrams.
Keywords: Multimodal Interaction Techniques; Model-Based User Interface Design; Context-Awareness
Automated Usability Evaluation during Model-Based Interactive System Development BIBAKFull-Text 134-141
  Sebastian Feuerstack; Marco Blumendorf; Maximilian Kern; Michael Kruppa; Michael Quade; Mathias Runge; Sahin Albayrak
In this paper we describe an approach to efficiently evaluate the usability of an interactive application that has been realized to support various platforms and modalities. Therefore we combine our Multi-Access Service Platform (MASP), a model-based runtime environment to offer multimodal user interfaces with the MeMo workbench which is a tool supporting an automated usability analysis. Instead of deriving a system model by reverse-engineering or annotating screenshots for the automated usability analysis, we use the semantics of the runtime models of the MASP. This allows us to reduce the evaluation effort by automating parts of the testing process for various combinations of platforms and user groups that should be addressed by the application. Furthermore, by testing the application at runtime, the usability evaluation can also consider system dynamics and information that are unavailable at design time.
Keywords: model-based user interface development; automated usability evaluation
Integrating Groupware Notations with UML BIBAKFull-Text 142-149
  William J. Giraldo; Ana I. Molina; Manuel Ortega; Cesar A. Collazos
In this paper we introduce a notation integration proposal. This proposal supports the user interface design of groupware applications enabling integration with software processes through UML notation. We introduce our methodological approach to deal with the conceptual design of applications for supporting group work, called CIAM. A study case (the design of a Conference Review System) is presented to describe our proposal. The integration process proposed is supported by a software tool called CIAT.
Keywords: GUI development; groupware design; interaction design

HCSE Long Papers

MuiCSer: A Process Framework for Multi-disciplinary User-Centred Software Engineering Processes BIBAKFull-Text 150-165
  Mieke Haesen; Karin Coninx; Jan Van den Bergh; Kris Luyten
In this paper we introduce MuiCSer, a conceptual process framework for Multi-disciplinary User-centred Software Engineering (UCSE) processes. UCSE processes strive for the combination of basic principles and practices from software engineering and user-centred design approaches in order to increase the overall user experience with the resulting product. The MuiCSer framework aims to provide a common understanding of important components and associated activities of UCSE processes. As such, the conceptual framework acts as a frame of reference for future research regarding various aspects and concepts related to this kind of processes, including models, development artefacts and tools. We present the MuiCSer process framework and illustrate its instantiation in customized processes for the (re)design of a system. The conceptual framework has been helpful to investigate the role of members of a multi-disciplinary team when realizing artefacts in a model-based approach. In particular process coverage of existing artefact transformation tools has been studied.
Keywords: User-Centred Software Engineering; User-Centred Design; Process Framework
A Fluid Flow Approach to Usability Analysis of Multi-user Systems BIBAKFull-Text 166-180
  Mieke Massink; Diego Latella; Maurice H. ter Beek; Michael D. Harrison; Michele Loreti
The analysis of usability aspects of multi-user systems, such as co-operative work systems and pervasive systems, pose particular problems because group behavior of their users may have considerable impact on usability. Model-based analysis of such features leads to state-space explosion because of the sheer number of entities to be modeled when automatic techniques such as model checking are used. In this paper we explore the use of a recently proposed scalable model-based technique based on solving sets of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). Starting from a formal model specified using the Performance Evaluation Process Algebra (PEPA), we show how different groupware usage patterns may be modeled and analyzed using this approach. We illustrate how the approach can explore different design options and their impact on group behavior by comparing file access policies in the context of a groupware application.
Keywords: Formal Methods; Model-based usability analysis; Performance Evaluation Process Algebra; Ordinary Differential Equations; Groupware Systems
Task-Driven Plasticity: One Step Forward with UbiDraw BIBAKFull-Text 181-196
  Jean Vanderdonckt; Juan Manuel Gonzalez Calleros
Task-driven plasticity refers to as the capability of a user interface to exhibit plasticity driven by the user's task, i.e. the capability of a user interface to adapt itself to various contexts of use while preserving some predefined usability properties by performing adaptivity based on some task parameters such as complexity, frequency, and criticality. The predefined usability property considered in task-driven plasticity consists of maximizing the observability of user commands in a system-initiated way driven by the ranking of different tasks and sub-tasks. In order to illustrate this concept, we developed UbiDraw, a vectorial hand drawing application that adapts its user interface by displaying, undisplaying, resizing, and relocating tool bars and icons according to the current user's task, the task frequency, or the user's preference for some task. This application is built on top of a context watcher and a set of ubiquitous widgets. The context watchers probes the context of use by monitoring how the user is carrying out her current tasks (e.g., task preference, task frequency) whose definitions are given in a run-time task model. The context watcher sends this information to the ubiquitous widgets so as to support task-driven plasticity.
Keywords: adaptation of user interface; context-aware adaptation; plasticity of user interface; task-based design; task-driven plasticity; user interface description language

HCSE Short Papers

The Guilet Dialog Model and Dialog Core for Graphical User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 197-204
  Jürgen Rückert; Barbara Paech
Model-based approaches to graphical user interfaces (GUIs) achieved poor acceptance of software engineers because the offer models, architectures, components, frameworks and libraries that restrict the flexibility of development too much. We propose a dialog model which enables flexible development with no restrictions on presentation and application layer and without any implementation-technology dependence. The dialog model supports GUI designers and developers in understanding the behavior of the GUI. The dialog model controls the dialog core component. The dialog component relieves GUI developers of re-implementing the coordination of presentation and application layer.
Keywords: Model-based user interfaces; Dialog models; Dialog cores; UI engines
An Ontology-Based Adaptation Framework for Multimodal Interactive Systems BIBAKFull-Text 205-212
  Matthias Bezold
One approach for improving the usability of interactive systems is adapting them to user behavior, which can be accomplished by adaptation rules. The advantage of rules is that they are explicit and intuitive, but their expressivity depends on the richness of the underlying data model. In this paper, a framework for the adaptation of interactive systems is presented that relies on a uniform ontology-based information representation, for instance for the system and the user model. Such a description can then be employed by the adaptation rules. By adding semantic information, the scope of the rules is widened. Moreover, special emphasis is put on the dynamic aspects of interactive systems, mainly the interaction of the user with the system and system events. Exemplary rules used in an interactive TV prototype illustrate this framework.
Keywords: Adaptive interactive systems; Knowledge base; Ontology; Interactive systems engineering; Rule-based adaptation
Some Thoughts about the Horizontal Development of Software Engineers BIBAFull-Text 213-220
  Anke Dittmar; Peter Forbrig
We argue that current patterns of thought and action in software engineering and in HCI will simply be reproduced if we are not able to become more aware of their impact on our own behaviour, attitudes and values. We suggest that a more balanced and intertwined vertical and horizontal development of people can contribute to human-centred design processes. The case study presented describes a modest attempt to demonstrate this with future software engineers and managers. Though not a spectacular example, it shows a small tight network of activities and roles over time with feedback loops to facilitate deep reflection, mutual awareness and respect. The paper supports the idea of design as an ongoing intervention process beyond problem setting and problem solving.
Involving End Users in Distributed Requirements Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 221-228
  Steffen Lohmann; Jürgen Ziegler; Philipp Heim
Active involvement of end users in the development of interactive systems is both highly recommended and highly challenging. This is particularly true in settings where the requirements of a large number of geographically distributed users have to be taken into account. In this paper, we address this problem by introducing an integrated, web-based approach that enables users to easily express their ideas on how the interaction with a system could be improved. In addition, the user input is contextualized, allowing for highly structured means to access, explore, and analyze the user requirements.
Keywords: Distributed Requirements Engineering; User Involvement; Global Software Development; Web-based Participation; Distributed Participatory Design
Concepts for Analysis and Design of Mobile Healthcare Applications BIBAKFull-Text 229-236
  Joseph McKnight; Gavin Doherty; Bridget Kane; Saturnino Luz
In complex domains such as healthcare, careful analysis of user requirements is an important aspect of the development process. In recent years, ethnographic study has become a popular tool for building up an understanding of the healthcare domain. However, linking observational data with the design and development process is a challenging problem. A range of conceptual frameworks have been proposed which can aid in transforming these data into concrete requirements. In this paper, we argue that the framework and associated design concepts used will have a strong influence on shaping the outcome of design, and that the development team should consider carefully which are most appropriate to the problem they face. We use a case study based around a patient review process as an illustrative example.
Keywords: Conceptual Analysis; Concepts; Healthcare; Ethnographic Study; Mobility
ShaMAN: An Agent Meta-model for Computer Games BIBAKFull-Text 237-245
  Steve Goschnick; Sandrine Balbo; Liz Sonenberg
In this paper, we detail recent research on agent meta-models. In particular, we introduce a new agent meta-model called ShaMAN, created with a specific focus on computer game development using agent systems. ShaMAN was derived by applying the concept of Normalisation from Information Analysis, against a superset of agent meta-model concepts from the meta-models investigated. A number of features are identified, including human-agent locales and socialworlds, that might be usefully added to a generic AO meta-model.
Keywords: Agent-oriented; Agent Architecture; Multi-Agent Systems; Meta-model; Agent Meta-models; Agents in Computer Games; HCI
A Study on Appropriate Plant Diagram Synthesis for User-Suited HMI in Operating Control BIBAKFull-Text 246-254
  Mieczyslaw Metzger; Grzegorz Polaków
In this paper a study on appropriate plant diagram synthesis for user-suited HMI in operating control is presented. Discussion is based on the long-term personal experience and illustrated with excerpts of existing HMIs developed for research and industrial use. The HMI notion is defined for operating control and for operator training. The paper present three aspects of plant diagrams design. The first aspect deals with task-oriented usage of screen space for plant diagram and other GUI elements. Second aspect covers all methods of image creation for process diagrams, including photography, schematic diagrams, use of predefined normalised 3D graphical elements, and creative possibilities of 3D scene. The third aspect stresses capability of dynamic visualisation with the use of animated graphics.
Keywords: Usability of HMI for operating control; software engineering for user-suited HMI; plant diagram for GUI; visualisation; SCADA
Preserving Rich User Interface State in Web Applications across Various Platforms BIBAFull-Text 255-262
  Fabio Paternò; Carmen Santoro; Antonio Scorcia
This paper aims to provide thorough discussion of the aspects that compose the state of a Web application user interface, and show how it can be preserved across multiple devices with different interaction resources when the user interface dynamically migrates. The approach proposed exploits a migration server along with logical user interface descriptions.
From Desktop to Tabletop: Migrating the User Interface of AgilePlanner BIBAKFull-Text 263-270
  Xin Wang; Yaser Ghanam; Frank Maurer
Digital tabletops are emerging interactive systems that support group collaborations. To utilize digital tabletops for agile planning meetings, we migrated a desktop based planning tool -- AgilePlanner to a digital tabletop. This paper reports on challenges of the migration and illustrates differences between user interactions on a digital tabletop and on a desktop. Moreover, lessons and experiences learnt from our design process are highlighted to facilitate future tabletop application design.
Keywords: desktop computer; digital tabletop; user interface design; agile planning tool
Learning Key Contexts of Use in the Wild for Driving Plastic User Interfaces Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 271-278
  Vincent Ganneau; Gaëlle Calvary; Rachel Demumieux
This paper addresses software plasticity, i.e. the ability of interactive systems to adapt to context of use while preserving user-centered properties. In plasticity, a classical approach consists in concentrating design efforts on a set of pre-defined contexts of use that deserve high quality User Interfaces (UIs), and switching from one to another according to variations of context of use at runtime. However, key contexts of use cannot be finely envisioned at design time, especially when dealing with the specific field of mobility. Thus, we propose a designer's partner tool running on the end-user's mobile device to probe key contexts of use in the wild. The underlying principles are data gathering, Bayesian learning, and clustering techniques. Probing key contexts of use can save design efforts.
Keywords: Mobility; plasticity; context of use; probing; Bayesian network; learning; clustering
The Ecology of Participants in Co-evolving Socio-technical Environments BIBAKFull-Text 279-286
  Gerhard Fischer; Antonio Piccinno; Yunwen Ye
The traditional notions of developer and user are unable to reflect the fact that many software systems nowadays are developed with the participation of many people of different interests and capabilities. The sharp distinction between users and developers gets blurred. Many researchers have used different concepts such as end-user developer, prosumer, pro-am to describe those new in-between roles. This paper provides a conceptual framework for characterizing varied activities that all people involved in using and developing software systems from a socio-technical perspective. The conceptual framework clarifies the spectrum of different use and development activities by a continuum of participants with different roles. Based on the framework, we analyze how participants change their roles to migrate from users to developers through interactions, and how such interactions co-evolve both the community and software artifacts.
Keywords: Open-source software; ecology of participants; Software Shaping Workshop; end-user development; meta-design

Demonstrations

User Interface Migration between Mobile Devices and Digital TV BIBAKFull-Text 287-292
  Fabio Paternò; Carmen Santoro; Antonio Scorcia
In this paper we present a demonstration of the Migrantes environment for supporting user interface migration through different devices, including mobile ones and digital TV. The goal of the system is to furnish user interfaces that are able to migrate across different devices, in such a way as to support task continuity for the mobile user. This is obtained through a number of transformations that exploit logical descriptions of the user interfaces to be handled. The migration environment supports the automatic discovery of client devices and its architecture is based on the composition of a number of software services required to perform a migration request.
Keywords: User Interface Migration; Adaptation to the Interaction Platform; Ubiquitous Environments
Demonstration of Software Components for End-User Development BIBAKFull-Text 293-298
  Mario Gleichmann; Thomas Hasart; Ilvio Bruder; Andreas Heuer; Peter Forbrig
This paper demonstrates how "End-User-Development" can be implemented with the Qt4 designer of Trolltech. It provides an example showing how users modify user interfaces by adding functionality that originally was not available.
Keywords: end user development; design; user interface
Transactions in Task Models BIBAKFull-Text 299-304
  Daniel Reichart; Peter Forbrig
In this paper we propose a method to model the behaviour of task models in error situations. For these purposes we follow the idea of transactions in database systems. By encapsulating tasks in transactions the atomicity of complex tasks can be asserted. Corresponding tool support is presented which includes modelling and simulating task models. The tools themselves were developed in a model-based way.
Keywords: Transaction; Task Model; Tool Support