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HCIB Tables of Contents: 1415

HCIB 2014: 1st International Conference on HCI in Business

Fullname:HCIB 2014: First International Conference on HCI in Business
Note:Volume 18 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8527
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07293-7 hcibib: HCIB14; ISBN: 978-3-319-07292-0 (print), 978-3-319-07293-7 (online)
Papers:76
Pages:801
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. Enterprise Systems
  2. Social Media for Business
  3. Mobile and Ubiquitous Commerce
  4. Gamification in Business
  5. B2B, B2C, C2C e-Commerce
  6. Supporting Collaboration, Business and Innovation
  7. User Experience in Shopping and Business

Enterprise Systems

Exploring Interaction Design for Advanced Analytics and Simulation BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Robin Brewer; Cheryl A. Kieliszewski
Enterprise businesses are increasingly using analytics and simulation for improved decision making with diverse and large quantities of data. However, new challenges arise in understanding how to design and implement a user interaction paradigm that is appropriate for technical experts, business users, and other stakeholders. Technologies developed for sophisticated analyses pose a challenge for interaction and interface design research when the goal is to accommodate users with different types and levels of expertise. In this paper we discuss the results of a multi-phase research effort to explore expectations for interaction and user experience with a complex technology that is meant to provide scientists and business analysts with expert-level capability for advanced analytics and simulation. We find that while there are unique differences in software preferences of scientists and analysts, that a common interface is feasible for universal usability of these two user groups.
Keywords: Simulation; modeling; expert; analysis; interviews; disruption; ideation
Decision Support System Based on Distributed Simulation Optimization for Medical Resource Allocation in Emergency Department BIBAKFull-Text 15-24
  Tzu-Li Chen
The number of emergency cases or people making emergency room visit has rapidly increased annually, leading to an imbalance in supply and demand, as well as long-term overcrowding of emergency departments (EDs) in hospitals. However, solutions targeting the increase of medical resources and improving patient needs are not practicable or feasible in the environment in Taiwan. Therefore, under the constraint of limited medical resources, EDs must optimize medical resources allocation to minimize the patient average length of stay (LOS) and medical resource wasted costs (MWCs). This study constructs a mathematical model for medical resource allocation of EDs, according to emergency flow or procedures. The proposed mathematical model is highly complex and difficult to solve because its performance value is stochastic and it considers both objectives simultaneously. Thus, this study postulates a multi-objective simulation optimization algorithm by integrating a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) and multi-objective computing budget allocation (MOCBA), and constructs an ED simulation model to address the challenges of multi-objective medical resource allocation. Specifically, the NSGA II entails investigating plausible solutions for medical resource allocation, and the MOCBA involves identifying effective sets of feasible Pareto medical resource allocation solutions and effective allocation of simulation or computation budgets. Additionally, the discrete simulation model of EDs estimates the expected performance value. Furthermore, based on the concept of private cloud, this study presents a distributed simulation optimization framework to reduce simulation time and subsequently obtain simulation outcomes more rapidly. This framework assigns solutions to different virtual machines on separate computers to reduce simulation time, allowing rapid retrieval of simulation results and the collection of effective sets of optimal Pareto medical resource allocation solutions. Finally, this research constructs an ED simulation model based on the ED of a hospital in Taiwan, and determines the optimal ED resource allocation solution by using the simulation model and algorithm. The effectiveness and feasibility of this method are identified by conducting the experiment, and the experimental analysis proves that the proposed distributed simulation optimization framework can effectively reduce simulation time.
Keywords: Simulation optimization; Decision support; Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm; Multi-objective computing budget allocation; Emergency department
The Impact of Business-IT Alignment on Information Security Process BIBAKFull-Text 25-36
  Mohamed El Mekawy; Bilal AlSabbagh; Stewart Kowalski
Business-IT Alignment (BITA) has the potential to link with organizational issues that deal with business-IT relationships at strategic, tactical and operational levels. In such context, information security process (ISP) is one of the issues that can be influenced by BITA. However, the impact has yet not been researched. This paper investigates the BITA impact on ISP. For this investigation, the relationships of elements of the Strategic Alignment Model and the components of Security Values Chain Model are considered. The research process is an in-depth literature survey followed by case study in two organizations located in United States and the Middle East. The results show clear impact of BITA on how organizations would distribute allocated security budget and resources based on the needs and risk exposure. The results should support both practitioners and researchers to gain improved insights of the relationships between BITA and IT security components.
Keywords: Business-IT alignment; BITA; Information Security Process; Security Value Chain; Security Culture
Examining Significant Factors and Risks Affecting the Willingness to Adopt a Cloud-Based CRM BIBAKFull-Text 37-48
  Nga Le Thi Quynh; Jon Heales; Dongming Xu
Given the advantages of and significant impact that Cloud-based CRMs have had on achieving competitive edge, they are becoming the primary choice for many organizations. However, due to the growth of concerns around cloud computing, cloud services might not be adopted with as much alacrity as was expected. A variety of factors may affect the willingness to adopt a cloud-based CRM. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to explore the factors that influence the adoption of a cloud-based CRM in SME's, from the perspectives of the client organizations and users. We then propose a research model, grounded in the Resource Based View Framework (RBV), the Theory of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM2), Risks and Trust Theories. This report recommends a research methodology. It offers recommendations for practitioners and cloud service providers to effectively assist in the adoption of cloud-based CRMs in organizations.
Keywords: cloud computing; CRM; adoption; TAM; risks; trust
Towards Public Health Dashboard Design Guidelines BIBAKFull-Text 49-59
  Bettina Lechner; Ann Fruhling
Ongoing surveillance of disease outbreaks is important for public health officials, who to need consult with laboratory technicians in identifying specimen and coordinate care for affected populations. One way for public health officials to monitor possible outbreaks is through digital dashboards of summarized public health data. This study examines best practices for designing public health dashboards and proposes an optimized interface for an emergency response system for state public health laboratories. The practical nature of this research shows how general dashboard guidelines can be used to design a specialized dashboard for a public health emergency response information system. Through our analysis and design process, we identified two new guidelines for consideration.
Keywords: Medical information system; dashboard interface design; disease surveillance; public health
Information Technology Service Delivery to Small Businesses BIBAKFull-Text 60-67
  Mei Lu; Philip Corriveau; Luke Koons; Donna Boyer
This paper reports findings from a study conducted to evaluate Intel's Service Delivery Platform for small businesses. The Service Delivery Platform adopted a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) approach, and aimed to deliver information technology (IT) services on a pay-as-you-go subscription model. The majority of small business decision makers found the solution appealing. Nevertheless, wide adoption of the solution will be contingent on quality and breadth of service offerings, cost, reliability of service delivery, and responsiveness of support.
Keywords: Software as Service; information technology
Charting a New Course for the Workplace with an Experience Framework BIBAKFull-Text 68-79
  Faith McCreary; Marla Gómez; Derrick Schloss; Deidre Ali
Like many, our company had a wealth of data about business users that included both big data by-products of operations (e.g., transactions) and outputs of traditional User Experience (UX) methods (e.g. interviews). To fully leverage the combined intelligence of this rich data, we had to aggregate big data and the outputs of traditional UX together. By connecting user stories to big data, we could test the generalizability of insights of qualitative studies against the larger world of business users and what they actually do. Similarly, big data benefited from the rich contextual insights found in more traditional UX studies. In this paper, we present a hybrid analysis approach that allowed us to leverage the combined intelligence of big data and outputs of UX methods. This approach allowed us to define an over-arching experience framework that provided actionable insights across the enterprise. We will discuss the underlying methodology, key learnings and how the work is revolutionizing experience decision making within the enterprise.
Keywords: UX Strategy; Big Data; Qualitative Data; User Research
The Role of Human Factors in Production Networks and Quality Management BIBAKFull-Text 80-91
  Ralf Philipsen; Philipp Brauner; Sebastian Stiller; Martina Ziefle; Robert Schmitt
Quality management in production networks is often neglected. To raise awareness for this subject, we developed an educational game in which players are responsible for managing orders and investments in quality assurance of a manufacturing company. To understand individual performance differences and playing strategy, we conducted a web-based study with 127 participants. Individual performance differences were discovered. Players who closely observe the company data and frequently modify order levels and quality investments perform significantly better. Furthermore, we found that the game model works and that the awareness towards quality assurance increases through the interaction with the game. Hence, the game is a suitable educational tool for teaching decision making in quality management.
Keywords: Quality Management; Decision Support; Human Factors; Production Networks; Personality Traits; Game-based Learning
Managing User Acceptance Testing of Business Applications BIBAKFull-Text 92-102
  Robin Poston; Kalyan Sajja; Ashley Calvert
User acceptance testing (UAT) events gather input from actual system users to determine where potential problems may exist in a new software system or major upgrade. Modern business systems are more complex and decentralized than ever before making UAT more complicated to perform. The collaborative nature of facilitated UAT events requires close interaction between the testers and the facilitation team, even when located in various locations worldwide. This study explores the best approaches for facilitating UAT remotely and globally in order to effectively facilitate geographically-dispersed actual system users in performing UAT exercises. While research suggests user involvement is important, there is a lack of understanding about the specifics of how to best engage users for maximizing the results, and our study addresses this gap. This study examines the following research questions: How should UAT facilitators (1) schedule user participation with a minimum impact to their regular work duties and maximum ability to be present when testing and not be distracted; (2) enable direct interactions with users including face-to-face conversations during the UAT event and access to user computer screens for configuration and validation; and (3) utilize quality management software that can be used seamlessly by all involved in UAT. To examine these questions, we utilize Social Presence Theory (SPT) to establish a conceptual lens for addressing these research questions. SPT supports that the communication environment must enable people to adopt the appropriate level of social presence required for that task. This study proposes a theoretically-derived examination based on SPT of facilitated UAT delineating when and how facilitators should involve actual system users in the UAT activities either through local facilitation or remote hosting of UAT exercises, among other options.
Keywords: User Acceptance Testing; Social Presence Theory; Computer Mediated Conferencing; Quality Management Software
How to Improve Customer Relationship Management in Air Transportation Using Case-Based Reasoning BIBAKFull-Text 103-111
  Rawia Sammout; Makram Souii; Mansour Elghoul
This paper describes research that aims to provide a new strategy for Customer Relationship Management for Air Transportation. It presents our proposed approach based on Knowledge Management processes, Enterprise Risk Management and Case-Based Reasoning. It aims to mitigate risks facing in air transportation process. The principle of this method consists in treating a new risk by counting on previous former experiments (case of reference). This type of reasoning rests on the following hypothesis: if a past risk and the new one are sufficiently similar, then all that can be explained or applied to the past risks or experiments (case bases) remains valid if one applies it to the new risk or for new situation which represents the new risk or problem to be solved. The idea of this approach consists on predicting adapted solution basing on the existing risks in the case base having the same contexts.
Keywords: Customer Relationship Management; Air Transportation; Knowledge Management; Enterprise Risk Management; Case Based Reasoning
Toward a Faithful Bidding of Web Advertisement BIBAKFull-Text 112-118
  Takumi Uchida; Koken Ozaki; Kenichi Yoshida
Web marketing is a key activity of e-commerce. Due to the proliferation of internet technology, available internet marketing data become huge and complex. Efficient use of such large data maximizes the profit of web marketing. Although there are a variety of studies motivated by these backgrounds, there still remains room for improvement on data usage. In this paper, we have proposed a method to realize faithful bidding of web advertisement. The experimental results show: 1) The use of data by the current operators is unreliable, 2) By using the proposed method, the advertisement value of bidding becomes clear. For example, the method could find a cluster of advertisements that has clear cost-effectiveness over other clusters.
Keywords: Internet advertisement; allocation of advertising budget; decision support

Social Media for Business

An Evaluation Scheme for Performance Measurement of Facebook Use BIBAKFull-Text 121-132
  Claudia Brauer; Christine Bauer; Mario Dirlinger
Online social networks, and Facebook in particular, have evolved from a niche to a mass phenomenon. Organizations have recognized the importance of using Facebook to achieve their organizational goals. Still, literature lacks a systematic evaluation scheme for measuring the performance of an organization's Facebook use. When investigating how organizations use Facebook, research tends to focus on for-profit organizations, overlooking the way social organizations use Facebook. This article introduces an evaluation scheme that includes nine categories of performance measurement. Applying the scheme to Facebook's use by social organisations in Vienna, we demonstrate the scheme's applicability. Plus, by using various indicators and benchmarks, we evaluate the level of sophistication of each organization's use of Facebook. We investigated all 517 social organizations based in Vienna, including those in all fields of practice, based on publicly available Facebook data from January to June 2012. The analysis reveals that the majority of social organizations are beginners at utilizing Facebook's potential.
Keywords: Facebook; online social networks; performance measurement; social organizations; evaluation scheme
Understanding the Factors That Influence the Perceived Severity of Cyber-bullying BIBAKFull-Text 133-144
  Sonia Camacho; Khaled Hassanein; Milena Head
Cyberbullying is a phenomenon that involves aggressive behaviors performed through Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) with the intention to cause harm or discomfort to victims. Researchers have measured the incidence of cyber-bullying by presenting participants with a list of behaviors and determining whether they have experienced those behaviors or the frequency of their occurrence. However, those measures do not take into account a victim's perspective of those behaviors. This study draws on the Transactional Theory of Stress and Coping and introduces the concept of perceived cyber-bullying severity to measure a victim's appraisal of cyberbullying. This study also proposes a set of antecedents to perceived cyber-bullying severity, which will be validated using a survey-based study and structural equation modeling techniques.
Keywords: cyber-bullying; victim; bully; audience; message
Seeking Consensus: A Content Analysis of Online Medical Consultation BIBAKFull-Text 145-154
  Ming-Hsin Phoebe Chiu
Online medical consultation allows patients and caregivers to query, communicate, and interact with medical and health professionals in an online synchronous or asynchronous setting. This study explores the questions and answers (Q&As) posted on an asynchronous online medical consultation website, Taiwan eDoctor. In this paper, preliminary research findings of 720 questions were reported. Analysis of questions was structured around five research themes: (1) length; (2) when to seek consultation; (3) strategies of communicating chief complaints; (4) intent to seek consultation; and (5) types information provided. This study makes implications in designing an interactive online medical consultation system.
Keywords: Online medical consultation; content analysis; medical information retrieval
Social Media Marketing on Twitter BIBAKFull-Text 155-165
  Constantinos K. Coursaris; Wietske van Osch; Brandon Brooks
With the rise of social media marketing as an important domain of practice and research, a growing number of scholarly and practitioner articles have emerged highlighting best practices in social media marketing. Despite this proliferation of articles exploring the topic of social media marketing, no comprehensive frameworks exist that offer insight into the underlying components of effective social media marketing messages and the relations between them. Amalgamating constructs from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds -- including marketing, advertising, communication, and information systems -- this paper offers a theoretical framework and empirical investigation of the relations between four message components, namely purchase involvement, messaging strategy, message content, and media types. Using longitudinal data from ten Fortune 500 companies, we validate our comprehensive framework and find support for all hypotheses, thereby validating the importance of using an integrated approach to social media message design. Implications for research and practice are outlined.
Keywords: social media marketing; purchase involvement; media richness; content categories typology; Twitter
The Internet, Happiness, and Social Interaction: A Review of Literature BIBAKFull-Text 166-174
  Richard H. Hall; Ashley Banaszek
This paper is a review of literature relevant to the Internet, happiness, and social interaction. The definition of happiness is discussed, emphasizing its subjective quality, followed by a review of studies that have examined the correlates of happiness. This is followed by a review of studies on internet use, happiness, and social interaction, which yields the conclusion that the internet can facilitate social communication and interpersonal connections, which is, in turn, associated with higher levels of happiness and well being.
Keywords: Happiness; Internet
Small and Medium Enterprises 2.0: Are We There Yet? BIBAKFull-Text 175-182
  Pedro Isaias; Diogo Antunes
The concept of Enterprise 2.0 relates to the use of Web 2.0 technologies such as blogs, social networks or wikis, in enterprises and it has been at the centre of several debates among the business community. Controversy aside, many enterprises have already openly adopted and supported the implementation of Web 2.0 technologies. This growing interest in the Social Web as a business resource has captured the attention of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). This paper focuses on the adoption of Enterprise 2.0's practices inside SMEs and uses the Portuguese case as an illustration of the current scenario. It examines the implementation of Web 2.0 tools inside Portuguese elite SMEs and provides guiding principles for the general proficiency of SME 2.0.
Keywords: SMEs; Web 2.0; Enterprise 2.0
Finding Keyphrases of Readers' Interest Utilizing Writers' Interest in Social Media BIBAKFull-Text 183-193
  Lun-Wei Ku; Andy Lee; Yan-Hua Chen
Suggesting further reading materials is an application of recommendation. Considering context, current systems usually rely on topic information and related materials to propose options for users, while users behavior is also commonly used if log information is involved. However, the users interests, which are aroused by the content of the current article they read instead of what they have had, are seldom detected from the context, and they are usually the motive that readers want to read more. This paper presents an approach to detect readers' interest from the current article they read and the users feedback of it. TED talks are utilized as the experimental materials. InterestFinder proposes interest keywords/keyphrases for each talk, where different kind of words and phrases are provided to it to find suitable candidate terms. Experiments show that the best setting proposed achieves a NDCG@50 0.6392, and the detail results are discussed. Results conclude that considering both words and phrases in a proper selection criteria benefits, and finding conceptual keyphrases as interest terms is necessary to further improve the system performance.
Keywords: interest analysis; reading recommendation; TED talk; keyword and keyphrase extraction
The Role of Interactivity in Information Search on ACG Portal Site BIBAKFull-Text 194-205
  Juihsiang Lee; Manlai You
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between three dimensions of interactivity (user control, responsiveness and connectedness) and consumers' perceived value composed of utilitarian and hedonic values on ACG resources searching, finally determining the level of overall satisfaction on using interactivity features in ACG portable site service. A total of 430 respondents participated and the usable sample size was 136 of goal-directed users and 180 of experiential users, after the screening process. The results indicate that both perceived utilitarian and hedonic values have a positive effect on satisfaction in the ACG portal site. But goal-directed users more concern about utilitarian than hedonic value, and experiential users more concern about hedonic value than utilitarian.
Keywords: ACG; Perceived interactivity; Goal-directed; Experiential
Factors Affecting Continued Use of Social Media BIBAKFull-Text 206-213
  Eleanor T. Loiacono; Scott McCoy
This research paper focuses on factors which affect the continued use of social media technology. Using the Technology Acceptance Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior, a research model was constructed which focused on a set of core constructs, including Perceived Usefulness, Social Norms, Self-Efficacy, and Attitudes and their overall impact on users Continuous Intent to Use social media technologies. Results will be shared with conference participants.
Keywords: Theory of planned behavior; Social media technologies
Image-Blogs: Consumer Adoption and Usage BIBAKFull-Text 214-220
  Eleanor T. Loiacono; Purvi Shah
Bloggers are now turning to more creative ways to share their knowledge, thoughts, ideas, and opinions (information) while making it an easier experience for them and their viewers. image-blogging has become a tool for those looking to share information through multimedia with their viewers. This paper is part of a larger project looking into a broader investigation of image-blog usage. Understanding what encourages adoption and use of a image blog by its audience is of interest to companies looking to utilize such technologies to their benefit.
Keywords: Image-blog; Technology Acceptance Model; Consumer Behavior
Main Factors for Joining New Social Networking Sites BIBAKFull-Text 221-232
  Carlos Osorio; Savvas Papagiannidis
The popularity of Social Networking Sites (SNS) such as Facebook or Twitter, along with their potential as marketing tools, is drawing the attention of entrepreneurs and developers to create their own SNS. Research about SNS users' behaviour is focused on users' participation, leaving a gap in relation to users' reasons for joining a new SNS. Thus, our work aims to contribute to the literature by investigating the main motivations that a SNS user has for joining a new SNS. Following the framework of the decomposed theory of planned behaviour (DTPB), a two-step structural equation model was implemented in order to answer the research question. Findings made it possible to explain 55% of the intention to join a new SNS. In order to explain the intention, the attitude towards the new network plays a key role, which in turn is directly influenced by perceived usefulness. Our findings invite SNS practitioners working on creating new social media websites or services to pay special attention to how to portray the new SNS in order to be appealing for the users. On the theoretical implications, the proposed model confirmed the need to include additional variables to the TPB in order to gain a better understanding of the phenomena studied.
Keywords: SNS; decomposed theory of planned behaviour; DTPB; joining; SEM
"There's No Way I Would Ever Buy Any Mp3 Player with a Measly 4gb of Storage": Mining Intention Insights about Future Actions BIBAKFull-Text 233-244
  Maria Pontiki; Haris Papageorgiou
In this paper we present a method for the automatic detection of user-stated intentions in terms of desires, purposes and commitments as specific insights deriving from the semantics of the intention expressions. The method is based on a linguistic data-driven and domain-independent framework for textual intention analysis and achieves substantial levels of accuracy in detecting future intention expressions and their structural components. Furthermore, we demonstrate several usage scenarios in the business intelligence context showing that the introduced insights can be interpreted from various perspectives and serve as variables in predictive or decision making models in any domain of interest.
Keywords: Social Media; Text Analytics; Intention Analysis; Future Intention; Desire; Purpose; Commitment
Experts versus Friends: To Whom Do I Listen More? The Factors That Affect Credibility of Online Information BIBAKFull-Text 245-256
  DongBack Seo; Jung Lee
This study aims to examine how the relationship with an information source affects the perceived credibility of online information. We develop a general framework that explains how people perceive information credibility when they are familiar with the information source and/or when the information source seems credible. We then compare the associations of the model in two contexts, namely, online review and social media sites, to examine the difference. The result confirms that credibility of information is strongly mediated by credibility of information source than familiarity with information source in online review sites and vice versa in social media sites.
Keywords: Information Credibility; Information Source; Goal Similarity; Personal Similarity; Social Media Site; Review Site
To Shave or Not to Shave? BIBAKFull-Text 257-265
  Sarah van der Land; Daan G. Muntinga
This study explores whether wearing a beard in a LinkedIn profile picture affects a candidate's prospects of being invited for a job interview and whether this is contingent on the type of job vacancy. Based on Ohanian's (1990) three sub dimensions of credibility, three different job vacancies were constructed: (1) architect for an expertise-job, (2) back cashier officer for a trustworthiness-job, and (3) sales representative for an attractiveness-job. Results of a 2 (candidate: beard versus no beard) x 3 (job type: expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness) experiment conducted among 216 participants show that bearded candidates are perceived as having more expertise than clean-shaven candidates. Moreover, a candidate's perceived expertise is a significant predictor of the intention to invite the candidate for a job interview. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: Personal Branding; Strategic Social Media; recruitment; beards; credibility; job interview success; LinkedIN
Empowering Users to Explore Subject Knowledge by Aggregating Search Interfaces BIB
  I-Chin Wu; Cheng Kao; Shao-Syuan Chiou
BIBAKFull-Text 266-276
 
Due to the popularity of link-based applications, one of the most important issues in web searching is how to retrieve information effectively from multiple sources. Consider Wikipedia as an example; users browse content by following hyperlinks from one page to another. A regular hyperlink states that there are some relationships between the two pages. Search engines like Google successfully use this type of information to rank pages in keyword search scenarios. Wikipedia can go even beyond that as a link is interpreted as the semantic relations between two concepts described within articles. Search engines and web-based, free-content encyclopedias have become key tools for finding and extracting useful information from the tremendous amounts of data that are available online. We extended our previous application, WNavis, by integrating the search function with the term semantic path suggestion techniques for aggregated searches. Note that research into aggregated searches (integrated searches) addresses the issues of presenting to users a result list with information from various websites and media types. Accordingly the WikiMap # application, extended from our previous application, WNavis, was developed. Finally we proposed our preliminary research design extended evaluation measures in this study.
Keywords: Aggregated Search; Interactive Information Retrieval; Information Visualization; Semantic Paths

Mobile and Ubiquitous Commerce

Follow-Me: Smartwatch Assistance on the Shop Floor BIBAFull-Text 279-287
  Mario Aehnelt; Bodo Urban
The growing complexity of manufacturing calls for new approaches to support the human workforce with situation-aware information and tools which in consequence ease the process of understanding and applying work related knowledge. With this paper we introduce a theoretical model for a systematic information transfer between assistance system and worker. It defines assistance objectives and reviews the role of artifacts during the assistance process focusing on the cognitive aspects of work. Our approach was implemented using smartwatches for application in industrial assembly environments extending the Plant@Hand manufacturing performance support system.
A Qualitative Investigation of 'Context', 'Enterprise Mobile Services' and the Influence of Context on User Experiences and Acceptance of Enterprise Mobile Services BIBAKFull-Text 288-298
  Karen Carey; Markus Helfert
Within this paper an account of a qualitative investigation into Enterprise Mobile Services and their 'Context' is recorded. Employing Qualitative Content Analysis, two taxonomies are derived; An Enterprise Mobile Service Taxonomy and a 'Context' Taxonomy. The researcher also investigates current Context factors which have been proven to influence users' experiences and the acceptance of Enterprise Mobile Services. These are highlighted in the 'Context' taxonomy. The researcher intends to further investigate the influence of Context on users' acceptance of Enterprise Mobile Services subsequently it is necessary to select appropriate Context criteria for inclusion. This paper describes this selection process; a focus group with Industry experts was conducted following the KJ method. The Context criteria to be further investigated were selected. The criteria which describe enterprise mobile services were also selected. The results of the qualitative investigation reveal Context items which may potentially influence the acceptance of Enterprise Mobile Services. The HCI and IS domains could benefit from further investigations into the influence of these Context items on users experiences and acceptance to allow for an even deeper understanding of the influence of Context.
Keywords: Enterprise Mobile Services; Context; User Experience; User Perceptions; User Acceptance
Designing for Success: Creating Business Value with Mobile User Experience (UX) BIBAKFull-Text 299-306
  Soussan Djamasbi; Dan McAuliffe; Wilmann Gomez; Georgi Kardzhaliyski; Wan Liu; Frank Oglesby
The popularity of mobile devices, such as smart phones and tablets, provides both new opportunities and challenges for companies. Mobile devices allow companies to reach users anywhere, anytime; however, these devices present the challenge of designing websites that can adapt to smaller screen sizes. Because competition is shifting more and more toward user experience, creating a positive mobile experience is becoming increasingly important in maintaining a competitive edge in the market place. To address this issue, we measured the user experience of an actual e-commerce website before and after it was optimized for mobile devices and used Google Analytics to follow user behavior. The results suggested that optimized websites are likely to have a major positive impact on the ROI for a company.
Keywords: User Experience Design; Mobile Websites; Mobile Optimization; Mobile User Experience; Return on Investment (ROI); Business Value; Google Analytics
The Performance of Self in the Context of Shopping in a Virtual Dressing Room System BIBAKFull-Text 307-315
  Yi Gao; Eva Petersson Brooks; Anthony Lewis Brooks
This paper investigates the performance of self in a virtual dressing room based on a camera-based system reflecting a full body mirrored image of the self. The study was based on a qualitative research approach and a user-centered design methodology. 22 participants participated in design sessions, semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire investigation. The results showed that the system facilitated self-recognition, self-perception, and shared experience, which afforded an enriched experience of the performing self.
Keywords: Virtual dressing room; mirroring; self-perception; self-recognition; shared experience; hedonic shopping experience
Understanding Dynamic Pricing for Parking in Los Angeles: Survey and Ethnographic Results BIBAKFull-Text 316-327
  James Glasnapp; Honglu Du; Christopher Dance; Stephane Clinchant; Alex Pudlin; Daniel Mitchell; Onno Zoeter
The field of parking is going through a period of extreme innovation. Cities in the United States are now exploring new technology to improve on-street parking. One such innovation is dynamic pricing based on sensors and smart meters. This paper presents the results of two surveys and an ethnographic study in the context of LA Express Park™ to understand users' behaviors, knowledge and perceptions around parking. Survey results demonstrated that a high number of users misunderstood one of three tested stickers that convey time of day pricing. Furthermore, after discovering the availability of cheaper parking spots nearby, people expressed willingness to change their future behavior to park in those places. Ethnographic field studies found that it is common for many parkers to use handicapped placards for over eight hours in one parking session. A percentage of these parkers may be using placards illegally. We propose that increasing some parking restrictions during the day may curb placard use by making it more difficult to park for long periods.
Keywords: Parking technology; dynamic pricing; ethnography
Full-Body Interaction for the Elderly in Trade Fair Environments BIBAKFull-Text 328-338
  Mandy Korzetz; Christine Keller; Frank Lamack; Thomas Schlegel
In the near future, more and more personalized products will be offered. Presenting physical, customizable products to the customer in all possible variations can be very complicated and space-consuming. Virtual life-size representations of these kinds of products are common and offer an attractive product experience. An interactive product configuration allows customers to explore several variations on their own. The combination with natural interaction technologies, such as gesture input, also allows users, which are mostly unfamiliar with technology, to explore product variety efficiently. The research presented in this paper focuses on motion-based interaction in public spaces. The application field are trade fair environments and the target group are elderly people with specific needs. We present a design methodology for the development of full-body gestures adapted to our application field of configuring large-sized products (specifically caravans) on large displays in trade fair environments using full-body interaction.
Keywords: Gesture; elderly; interaction design; large display; customizable products; public interactive installation
Human-Computer vs. Consumer-Store Interaction in a Multichannel Retail Environment: Some Multidisciplinary Research Directions BIBAKFull-Text 339-349
  Chris Lazaris; Adam Vrechopoulos
The increasing availability of electronic applications in physical retail stores has created a series of interesting research opportunities with challenging managerial implications for practitioners. Since the graphical user interface design constitutes a critical user-consumer influencing factor in the context of a multichannel retailing environment, there are several multidisciplinary research initiatives that could add value towards an integrated investigation of this topic. To this end, the paper discusses the promising role of combining Information Systems and Marketing disciplines for conducting behavioural studies in the context of multichannel/omnichannel retailing, approaching humans both as users of information systems and consumers of retail stores. Similarly, the paper treats the screen of the electronic applications available in online and offline retail stores both as a graphical user interface of an information system and as the atmosphere/servicescape of a retail store. The paper provides several future research directions and practical implications for this fast evolving topic.
Keywords: HCI; Consumer Behaviour; Multichannel Retailing; Omnichannel Retailing; Multidisciplinary Research
Market Intelligence in Hypercompetitive Mobile Platform Ecosystems: A Pricing Strategy BIBAKFull-Text 350-359
  Hoang D. Nguyen; Kajanan Sangaralingam; Danny Chiang Choon Poo
The recent years have seen a spurt of mobile developers in hypercompetitive mobile platform ecosystems. Yet, this is an unfair game where platform owners such as Apple, Google or Microsoft fence the information of their app store as top secrets. Our study, therefore, takes an important step in investigating the structure of rankings and sales revenue through 2,761 paid applications with weekly aggregated 32,109 observations to unveil a new indicator of market intelligence, earning per download. With the consideration of category effects, time effects and endogenity issues, our empirical results show that top-ranked paid apps can earn up to $7.80 per download. Our findings generate a number of insights for app developers to take actions in designing highly-ranked apps as well as manipulating prices, promotions or in-app purchases in order to unlock the full potential of their app sales.
Keywords: mobile apps; big data; ranking; pricing; power law; earning per download
A User-Centered Approach in Designing NFC Couponing Platform: The Case Study of CMM Applications BIBAKFull-Text 360-370
  Antonio Opromolla; Andrea Ingrosso; Valentina Volpi; Mariarosaria Pazzola; Carlo Maria Medaglia
In this paper, we will introduce CMM, a mobile couponing platform that allows retailers to create virtual coupons, and consumers to download and redeem them through NFC technology. In developing the system, we followed a user-centered design approach, adopting an iterative design process. Moreover, we studied the way consumers interact through NFC technology in mobile couponing applications. For this purpose, we arranged an analysis on user needs, a usability evaluation performed by experts, and a survey involving final users. The paper will show the most important findings from these studies.
Keywords: User-Centered Design Process; Marketing and HCI; New technology and its usefulness; NFC Couponing Applications
Mobile Design Usability Guidelines for Outdoor Recreation and Tourism BIBAKFull-Text 371-378
  Sarah J. Swierenga; Dennis B. Propst; Jennifer Ismirle; Chelsea Figlan; Constantinos K. Coursaris
Information-intensive websites such as those for outdoor recreation and tourism present complex design considerations and issues that need to be researched for mobile access. To gain a better understanding of the expectations and desires of users regarding a mobile application for outdoor recreation, researchers created a mobile application prototype for the US Army Corps of Engineers, which was subsequently tested for usability at two recreation sites in Kentucky with local participants. We provide an overview of our methods and results, and best practices we have gleaned from our findings. Our research is especially applicable for mobile applications that require access to a large amount of information and for a broad audience, and we also hope our study encourages more research in these areas.
Keywords: Mobile applications; mobile interfaces; usability; outdoor recreation; tourism; public websites

Gamification in Business

A Framework for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Gamification Techniques by Personality Type BIBAKFull-Text 381-389
  Charles Butler
This paper first examines the theoretical underpinnings of a number of popular gamification mechanics. Next, it examines the motivational and behavioral tendencies displayed by various personality types (based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator assessment) before attempting to pair them with the gamification techniques that most closely map to these tendencies. The specific gamification techniques were chosen due to their popularity and effectiveness in commonly used tools and applications, such as productivity tools and social games. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was chosen because of its relative popularity within corporate environments (as compared to other potential options, such as the Five Factor Model). This is seen as beneficial in order to facilitate the acceptance and utilization of the research within business-oriented settings, such as training programs or consumer applications.
Keywords: gamification; personality type; MBTI; Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator; motivations
The Global Leadership of Virtual Teams in Avatar-Based Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 390-400
  Paul, Jr. Hayes
This research is part of an ongoing study of the usefulness of avatar-based collaborative environments in comparison to software platforms that mostly utilize audio and video in two dimensional settings like those used in GoToMeeting/Traning. Second Life is explored as a viable option for avatar-based collaborative teams and other telework. This research investigated a potential relationship between engagement, in terms of leader-member exchange and team interaction in software platforms that utilized an avatar-based collaborative environment in relation to one that did not. This initial pilot study examining feedback gathered from user experience of engagement and leader-member exchanges is used to develop insight into the proper instrument selection that will be utilized to conduct a larger quantitative study. A mixed methods approach consisting of inquiry from past instruments that measure engagement (Gajendra et al., 2012), satisfaction (Camman et al., 1998), social presence within a virtual environment (Witmer & Singer, 1998) and the technology acceptance model (TAM)(Shroff, Deneen, & Ng, 2011) is used. The findings suggest that avatar-based environments may impact leader-member exchange through increased engagement.
Keywords: 3D web and virtual worlds; Computer-supported collaboration; Gamification in business; Ubiquitous commerce
Gamification of Education: A Review of Literature BIBAKFull-Text 401-409
  Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah; Qing Zeng; Venkata Rajasekhar Telaprolu; Abhishek Padmanabhuni Ayyappa; Brenda Eschenbrenner
We synthesized the literature on gamification of education by conducting a review of the literature on gamification in the educational and learning context. Based on our review, we identified several game design elements that are used in education. These game design elements include points, levels/stages, badges, leaderboards, prizes, progress bars, storyline, and feedback. We provided examples from the literature to illustrate the application of gamification in the educational context.
Keywords: Gamification; Game design elements; Education; Learning
An Investigation of User Interface Features of Crowdsourcing Applications BIBAKFull-Text 410-418
  Robbie Nakatsu; Charalambos Iacovou
We investigated the user interface features of seven different types of crowdsourcing applications, which were classified along three dimensions of task type: (1) Task Structure: does the task have a well-defined solution? (2) Task Interdependence: can the task be solved by an individual or does it require a community of problem solvers? (3) Task Commitment: what level of resources is required to perform the task? Our initial investigation revealed a number of differences in the seven categories including: site searchability, online credentialing, community building features, gamification, mobility, and the use of wiki software.
Keywords: crowdsourcing; user interface; task complexity
Co-design of Neighbourhood Services Using Gamification Cards BIBAKFull-Text 419-428
  Manuel Oliveira; Sobah Petersen
Gamification is the design process that applies the principles of digital games along with behavior economics and psychology to enhance existing processes that facilitate user behavior transformation. The application of gamification remains very much a craft, difficult to understand and harder to master without the benefit of experience. Consequently, there is a lack of comprehensible tools that lower the barrier to use and leverage the benefits of gamification by non-experts. This paper presents the gamification cards created within the context of the European MyNeighbourhood project to support co-design activities by the citizens. The paper also shares the lessons learnt from one of the gamification workshops involving stakeholders from neighbourhoods from four European cities (Aalborg, Birmingham, Lisbon and Milan).
Keywords: Co-design; gamification
Applications of a Roleplaying Game for Qualitative Simulation and Cooperative Situations Related to Supply Chain Management BIBAKFull-Text 429-439
  Thiago Schaedler Uhlmann; André Luiz Battaiola
This article presents the current stage in the development of a serious game. The main goal of this game is to provide an environment where students and professionals can train Supply Chain Management (SCM) accordingly to a qualitative point-of-view. The Serious Game consists of a Roleplaying Game system for SCM training and simulation, where players simulate, as characters, organizations placed into a Supply Chain with mutual interdependence relationships. During the play session, players respond to situations faced in a simulated organizational setting (a market, a producer or consumer of goods and services) and experience the challenges of an organizational environment. The research method consisted of four consecutive phases: research, development, application and evaluation of this game. The article concludes pointing future possibilities to use the game system in purposes related to SCM area, such as Quality and Environmental Management, Health and Safety, development of new products and services, among other.
Keywords: Gamification in business; Supply chain management; Serious Games
Gamification Design for Increasing Customer Purchase Intention in a Mobile Marketing Campaign App BIBAKFull-Text 440-448
  Don Ming-Hui Wen; Dick Jen-Wei Chang; Ying-Tzu Lin; Che-Wei Liang; Shin-Yi Yang
Mobile apps have been developed for marketing purposes and for creating new opportunities for firms to communicate with and satisfy their target audience. However, numerous mobile apps are added daily to the Google Play and Apple App Store. This study developed a mobile application to encourage customers to participate and engage in a marketing campaign in order to increase their potential opportunity for making purchases in an internationally branded apparel store. In this study, we applied a systematic framework of Internet marketing with four strategic stages: attract, engage, retain, and monetize, for guiding and ensuring the success of the marketing campaign. Two human factor researchers were planned, and we administered a focus group interview with six computer game designers for retrieving persuasive game mechanics from existing games. Afterward, we classified the collected gamification mechanics into the four stages, according to their Internet marketing functionality. By referring to the generated gamification mechanics, we then developed a mobile application for supporting a apparel store marketing campaign. Customers' engagement behavior and purchase results were measured. This paper discussed the implications of this study on both research and practice.
Keywords: mobile app; gamification; augmented reality; social network

B2B, B2C, C2C e-Commerce

An Individual Differences Approach in Adaptive Waving of User Checkout Process in Retail eCommerce BIBAKFull-Text 451-460
  Marios Belk; Panagiotis Germanakos; Stavros Asimakopoulos; Panayiotis Andreou; Constantinos Mourlas; George Spanoudis; George Samaras
Developing a usable checkout process is pivotal for e-business success. However, recent research has shown that users frequently abandon their shopping carts and lacking a clear direction through the process. In this context, aiming to improve the usability and overall user experience of checkout processes in ecommerce Web-sites, this paper reports on a study, primarily inspired by concepts driven from theories of individual differences in cognitive processing, and considers content presentation and navigability as a measure of checkout usability and task quality. Concurrent think-aloud, short interviews and questionnaires were conducted with a convenient sample of 15 users to understand the preference of a particular type of checkout process, and users' task completion time while interacting with ecommerce Web-sites for a set of different checkout scenarios. Preliminary results revealed that cognitive styles have an effect on users' task completion and checkout process preference.
Keywords: Ecommerce; Checkout Process; Individual Differences; Cognitive Styles; User Study
Do You Trust My Avatar? Effects of Photo-Realistic Seller Avatars and Reputation Scores on Trust in Online Transactions BIBAKFull-Text 461-470
  Gary Bente; Thomas Dratsch; Simon Rehbach; Matthias Reyl; Blerta Lushaj
We investigated the influence of photo-realistic avatars and reputation scores on trust building in online transactions. In Experiment 1, 126 participants played a computer-mediated trust game with three avatar conditions (trustworthy, untrustworthy, and no seller avatar) and three reputation conditions (positive, negative, and no seller reputation). Both trustworthy avatars and positive reputation scores led to higher purchase rates. We also found a significant interaction between avatars and reputation scores, suggesting that the effect of avatars was stronger when the reputation score induced uncertainty. To further support this effect, we systematically varied uncertainty levels in Experiment 2, in which 147 participants played another trust game. Results again confirmed that participants relied more on avatars in their decisions under high uncertainty. Taken together, the results show that avatars can help to reduce uncertainty and to improve trust building in e-commerce settings.
Keywords: Trust; Avatars; Reputation; E-commerce
What Web Analysts Can Do for Human-Computer Interaction? BIBAKFull-Text 471-481
  Claudia Brauer; David Reischer; Felix Mödritscher
Fostered by the emergence of web technologies and of new streams like ubiquitous computing, social media or mobile technologies, a lot of attention has been directed to the field of Web Analytics in order to learn about technology usage behavior of end-users, such as customers or employees of enterprises. Going beyond the scope of online marketing and business intelligence, Web Analysts can be of relevance for typical Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) activities, i.e. designing user interfaces for new business software or evaluating the usability of an existing solution. Thus, this paper aims at elaborating the usefulness of Web Analytics for the HCI domain. Therefore, we conducted an empirical study in order to gather working tasks and professional competencies of Web Analysts by analyzing international job advertisements. Consequently, we draw conclusions on how Web Analysts can support HCI activities with regard to this task and competence profile. It shows that Web Analysts can be of use in HCI practice, i.e. within the usability engineering lifecycle, in HCI research, e.g. for typical design science approaches, and whenever users interact with web-based software applications.
Keywords: E-Commerce; Web Analytics; Job Advertisement Analysis; Working Tasks; Professional Competencies; Regional Variation; Quantitative Content Analysis; Benefits for HCI
Persuasive Web Design in e-Commerce BIBAKFull-Text 482-491
  Hsi-Liang Chu; Yi-Shin Deng; Ming-Chuen Chuang
This research is to investigate what persuasive tactics are utilized by current e-commerce Web sites, how consumers react to the persuasive triggers on e-commerce Web sites, and what about the relative importance of the salient persuasive factors that are salient to online consumers. A total of 15 persuasive tactics and 9 salient factors were identified from the data of Web site reviews and user interviews. The AHP analysis revealed that the persuasive factors appealing to a site's credibility and logic are more important than appealing to users' emotions.
Keywords: persuasive design; e-commerce; Web design
Creating Competitive Advantage in IT-Intensive Organizations: A Design Thinking Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 492-503
  Alma L. Culén; Mark Kriger
In this paper, we consider the role of design thinking and human computer interaction design (HCID) in shaping conditions for a long-term health of technology intensive organizations. Design thinking is gaining acceptance in management, strategy and leadership and is increasingly seen as a way towards finding solutions to complex problems of today's economy. We present our view on relationships between HCID and design thinking on one hand, and creative leadership, vision, values, knowledge and organizational culture on the other, as factors in shaping the competitive advantage for IT-intensive organizations. We find that, while HCID is systematically contributing to design of innovative technological solutions, it does so at a micro level, while design thinking holds a central position in our competitive advantage framework. Through a small case of innovation in the academic library, we provide insight in how design thinking and HCID facilitated changes in how the library sees its users, products, services and how it, subsequently, started changing its organizational vision, values, culture and knowledge.
Keywords: design thinking; strategy; HCI design; innovation; academic library; competitive advantage
Understanding the Antecedents and Consequences of Live-Chat Use in E-Commerce Context BIBAKFull-Text 504-515
  Lele Kang; Xiang Wang; Chuan-Hoo Tan; J. Leon Zhao
Online shopping has progressed from having consumers passively browse through web pages of products to having them proactively engage in communication dialogs with product sellers via Live-Chat. Through Live-Chat, consumers can directly contact the sellers and inquire about their products of interest. This study extends the conceptual framework of motivation, opportunity, and ability (MOA) to understand the antecedents and consequences of Live-Chat usage in consumers' online shopping process. Our survey involving 222 online consumers validated the proposed conceptual model and confirmed most of our assumptions. For antecedents, we found that MOA factors generally influence the Live-Chat usage of consumers in their shopping process. Specifically, perceived information asymmetry, fears of seller opportunism and perceived personal expertise have strong positive effects on Live-Chat usage. For consequences, Live-Chat usage positively affects consumers' perceived interactivity, thereby reducing their uncertainty in transaction. Our findings contribute to the understanding of real-time communication technology in specific and digital service for e-commerce in general.
Keywords: Motivation-Opportunity-Ability Framework; Live-Chat; E-Commerce
Productivity of Services -- An Empirical View on the German Market BIBAKFull-Text 516-525
  Stephan Klingner; Michael Becker; Klaus-Peter Fähnrich
The growingly important role of services in economies leads to an increasing competition. Thus, services have to be provided as efficient as possible. Corresponding to the industrial domain, the management of productivity is an important factor of success. Since productivity management of services is relatively new compared to the industrial domain, only few scientific studies exist. The paper adds to this topic by conducting an extensive survey of the current status of productivity management of service companies in Germany. The findings could support both business and science by giving a reference of service productivity management in practice and identifying gaps regarding the development of tools and methods.
Keywords: Service Productivity; Service Performance
Consumer Preferences for the Interface of E-Commerce Product Recommendation System BIBAKFull-Text 526-537
  Yi-Cheng Ku; Chih-Hung Peng; Ya-Chi Yang
A recommendation system (RS) in a website is increasingly significant for consumer's decision making. A RS includes several important benefits, such as increasing user satisfaction and building user trust. Despite the growing literature that examined the usefulness of a specific attribute of a RS, less is known about which combination of attributes of a RS is preferable and how the combination influences consumer decision making. By using a conjoint analysis, we can further explore the impacts of combination attributes. In a lab experiment, we find that the importance ranking of attributes of a RS for the participants is quite different. Specifically, all the participants consider the attribute, "Explanation for Recommendation", is important. In addition, "Rating" is important for the specific participants. Furthermore, "Comment" seems to be less important to all the participants. Our results have important implications for the design of a RS.
Keywords: recommendation system; user interface preferences; adaptive interface; conjoint analysis
Critical Examination of Online Group-Buying Mechanisms BIBAKFull-Text 538-548
  Yi Liu; Chuan Hoo Tan; Juliana Sutanto; Choon Ling Sia; Kwok-Kee Wei
Online group-buying mechanism evolves from earlier variant with dynamic discount pricing mechanism to daily-deal variant with fixed discount pricing mechanism. Both mechanisms still face the challenge of attracting customers, either merchants or buyers. In this paper, we examine online group buying mechanisms by conducting an exhaustive review of online group-buying literature. Through identifying key design features for group-buying business models, we aim to propose a more sustainable group-buying mechanism. Based on the review of 46 articles, we propose that sustainable group-buying mechanism need to balance the benefits of both merchants and buyers. The nature of group-buying needs to be emphasized, but the mechanism should not be too complicated or simple.
Keywords: Group-Buying; daily-deal; sustainable mechanism; literature review
A Case Study of the Application of Cores and Paths in Financial Web Design BIBAKFull-Text 549-558
  Dongyuan Liu; Tian Lei; Shuaili Wei
This paper illustrates how Cores and Paths work together with the user inter-views in web design by a real case of the design for a fund web. The Cores and Paths method which lays more emphasis on the core demand was first put for-ward by Are Halland. The framework of the website is decided by both the user goals and business goals. Through the analysis of inward paths and outward paths, the redundant information is reduced. Cores and Paths is a method of high efficiency and effectiveness for information construction. In this design project, we go through the process of the desk study, the user interviews, the information construction, the interactive prototyping, the usability test and the final improvement. We know that the user interviews serve as a crucial part throughout the whole process by giving an effective and direct guidance to the following design.
Keywords: B2C e-commerce; Cores and Paths; Information Architecture; Findability
WebQual and Its Relevance to Users with Visual Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 559-565
  Eleanor T. Loiacono; Shweta Deshpande
The number of people with vision-related disabilities is on the rise. Since a significant portion of the population is "Web-reliant" already, understanding how visual impairments effect website usage and evaluation is important from both a business and societal perspective. This research tests the relevance of the website quality measure, WebQual, in low vision populations. Specifically, the website evaluation, using WebQual, of "sighted" users is compared to those with low to no vision. Preliminary results show that WebQual remains a highly valuable website quality measure in both populations.
Keywords: WebQual; Website Quality; Visual Disabilities
First in Search -- How to Optimize Search Results in E-Commerce Web Shops BIBAKFull-Text 566-574
  Gerald Petz; Andreas Greiner
Customers of e-commerce web sites frequently use the full text search to find the desired products. The ranking of the search result page depends on various criteria such as the matching of search terms or popularity of the product. E-commerce vendors usually use additional ranking criteria and may want to increase conversion rates by varying the rankings of the search hits. This paper proposes a method to measure the impact of changing the ranking of the search result page. The method is applied to a b2b e-commerce shop with office products.
Keywords: ranking; search result page; web shop; e-commerce; measurement; A/B-testing; conversion
The Value of User Centered Design in Product Marketing: A Simulated Manufacturing Company Product Offering Market Strategy BIBAKFull-Text 575-582
  April Savoy; Alister McLeod
The field of manufacturing is mainly concern with the creation of products for consumers who demand these items. At Indiana State University's Advance Manufacturing Management (AMM) Program, phases of the entire value chain are emphasized to students in a senior level undergraduate course structured as a simulated industrial manufacturing company (SIMCO). The course entails design, prototyping, manufacturing and finally marketing of a product. While the first three phases are easily emphasized the final phase, marketing, lacks a holistic strategy that embodies the previous activity. Marketing activities are therefore disjointed, in turn, affecting the potential revenue of the product. This research project originated as a demonstration and proof of concept -- human-computer interaction and marketing strategies become equally valuable as the product in the later stages of the value chain, where ecommerce is integrated.
   The objective of this study is to determine the most effective marketing strategy for university-related products manufactured by students for ISU students, alumni and families. The uniqueness of the processes involved in the products manufactured and their target population affords a distinct comparative evaluation between two marketing strategies, where one promotes the product through emphasis on university pride/association and the other emphasizes general product characteristics. The analysis and results support the use of a customized marketing strategy with emphasis on ISU school spirit to increase customer information satisfaction and gain a competitive edge.
Keywords: Customer Information Satisfaction; Information Utility; Usability; Marketing Strategies; Psychographic Characteristics; Ecommerce

Supporting Collaboration, Business and Innovation

Principles of Human Computer Interaction in Crowdsourcing to Foster Motivation in the Context of Open Innovation BIBAKFull-Text 585-596
  Patrick Brandtner; Andreas Auinger; Markus Helfert
In order to use external knowledge sources for innovation activities in organizations, recently Crowdsourcing platforms have been increasingly suggested and used. Critical success factors for such platforms include user motivation and participation, however the effect of those factors is still little understood. The aim of this paper is to analyze the extent to which selected Crowdsourcing platforms consider motivating and incentive factors from a human computer interaction perspective. Motivated by Malone's principles for designing enjoyable user interfaces we employed this framework as reference to conduct a participatory heuristic evaluation. The results of this paper demonstrate that there are several areas of improvement. At present intrinsically motivating factors in regard to the user interface are only addressed to a limited extent.
Keywords: crowdsourcing; open innovation; motivation; human computer interaction; gamification
Search in Open Innovation: How Does It Evolve with the Facilitation of Information Technology? BIBAKFull-Text 597-608
  Tingru Cui; Yu Tong; Hock Hai Teo
As a cornerstone of open innovations' success, the work of external search has been altered by the advancement in information technologies (ITs). This study depicts the IT-induced evolution of open search patterns in two case firms. While three patterns were observed in both firms, they took different trajectories of open search pattern change due to the different enabling roles of ITs. ITs were found to serve as an amplifier and a catalyst to induce different trajectories. This study contributes to the literature by unveiling the process of open search evolution including identifying different open search patterns and the roles of ITs. The managerial lessons learned from the two case firms can be applied by other firms.
Keywords: IT-induced Evolution; Open search; Case studies; Open innovation
Technology Acceptance Model: Worried about the Cultural Influence? BIBAKFull-Text 609-619
  Cristóbal Fernández Robin; Scott McCoy; Luis Yáñez Sandivari; Diego Yáñez Martínez
The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has shown in the USA that the Perceived Usefulness (PU) and the Perceived ease-of-use (PEU) determine the intention to use (IU) a specific technology or information system. In this research, the TAM model is validated in Chile, considering the cultural factors of this country, through an application of the model to university students. The results show that the TAM model works in Chile, regardless of the studied technology or the cultural aspects of the country. Finally, new questions arise related to this topic such as the influence of the intensity of use, familiarity with the technology and the individual's reference group for the technologies aimed to encourage communication among people.
Keywords: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); Intention to Use; Information and Communication Technologies; Cultural Dimensions
Towards the Development of a 'User-Experience' Technology Adoption Model for the Interactive Mobile Technology BIBAKFull-Text 620-630
  Jenson Chong-Leng Goh; Faezeh Karimi
Traditional Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) studies on interactive products are mostly instrumental in nature, focusing on usability issues when performing tasks in a work environment. This stream of research is frequently criticized for its narrow focus. More recently, the field of HCI is embracing a new concept called 'user experience' (UX) which consists of 3 facets: (1) beyond instrumental; (2) emotion and affect; and (3) the experiential to address its criticism. UX is acclaimed to be the 'thing' that can capture the full variety and the emerging aspects of technology use. In similar situation like traditional HCI studies, traditional technology adoption studies are also criticized as being overly cognitive-oriented with little consideration for affective factors and emotional experiences of the individuals. Applying the concept of UX to traditional technology adoption model, this paper synthesizes these two streams of research to propose a 'user experience'-based technology adoption model for the interactive mobile technology.
Keywords: User experience; Technology acceptance model
Using Participatory Design and Card Sorting to Create a Community of Practice BIBAKFull-Text 631-637
  Delia Grenville
In this case study, we developed a scenario-based card sorting |method to assist in the co-design of a community of practice in user experience. Card sorting is typically used for the development of a computer interface. In this work, we modified and extended the use of card sorting to the participatory design of an organizational interface: a community of practice. The data we gathered informed the design of the both the real-world community and the virtual/digital artifacts that supported our community.
Keywords: Community; Card Sort; Participatory Design; Engagement
"Crowdsense" -- Initiating New Communications and Collaborations between People in a Large Organization BIBAKFull-Text 638-648
  Sue Hessey; Catherine White; Simon Thompson
Crowdsense is a novel information and communication system, intended to promote and enable exploration and collaboration within large organizations. The system is designed with the aim of solving several of these organizations' requirements. The first is to provide employees with information which is relevant to them dynamically, without requiring them to spend time logging onto intranet and internet sites. The second is stimulating communication between people with relevant expertise who may not know about each other. The third requirement is to provide a knowledge centre within the organization which people can both search and contribute to. The system provides an accessible layer which enables easy exploration, addition and correction of data by users. The contributions of this paper are the background to the project, system and trial description, feedback from user testing and discusses a central success factor -- that of engagement.
Keywords: Collaboration; Social Media; Prototype; Concept testing; Engagement
Accelerating Individual Innovation: Evidence from a Multinational Corporation BIBAKFull-Text 649-658
  Qiqi Jiang; Yani Shi; Chuan-Hoo Tan; Choon Ling Sia
With the understanding that individual innovativeness plays an important role in organizations, both practitioners and researchers are interested in finding ways to promote individual innovation. Based on the theoretical lens of Structural Holes Theory and Social Cognitive Theory, we examined the impact of network positions, degree of participation and social interaction on individual innovativeness based on the archival data of an organization's online system. The results reveal that individuals who have more structural holes contribute more innovative ideas in the online community, and more responding from peers encourages more future innovation contribution. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: individual innovation; structural holes; social interaction; network position
Determinants of Continued Participation in Web-Based Co-creation Platforms BIBAKFull-Text 659-669
  Sangyong Jung; JiHyea Hwang; Da Young Ju
Co-creation is gaining popularity as a means to collect creativity from the crowd. With web-based co-creation platforms, the general public can participate in the product design process and also gain rewards. In this paper, the demands of users to participate in co-creation was explored through the implementation of a co-creation competition, and the motivations of users were verified through an empirical research using a web-based experiment with a theoretical framework built on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The result of the co-creation competition confirmed the existence of demands to co-create and the analysis of the experiment verified the explanatory power of TAM under the context of co-creation, verifying only a part of the TAM3 constructs.
Keywords: co-creation; creativity; crowdsourcing; TAM; TAM3
Towards Predicting Ad Effectiveness via an Eye Tracking Study BIBAKFull-Text 670-680
  Eleni Michailidou; Christoforos Christoforou; Panayiotis Zaphiris
This paper presents the pilot study of a project for which the main aim is to implement an evaluation methodology service for the identification of the best locations on Cypriot web space based on eye tracking studies. Advertising budget, social demographics and web usage are some of the factors that are being considered. During this pilot study, a description in existing patterns of advertisement placement on websites is first presented. Then we present the methodologies of two pilot studies where user data are collected with the use of eye tracking technologies in order to understand how users look at Web advertising and how effective each location is as well as Marketers' questionnaire. Stimuli were three Cypriot websites with advertisements of various types and three locations: ads being static and animated, types being skyscraper and display ads and location varied around the page. Eye-tracking data are compared to ad choices of marketing managers in Cyprus who rated the ad position and it's attention value. Results demonstrate the correlation between user attention, advert types and the value as rated by marketers. This pilot study revealed conclusions that could form the basis towards predicting ad effectiveness of webpages with the use of ad number, location, size, and type.
Keywords: advert attention; online advertising; eye tracking; CPM
Exploring the Impact of Users' Preference Diversity on Recommender System Performance BIBAKFull-Text 681-689
  Muh-Chyun Tang
Recommender systems present an effective alternative to subject access in the domain of reading for leisure. They are particular valuable for the discovery of novel and serendipitous finds. In the recommender system evaluation literature, a trade-off has been recognized between accuracy and surprise/non-obviousness, and more recently, that between accuracy and diversity of the recommendation set. It is argued in this paper that a proper balance between accuracy and diversity might lie in users' "preference diversity," a construct we propose to represent how wide a user's reading interests are. Users with more diverse interests might appreciate more novel and diverse set of recommendation. Drawing from marketing literature and our own empirical studies, this paper discusses how the motivation for diversity might influence users' preference for cultural goods such as books and music, and more specifically their responses to recommendations. Future study is needed to further examine the relationship between user preference diversity and proper degree of diversity of the recommendation set.
Keywords: Recommender Systems; Preference Development; Preference Diversity; Social Book Search
A Usability Evaluation of an Electronic Health Record System for Nursing Documentation Used in the Municipality Healthcare Services in Norway BIBAKFull-Text 690-699
  Torunn Kitty Vatnøy; Grete Vabo; Mariann Fossum
The paper presents a usability evaluation of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) of an Electronic Health Record System (EHR). The topic of interest was to explore the system's usability in the context of nursing process documentation. A cognitive walk through approach was used. The data were analyzed with content analysis and the results show that challenges identified were related to navigating and finding information in the system. Even though there were problems in progressing from one phase to another in nursing process documentation, the system represented some types of predictability and consistency in the functions. Education, training and support are needed to be able to use the EHR for nursing documentation. Mandating standardization regarding format, content and terminology to improve the EHR systems functionality regarding facilitate nursing process documentation is recommended.
Keywords: Electronic Health Record; Usability evaluation; Nursing documentation; Nursing process

User Experience in Shopping and Business

UX and Strategic Management: A Case Study of Smartphone (Apple vs. Samsung) and Search Engine (Google vs. Naver) Industry BIBAKFull-Text 703-710
  Junho Choi; Byung-Joon Kim; SuKyung Yoon
This paper extends the analytic framework of user experience design into the area of strategic management by adopting the VRIO framework. We adopted value-rarity-imitability-organization (VRIO) framework and applied this integrated scheme into the investigating market cases. The first case study is the analysis of competitive advantages of two successful smartphone device makers, Apple (iPhone) and Samsung (Galaxy). UX Values (attractive design, ease of use, diverse applications), Rarity (simplicity, innovative interface, ecosystem), Imitability (patent, brand identity), and Organization (UX control tower, role of CXO) are employed to analyze and compare the strategies of those two most successful smartphone makers. In the second case study we compared the UX strategies of Google and Naver in the global and local levels. Through the case studies this paper shows a strong implication that UX can be extended into the corporate resources and capability, and VRIO framework utilized for the analysis of competitive advantages for the market leadership.
Keywords: User experience design; Strategic management; VRIO framework; Apple; Samsung; Google; Naver
Designing a Multi-modal Association Graph for Music Objects BIBAFull-Text 711-722
  Jia-Lien Hsu; Chiu-Yuan Ho
Music object features are complex and multifaceted, ranging from short-term/low-level features to long-term/high-level features, in which the semantic gap in between has not been properly resolved yet. In this paper, we introduce a graph-based approach to organize different aspects of features in a unified way. Based on the graph, various kinds of features could be related to and associated with each other. However, by further investigating the graph structure, we observe that the node degree distribution asymptotically follows a power law. As a result, some hubs (i.e., high-degree nodes) will dominate most metrics; the representation of graph semantics could be degenerated. Therefore, we introduce the graph projection operator to reduce the graph complexity and "compress" the graph accordingly. The graph projection is a method of refactoring edge weights, in which only a particular set of nodes are reserved to show the intrinsic structure of graph. To demonstrate the feasibility of graph-based approach, we introduce two applications (music clustering and auto-tagging); and perform experiments. According to our experiment study, the performance of projected graph is better than that of unprojected graph.
Usability Evaluations of an Interactive, Internet Enabled Human Centered SanaViz Geovisualization Application BIBAKFull-Text 723-734
  Ashish Joshi; de Araujo Novaes Magdala; Machiavelli Josiane; Iyengar Sriram; Vogler Robert; Johnson Craig; Zhang Jiajie; Hsu Ed Chiehwen
The objective of our study was to evaluate usefulness and effectiveness of Human Centered GeoVis prototype"The SanaViz" against a conventional GeoVis application Instant Atlas. The SanaViz is an interactive, internet based application aimed at facilitating visual exploration of public health data, and in this context telehealth data from Brazil. A cross sectional, within-subject, mixed methods study design was utilized. A convenient sample of 20 study participants from diverse backgrounds was enrolled. The users were asked to perform 5 tasks using both the GeoVis applications. Univariate analyses were performed for continuous and categorical variables. Repeated measures of analysis of variance was performed on the within-subject design to test for significant differences between "the SanaViz" and Instant Atlas. All analysis was performed using SAS v9.1. Results showed that "The SanaViz" required less time, less assistance and fewer attempts and was reported as easier than Instant Atlas.
Keywords: Geovisualization; Public health; telehealth; Human centered
Improving Xbox Search Relevance by Click Likelihood Labeling BIBAKFull-Text 735-743
  Jingjing Li; Xugang Ye; Danfeng Li
From the original game console, the Xbox has rapidly evolved into a comprehensive entertainment platform where tens of millions of users could not only play video games but also watch movies and TVs, listen music and enjoy Apps. Therefore, building a cross media ranker to provide relevant and personalized search results for Xbox users has become an interesting and imperative task. In this paper, we present our recent progress on improving Xbox's cross media ranker by mining massive click log data and generating multi-class relevance labels. Our experimental results have shown that incorporating the click likelihoods into the label generation yields better click-performance and meanwhile maintains comparable NDCG values, as compared to solely using the human labels generated by a small number of human judges.
Keywords: Click Likelihood; Click Log; Xbox; Search; Ranking; Relevance Labeling
A Preliminary Study on Social Cues Design in Mobile Check-in Based Advertisement BIBAKFull-Text 744-753
  Chi-Lun Liu; Hsieh-Hong Huang
Companies consider the check-in service as an new advertising channel to promote the companies and products. The check-in based advertisement always has different level of social cues richness. Determining an effective social cues design in check-in based advertisement is a critical question. This research explores which social cues design will be appropriate in check-in based advertisement. The results of a laboratory experiment supported that the design of higher social cues richness increases higher advertising effectiveness measured by attitude toward the ad in general. Social media users would intend to use the appropriate design if the design is effective and easy-to-be-memorized.
Keywords: Social cues; attitude toward the ad; mobile check-in apps; social media; mobile marketing
Analyzing the User-Generated Content on Disintermediation Effect: A Latent Segmentation Study of Bookers and Lookers BIBAKFull-Text 754-764
  Carlota Lorenzo-Romero; Giacomo Del Chiappa; Efthymios Constantinides
This study analyzes the perceptions of different groups of consumers for and against the disintermediation of travel agencies also considering the relative power in influencing the tourist's choices exerted by user generated-content (UGC). A web-based survey is carried out in Spain and 961complete questionnaires was obtained. A latent segmentation was applied on factors identified running an exploratory factor analysis on a list of 16 statements, the use and frequency of use of the Internet to make hotel reservations, if consumers are bookers or lookers, and they have changed hotel reservations after having read UGC. Findings revealed that different clusters exist based on the identified factors and aforementioned variables, and that significant differences between these clusters based on sociodemographic characteristics, their behaviour in using the Internet for searching for information and/or buying, and the extent to which they change the accommodation that had been suggested by a travel agent after having read UGC.
Keywords: UGC; disintermediation; bookers and lookers; latent segmentation; Spain
Do We Follow Friends or Acquaintances? The Effects of Social Recommendations at Different Shopping Stages BIBAKFull-Text 765-774
  Tingting Song; Cheng Yi; Jinghua Huang
This article examines the effects of social recommendations on consumers' purchase intentions at different stages of online shopping. Drawing on construal level theory (CLT) and research on social tie strength, this study hypothesizes that the persuasive effects of recommendations from one's close friends (i.e., strong social ties) and those from one's acquaintances (i.e., weak social ties) will differ depending on shopping stages consumers are in. Results from a laboratory experiment reveal that in the initial shopping stage, the effects of recommendations from weak ties on consumers' purchase intentions will be stronger than those from strong ties; however in the latter shopping stage, the reverse will happen. Research and managerial implications are discussed.
Keywords: social recommendations; tie strength; shopping stage; congruency of construal levels
When Two Is Better Than One -- Product Recommendation with Dual Information Processing Strategies BIBAKFull-Text 775-786
  Wee-Kek Tan; Chuan-Hoo Tan; Hock-Hai Teo
Extant literature on product recommendation decision aids mainly focus on the use of individual aids in isolation. However, consumers typically shop using a two-step decision making process that necessitates the provision of both detailed attributes information and overall utility value of an item. Drawing on the information processing strategy switching paradigm as the theoretical lens, this paper posits that consumers who are provided with an attribute (alternative)-based screening aid in conjunction with an alternative (attribute)-based explanation-supported evaluation aid would expend less decision effort. That is, one aid should provide either attribute-based or alternative-based information while the other aid should provide a different type of information. In this manner, consumers benefit from both types of information and enjoy a more efficient decision process.
Keywords: Product recommendation; online decision aid; information processing strategy; decision effort
Effects of Social Distance and Matching Message Orientation on Consumers' Product Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 787-797
  Lu Yang; Jin Chen; Bernard C. Y. Tan
Despite a tremendous increase in the online sales of experiential products (e.g., clothes), how to present such kind of products to better intrigue online consumers remains unsolved. Relative to model presentation (i.e., presented by professional models), peer presentation (i.e., presented by peer consumers) is emerging as a new way of IT-enabled product presentation welcomed by online clothing merchants. Drawing on the Construal Level Theory, we examine the effects of peer presentation vs. model presentation, and the fitness between recommendation messages and these two types of presentation. We propose that compared to model presentation, peer presentation yields a closer psychological distance to a consumer, and is likely to arouse a lower level mental construal of the consumer. Thus, alongside peer presentation, a recommendation message that fits a low level construal (i.e., secondary features) is more persuasive. Contrarily, alongside model presentation, a recommendation message that fits a high level construal (i.e., primary features) is more persuasive. Lab experiments and a field experiment are designed to test these hypotheses.
Keywords: Electronic commerce; Peer presentation; Social distance; Message orientation; Construal level